PSY 350 Lecture Notes Midterm
PSY 350 Lecture Notes Midterm PSY 350
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Emma Natzke on Friday October 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 350 at Arizona State University taught by Varnum in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Social Psychology Evolutionary Perspective 0 Sexual selection aggressive men are more likely to pass on their genes 0 Differential parental investment 0 Testosterone Sociocultural perspective 0 Gender norms 0 Cultural values culture of honorquot Social learning perspective past learning classicaloperant conditioning o Operant conditioning in young children for typical gender roles o Vicarious learning male characters rewarded for violence 0 Salient goals more goals of social status Social cognitive what drives social behavior what we notice Interpretation of others behavior 0 Fundamental motives human behavior is goal driven Social ties Understanding ourselves and others Gainingkeeping status Defending ourselves and others Attracting mates OOOOO quotsituationquot Where are we Who s around What s going on Person situation interactions situations change people and vice versa Situation priming acting professional at work An extrovert livens up a boring setting When people move they can pick up that cultures way of thinking Methods Descriptive making observations 0 Naturalistic observation I Casually observing people in their natural settings Singles Bar Study 0 Case studies in depth study of individual or group I IohnIoan 9 gender is not a direct result of socialization 0 Archives I The study of public records to find regional differences People are less likely to reform in the west 0 Surveys 0 Psychological tests I Testing the differences between people s abilities motivation thought processes IAT Experimental actively manipulating 0 Correlation I More people are drowning as sales rate of ice scream increase Variable A 9 B I Drowning makes people buy ice scream B 9 A I It s hot which causes drowning and people to buy ice cream A 6 C 9 B 0 Random assignment I People picked from same pool to be surveyed Validity 0 External do results generalize I Insure external validity Psych majors are Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic I Replication Necessity for consistency in results I Metaanalysis The overall picturequot I Crosscultural research 0 Internal show cause effect relationship I Threats Confounds Evaluation apprehension 0 Anxiety from evaluation Demand characteristics 0 When the people are aware they re being experimented on I Solutions Random assignment Experimental control 0 Everything consistent IV Anonymous testing Implicit measures Double blind design Triangulation 0 Multiple methods to address the same question Goal pursuit Conscious Automatic 0 Social mimicry o Rebound effect don t think about white bears Knowledge Sensory memories Beliefs Explanations Priming activation of knowledge goals or aspects of the self Feelings o Attitudes positivenegative evaluation of someone thing 0 Emotions positivenegative and arousal component Intense and short 0 Mood emotions but longer and more general I Depressed people think more carefully Less likely to make stereotypes in judgment Less reliant on heuristics Less susceptible to bad arguments The Self Self concept mental representation of the self Self esteem momentary chronic attitudes of self Personality traits Multiple selves I Different identities I Independent vs interdependent I Possible selves o Leaning about self I Social comparison I Re ected appraisal how others respond I Selfperception processes I Motivations For positive self image To view ourselves accurately To confirm selfconcept OOOO 0 Big 5 OCEAN I Openness I Conscientiousness I Extraversion Agreeableness I Neuroticism 0 Culture and the self I Independent personal identities I Interdependent more rational identities Bystander effect Social facilitation performing in front of others leads to dominant response tendencies way better or way worse depending on skill level Affordances opportunities threats of a situation Norms o Injunctive behavior that s socially disapproved 0 Descriptive common behavior in a given situation Strong vs weak situations 0 Strong situations are highly scriptivequot there are strong social norms I Narrower range of opportunities treats I Clear norms I Often scripted I Narrow range of behavior I Wider range of opportunities threats I Wilder range of behavior I Less obvious norms I Less scripted Cultures as situations 0 Americans perceive more opportunities to increase selfesteem o Cultures have different norms I Also different norm strength and degree to which situations scripted I Also differ in other more distal ways Disease prevalence Population density Wealth Person X Situations 0 Different people respond differently to situations People choose situations Situations choose people Situations prime different parts of the person People change situations Situations change people OOOOO Attribution 0 Availability Heuristic O Fundamental Attribution Errors Correspondence Bias assuming dispositional factors effect behavior rather than in uences I Readers of the Castro essay believed the author shared the opinion of the essay I More common in USA than e Asia Russia and in wealthier people More likely to use Heuristics I Limited Attentional resources I High arousal I Under time pressure I Complex situations I People w need for structure Betterthanaverageeffect everyone seems to think that they re better than average I Re ects desire to maintain selfimage Cognitive strategies 0 BIRGing I People feel good for taking credit for other s successes 0 Social comparison I Downward comparing ourselves to those who are worse off typically increases selfesteem I Upward comparing ourselves to superior people typically decreases selfesteem o Exaggerate strength diminish weakness 0 Selfserving attributions o Believing one has control 0 Culture and SelfEnhancement Selfpresentation 0 Goals are to appear I Likeable I Competent I Powerful high status Showing off artifacts of power Conspicuous consumption 0 Why Personal associations Nonverbal displays 0 Relaxed open expansive postures taking up more space 0 Threatened puffing up chest stiff back chin forward Conveying power status 0 More likely when self image is threatened 0 Or when good resources become available I Obtaining resources I Constructing selfimage I Facilitating smooth social interaction 0 When I More likely in public eye The Spotlight Effect I Halloween Candy study I When we think people view us differently from how we think we should 0 How I Ingratiation strategies Pretend we like target Create similarity Be physically attractive Project modesty o More likely when interacting w powerful people 0 More modest w friends 0 More common in females I Selfpromotion strategies Stage performances Claim competence Use trappings of competence Make excuses for failures 0 Strong in motivated people weaker in shy people 0 More likely when afraid of failure 0 Stronger in western countries 0 Multiple audience dilemmas presenting different images to different audiences I Solutions 0 Lie detection Segregate audiences Focus on important audience Moderate selfpresentation Different messages on different channels I We re not good at it I Better if target is close I Depends more on liar s cues than interpreter I Clues Less detailed story Raise chin more Dilated pupils More nervous Attitudes and Persuasion Attitudes unfavorable opinion of something 0 Formation I Classical conditioning I Operant conditioning I Observational learning I Heredity 0 Large genetic component I Median 35 I Big 5 median 29 0 Strong attitudes I Commitment factor 0 Linked to I Knowledge I Personal relevance I Attitude accessibility I Behavioral intentions 0 Theory of planned behavior Persuasion 0 Dual process model 2 methods of persuasion I Central route Focus on argument content Deliberate Effort 0 Topic is relevant 0 Ability motivation to process carefully 0 High cognition need enjoying and engaging in deliberate thinking 0 Saddepressed people I Peripheral route Superficial features Automatic Easy More likely to use heuristics O O O 0 Number of arguments Presenter s attractiveness Superficial expertise cues Association with other people things Motivations of persuasion 0 Accuracy I Heuristics Credibility expertise of source Others responses Availability heuristic I Greater desire When issue is personally relevant When in a sad mood I Less desire After decision is made If the message goes against one 0 Consistency I Balance theory people are motivated to have balanced attitudes Cognitive dissonance unpleasant arousal when beliefe attitudes or behaviors are in con ict 0 O O 0 Increased by I High consistency preference I High salience of inconsistency Reduced by I Lack of selfrelevence I Lack of important consequences I Strong threatsrewards I Selfaffirmation Created by I Counterattitudinal behavior behavior that contradicts attitudes I Postdecisional dissonance con ict after making a wrong decision Social approval I Persuasion more likely High selfmonitors Women Expect to publicly defend position I Cognitive theory Social in uence change in behavior from other s pressures Persuasion 9 attitudes Social in uence 9 behavior can include attitude Conformity 0 With or without change in beliefs 0 Conformity bias 0 Stronger in less western societies 0 Pathogen prevalence I Priming disease 9 conformity Nonconformity 0 Much more likely if there s any dissent in group I Sometimes minority can change majority s opinion Compliance change of behavior in response to direct request Footinthedoor small request followed by larger one Doorintheface large request followed by a smaller one Caldini you need to master this to become successful Techniques I Reciprocity I Commitmentconsistency I Authority I Social validation If we see someone else do it were more likely to do it I Scarcity I Liking friendship Obedience 0 Increased if I Authority figure s legit I Authority figure is proximate I Victim is distant I Responsibility is diffuse o Milgram s experiment replications I Similar results 0000 Choosing correctly 0 Authority I Decisionmaking heuristic People are more likely to pay a meter if firefighter asks vs homeless person 95 of nurses obey orders from a doctor they don t know on the phone 95 said they wouldn t 0 Social validation using others actions to make the right choice I Effectiveness depends on Consensus Similarity Uncertainty o Difficult o Unfamiliar o Ambiguous 0 Social approval I Injunctive norm Don t go over the speed limit I Descriptive norm Everyone goes over the speed limit Descriptive usually wins when norms clash I Doorintheface That snotall I Stronger effect on people with High agreeableness High collectivism Low belief in ability to resist group High identification with group Low resistance I Stronger when In uence is liked attractive In public 0 Consistency I Lowballing agreeing to something then raising the price of that agreement I Baitandswitch gain commitment then replace it with more costly unappealing arrangement I Labeling You look like the kind of personquot I Footinthedoor I Stronger when Linked to existing values commitments Active commitment Public commitment Friendship Domaingeneral models 0 Reinforcementaffect model I We like people who Share our attitudes 0 Because Smoother interactions Confirm our attitudes Confirm our self views Agreement feels good Kinship cues o Propinquity proximity Are attractive Mere exposure effect Are around when we get good news classical conditioning I People seek equity in friendships 0 Social exchange theory Domainspecific models 0 Friendship serves goals I Social support More likely to look for it when Stressed or anxious Response to loss Response to threats Feeling isolated O O O O Loneliness cycle Lonely people Talk more about themselves Ask less questions Overdisclose Talk about sad things Have high expectations for self others More likely to receive social support if Share interests with others Give them positive feedback Provide them with resources info Gaining information Others have info we don t Friendships help us learn about ourselves Gaining status 0 Affiliation BIRGing Cutting off re ective failure Models of social exchange Communal sharing Authority ranking high status gets more I Equality matching I Market pricing trade based on self interest Reminding people of death 9 greater desire to affiliate with others I Information I Status I Material benefits Culture and friendship o Enemies more common in low relational mobility societies I Frenemies too 0 More likely to have negative experiences with friend I Relational mobility ability to go in out of friendships with ease I In low relational mobility cultures friendship is less tied to similarity I East Asians less likely to seek social support it s less helpful Gender and friendship 0 00000 Women provide seek support more than men Women more agreeable Women have higher levels of empathy Tend Men more likely to have hierarchical and instrumental friendship Male friendships involve respect
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