notes and final exam essay prompt
notes and final exam essay prompt ARTH 6C
Popular in art history 6c
Popular in Art
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Romanticism artistic freedom that is inspired by the ideals of the French revolution and it was a break from the norm from the enlightenment It is obscure and incoherent Keep in mind that it is not really a style but rather a movementidea that takes a variety of forms Romanticism is a critique of the norms 0 Gericault The Study of Limbs 181819 This is like an abstract painting it s just about the painting itself and nothing else The beautiful has only one type the ugly has a thousand Natural dead nature it is a still life of a hacked off limb This image cannot be articulated it is very bizarre 0 J AD Ingres Large Odalisque 1814 i l This is neoclassical because of its bright colors clarity and ornate detail l i very well done This wouldn t be a neoclassical painting because of her nakedness her smooth rounded body It is a critique of the classical nude it is odd tiny breasts big butt and leg that goes essentially no where There are lush jewels She is the wife of a king This is a very personal vision of the nude it s very exotic but largely distorted It is a kind of hyper realism of the objects around her in contrast with her large body 0 Eugene Delacriox Death of Sardanapalus 1827 Image of death and wealth It is a complete type of fantasy of what goes on with the exotic A woman is begging for her life servants are bringing in wine Comparison 0 Eugene Delariox Massacre at Chios 182728 It is an image of a massacre on the left side of the image It tells the story of a war the Turks v the Greeks The Turks murdered many people in the land of Chios It shows contradictions in history paintings yes these people are successful at conquering their enemy yet they are not heroes like the one represented in history images There are plenty of details yet they are located everywhere in the image unlike David s image The man in the foreground s body is not idealized there is dramatic shading which gives the figure his form These figures exemplify the neoclassical figures 0 J L David Death of Marat 1793 He is working at his desk this is homage to him everything takes you to the hero the fallen hero yes but a hero indeed You see the clarity of detail the knife on the ground etc 0 Francisco Goya Family of Carlos IV 1800 The hierarchy of paintings this image is very dark and ugly There is a woman who is looking away because she was so ugly The queen and the king she was his cousin Ths has nothing to do with the way royalty should appear Goya who was very appreciative of Velasquez based his painting on the image a of Las Meninas by Velasquez There is a type of erosion of form You have a royal portrait which is not quite wealthy legitimacy of wealth 0 Goya The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters 179698 When reason sleeps monsters come out of the darkness mm 7 0 Goya A Heroic Feat Against Dead Men Disaster of War 181014 People were actually killed like this in Spain There is a notion of a buttercynical of the titles in this image This image suggests that man may have lost his faith There is darkness about these two images These prints were based on things that Goya read in newspapers these images were published after Spain was kicked out of France 0 Goya The Third of May 1808 181315 After Napoleon was defeated his brother was placed as king Guerilla warfare begins On May 3 the French marched into Madrid there s a sniper and they rounded up all of the people There are people in the image being rounded up and the French soldiers are surrounding the people The heroes are anonymous there is a man in a white shirt very close to the soldiers The space is very close to each other There is an artificial light that illuminates the slaughter There are desperate men and people who are obviously poor you see the dead bodies This image is an evocation of emotion Romantic Neoclassicism was the norm and Romanticism was a movement that dealt with an abolition of the norms that were ideal during the neoclassic period 0 Caspar David Friedrich Wanderer Above the Mists c1818 Herder argues for Klima his argument that the climate of a nation affects its 1 l nation s people who live there It was a way of constituting nationhood The landscape by contrast was thought to be a sight of inscription of national characteristics You have a kind of identification with one singular individual being part of a greater whole EX Monk by the Sea The Germans embraced nature and meditated on the landscapes In this image you see a singular man who looks over a vast scene while on top of a mountain Here he is contemplating on nature s vastness There is always t his sense of restlessness and the fact that man can never settle There is a contemplation of eternity and the totality of experience which escapes regular mortals He is looking out and is overwhelmed and makes the viewer overwhelmed as well This image is an example of the sublime It shocks and pushes the viewer on edge 0 Friedrich Woman at the Window 1822 This image was compared to Wanderer above the Mists It shows the limitation that women had during this time She is strictly confined to a domestic space while man is in the vastness in the world 0 J MW Turner Snowstorm Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps 1812 This is an example of the sublime This looks like a giant tsunami coming over to take over the people You see people representing the look of fear This whether system is uncontrollable This is a crazed force nature is a force to be reckoned with On the top left corner we see a little tiny blue splotch This shows that this is all that is left of the blue sky When you look at it up close it looks like a splotch of paint This is important because the actual act of painting counts almost as much as the scene that is being described This too was compared to Wanderer above the Mists to show that nature is not as nice in all aspects This image in itself is much a painting as it is a landscape There are very clear lines of paint scumble lay across the surface and dragged across the image By doing this the artist is starting to talk about painting itself calling one s attention to paint on a surface 0 Friedrich Abbey in the Oakwood 180910 In this image there are singular trees and a lonely abbey It is a painting of a gothic church in ruins This kind of landscape carries a certain amount of political weight as well as emotional weight The light is obscure what is it doing The image is registered as a lost of this fantastic past of Germany It shows the passing of earthly life It shows a fog bound earth it s obscure of where we are going It evokes the situation of Germany 0 John Constable The Hcylwain 1821 The Haywain carries hay This image is picturesque It takes a subject matter and submits a type of genre landscape 39 The main subject is the haywain It is there and among several other things It is just an ordinary scene at some particular place Constable decided that he was going to make a series of these images All of them were 6 feet long Remember that hierarchy of genres Landscapes were at the bottom Constable felt otherwise and he decided to shock people No one had ever thought of a landscape on this kind of scale This image had an economic resonance for the people of England This river was used for shipping as opposed to just farming There is meticulous attention to detail French painters felt that these paintings were like music there were no focal subjects When we look at a landscape we expect to see peasants and daily life in the fields etc You have a recreation of the look of nature picturesque The artist said he perfected the sky picturesque a picture that is nicely composed painting that adds interest to the scene John Constable Cloud Studies he made sketches of clouds to practice painting them He practiced the different moods that the sky could depict He would actually date these and used this as a note taking system so that he could incorporate that into his picturesque images The sublime is thus separated by the beautiful There are so many details the boat comes right to the edge but is not cut off in any way this keeps the viewer focused on the image Nature is no longer subservient to man 0 Jan Steen Prcyer before the Meal 1660 The space is very intimate The people are exhibiting piety These people are blessing the bread 0 Courbet After Dinner at Ornans 184849 There is a major gap between conventional representations of the countryside and its changing reality Serious starvation farmers are charged with high interest rates and on top of that they are being taxed Courbet s vision of society shows the differences between the rich and the poor he heightens the distinctions between these two classes of people This exemplifies the movement called REALISM Courbet got medal from this image and then could submit anything he pleased Shows the bourgeoisie eating people who are fairly well off Shows satisfied people humoring themselves This was compared to Prayer before the Meal previous one These people fill the canvas the dog showing his back to you the man s back faces the audience All of these figures are in a very shallow space because the artist wanted to convey the idea that you can t see everything in the image If you can t count on religion and nature what can you count on This image rejects the old traditions of art It follows the trajectory of the romantics But it argues that the focus should be on things of one s own time It becomes a pictorial construction it makes clear that this painting has been put together in some way The idea is not to produce a realistic painting but to call attention to the world in the here and now 39 Jean tiCamille Corot First Leaves Near Mantes c1855 He inserts trees into the space There is no clear view into the background of the mountains There is a funny kind of tension between the painted surface and the scene ex there are little dots of paint that don t really look like anything When you look at the picture they are simply little splotches of paint That characteristic causes a tension between the surface which makes the viewer see paint and not something that resembles leaves etc Revolution of 1848 Paris June Days June Days this is the beginning of the second empire There are barricades built and violence There is still uneasiness through 185051 In the June days the rebels in Paris set up a little republic 9it was dedicated to 10 hours work days They nationalized the rail ways It was a very utopian project until the guns come in Then Napoleon III was made Emperor 0 Barricades Rue SaintMaur Paris 1848 This is an actual picture of the area where a lot of the slaughter was going on 0 Messonier The Barricade 1848 This is a sketch of the actual barricades Moleon III President of the Republic In a painting of Napoleon he is surrounded by fabulous items to show his wealth and power In a snapshot photo of him he is seen in a very plain and lifeless room This effect of painting him in a wealthy room allows the viewer to obtain a higher reverence for Napoleon Realism a movement that sets out to reject the notion of a higher reality bringing it back down and rejecting the traditional images of art They focused on one s own time things that you can see Realism uses things one can see in everyday life to show how a painting is a pictorial construction Realism allows the emergence of the idea of making something visible to you as opposed to see an idealized scene Courbet is one of the leading realists The idea is not to produce a realistic painting whatever that may be but rather to call attention to the world It presents awkward and weird things in life 0 Jean Millet Winnower 1847 Insurrection in Paris 1848 the revolution in Paris This image came before the revolution This image is a little less grim then Courbet s image before You have a peasant doing very hard work he had pads on his knees This is very anxiety producing This image is a little softer and less abrasive than the Stone Breakers 0 Gustave Courbet Stone Breakers1849 Very long painting very weird to depict these people in a large canvas These people carry the stones that block the road then they break the stones then they carry off the broken stone fragments I Their clothes are tattered and torn They have no visible faces r Courbet heightens the class distinctions between the rich and the poor The paint itself tried to replicate the material of the object that it depicts There is no pathos no emotion involved in these individuals Courbet is ignoring space it is a cramped image When critics compared Millet with Courbet they said that Courbet expressed true country life The peasants in Courtbet s image are not giving us a beautiful depiction of peasantry this is what they are looking for they want to see the peasants working hard since they are suffering and working hard out in the fields 0 Millet The Gleaners 1857 Critic said They are too conceited they betray too clearly their claims to a I 7 pedigree from Michelangelo s Sibyls and their certainty that they wear their rags more superbly than Poussin s reapers wear their draperies This image depicts gleaners people who go through the fields and try to pick up the few grains of wheat that were cut by the reapers This image depicts the true hard labor of the peasants shows their back breaking work in the moment This image contains white red and blue symbolized their citizenship in France 0 Courbet Peasants of Flagey Returning from the Fair 185055 39 39 Not a lot of interest occurring in the image Awkward Basket on women s head man walking a pig They have a lot of live stock which indicates that they are not peasants they have property and some wealth They seem to all march along in rigidity there is one guy charging along very awkwardly Poses reveal awkwardness 0 Bertall Caricature of Courbet s Peasants of F lagey The figures looks like puppets the cows are happy and awkward looking everyone has a big smile Caricatures exaggerate the features of something It doesn t allow the figures to be fully integrated in the image 0 Courbet Burial of Ornans 184950 39 It is an enormous painting 8 yards long with 44 people in it It depicts our history of the bourgeoisie in terms of class The class difference is part of the subject matter This image disobeys the conventions and myths of the countryside it is against a stable and organic vision of countryside that everything is bounded by deference and obedience This is the third painting of Courbet s that depict Realism In this image they are burying someone the coffin is on the left side It takes us a while to figure that out The people in the image are crying and none of them are paying attention to the coffin This odd construction of subject matter is already politicized it is not about following conventionstraditions There is a dog in the image as well awkward The viewer is placed in the grave the viewer doesn t like where they are placed This image makes it look like the figures are just going through the motions It s kind of a distraction against the formal burial one goes through The depth of the picture is skewed the figures are stacked up on top of each other Courbet s first sketch of the image shows less awkwardness the people are actually looking at the coffin and the sense of depth is clearer and not one point perspective like In this final image there are two men chatting and making a business deal the men are called beadles church elders who oversee things Both of these men look very drunk the ladies in the image are not mourning and are not emotional The people are not doing what we expect them to do This registers as a problem in the painting The way that the picture is put together reminds us of a problem that exists a potential danger out in the countryside 0 Gustave Courbet Ladies of the Village Disturbing Alms 1851 39 They are disturbing alms she is giving money to a little girl Sheppard There is a lack of depth the cows are very close and all the figures look like they are on the same level Courbet s first sketch was different from the final image there was a river that separated the cows from the people it was more natural The composition of this image reinforces the awkwardness of Realism Form is so important This image is a construction 0 Bertall Caricature of Courbet s Ladies of the Village 39 J The cows seem wooden in their pose the dog is bigger than the cows The attention shifts from the people to the animals the figures seem really wooden There is a weird sense of space in Courbet s image This image represents realism It is a scene of everyday life it is not posed We can also see the class differences realism These people are peasants This one is not beautiful in that traditional sense this was comared to the little beggar girls 0 Adolpe William Bouguereau The Little Beggar Girls 1890 There is pathos and sentimentality for these very dear girls that are very hungry This is not a Realist picture because they are in clean peasant clothes they are very sentimental They have really big eyes which express sorrow and make the viewer pity them This kind of picture is called an academic picture The academy sets up norms and rules it has a hierarchy of genres The people wanted a veristic style which means truth This type of style meant that someone could actually reach out and touch her basket it is very tangible They also love creamy romantic subjects They also wanted things to look lifelike this type of realism used lifelikeness to distinguish itself from the academy they attacked the traditional norms of the academy 0 J eanBaptiste Carpeaux The Dance 1867 We are also invited to join the wrong like in the painting Nymphs and a Satyr My This is a sculpture there is a roughness to the figures they are very sensual 0 Bouguereau Nymphs and a Satyr 1873 Very smooth and beautiful They are out in the woods very lush The artist depicted a smooth body there is no resistance whatsoever everything reels in the viewer We are invited to join the wrong as opposed to how those ordered pictures operate in the world It is meant to take you away from reality it is meant to construct a vision that consumes an image wo any difficulty 0 Honore Daumier Combat Between the Schools of Idealism and Realism Lithograph 1855 Two people fighting one is holding a mal stick it keeps one from shaking This image is a lithograph a piece of limestone block shaped you take two together and rub them together then you take a pencil and draw directly on the block and then run it through a press This allows for more looseness This image is like a caricature There is an awkward man who is ready to attack with a big clunky brush the two men are battling with paint and brushes There is a directness that neoclassicism would not embrace seen in this image The technique of lithography is something that feeds into a Realist frame of mind it is direct and doesn t make a big fuss in the way that it is produced 0 William Etty Musidora 1846 Her body is chunky and weird This becomes morality a very strict morality They thought that they had a very strict nation 0 Edward Landseer Dignity and Impudence 1839 Impudence being a brat If you can take a picture like this home why wouldn t you This is really low on the ranking of genres It is a weird displacement to have animals standing for dignity and impudence There are some artists who look at this and say what Dignity can be seen in the Oath of the Horatii 0 Thomas Gainsborough Mrs Richard Brinsely Sheridan 1785 0 Dante Gabriel Rossetti La Pia del Tolomei 1875 There is sharp drapery bright colors birds flying in much detail All of these things come from these two images 0 Jan Van Eyck Arnolfini Wedding Portrait 1434 W t In the background we can see the two people and Jan Van Eyck in the mirror PreRaphaelite 0 Hans Holbein the Elder The Ambassadors 1536 We see many bright colors and attention to detail We see a skull PreRaphaelite PreRaphaelite before Raphael a merry band of artists who came together and were disgusted with the academy they are interested in the Northern renaissance painters that have a relationship to the real They hate the processed nature of academic paintings 0 Sir John Millais Ophelia 1852 The PreRaphaelite guys were obsessed with much detail 0 Dante Gabriel Rossetti Ecce Ancilla Domini The Annunciation 1849 39 There is a sort of awkwardness which is meant to be more genuine it is less processed like an academic painting The Virgin is getting the news from the archangel Gabriel The space is compressed the bed being turned upward so that the viewer can see it all There are very bright colors 0 Sir John Millais Lorenzo and Isabella 1849 The man is poking the dog there is a lot of attention to detail It records the reactions of all the brothers Lorenzo is saying that he loves her and that he wants to marry her Lorenzo is then murdered and she keeps his head in a pot of basil 0 William Holman Hunt The Hireling Shepherd 1851 v Many attention to detail each grain of grass is very detailed In his hand we see him holding a moth why Because it is a death s head moth It has a skull on it s head This is not a good scene There is a sheep that is eating a green apple which will kill him not good The message don t mess around The woman in the image has apples parallels Adam and Eve The artist loves this hyper real detail uses really tiny brush strokes This is very English in the idea of having a very moral story 0 William Holman Hunt The Awakening Conscience 1853 The woman is waking up and realizing that she did something wrong She looks at the purity of Nature and then realizing that she did do something wrong The picture tells you that she can redeem herself 0 Ford Maddox Brown Work 1852 39 391 r We see work as something that can only be good We see many people working in this image Victorian idea we will make a college to support our working class people This image was very big and commissioned by a patron Uses very bright colors stacking up images and pays incredibly attention to detail This sort of work is meant to be an emblem of an industrialized nation 0 James McNeil Whistler Symphony in White No1 The White Girl 1861 He takes a different formal problem how can he make a picture all in white He is interested specifically in formal qualities There are many variations 0 James McNeil Whistler Arrangement in Grey and Black Portrait of the Painter s Mother 1871 It is very rigid and contains limited colors black white and grey Art History 6c 05102012 Goals 0 The differences bw analytic and synthetic cubism Who the Futurists were 0 What the Bauhaus was 0 Architectural terms 0 Cantilever o Curtain wall 0 Ribbon windows 0 Ferro concrete 0 Some descriptions of Cubism it enables us to quotsee an object from everywhere grasping it conceptually as a composite of views equivalent to what we see when we move around itquot REALLY 1 I I l I l 7r L in Georges Braque Still Life with Fruit dish 1908 l l l L 7 IE 7 l l LH l C J l l L I 7 l I Picasso Fruit dish 1908 0 Legacy of Cezanne how do we differentiate bw bodies light space etchow do those things uctuate Can be a symbol of modern the question of modernity 0 Where are we who are we Etc 7quot 21H D F jgw m a Picasso Portrai of DH Kahnweiler 1908 o Is this an image of a person quotfrom all anglesquot 0 Kahnweiler s cubism 0 Minimal color so that the focus is on lightshade o Flattened visual space 0 Visual vocabulary to describe spaces between the attened now boundaryless objects 0 ANALYTIC CUBISM William Harnett Still Life Violin and Music 1888 o Trompe oeitrick the eye 0 Looks like its real tricking the eye into thinking its real Toure de force highly skilled to fool you into looking at 3D things B ra q u e Still Life with Pitcher 1 9 1 0 Sound holes and lines look like the strings of a violin in a funky way Can also recognize the top of the violin Pitcher takes a little longer to see Everything else is pretty much unidenti able 2 subjects violin and pitcher picture of painting itself 0 shows what painting is the things painting can do one could say that the world is unstable and contingent in space a lot of how we understand what we know is through vision Braque and Picasso start to say what if we make you conscious of that stuff Let you see actual tools of painting orjust throw it out there and let you gure it outrepresentations of painting brought to different ends l i l iii1 nun i W M n 1 l Braque Factories at Rio Tinto L Estaque 1910 Picasso and Braque really working through a problem how much can we push it d PiassoTPolirifat C3073 Contextual cues to tell us what we re looking at 0 How much can I push it till you can t gure it out anymore 0 Take some shapes and put it in there and challenge the viewer Braque The Portuguese 191112 quot url 39 Possibly man playing a guitar in front of a caf window Possibly it s a pierdock with smokestack of boat etc WE DON T KNOW Might have a little rope table a bottle w a stopper a glass win it but we don t actually know It s a game on some level but a serious game What makes representation How stable is it Pressed to say what it s a painting of Language we know but can t quite formulate a sentence for Picasso Majoie 191112 0 Letters and musical notes 0 Music is most abstract thing you could try to paint 0 An abstraction in that of itself 0 Painting that s about painting Called analytic cubism bc it analyzes an image 0 Taking the image apart and seeing how much you can pull it apart and take it until you can t tell what it is at all anymore 0 Gets to the point where there s not much more they can do 0 Start to look really similar to each other s work Braque and Picasso Personal style sort of exists less when you focus on painting s nuts and bolts and what you can do Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning 191112 Might be a caf table Joujournal But also joureplay 0 Game with Braque Only way you could see these works is to know the artists and go to their studio or ask Kahnweiler to see his gallery Nobody else is doing it like thisjust Braque and Picasso o Trompe loeithe chair caning it looks like actual chair caning but actually oil cloth that has been massproduced to put on wooden chairs to make it look like caning not really painted The game becomes a question of what s representation What s real What do we know What is painting supposed to do quotI do not read Englishbut this does not mean that the English language does not exist and why should I blame anybodybut myself if I cannot understand itquot Pabo Picasso Picasso Compotier with Fruits Glass amp Violin 1912 Cut the pears out and stuck them on there Violinshading Journal again Apparition is the other headline This is the game the sport is synthetic cubism Synthetic cubismbringing different images and things together to form a representation of things as a whole representations of fruit stems violins etc Bringing in more things of the outside world Bringing in mass produced things The word collagecoe or to stick sticking paper or materials on a surface Arbitrary sciencewhen is a hole with lines through it actually a guitar 0 Abstract systems 0 Spa re arbitrary Pablo Picasso Guitar Sheet Music and Glass 1912 Public Cubismquot showing in the Salons 0 this is what artists are making of cubists experiments and paintings that Braque and Picasso are working on Jean Metzinger Tea Time 19122 0 Very much tied to keeping the image of a woman and keeping it in tact His cubism is very different from the kinds we saw from Picasso and Braque 1 Robert Delaunay Eiffel Tower 1911 Robert Delaunay Homage to Beriot 1914 o Orphism ApollinaireSimultaneity Delaunay Goes on to spread cubism to Germany Leger Woman in Blue 1912 0 Very abstractljhead hands seated Hard to tell 0 Overall painting is very different from the kind of painting we ve seen from Braque and Picasso All of them have retained color in their images unlike Picasso and Braque o Increasingly simpli es his forms The Futurists in Paris Russolo Carra Marinetti Boccioni Severini Futurist evening in Milan 1911 Russolowith Marinetti and his Intonomuri quotLet s go I said quotLet s go friends Let s go out Mythology and the mystic ideal are nally overcome We are about to witness the birth of the centaur and soon we shall see the rst angels y The doors of life must be shaken to test the hinges and bolts Let s take off Behold the very rst drawn on earth There is nothing to equal the splendor of the sun s rose coored sword as it duels for the rst time in our thousand year darknessquot FUTURIST MANIFESTO 1908 quotWe will glorify warthe only true hygiene of the worldmilitarism destructive gesture of the anarchist the beautiful ideas which kill and the scorn of womanquot FT Marinetti Futurist Manifesto 1908 0 Interested in making sounds with letters J Gino Severini Armored Train 1914 Umberto Boccinioni Unique forms of Continuity in Space 1913 three views 0 Idea of the motion falling behind trying to catch up to the gure 0 Made of bronze How can you reinvent the cubist mode in sculpture Image of modernity is very utopian o the future is ours o shut down museums burn them its all about now 0 many got killed in warbattles Art History 6c 06122012 Goals 0 The differences bw analytic and synthetic cubism Who the Futurists were 0 What the Bauhaus was 0 Architectural terms 0 Cantilever o Curtain wall 0 Ribbon windows 0 Ferro concrete 0 Some descriptions of Cubism it enables us to quotsee an object from everywhere grasping it conceptually as a composite of views equivalent to what we see when we move around itquot REALLY 1 I I l I l 7r L in Georges Braque Still Life with Fruit dish 1908 l l l L 7 IE 7 l l LH l 2 J l l L I 7 l I Picasso Fruit dish 1908 0 Legacy of Cezanne how do we differentiate bw bodies light space etchow do those things uctuate Can be a symbol of modern the question of modernity 0 Where are we who are we Etc 7quot 21H D F jgw m a Picasso Portrai of DH Kahnweiler 1908 o Is this an image of a person quotfrom all anglesquot 0 Kahnweiler s cubism 0 Minimal color so that the focus is on lightshade o Flattened visual space 0 Visual vocabulary to describe spaces between the attened now boundaryless objects 0 ANALYTIC CUBISM William Harnett Still Life Violin and Music 1888 o Trompe oeitrick the eye 0 Looks like its real tricking the eye into thinking its real Toure de force highly skilled to fool you into looking at 3D things B ra q u e Still Life with Pitcher 1 9 1 0 Sound holes and lines look like the strings of a violin in a funky way Can also recognize the top of the violin Pitcher takes a little longer to see Everything else is pretty much unidenti able 2 subjects violin and pitcher picture of painting itself 0 shows what painting is the things painting can do one could say that the world is unstable and contingent in space a lot of how we understand what we know is through vision Braque and Picasso start to say what if we make you conscious of that stuff Let you see actual tools of painting orjust throw it out there and let you gure it outrepresentations of painting brought to different ends l i l iii1 nun i W M n 1 l Braque Factories at Rio Tinto L Estaque 1910 Picasso and Braque really working through a problem how much can we push it d PiassoTPolirifat C3073 Contextual cues to tell us what we re looking at 0 How much can I push it till you can t gure it out anymore 0 Take some shapes and put it in there and challenge the viewer Braque The Portuguese 191112 quot url 39 Possibly man playing a guitar in front of a caf window Possibly it s a pierdock with smokestack of boat etc WE DON T KNOW Might have a little rope table a bottle w a stopper a glass win it but we don t actually know It s a game on some level but a serious game What makes representation How stable is it Pressed to say what it s a painting of Language we know but can t quite formulate a sentence for Picasso Majoie 191112 0 Letters and musical notes 0 Music is most abstract thing you could try to paint 0 An abstraction in that of itself 0 Painting that s about painting Called analytic cubism bc it analyzes an image 0 Taking the image apart and seeing how much you can pull it apart and take it until you can t tell what it is at all anymore 0 Gets to the point where there s not much more they can do 0 Start to look really similar to each other s work Braque and Picasso Personal style sort of exists less when you focus on painting s nuts and bolts and what you can do Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning 191112 Might be a caf table Joujournal But also joureplay 0 Game with Braque Only way you could see these works is to know the artists and go to their studio or ask Kahnweiler to see his gallery Nobody else is doing it like thisjust Braque and Picasso o Trompe loeithe chair caning it looks like actual chair caning but actually oil cloth that has been massproduced to put on wooden chairs to make it look like caning not really painted The game becomes a question of what s representation What s real What do we know What is painting supposed to do quotI do not read Englishbut this does not mean that the English language does not exist and why should I blame anybodybut myself if I cannot understand itquot Pabo Picasso Picasso Compotier with Fruits Glass amp Violin 1912 Cut the pears out and stuck them on there Violinshading Journal again Apparition is the other headline This is the game the sport is synthetic cubism Synthetic cubismbringing different images and things together to form a representation of things as a whole representations of fruit stems violins etc Bringing in more things of the outside world Bringing in mass produced things The word collagecoe or to stick sticking paper or materials on a surface Arbitrary sciencewhen is a hole with lines through it actually a guitar 0 Abstract systems 0 Spa re arbitrary Pablo Picasso Guitar Sheet Music and Glass 1912 Public Cubismquot showing in the Salons 0 this is what artists are making of cubists experiments and paintings that Braque and Picasso are working on Jean Metzinger Tea Time 19122 0 Very much tied to keeping the image of a woman and keeping it in tact His cubism is very different from the kinds we saw from Picasso and Braque 1 Robert Delaunay Eiffel Tower 1911 Robert Delaunay Homage to Beriot 1914 Orphism ApollinaireSimultaneity Delaunay Goes on to spread cubism to Germany Visual music composition Eiffel tower and helicopter blade in it Leger Woman in Blue 1912 Very abstractljhead hands seated Hard to tell Overall painting is very different from the kind of painting we ve seen from Braque and Picasso All of them have retained color in their images unlike Picasso and Braque Increasingly simpli es his forms The Futurists in Paris Russolo Carra Marinetti Boccioni Severini Futurist evening in Milan 1911 Russolowith Marinetti and his Intonomuri quotLet s go I said quotLet s go friends Let s go out Mythology and the mystic ideal are nally overcome We are about to witness the birth of the centaur and soon we shall see the rst angels y The doors of life must be shaken to test the hinges and bolts Let s take off Behold the very rst drawn on earth There is nothing to equal the splendor of the sun s rose coored sword as it duels for the rst time in our thousand year darknessquot FUTURIST MANIFESTO 1908 quotWe will glorify warthe only true hygiene of the worldmilitarism destructive gesture of the anarchist the beautiful ideas which kill and the scorn of womanquot FT Marinetti Futurist Manifesto 1908 Carlo Ca rra Interventionst Demonstration 1914 0 Interested in making sounds with letters J Gino Severini Armored Train 1914 Umberto Boccinioni Unique forms of Continuity in Space 1913 three views 0 Idea of the motion falling behind trying to catch up to the gure 0 Made of bronze How can you reinvent the cubist mode in sculpture Image of modernity is very utopian o the future is ours o shut down museums burn them its all about now 0 many got killed in warbattles Duchamp and Surrealism Goals 0 Think about how Duchamp s work challenges notions of art taste and commodity 0 Discuss the key concepts of Surrealism What were Surrealists goals and what were their techniques for achieving these goals 0 Key Terms 0 Readymade o Surrealism o Automatism Leonardo Mona Lisa 150206 0 Approx 30quot x 21 Considered a masterpiece one of the most famous works of art in the world 0 Air of mystery 0 Was once lost and now recovered one of the great masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance A work of art used to be something special and unreproducable but things are totally different now it becomes immediate accessible normal and mundane Marcel Duchamp LH00Q 1919 Approx8x5quotpostca rd 0 Drew a mustache on it and added a different title 0 quotshe has a hot assquot radical idea being critical cubism was a movement critical of art challenges your ideas of perception and what you think of art rather than representations of art etc 0 critical of the physical active scene Duchamp is being critical of the way people look at a work of art what makes a work of art What makes a work of art important 0 He hardly did anything 0 He s challenging this idea of what makes something high art 0 Art making process is in his mind a work of art lies in the concept Duchamp said that he has never been able to contain himself from copying or be in uenced or represent other images 0 Not following these norms Challenging things of the copy What it means to be in uenced Institutional critique etc About the intellectual capacities of pursuing art 0000 Advertisement isn t a work of art Person doesn t specify that it s art Different use value behind it Economic reason behind it too Readymade already made the postcard reproduced in mass Something that Duchamp is taking that has already been made Taking an object out of its context that is already made and makes something different out of it Require an object that is already made doesn t include a wall like in graffiti Examples of cadaver exquis drawings 1924 Not uni ed not necessarily any meaning Surrealist project Critical of the idea of this unifying idea of one artist with a meaning etc this is a collaboration of artists who don t talk to each other lncoherency and subjectivityljthe artists may be tapping into imagination and subconscious to create art can see forms but doesn t necessarily make sense Automatic drawingquotjust doing things without thinking of them tapping into your unconscious and just going Automatism doing things without thinking tapping into unconscious automatic response Andre Masson Battle of Fishes 1926 Title came at the end cuz that s what he ended up with Everything is from chance of placement Usually you know where you re going before you start your artwork but this is about the psychology of free association and chance isn t necessarily about the idea Memorial Day section rescheduled Tuesday May 29th Section at 5 pm in Phelps bFrom ast lecture you should know 0 The differences between analytic and synthetic cubism Who the futurists were Today s goals 0 What lntonomuri sound like 0 What the Bauhaus was 0 Architectural terms 0 Cantilever Curtain wa Ribbon windows Ferro concrete Form follows function OOOO Purism L Esprit Nouveau o All about purity in terms of forms 0 Could reduce things to their basic formsthat was the tradition from which everything is born including modernism Borrowing from Picasso and cubists 0 Not as fragmentary still kind of transparent Le Corbusier CE Jeanneret Pale Still Life with Lantern 1922 0 Order in all forms and planes Loves machine made things standardized objects 0 Factory pressed glasses 0 These shapes and forms have been around forever and the machine age has remade those forms into its own Remade to speak to the modern timeperiod our time Amedee Ozenfant Still Life with Red Wine 1921 Purism reduces to basic forms Obscures distinctiveness sharing lines 0 Modern take on still life 0 Plays with shadows the lines run together 0 Find a universal language that can solve all probemsike modernity Corbusier quotEssential Solids Expressed n Classical Architecturequot L Esprit Nouveau no 1 1920 0 Architecture becomes a new metaphor Preliminary to an architectural project that Ozenfant and Corbusier are going to take on quotThe Engineer inspired by the law of economy and governed by mathematical calculation puts us in accord with universal law He achieves orderquot quotImagine all this junk cleared off and carried away and replaced by immense clear crystals of glass rising to a height of over six hundred feetquot Le Corbusier 5 mm L l I Malig l E 7 iLIJ 7 ll 395 7 W F D l 7 r ELfEE 3r I I r or J n l39 Egtk l V I 11 j 1 L a i i 5 mi L L L gt LL nI Li i Le Corbusier Plan for Contemporary City of 3 million inhabitants 1922 o The idea of making a modern space would become the ideals of architecture quotThe International Stylequot 19205305 expression of volume rather than mass emphasis on balance rather than symmetry radical simpli cation o eliminate applied ornament from design 0 form follows function 0 mass produced forms are priviledged Le Corbusier Villa Savoye Possysur Seine France 192930 Curtain Wallthe wall itself becomes an element that is no longer carrying the weight of the building the majority of the weight of the building is taken down to the beams below it because of its structure and balance allows the building to be pierced with windows and not full walls Ferro Concretereinforced concrete has more give rebar inside far more stronger VolumeMassPasicity those things that can be enclosed that make mass but also in general just shapes and forms Ribbon Windowsunbroken windows continue through the structure without wall between obsessed with creating things that had movement without disruption rooms that are entirely glassed in and then the terrace on top asymmetrica but balanced reguation rather than symmetry voume mass ef cient use of space as a kind of plasticity l interior View a r gin Him r if H i 1 r quot Luz nil zl r a ll 21 I l outside views Gerrit Rietweld Schroder House 1924 Utrecht Netherlands Member of Dutch group called Dynamic equilibrium surfaces interlock with planes Thinking about how volumes can be produced volume over mass Hard to gure out how building works Minimalism purism Maquette of Schroder House 1 hi u A liea arm at IEEIE Walter Gropius Adolf Meyer Fagus Factory Alfeld an der Leine 19256 Curtain walwall that doesn t bare any weight Steel Frame constructionwhat makes quotquot possible 0 Weight going down on those enforced areas 0 Safe and healthier space with a lot of windows brings windows all the way to the edge of the wall 0 significant because it s a factory form follows function 0 context of the time Walter Gropius Bauhaus 1925 Dessau Germany Learn skills through hands on experience Modernist academy for design Can see the function from the designoutside Curtain wall regularized Marcel Breuer Breuer Chair 1926 o Cantileverone thing supports the weight here this supports the weight there don t need something that links things together 0 Two kinds of masses here one which is support for the body and the other support for the weight of the body Walter Gropius Bauhaus Dessau 192526 7 I ll 7 I 1I J 7 I 7 r 7 l J V I 7 7 7 7 u P n L a i a 39EIF 1 are E Frank Lloyd Wright Fredrick C Robe House Chicago 190609 Inspired by at planes Wanted to design something that would echo that sort of natural structure with cantileversextends weight beyond support Designed all the furniture and lamps with horizontal and vertical bands Brought into architecture the property of continuity 0 Through this continuityit creates this very consistent and stable structure llzl L 55 39 7 IIIz o iJ L D Frank Lloyd Wright Falling Water Edgar Kaufmann House Mill Run PA 19369 The environment and building are one Features become harmonious as one in organic architecture What was once called decorating all are in the building structure as a feature of the building Organic collection of material modernism English Recruitment Office August 1914 English Soldiers going quotover the topquot German soldiers off to the front quotLet s go I said 39Let s go friends Let s go out The doors of life must be shaken to test the hinges and bolts Let s take off Behold the very rst dawn on earthquot Marinetti Checking daily casualty lists Berlin 1916 World War 1 191418 quotThe Great Warquot Blinded English soldiers returning from the front Verdun engagements 60000 killed or wounded in one day20000 lay dead in No Man s Land Chemin des Dames view of French farm and soldiers 1916 Landscape at Paschendale after major offensive l i4 D n y a L 1 4 AL I gain Eu 3 quot ui39 SFquot 3 El 4 lH H D D l l isEll iIHFJJEDH II a 11 l aces Picabia Dada Picture 1920 R Mutt Marcel Duchamp Fountain 1917 Urinal Not just because he s a smartass but it s a Dada gesture saying something about what you thinkwe think art should be 0 To question those principles and what we expects o What de nes an artist 0 Did copies of itsigns it againmakes four 0 Which is the original Is it a recycled idea Is it not real Everyone wanted one 51712 Terms Readymade Photomontage 0 First International Dada Fair Berlin 1920 Grattage Automatism Frottage Cadavre Exquis exquisite corpse Questions what does culture do What is its purpose Why is it sacred Why do we get offended What is art There is an unconscious dimension in all of us Qhat can we do with it What does it promise in the way of radicalizing the world Can art lead the way Culture is dominated by the bourgeoisie What does it reinforce Should artists be party to that How can one break away from that Marcel Duchamp as Rrose 5eavy 19201 phonetically quotEros C est la viequot eros that s life 0 at what point is art art 0 Erotic underpins our desire for everything Duchamp Bottle Rack 1914 1964 replica Sexual connotations phallic spike First readymade Duchamp Bicycle Wheel 1913 1951 replica Called a ready made because of the massproduced elements in it but he thought it d be nice in his studio to put a bicycle wheel on a stool 0 Sister threw it out on accident so he made her go get more so he could make another Denies the importance of taste Meant not to be governed by the beauty of the object but by his indifference to it is he really indifferent to it What it is and what it does for us 171 W a I t 394 i a H E39EI ii is i I i39 g 1 j i I39 j 7 gees397 i I a in 7 7 D 3 7 7 7 7 2139 Ju39 39ia39 f Iqi miimsl L i i sum is m a Francis Picabia Amorous Parade 1917 o In a time when machines are becoming almost lethal in the war times Pct 11an 35 Age Ear IMJE E39I Ianall Hi39 H HEquot iIa5ifquot 395il39395 t l l39 m jii Picabia Portrait of a Young American Girl in a State of Nudity 1915 0 Spark happens in the gap bw the two parts Sexualizing everything becomes one of those tropes of Freudianism Weimar Republic Socialist based democracy takes over after Kaiser decides to surrender 0 Lots of interesting ideas to support labor and such 0 But terrible in ation Hyperin ation 1923 1 US42 triion Deutschmarks Its value was worth more in paper than it actually was as money French War Veteran Representatives at the Treaty of Versailles Faces mangled and limbs missing 0 Beginning of the boom of plastic surgery 0 Like in some ways the bodies are becoming machines WW1191418 J l J l l lL l7 l l l I U 7 II 7 l 7 Ir 7 g 7 l39l39l r 1 j I a L l l D1 7 7w l l ill l E 7 J39HF r r l lt1quotTU 39r I u 393 7 1 First International Dada Fair Berlin 1920 Henna Huhh 0 Ralph o This is their show have signs everywhere Sculpturedummy w light on head dressed in uniform o Pig dressed in uniform hanging from ceiling quotDepression Arch AngeV 0 Guy who did it got arrested for it Nonsensical or no sense made but alluding to the war ight and the quotnew manquot n I odied 1920 de troyed by the Nazis What becomes of able bodied men when they re drafted Body and machine becoming one WW1 Amputees rehab and parades George Grosz Victim of Society or Remember Uncle August the Unhappy Inventor 1919 0 Portrait of a victim of society or this unhappy inventor that has produced a face that no one else has Hannah Hoch Dada Dancer 1922 0 Has taken these gures and objects and placed them in this con guration with jarring effects oversized legs etc 0 Different from Picasso and Braque s collages o More an exercise thinking about commercialism and mass culturestuff that is never supposed to enter into high art 0 First time you have sort of mass produced imagery put to use in art Max Ernst Two Ambiguous Figures 1920 r LL a l 3 WW 39E39LEL nf LI 51 LIg39 mum 7 L7 Wounded in the war and goes on the join the Surrealists for most of the rest of his life Can see these odd gures that suggest things but all made of parts from machinery catalogs and then painted in various structures to show some kind of space and depth win the image Critiquing art with mass culture the populist idea that quoteveryone can be an artistquot Suggestive juxta positions John Heart eld Hurrah Hurrah the Butter s all Gone AIZ 1935 Collage that he took a picture of Everyone s eating handlebars screw ax metal things etc Refers to a speech but Goering who said that quotiron and steal is what has always made a country strong butter and bread is what makes the country fat Swastikas on the wallpaper at i T 7 E i lw 1 Fl 3 I Ed f 5 ESE i1inf7i r Em g u 7 53 r imi E 7 Heartfield Goering The Butcher of the Third Reich AIZ 1933 0 To create awareness This part of Dada has much more of a purpose to it Unsettling but usually has some sort of overt political statement win it 0 Changed his name bc didn t want to be associated with the Germans Paris Dada Trial of Barres Breton in 3rd from left Tzara is fourth Freudian Theories ld instinctive or physical desire Ego manages the id mediates between obligations of social life and personal desires tries to satisfy the id in socially acceptable ways Superego conscience usually imposed by criticism or disapproval family culture external pressures Sublimination redirection of id s primal impulses into constructive behavior quotThe dream is the disguised ful llment of a repressed wishquot Sigmund Freud Giorgio de Chirico The Child s Brain 1914 0 Not surrealist but was seen by Berton and he jumped off a bus and bought it o Argued that it s the embodiment of the father figureego the superegothe book and the idthe child s brain 0 The dream allows us to rethink emotional things differently than we experience in actual real life Andre Breton and the Surrealists 1924 Dream period idea was to have dreams and record them because they were supposedly the key to thinking about the world differently quotThe dream is the disguised ful llment of a suppressed repressed wishquot Freud Interpretation of dreams 1900 Automatism Automatic writingstream of consciousness writing comes from the Surrealists Automatic Drawingnot thinking about anything and just drawing Andre Masson The Dead Horses 1927 quotSurrealism pure psychic automation by which it is intended to express either verbally or in any other way the true functioning of thought Thought dictated in the absence of any control exerted by reason outside any aesthetic or moral preoccupationquot Andre Breton Manifesto of Surrealism 1924 Andre Masson Untitled Automatic drawing 19245 Biomorphic forms Frottage process of acquiring image through rubbing Grattage revealing an image by scraping 7 L39 a mi 39glh f39 c i Max Ernst The Hard 1927 2865 Alienation Art and Life Mural movements and Abstract Expressionism Section goals 0 To identify key characteristics of Abstract Expressionist painting 0 To recognize how technique style and subject matter are politicized To take a more active role in applying concepts from the readings to images and to communicate an understanding of the readings with the rest of the class Group 1 39h rm Diego Rivera History of Mexico World of Today and Tomorrow south wall Palacio Nacional Mexico City 192935 fresco goal was to reclaim and repaint the Mexican culturepast Made really unique to Mexico 0 One of his most famous works 0 Tells the tale of Mexico s history beginning in 980D Carl Marx leading them into an ideal future Uses lots of pictures and images of Mexican history Wants to make it simple for a large audience to understand Took lots of ideas from Europe cubism colors etc Goalto great a monumental and public heroic art to manifest the heroes of the Mexican history US jumped on this as quotAmerican Artquot 0 Coincided with the New Deal mural was painted bw 1930 35 o Funded to paint murals and pictures Brought up to Roosevelt that this is a way that the public could see what s going on and could assess A lot of controversy bc Rivera added in Lennon s head bc US was scared of the communism movement 0 Roosevelt got wary about it bc that Rivera was involved with the Surrealists How can you see these different styles and movements win the picture dreamlike quality subconscious blending forward movement from past to the future realist aspect political weight etc 7 Hans Namuth photographer jackson Pollock at work 1950 Believed art should be quotAmericanquotwas somewhat in uenced by American indian art sand painting Abstract expressionism is a representation of the state of painting the act Approached it wout a picture in their mind whatever came of it was nal The revelation contained in the art Process of personality of the artist Emphasis of surrealism movement the idea of unconsciousness Became an American household name in the 505 when Hans Namuth photographed him in his studio and showed that there was a deliberate methodology to his work also did recordings quotaction paintingquotthe idea that he is not only moving his hand but moving all around the canvas challenged modern conventions of what is foreground and background etc o engaging in it all around 0 is a record of an event of him painting o precursor of performance art a wk Jackson Pollock One Number 31 1950 Dimensions 106 in x 209 58 o Is a moment for the artist quotaction paintingquot Engages in his space really enjoyed American Indian art because they actually painted bc they wanted to express 0 The unconscious precursor of painting was gone and he just painted and let whatever happened Postwar movement of abstract expressionism No guidelines expressing himself through this painting 0 Enter the avantgarde Style of abstract quotactionpainting where the action is actually more important than the actual painting 0 Shows some of his subconscious because he got lost in painting it rather than knowing what he was painting surrealist idea Stopped giving his painting names bc that would be kind of telling people what to look for in the painting o Is sort of a symmetry and harmony and rhythm win it pure abstraction o Pushed it out of representation and situated art in the act and in the event of making something This is what made America the center of the art world 0 Very controlled and beautiful in what seems chaotic but its not really 0 Responding to WW1 with abstraction quot n 71 i V I V J 7 r f i 39y r r A r 7 a W gt i eas4 n 3 an rl39nam u r V I 1 7 JasperJohns False Start 1959 Dimensions 67 14 x 54 in NeoDada o Politicalcritiquing thingsironic Oppostition to abstract expressionism 0 Was abstract but also representational o Suspends the contradiction bw the basic imperatives at work in the postwar avantgarde Pollock and the provocation of Duchampwas able to develop these opposed paradigms into distinctive art of ambiguity Readymade by Duchampmass producedalready there that has been modi ed Wellknown image everyone s pretty much seen it and knows what it is Challenging the idea that the artist has to do the majority of the work She s horny she has a hot as letters when spoken in French 0 Kind of insults the Mona Lisa 0 Asks us a question about why we think art should be specialseparate or sacred that you shouldn t ruin it o Asks us why we think it s a masterpiece Some signi cant points 0 Readymade 0 Act of iconoclasmattacks a quotsacred imagequot a masterwork 0 Calls into question the ways in which we confer value on art and other objects 0 Letters make sexual allusion o Forces the viewer to think about what constitutes art 0 What separates a work of art from everything else Joan Miro Birth ofthe World 1925 0 Very interested in biomorphic forms particularly ones that suggested sexuality Freud l desire is what keeps us going 0 As soon as we lose desire that is death no longer have the ght to live 0 Person maybe laying down Dots with hairs coming out o Abstraction and patterning 0 Birth of the world somehow is there 0 Sexual overtone even though so abstract 0 Spermlike gurationstarts with very gurative sort of image and begins to abstract more and more where you re not entirely sure what it is Frottageimage achieved by rubbing Max Er ITrlrv t Two Chidre J Menaced by a Nightengae 1924 Using fairly gurative image and mixing it with actual objects Ignites childhood memory that had a particular emotional resonance for him Shaped by the unconsciousljsister s birth and birds death Allegorical imagination r l r r i I J l u w a r i i q u s s In I Salvador Dali Lugubrious Game 1929 Self portrait of Dalihead exploding and statue with hand out This guy reaching for the statue s penis Woman is crying around man s shoulder with excrement running down his legs in the foreground Things that for him produce incredible anxiety Has acquired many academic techniques gurative surrealist style and using it to depict something that is entirely a dream worldwhat he was interested in Relationships bw hard and soft Dali Paranaac Face 1935 0 Paranoidcritical method 0 Look at it and look at it until it actually suggests something to you through your subconscious based it on the postcard of natives sitting around a hut of some sort and sees a face and produces the painting 0 more active allowed for more intervention 0 produced a really important aspect of the surrealists philosophy this idea of nding something that comes from within but is manifested as a production of an association bw things Meret Oppenheim FurLined Teacup Luncheon in Fur 1936 i Man Ray Enigma of Isadore Ducasse 1930 quotAs beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on an operating tablequot Comte de Lautreaumont Isadore Ducasse oddlike juxtaposition of things that don t go together or make sense r U n r 1 Y i r A J A r r E r i i A A r 1 L L 4 u I no L Rene Magritte Treachery of Images 1929 0 He s thinking about systems of representation 0 The letters a statement that can be voiced or read and the painting of the pipe 0 Both are representations 0 Two sign systems that are telling us contradictory things 0 What is real o Asks those questions in juxtaposing different things against each other 0 When does the real betray us What can we believe and not beHeve Magritte The Key to Dreams 1930 o Trompe l oeil trick the eye 0 The words don t match up with the picture 0 We re used to assuming that there s going to be a relationship bw the words and the images 0 Interested in exploring the unconscious and how it works quotPropagandaquot Goebbels once wrote quothas absolutely nothing to do with truthquot quotIn a time of universal deceit telling the truth is a revolutionary actquot George Orwell 0 during a time when the Nazi s were burning books and art that were quottaintedquot and destroying everything that is nonArian 0 have this kind of nationalism fused with socialism that forces the citizenry to conform with the will of the state Pablo Picasso Guernica 1936 Doing something very different in response to the Nazi s Guernica was under siege in Spain April 26 1937 bombed on market day Considered to be a war atrocity bc Germans weren t at war with Spain civil war Germans wanted to test these bombs and Franco the fascist who was at war with Spain let them bomb Guernica every 510 minutes Nobody got involved the US was actually sending armaments to both sides Spanish republic commissioned Picasso to produce a mural for the world s fair Monumental painting attened in certain ways but still gurative Allusion to newsprint how Picasso found out about Guernica Tried to convey the emotional weight of the event How do you balance being that forward thinking artist and at the same time manage to hang onto an audience if you re too accessible reinforces passive thinking but if too out there hard to get an active engagement with your audience which one will it be Paul Padua he Fuhrer Speaks 1938 L 1J1 Hitler on the radio There s a real preference for making sure everything is perfectly clear The message is clear These people are peasants have a humble home reproduction of Hitler on the wall hardworking and loyal to the 3rel Reich n d Horacio Ferrer Madrid BaCkAirpanes 1937 0 When Madrid was actually bombed Similar iconography but done with much more realistic approach 0 How do you articulate horror Avantgarde is looking for ways to jar you out of your normal thinking 0 Push against status quo Convey a message to be straight forward Form counts be straight forward didactic ls abstraction the way to go Great German Art Exhibition 1938 Great Day of German Art Munich 1938 lllL 3 39 iv v r 1 W V V T l i w in l 3n L L m n i At Rest judgment of Paris Sepp Hilz A Country Venus nd Degenerate Art Exhibition 1937 Biggest art show of modern art 650 works of contemporary art gathered for display over 2 million visitors in Munich alone Another million attended in the subsequent 3 years of touring 16000 works con scated 1000 paintings and 400 watercolors burned others auctioned people went to see contemporary art for the last time Made into a pure propaganda effort to get as much US cash as possible bc stable currency and then destroyed everything else The Great Depression Stock Market Crash 1929 Dustbowl and Drought EILEFJEHEI IAH man a L it u Lr E 1 i i r rri Tc r 4 a L 1 E u u H c r 1 i a W V a m u r J i 7 D l E i i mixt Margaret BourkeWhite At the ti e of the Louisville Flood 1937 quotMigrant Mother Nipomo Californiaquot Dorothea Lange quotDestitute pea pickers in California Mother of seven children Age 32quot 1936 Farm Securities Administration commission avail E Di go Rier Man at the Crossroads Looking With eand High Vision to the Choosing of a New and Better Future Rockefeller Center 1934 destroyed o Lenin is in the mural o Bacteria for syphilis o Rockefeller himself 0 Which is the new and better future Workers or capitalists 52412 Diego Rivera Man a the C ossro ds 19 4 0 Had been expelled from the communist party but still adhered to the general beliefs of shared community wealth o Kinda odd that Rockefeller commissioned him to do this o Sonvery interested in Latin and Mexican art 0 Had been working in a cubist mode living in Paris lived in Italy and discovered Frescos o Lived in Mexico and painted giant murals for the Mexican revolution 0 Problemput Lennon in there pretty visiblygrasping the hands of workers Rockefeller insisted Rivera remove Lenin but he refused Rockefeller himself was featured Crossroadswhich way is man going to goto communism or leisurely time war machines etc u Facade Lee Lawrie Wisdom 1933 rr 7 HID H l Rockefeller Center 19319 various architects quotWe all recognize that in human creation there is something that belong to humanity at large and no individual has the right to destroy itquot Diego Rivera in response to Rockefeller s insistence that he remove Lenin crowds of people came to watch Rivera at work on the mural May 1934 a bunch of police and guards dropped a curtain in front of the mural and pulverized it and completely destroyed the mural the artwork was supposed to have a unifying theme but he wasn t told how he should do it when this was done it was likened to the Nazi book burnings in Germany what is freedom what is human expression what s democracy 0 had the effect of organizing American artists got press everywhere Jose Maria Sert American Progress installed 1937 30 Rockefeller Center 0 What replaced Rivera s mural Behind the reception desk Allegory of building modern America 16ft high and 40 ft long supposed to be Abraham Lincoln rebuilding America I E39 David Alfara Sigueiros Portrait ofMeXico Today 1932 0 Santa Barbara Museum of Art Outdoor installation Detail red guard Detail JP Morgan Detail murdered workers American Regionalists if n vr Thomas Hart Benton Boomtown 1926 Idea of the new frontier We are explorers We don t have the same European traditions but we explored and settled this land lots of focus on that during this time 0 Not just celebrating the country life taught in NY and had a fairly strong Progressive agenda Pollock actually studied w him for a period of time Grant Wood American Gothic 1930 Heartland Serious carpenter Gothic house Salt of the earth kind of people Celebration of America Stable country life rather than urbanism as something that is very genuineprogressive 0 Stable of Americathe heartland Benton Over the Mountains 19246 0 Like the heartland celebration of America 0 Stable country life Flattens the space Museum of Modern Art founded in US in 1929 Illi Infra SHEI Ia I39m Iquotm Alfred Barr In uences and Directions in Modern Art 1936 K E F u III 7 LI Il l Lg Barr Torpedo 1937 Torpedo projected 1950 August 1945 ima Irosh Atom Bomb H Self Service Art Market quotArtists Materials for the Amateur Student Professionalquot 1952 Covered Bridge Paintbynumber Clement Greenberga very important critic who wrote quotAvantGarde and Kitschquot argument 0 problem with cultural ideals those are what are keeping our world alive and separate from fascism commercialism is taking over and feeding people things whether they want it or not parallel to the mindset of an unchallenged regime o Dumbing down the population 0 High culture vs mass culture 0 Regime of consumerism 0 Culture needs to be the place where consumerism is resisted because there s no other place where it cann be resisted Painting abstraction and avant garde is the only way to keep alive the idea of equality and human values bc if everything else in the culture is consumable and for sale where else can we look for values that encourage us to consider what it is to be human l l Fl L l I l 7 l LI39l l 5DUDDEDIJE I7 lllIIIl EIIZL1JIIZ I HWTE39IIEIJE HF lum1 a y 7 39u dil l hjh I EJTIC IIL rZ III 7 IIIEZlIIIIIlll l ll l 7 T CI1IE39EEIIIl ILII ll I mm M im E v 7 E quot D 39 l4 3 I I 7 i mquot 391 O Ad Reinhardt How to Look at Modern Art in America 1947 quothere s a guide to the galleries the art world in a nutshell a tree of contemporary art from pure abstract paintings on left to pure illustrative pictures on right If you know what you like but don t know anything about art you ll nd the artists on the left hardest to understand and the names on the right easiest and most familiar You can start in the corn elds where no demand is made on you and work your way up and aroundquot On left Manet Poussin lngres Greek Art Negro sculpture children s work Monet Japanese prints On right Regionalism illustration nudes landscapes studioetc Reinhardt Red and Blue Composition 1941 Pollock Going West c 19345 Male Female 1942 Jackson Pollock D i a 7 I J r irr J 1 4f F I L A W n Ig a Lil i 9 D l J r if a I r A 40 39 I kill i rr39 Banal ii L F I El I 3 i L L 1 7 II i L II L 1 y r B if 39 1 j Pollock Moon Woman Cuts the Circle 194 0 Very loose brush strokes 0 There are things that recur in art over and over 0 Symbols and meanings that transcend time Artists became interested in Surrealism bc the Surrealists moved out of Europe to America Mark Rothko Slow Swirl by the Edge of the Sea 1944 Joan Miro Carneva of the Har equm 19245 It is our function as artists to make the spectator see the world our way not his way We favor the simple expression of the complex thought We are for the large shape because it has the impact of the unequivocal We wish to reassert the picture plane We are for at forms because they destroy illusion and reveal truth my emphasis Mark Rothko Adolf Gottlieb Barnett Newman 1943 4 no JD uul I lt 4 u A 4 cl 4 A j quot39jquot DI An 39 r 4 i tn 1 i I I LU l l Fl ll Ki 1 1 V I u u 1 39 u l I A I j i 1 I ill I M Z 7 ll 7 1 r lin D I V J 7 I m l u Euquot u I39 E F u i E r U 5 E39 quotj 3 3991 u w 39 F an quot i A fit u 39 i A I on IH l i u a A I a u u n 1 Barn tt Newman Untitled 1944 u Ellh Archetypal forms universal shared across the ages regardless of cultures 0 Universal language can transcend the tradition meanings and restrictions on meanings 0 Engagement with surrealism but not quite surrealist quotThe lrasciblesquot 1952the abstract expressionists It is our function as artists to make the spectator see the world our way not his way We favor the simple expression of the complex thought We are for the large shape because it has the impact of the unequivocal We wish to reassert the picture plane We are for at forms because thev destrov illusion and reveal truth my emphasis Mark Rothko Adolf Gottlieb Barnett Newman 1943 Goals 0 Establish the arguments around avantgarde and kitsch why is it important What are the stakes Why do people feel so strongly about these things 0 Mass culture and high culture 0 Ideas of freedom and nationalism associated with Abstract Expressionism and the color eld painters The impact of NeoDada and Pop art on these arguments Stylistic features of Abstract Expressionism Greenberg quotAvantGarde and Kitschquot 1939 quotKitsch is mechanical and operates by formulas Kitsch is vicarious experience and faked sensations Kitsch changes according to style but remains always the same Kitsch is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times Kitsch pretends to demand nothing of its customers except their money not even their timequot pressure to provide people with art that is t for their consumption Kitsch immune to the real values of culture what he s arguing debased and academized fake genuine culture 0 Norman RockwellKitsch the main problem with Fascist ideas is not that they re too critical but that they are trying to inject propaganda into everything 0 a dictator is always trying to make understood that he has his nger on the people always abstraction is hard to put propaganda into 0 he argues that culture is essential to keeping alive the real ideals of humanitythe very idea of thriving culture in this dark moment 0 if you start doing things that are just illustrations it doesn t do anything the resistance is important j gnu 1 d E39 I E j J I 7 I c a n l J y I L A r r u 4 l l I I r m I J l J l r l39 1 I l y l 39 I Willem de Kooning AshviIe 1948 0 Hard to saysee what is going on in this painting Unclear o For Greenberg this painting is resisting easy consumption 0 You have to think about this painting and gure it out requires work for the viewer w A a 7 7 I 1 7 31 Norman Rockwell Freedom of Speech from The Four Freedoms 1943 o For Greenberg the problem is that it demands nothing from the viewer Standing to speak at a town hall meeting working classaverage man by looking at his clothes vs the tie guy 0 Everyone is listening to him get to stand and speak your mind and no one interrupts you freedom of speech 0 You don t have to worry about the message here its pretty clear given the surroundings and people listening to him etc people start challenging this idea of the truth idea of universal culture is to some extent a dream even though they really believe it Mark Rothko Untitled c 1947 quotthe people who weep in front of my pictures are having the same religious experience as I had when I painted itquot Rothko Brown Blue Brown on Blue 1953 never thought he was an abstractionist because he had these colors which he used as performers to evoke emotions in viewers and so on applied without making mud very complicated and more or less stained in layers instead of having a religious experience tied to a religion focusing on a universal idea of humanism abstract and expressionist use colors to express themselves and to kind of create a universal value for its audience not subject to consumerism Barnett Newman Onement 1 1948 Barnett Newman Vir heroicus subimis 19501 0 The triumph of man and the awe inspiring of the kinds of images he s producing o Puts zips in Idea of the zip is to call into consciousness whether or not the picture is being broken up or is it the red that is taking over 0 Tension bw the zip and the color eld itself r 392 quot at in 39 Hans Namuth Jackson Pollock Painting 1950 0 In uence by the mural painters Becomes much more abstract 0 Finally put the canvas on the oor and argues that the painting speaks to him 0 quotI can literally be in the paintingquot 0 quotaction painterquot detail Jackson Pollock Full Fathom Five 1947 o Methodcontrol but still element of where is that paint going to splatter etc 0 Can see how thick that paint is put on 0 Lots of industrial paint car paint house paint 0 Not using traditional materials 0 Not the traditional oil painting but still an oil painting in a sense 0 Begin to unpact certain parts of the painting and think about depth which areaslayers were put on when 0 No beginning and no end goes on and on the works while they came from a sort of idealistself expression idea gets picked up and then the government begins to think about this as a way of establishing American culture as high culture doing something that nobody in Europe could even think of compete disassociation bw Europe theater of war and US I I l IIL I u DIEI I I i 7 n m n j at I 1 7 r El n l Pollock Autumn Rhythm no 30 1950 uniquely American action painting a space in which to act 0 US is now an economic and military power but have always been considered cultural bores o Arguing that this painting is abstract huge and pushing limits 0 American audience loves it 0 Work is genuine and can t be appropriated for commercial purposes etail Jackson Pollock Cathedral 1947 Willem de Kooning PinkAnges 1945 Associated with the quotaction paintersquot More controlled than Pollock 1 1 1 7 177 u or 1 1 1 u 1 1 1 1 1 u quot 0 1 1 L r 11 1 1 1 I 1 1L1 1 t 39 1 Li 1 a 1 1 1 1 1 El 7 n E U 1 d I 15 11 I I 1E1 u FEn l E l u 397 mt l did 4 1 mm Willem de Kooning Woman 1 195052 Called quotaction paintingsquot because there is a struggle Notorious for never nishing a painting he d do something and then scrape all of it off and start over Had very clear idea of what he wanted Not bullied into staying only abstract suggestion of gures in them Less radically composed than Pollock s art Has whole relationship to European art and its histories and brings that to the US Shocks the world with quotsubject matterquot when they ve gotten pretty used to the idea of abstraction and suddenly there s a gure in there Described with violence and quotterribly tough mid 20th century damesquot Streams of color and vaguely voracious smiles Idea is that women are threatening idea of fear and risk 0 Not really by chance that these gures become cyphers for male rhetoric critics have come to accept abstraction as the norm for any kind of serious art work avant garde De Kooning Excavation 1950 Lee Krasner Composition 1947 0 When Jackson Pollock died she held back on selling any of his work which made the prices way higher so she singlehandedly created a market for Abstract Expressionist paintings alloverness of abstraction and atness Levittown New York 194751 SenatorJoseph McCarthy WI 1954 McCarthy uses doctored photo to claim that the army is in ltrated by Communists 53112 Goals 0 Observe the arguments around avantgarde and kitsch why is it important What are the stakes Why do people feel so strongly about these things 0 Mass culture and high culture 0 Ideas of freedom and nationalism associated with Abstract Expressionism and the color eld painters The impact of NeoDada and pop art on these arguments Stylistic features of abstract expressionism and action painting of Color Field painters and of Pop Art quotModern art is Communistic because it is distorted and ugly because it does not glorify our beautiful country our cheerful and smiling people our material progress Art which does not glorify our beautiful country in plain simple terms that everyone can understand breeds dissatisfaction It is therefore opposed to our government and those who promote it are our enemiesquot Representative George Dondero Michigan c 1955 quotLook through these glasses at everything you buyquot American ag glasses How and hat to tell a COMMUNISTquot artide i ti if f it quot rmti 4 ittwi tinw iiti ns i r r gag uh n w va gagging 7 VI 37 7 pa 9 JasperJohns Flag 19545 0 Encausticmixes pigment with wax hardens very quickly 0 Newprint coming throughcovered canvas with newspaper rst then painted the ag on top Critique of hyperemotionality Critique of abstract expressionism because of encausticcriticize the whole ction of freedom and some kind of spiritual connection with the work 0 Push back of abstract expressionism but also the peak of abstract expressionism in terms of the market Representational in the way that its produced gestural but also impersonal image that are also ags 0 Making use of a clich and very emblematic image into an abstract image etail Robert Rauschenberg Erased de Kooning 1953 0 Interest in destroying that emotional meaning Abstraction and emotional the same 0 Not about emotiveness Want to connect in a different way to the world without that emotionality and individual characteristics of Abstract Expressionism Combines Robert Rauschenberg Bed 1955 Rauschenberg Black Market 1961 0 Combination of a number of things and its asking the viewer to participate Reminds you of Duchamp Opens up not only the art of painting and sculpture but also that relationship between art and viewer Robert Rauschenberg Factuml Rauschenberg Factum II 1957 quotAny incentive to paint is as good as any other There is no poor subjectquot Idea of repicationDuchampian idea 0 Even the drips he does his best to make them happen in an identical way calling into question that whole notion of how genuine is that kind of work 0 Now its become just an academic exercise not working for quotmequot Encaustic painting using wax as the basis for the pigment Johns Target with Four Faces 1955 0 Flat entirely abstract 0 First show sells out all his art except like 2 paintings Gets on the cover of Art News rst cover to feature a living and exceptionally young artist 0 Complete sensation Plaster casts of his face at top Art New January 1958 First cover featuring a living and exceptionally young artist l i m 52392399 JasperJohns Painting with Two Balls 1960 Not being emotionally expressive Duchampian sexual joke Cut slit in canvas and put two balls in Sexual allusion to homosexuality as well Deep irony coo jokes about it distance Abstraction Rather than that anarchic Dada impulse still has that investigative thing into art quotPollock is Old because he was in the tradition of the Romantic Artist the life burned out the garret Wyeth is old because he proffers the Romance of Loneliness Isolation Lichtenstein is New because he puts art on sees terror in humor has no valuesquot Esquire Magazine 1964 quotMr amp Mrs John F Kennedy reaches us because they created a style that succeeded He because he was the pro the operator the man who made his score She because she played the pro s wife with an appreciation of the higher aspects of the situation and because she looked like a movie starquot The Key Couples of the New Sentimentality Demagio the Kennedys Cool detached sexy without value style etc F ii 1 iL I J 394 I 7 yr J r r Roy Lichtenstein Portrait of Ivan Karp 1961 did another portrait that s exactly the same of Allan Kaprow L Andy Warhol Marilyn Diptych 1962 silkscreen Relationships to mass media 0 Our stars Our disasters 0 What is the nature of representation itself o Is it incapable of moving us 0 Maybe that whole dream that high art was the place where we could preserve meaning was a fantasy in itself 0 Was there anything really behind all this spectacle and surface that we call life 0 At the root of what Warhol does we have Marcel Duchamp General ideas that Duchamp posed become more and more representative of our world 0 One of the artists who was smart enough to completely produce himself and how he would be known 0 Responding to the whole notion of angst and emotionality and such 0 How can art escape consumption 0 What does repetition mean Critical of mass media Or critical of art genius Produced right after her suicide 0 What does this do for us What is the terrible loss that is Marilyn 0 These things are fabrications repeats the sign 0 Empty of meaning as a genuine individual 0 Arti ciality of the paint and treatment 0 Nothing especially unique about how Warhol produces the image Subjectobject Subjectivityobjectivity subjectivityobjectification Feminism and Performance Art Goals 0 To identify some of the characteristics of performance art especially in regard to feminism To learn how to discuss formal aspects of performance art 0 To relate performance art to some of the other movements we have discussed in class especially Abstract Expressionism Terms 0 Subjectivity Performance art 0 Feminism Objecti cation Shigeko Kubota Vagina Painting 1965 0 Attached a paintbrush to her underwear and is squatting painting on the oor in red paint 0 Ideas of representation o What does it mean to be the subject What does it mean to be an artist 0 About the event her the painting itself 0 Abstract expressionism sets the stage for performance art Critiquing the hypermasculinity of abstract expressionism o Feminismasking for equality and asking for attention 0 Something that calls to attention the status of women the experiences of women 0 Women in the sixties wanted to call attention to quotwhere have we been in the history of artquot 0 Critiquing abstract expressionism by using their own subjectivities as a demand for attention 0 Seeks to reestablish the position of the woman in history Yoko Ono Cut Piece 1964 photograph from 1965 New York performance 0 One of the rst and premiere female performance artists and got females performing in the sixties 1both participate in this idea of chance 2the audience is implicated in a way that they weren t before they are in control and active in the work of art 3to symbolize the objectivity of women and the audience s tendency to do what is asked of them 4spotight sitting on a stage all light on her she s focal point 0 De nitive line bw audience and performer o SpaceCarnegie hall 0 Idea of the female nude and nudity throughout history 0 Even though she is asking you to look at her it s not the same as a reclining nude like Ingres Different from the kind of nudity that we ve seen before because there s a purpose for it n Nudity is a result of the audience not voluntary a Not seductive repositioning the gaze because she is the subjectnegating any possibility of the male gaze being the one of power performance artephemera etc Marina Abramovic and Ulay lmponderabiia 1977 1900 Fauvismkicks off the quotwild beastquot o Matisse 1907 Cubism analytic Picasso Braque coHage Cubism synthetic African Art Orphism amp public cubism Futurism Italian futurists Wanted to depict movement and things in action Wanted to destroy anything old the now intonomuriweird noises music of the movement Dada Zurich Duchamp readymades Dada Berlin Purism All about purity in terms of forms Could reduce things to their basic formsthat was the tradition from which everything is born including modernism Borrowing from Picasso and cubists Not as fragmentary still kind of transparent Corbusier Prairie Style architecture Form follows functionmodern architectureinternational style Surrealism Dali Battle of the Fishes by Andre Masson Automatism Frottage psychoanalysis Fascist Art Easy and accessible Support the current political regime of the time Like academic painting Opposite of avant garde propaganda AntiFascist Art Reaction against Fascist art 1940505 Abstract Expressionism PoHock De Kooning 0 quotAction paintingquot 0 American 1950605 NeoDada JasperJohns Rauschenberg EncausUc Color eld painters Pop Art Warhol o Lichtenstein Performance art too Silkscreen Commercialismkitsch Mass culture PoHock Abstract expressionism Action painting 0 Around 19505 Controlled chaos One of the rst American style paintings Cultural center of the world moved to America in Abstract expressionism Male dominated 0 Leaving it up to the viewer to interpret it nothing literally represented here 0 Seeing the event of him painting instead of seeing a thing performance art has its seed PicassoMa Jolie Cubism analytical Challenging what people consider is art Pushing the limits of representation Playing with sign systems Two different approaches of abstractionEurope and America Paying with ideas of space and representation trickery of illusion Ava ntGa rde and Kitsch o The only property of art and painting is the idea of ineluctable atness 0 Showing what real true art actually is Soup CansWarhol Questions the ideas of consumerism Puts it in your face 0 Endless repetition wall of soup cans Pop culture and mass media Questioning ideas of high vs low art 0 Being critical of and questioning ownership of art and what makes art art 0 Similar to Duchamp one of the most important gures of art bc turned everything on its head about what makes something a work of art Certain type of repetition in both of the works all over paintings about all overness and difference Villa SavoyeCorbusier 0 International architecture Unify cultures 0 Breaking things down into their pure forms is more accessible then decoration More about volume rather than mass the way buildings carve out space and interact with the air Robe House in ChicagoFrank Lloyd Wright 0 Bring out the way they interact with the environment and space 0 Set and harmonious in their landscape 0 Can t move a Frank Lloyd Wright from the place in which it was constructed in two different architectural movements one in Europe and one in America that are responding to modern architecture about universality and responding to houses in nature and how people interact with architecture two different responses to how a man should live in the 20th century Erased De Kooning by Rauschenberg deconstruction response to abstract expressionism in neodada 0 making a mockery of art and what art really is LH00Q by Duchamp Additive technique vs subtractive technique 0 Both questioning the value of art 0 How a masterpiece is constructed Iconoclastic Making a mockery of a famous work of art Subverting the proclaimed high art of the time and also doing it in opposite ways Progression from Dada to NeoDada Rauschenberg takes junk and lots of it and puts it together The nal exam will be cumulative with an emphasis on the 20th centuryformat side comparison short answers matching ll in the blank essay You should know the images on the website and Gauchospace Identi cation information will be given to you but you still must know something about the images Study suggestions 0 Group your imageschronoogysigni cant events of the period 0 Signi cance of the artworks what would you tell your friends or family if you came across a work in a museum 0 Which readings Practice exam skills use Gauchospace study questions and comparisons Pace yourself 0 First impulse on objective portions are usually the right ones The nal will start at 9 AM on Thursday june 14th Please note that this is one hour later than our usual time Symbols presented as though they were neutral but they have so much meaning behind them in actuality McCarthyism and the Red Scare has much to do with this ag in a gallery People buy art and invest in art just the way they buy and invest in anything else 0 The commodity culture that we live in 0 Now art is just like everything else 0 Very idea that expressiveness is almost impossible in a commodity culture where s the meaning 0 What about us as the audience 0 What do our stars and sensations mean start to critique the original something about authenticity that we value we value it because we live in a culture of mass production does the meaning get sucked out of them What is the depth of a silkscreen e a agt 39i rr quot I i wti f I 39 E39H39 3 u n H IIquot i39quot a 3 a I l W39 t f m wijirl aw aaw we we amm J Ite e age t Jweaaaaeeaam g sagsaei e g39 a ag I a t taeaa e a t LLe fi 7quot V i 39 g pb i i I l l l39 739 II 39u39 u39 I u i I I I ll 1 I F L r l nrfq m Lichtenstein Crying Girl 1962 l Lichtenstein Sponge II 1962 Benday Dotsprinting process using three colors to produce one overall color uses screens to produce different sets of dots n F 34 Ev I Emu IF 7 r 71 5 EH 3 J git g 1 i K 5 23 F5E3rmgiL 39 E i f l 7 1 H 1 J 7 j 7 13 35 6 ng 51 it F D H El Ell I 39 E rii39 3 Erin quot Jl39i fjligli F Th3 kr L39 Ln 1f39l gi39al Sign 39 I 7 7 7 TF7 7 i Iii Warhol 200 Campbell s Soup Cans 1962 Warhol Atomic Bomb 1965 quotThe Factoryquot quotFactory is as good a name as any A factory is where you build things This is where I make or build my work In my art work hand painting would take much too long and anyway that s not the age we live in Mechanical means are today and using them I can get more art to more people Art should be for everyonequot Andy Warhol Jrlj 7 r Ir L IL L 7 L r 7 j Admiral Blandy amp Mrs Blandy cut the celebratory cake PostBikini Warhol Orange Car Crash Five Deaths Eleven times in Orange 1963 L I l u Li L Warhol Do It Yourself 1962 Claes Oldenburg The Store 1961 Elana Elliinihiurgg Ilpaiallsni ann lngf an millai 39Iirmks i39Eli EviFIi Hairs ue Emmigal Tali Claes Oldenburg Lipstick Ascending 0n Caterpillar Tracks 1969 0 Vietnam Happenings and Environments quotYoung artists of today need no longer say 39I am a painter or 39a poet or a dancer They are simply 39artists All of life will be open to them They will discover out of ordinary things the meaning of ordinariness They will not try to make them extraordinary but will only state their real meaning But out of nothing they will devise the extraordinary and then maybe nothingness as well People will be delighted or horri ed critics will be confused or amused but these I am certain will be the alchemies of the 19605quot Kaprow Ka prow Household 1964 Yves Kein Anthropometries of the Blue Period Live Painting Living Sculpture 1961 Objecti cation Turned into objects like paint brushes modernism has a way of taking artistic traditions and making us aware of the conventions that have been used Carolee Schneeman Eye Body 1963 74 I3 Carolee schneeman Interior Scroll 1975 quotFor years my most audacious works were viewed as if someone else inhabiting me had created them they were considered masculine when seen as aggressive bold As if I were inhabited by a stray male principle which would be an interesting possibility except in the early 19605 this notion was used to blot out denigrate de ect the coherence necessity and personal integrity of what I made and how it was madequot Carolee Schneeman 6712 s the work of art going to inspire us Tell us something Be outside and separate an alternative to our humdrum consumer culture 0 Or is art world turning into something completely different 0 To speak to the problems that this world poses for us 0 What gets taken for granted What kind of expectations do we have Carolee Schneeman Meat0y 1964 Marina Abramovic Ehythm 0 1972 9 1 J J si Issue of subjectivity Others awareness of you as a living person Your own awareness of yourself Objecti cation We j a g Vitto Acconci Folowing Piece 196970 0 During the Vietnam war when being followed or shadowed was a concern of the time Proximity Piece 0 Standing near a person and intruding on hisher personal space During the exhibition sometime each day l wander through the museum amp pick out at random a visitor to one of the exhibits I m standing beside that person or behind closer than the accustomed distance l crowd the person until she moves away or until she moves me away 0 attached to the wall in the midst of the other exhibits a 3x5quot index card sits explaining the procedureexperiment quotThe person to my leftl m doing this with you now m tuching your hair m running my hand down your backl m touching your assquot quotI m doing this with you I m doing this for you I m doing this to youquot Vitto Acconci Seedbed 1970 Masterbating under the gallery 0 Relationship that is unseenimaginary Relationships between people desire replication of power critical focus on structures of art making politicization during the Vietnam war why would modernism even start to be questioned and attacked Because it speaks to be international worldly Artists who follow from abstract expressionism are actually not so sure that we can speak in universal terms bc country is divided at the time quotI am a Manquot demonstration Memphis TN anked by National Guardsmen and tanks March 1968 Boycott of Miss America Pageant 1968 Women s Liberation parade rights to selfdetermination 1970 Martin Luther King assassinated 4 April 1968 Robert Kennedy assassinated Los Angeles CA June 1968 Riots after king assassination Washington DC and Chicago Kent State Ohio four students killed one paralyzed May 1970 March 1970 lsla Vista CA IV Kevin Moran student killed by stray bullet while trying to put out re Bank of Americathe only bank every burned in America in IV Embarcadero Hall 2012 Cheadle and Ellison Hall protests against dismissal of Prof Bill Allen On the night of Feb 25 1970 a large crowd gathered to watch the lsla Vista branch of the Bank of America burning Dan Graham Homes for America 1966 Final layout in Arts 1966 Took photographs of housing projects and went through all the names of things that you could call it modular houses in Florida etc Thinking much more about the environment and how it shapes our world and how they might be dehumanizing us Sameness of everything is emphasized 7 7 H iiii l 7 Martha Rosler Red Stripe Kitchen from Bringing the War Home u Martha Rosler House Beautiful from Bringing the War Home 196772 39 5 Elm Vi r A ngl 39 Cleaning the Drapes PI 11 a WIL Henry Darnell III C 1810 Fred Wilson Mining the Museum 1994 o Called attention to the bad things in the painting black boy s metal collar Fred Wilson Metalwork Mining the Museum 1994 Professor Monahan httpwwwarthistoryucsbeduarth6c Impressionism movement linear progression the dark side to modernism 0 Hyacinth Riguad Louis XIV 1701 19 1 Andy Warhol Double Elvis 1963 Most important and powerful French leader king Most important icon cultural power gun silkscreened image also the king of rock and roll Everybody knows of them but actually don t know them in person 0 William Bouguereau Nymphs and Satyr 1873 0 Edouard Manet Olympia 1863 Olympia more modern because they are Nymphs not actual women the man in the middle the dream a licked surface smooth Olympia could be any women direct gaze acknowledge the view hand place in an convent place black slave holds bouquet of flowers she has a patron boyfriend wealth man no fantasy lets you see the surface and keeps you from entering lets you know it s only a painting 0 Jan van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece open 142832 You belong to somebody power starts to shift everyone in their place In a modern world our places shift and we are no longer in the same place Modern world comes threw the enlightenment reason science belief no longer fantasy 0 AnnLouis Girodet JeanBeptiste Belley 1797 Work to abolish slavery the colonies wanted the men to have full citizenship example of hope and belief pictures that speak to the new world making a picture that means something 0 JeanSimeon Chardin The Governess 1739 Private life interior Edgar Degas At the Caf Concert Les Ambassadeurs c 1876 1 Having fun leisure actives Wm Monet Train in the Countryside 187071 Countryside goes from feared to a place of leisure naturalize the countryside the people look as if they belong End of 19th and in the 20th century begin to doubt this optimism 0 Claude 0 Georges Seurat Sundcy Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte 18846 Stiffness no atmosphere lock movement in vacation the start of something dark 6 by 10 feet 0 Paul Cezanne Still Life with Basket of Apples 189094 The table is off no straight lines the bottle is not correctly shaped the bowl is not round way to many apples in there the fabric doesn t drop trusting what you see mandarnity unstable life 0 Pablo Picasso Ma Jolie 191112 1 2 Inability to show the problem that isn t seen in real life a picture that challenges us modern painting challenges us gives us questions His girlfriend dark and scary it could be anything 0 Francios Boucher Marquise de Pompadour 1758 She is identifiable rich well dressed at her dressing table intimate space Modernism elevator like everyone looks at the numbers not looking at someone on the bus alienation TA Moira West Email moriaw00umailucsbedu Final June 13th 123 Today Transformation into the modern world look at the ways in which aristocracy changed with time There is the development of public and private spheres It spreads into the upper classes bourgeoisie middle class There is a radical shift in the world view we start looking at the complexities of the world and we see that they are endless There is also a shift into individuality pursuit of happiness The more happy individuals you have the better the society will be This is still a belief we hold today The languages of representation convey a great ideal If the world is based on all that is visible because it is visual we know it exists What kinds of audiences and images are caught up in an image These are questions that are essentially modern Questioning reasoning experimenting describe a world that is not determined or preordained 0 Hyacinth Rigaud Louis XIV 1701 Known as the sun king the center of the universe It refers a godlike power He reigned for 73 years For 54 of those years The emblems of his power are visible in the image his sword his crown and a staff which depicts authority His robes spread out He is standing there in perfect confidence When someone looks out at someone you demand a specific type of power He is an extremely powerful type of ruler The columns in the background lead up to the sky He wields the power because he is the state His life is very public his power is seen 247 by the public Made everyone come out to the palace of Versailles Every one was forced to leave France He was consistently watched 0 Rigaud Louis XV 1730 lm He places his hand on the crown in the image He also holds the scpetor really tightly to convey his power to the audience He is looking off into the distance very distracted He died before his father He lives the life of a noble This is the total opposite of his father 0 John Singleton Copley Samuel Adams 177072 There is nothing in the background All we see is Samuel and his papers He is pointing to his papers quite confidentially He is representing virtue enlightenment virtue reason nature and God What makes this moment distinctive is that there is a belief that destiny can be shaped and change that institutions can be reformed and perfected If you are diligent enough you can change things 0 J eanAntoine Watteau Gersaint s Signboard c 1721 This is an image of leisure activity shopping This was an out beyond the presence of the king it was a pleasure from looking and owning beautiful things There is a man who is putting a portrait of Loui XIV into a crate momento mori reminder of the deceased There is also a clock that shows the passage of time the past There is a man who is looking very closely at a picture with naked women on it revealing a sexual connotation Rococo is a genre of painting that contains nymphs and beautiful women and such 0 Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin Mansart Palace of Versailles 166885 This is a huge palace 20 miles of corridors and rooms Everything is standing as a sign of the king s absolute power Everything has his mark on it the gardens the trees the doorknobs etc i 1 gt 1 Symbolism is everywhere telling you the power of the monarch 0 Charles Le Burn and Mansart Hall of Mirrors Versailles 1678 These two designed the hall of mirrors Mirrors were the most expensive thing to make during this time period You have a lot of signs of opulence and the wealth of the king The gold things were very baroque 0 Germaine Boffrand Salon de Princesse Hotel Soubise started 1732 Dainty figures light hearted mood staged through mirrors and such This is all versus the French baroque the style of the sun king The rococo derives their styles from shells curves and such In the registers up above in this image are putti little angels they are hitting each other and having fun You ve got these new kinds of images charged with a new kind of eroticism You have a type of visual confusion within an intimate space 0 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Marriage of the Emperor Frederick and Beatrice of Burgundy 175152 There is a kind of intimacy that the putti are doing They are pulling back the curtains as if it were a type of stage It encourages a sense of intimacy as you come in and watch this ceremony There is a small crowd the man is looking out at us 0 Johann Balthasar Neumann collaborating with German Boffrand Kaisersaal Imperial Hall Wurzburg Germany 171944 Trompe L oiel effect there is a man that looks as if he were sitting on the ledge in the upper register This was a focus on wealthy courts 0 J eanAntoine Watteau Departure for Cythera 1712 77v 7 r There is a woman sitting down and a man is helping her get up 39 quot quot 1 There are interesting intrigue things the figures are talking to each other These pictures reveal a sort of magical world going off to a fantasy place There are many pastel colors pinks and light greens When an aristocratic looks at this image they laugh it serves a fete galantes Fete galantes representations of modern pleasures The royal academy who paints for the king has invented this category to paint these types of images It is set in nature and designed to depict a space that is free and not restricted 0 Pieter Paul Rubens Garden of Love 1632 r nmrHa a The figures are very delicate and precious The figures are pushed quot 39 forward and very intimate with its audience 0 Watteau Fetes Venitiennes c 1718 quot The figures are staged The lighting is very dramatic and they use extravagant uses of light and dark chiaroscuro Her dress is highly contrasted with that of the surrounding figures as well as of the ground Sets the mood of the era 0 Francois Boucher Diana Resting after her Bath 1742 r The Roman goddess of the hunt and her attendant assume complicated poses that appear natural and graceful due to Boucher s masterful orchestration of body parts into a satisfying structure of vertical horizontal and crossing diagonal masses Subordinates details relating to the hunt the dogs and quiver at the left and the bow and dead game at the right provide a narrative context for the central subject and demonstrate Boucher s skill as a painter of animals Stockstad p 904 Very verbose 0 Fragonard The Meeting 177171 Very irtatious and shows the light heartedness of the situation This woman is cheating on her husband yet she seems to be very precautious of her awareness of the garden and if someone were to walk up 0 Francois Boucher The Swing 1768 It was commissioned by an aristocrat who has a relationship with a 14 year old mistress of a bishop He decided he wants a painting of her on a swing He shoe is thrown off indicating a very sexual connotation The aristocrats can see up her dress 0 MLE Vig e Lebrun Portrait of Marie Antoinette and Her Children 1787 0 AU Wertmuller Marie Antoinette and Her Children 1785 0 J acquesLouis David Study drawing for the Horatii The Elder Horace Defending his Son c 1782 0 J acquesLouis David Study drawing pen and ink for Oath of the Tennis Court c 1791 French Revolution amp Beyond 0 Some useful dates gt In France 0 1789 French Revolution 0 17991815 Reign of Napoleon as Emperor 0 18181848 the Royal Restoration gt In the US 0 1776 American Revolution with financing from France 0 1787 September US Constitution 0 178991 Bill of Rights Romanticism The idea of subjects that overwhelm the Viewer 0 J acquesLouis David The Oath of the Horatii 1785 The idea of the state taking presence over the individual There is a hardness of this image Neoclassicism is presented through this image This image is very dramatic and very terse white telling a complicated p W story i The image idealizes a family v state situation You have this style which was described by critics as a type of neoclassicism that is completely awkward Here the gestures seem awkward Some people in politics said it was not only awkward but also blunt the critics see this as a new language beyond the Rococo era everything is really paired down there is no flowing movement like found in the Rococo movement The bluntness and awkwardness sets you apart from the monarchy This image articulates something about the social situation but the language that it uses is appropriated by those revolutionaries who take that as a point of pride awkwardness and bluntness so that when you hear the speeches from those men they would speak in a very awkward way it was more direct to the point clearer and a language that anyone can understand During the time this image was created stuff was brewing French Revolution was 1789 0 Anonymous Fall of the Bastille 14 July 1789 F p 39 It was destroyed by the French 0 To Versailles To Versailles 1789 39 39 39 quot An image of the women who are out to protest the price of bread All these women are seen with picks and weapons they are marching to Versailles They have a canon nonetheless they carry this power enough power to force the king to come back to his palace in Paris The Louvre 0 Awakening of the Third Estate 1789 0 Caricature Louis XVI with Phyrgian cap 1789 i W N Seen with a very embarrassing hat that basically meant that he would soon get his head chopped off for not wanting to come back to Paris Earrings were made that had the guillotine chopping off the head of the king l 7 0 James Gillray Petit Souper a la Pardisinne or a Family of San Culottes Refreshing after the fatigues of the dry 20 Sept 1792 England s view of the revolution of France was very bad Here were see a l 39I it 39l quot family eating other family members This was an image that spoke out because of the brutality that France was putting them through Background info they moved the kingdom to Versailles then the constitution was created then people began to sneak out and go back to the Louvre then trials were being held for the actions that these people were doing against the state then lastly the king was condemned The state is the king What happens when you kill the king You are in essence killing the king 0 The New French Star 1793 We see pedestals with kingsmonarchs on them We see a guy snuffing out the ames that are by the kingsmonarchs In place of that monarchy we have a new kind of democracy equality etc 0 King s Execution January 20 1793 The king s head is held up there are many images like this one May our fields run with an impure blood After the king was killed the people were dancing and very happy dancing and celebrating his death Democracy was formed from then on 0 J L David Death of Marat 1793 The state needs to build martyrs to its cause Marat was a journalist he ran a paper called the Friend of the People He was very extreme get rid of aristocrats get rid of etc He had a skin condition which meant he had to stay in a bath for most of the day This image shows him in his bath a woman comes to see him Charlotte Corday Charlotte then gives Marat a note that says how poor off she is then he lets her in She then stabs him in the heart with her dagger This image was a apart of a diptych There is nothing in the background Marat is seen falling over with his pen still in his hand the blade is on the floor and the note is on the floor from Charlotte We also see money about to fall of a podium right by his dead body this is an indication for the precariousness of the revolution there is a lot of trouble financially The artist really picks the exact moment to depict the mood of the idea There is an extreme emphasis on the body Neoclassicism Robes Pierre known as the incorruptible he wasn t interested in anything fun He only cared about business and facts There is a lot of suspicion that was created in the revolution He was arguing against the state That s treason off with his head 0 Robes Pierre Festival for the Cult of the Supreme Being designed and coordinated by Dcwid 1794 David was very involved in the actual politics The image is of a mountain with a supreme being above to the left side Incinerates an image that represents atheism 0 Robes Pierre The Terror September Dcys 1794 Lots of people died and started going crazy This was during the French Revolution The message is antirevolutionary movement Small kids are seen playing with heads people outside of France saw the French as being barbaric Robes Pierre was eventually executed in November all of the radical people executed him David was only put into prison 0 AnneLouis GirodetTrioson Portrait of JeanBaptiste Belley 1797 Good things actually did come from the revolution quot This man Jean Belley worked very hard to abolish slavery he is seen here leaning on a statue of Raynal Raynal was a philosopher who condemned slavery His importance is emphasized by the size of his bust compared to Jean Belley s bust People believe that they are doing the right thing working for the state Background Info King is dragged back to Paris The third estate starts it s own constitution The king is beheaded in 1790 After that the revolution starts to turn on itself The Terror After the terror the people couldn t take it anymore so they establish the consul Consul Napoleon and two other men 0 Baron A J Gros Bonaparte at Arcola 1796 Doesn t represent neoclassicism He represents Napoleon in a movement He looks very dashing and posed at this very crucial battle of Arcola was happening while the revolution was taking place in France The artist wants to portray him as an idol and as a hero 0 J L David Napoleon Crossing the Saint Bernard Pass 1801 L W Here we see a lot of motion there is a sort of real heart edges clarity about 39 this image l He leads 29000 French troops and defeats 80000 Australian troops l David sticks to the convention of having him look out into the viewer s sight It uses artistic license He shows him as a leader onward He is depicted as the hero and the conqueror of antiquity by putting him on rocks 0 Baron AntoineJean Gros Napoleon Visiting the Pesthouse at Jaffa 11 March 1799 In 1804 this painting was made to commemorate this moment presented in the image which takes place 11 March 1799 He goes to the Pesthouse he is touching the sores of a injured man He is acting like Jesus He wants to greet all of the troops There is a blind guy who is trying to come closer to Napoleon There is very dramatic lighting its style is disgusting and repulsive The style is shifting out of the strict neoclassicism Neoclassicism at this point is seen as the norm Romanticism is seen as a break from Neoclassic Romanticism artistic freedom inspired by the political ideals of the revolution casting off the rules 0 Theodore Gericault Raft of the Medusa 181819 T j This image is enormous it is the size of a history painting It is not mythological painting it is a history painting It is talking about a recent event in this case the wreck of the Medusa which was a ship Louis XVIII appoints a guy to the navy who doesn t know much about sailing or ships They then strike rocks and the ship sinks rapidly there weren t enough life savers so people were all for themselves Some of the men from the ship fashioned a raft to keep from sinking People started to die and fall off They were stranded for 3 days romanticism likes the emotional effect so then the men start to eat each other So you have tragic figures that are mostly naked There is very dramatic lighting The men are fashioning a raft that is way off in the distance One guy in the image survived and wrote a diary The men on the raft started to eat each other cannibalism This instills thrill within the viewer and the viewer obtains a sense of horror while looking at the image The artist was enchanted by the Restoration who includes Louis VXIII and Charles X The lesson don t put aristocrats in charge of your ships and the other lesson is when you have a bunch of people hanging on to live they become insane and start to eat each other There is a black man on the top of the pyramid created in the image This is one of the first images that talks about a contemporary moment Romanticism is a critique of the norms This image tells us about horror instead of some uplifting type of story This is an example of a romantic painting This is not a neoclassical painting because there is no symmetry there is a sense of movement it is not posed it is not a mythological scene the colors more so dull and there are lose brush strokes light is the defining element not lines which allows the viewer to see the bodies of the sailors The bodies are contorted there are many elements in the image that suggest blood but are not directly blood there s an ax with a red tinge and cloth with red colors Color Key Both Prompts 2 In the 20thcentury a number of artists and artistic movements broadened the de nition of what constitutes a work of art through their emphasis on the body the audience the venue the kinds of materials used to make a work and the process of making a work of art Choosing at least three of these categories discuss how these shifts were registered by an artist or movement through at least three speci c examples Your answer should draw on at least three different movements 3 Many artists have used their work to engage social critiques andor political change throughout the course employing different techniques and approaches in order to do this effectively Drawing on three different movements each representing a different technique discuss through at least three specific examples how these meanings were conveyed through subject matter and stylistic approach One example must be abstract Note you may use only one example from the 19th century 18001900 When people watch a movie listen to music read literature or appreciate a work of art sometimes the meaning of the work may not be completely understood A work of art could be a beautiful painting for some people On the other hand it may hold little appeal for others Since art and culture have a close relationship it is essential to understand the societal and political background of work of art Art re ects the period when they were made In a sense all works of art perform a social function since they are created for an audience w a a w E a 2 Q E The Mexican mural movement 1933 341 345 During the beginning of the 20th century Mexico went through a political and social revolution so the government began to commission a number of artists to paint huge murals in celebration of its achievements The muralist movement would not only have a great effect on CD gt4 H O O Oquot E H Er D H D U3 H 0 H1 Er CD 2 O E 9 S33 U3 2 D F w Q Q N E a 2 Ch 5 The Legacy of Jackson Pollock by Allan Kaprow 387392 The New American Painting by Jackson Pollock 347352 Jackson Pollock was an in uential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement Although there has been controversy in the past about Pollock s work his original modern and free artworks are merely making a statement as Pollock leaves his comfortable world of conformity to make an effort to create an outside of the box that tests the boundaries of what art is and could be The technique of the paint applique called drip painting allows Pollock to apply paint from all angles and sides of the canvas which allows him to eXplore the dimensions of the painting I continue to get further away from the usual painter s tools such as easel palette brushes etc I prefer sticks trowels knives and dripping fluid paint or a heavy impasto with sand broken glass and other foreign matter added In Full Fathom Five or Number 31 for example Pollock exploring this new way of applying paint and type of paints onto the canvas it emphasizes the freedom and originality in this artwork Pollock s work shows when making an artwork that there are no boundaries and that there are always new techniques to be found This original painting style that Pollock used is what he is famous for now it is his legacy in modern art In this painting Pollock uses enamel paints instead of acrylic paints because when Pollock moved from easel painting to dripping or pouring paint onto a canvas he was able to get long continuous lines which is impossible to get by applying paint to a canvas with a brush Pollock used industrial paint with a uid viscosity because it allowed him to get smooth and continuous lines Pollock was in uenced by the method of walking around the artwork from the four sides and literally being in the painting is akin to the method of Indian sand painters of the West Book Articles The Philosophy of Andy Warhol by Andy Warhol 3 733 79 Andy Warhol s pop art known for silkscreens of both famous people and everyday objects Pop Art is a 20th century art movement that utilized the imagery and techniques of consumerism and popular culture in uenced by mass media In CocaCola Bottles Andy Warhol selected an icon of mass produced consumer culture of the time the Coca Cola bottle The familiar curved Coke bottle was part of the sexual visual imagery American consumers encountered frequently These types of paintings were generally repetitive which was an intentional choice on Warhol39s part he wanted to give the feeling of constant desensitizing advertising Andy Warhol s has commented about his Coca cola Bottles What s great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest You can be watching TV and see CocaCola and you can know that the President drinks Coke Liz Taylor drinks Coke and just think you can drink Coke too A Coke is a Coke and no amount of money can get you a better Coke His works were primarily aimed at getting the viewer to look at something for longer than they otherwise would in addition to blurring the differences between what was considered high art and low art Through his works Warhol attempted to re ect on the consumerist nature of society Celebrities and fame to Warhol were considered the height of modern consumerism What qualifies as an artwork What different meanings roles and eXpectations have been given to art The artists that attempted to tackle such pressing questions were involved in the Mexican muralist movement Abstract Expressionism American pop art Artists such as Diego Rivera Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol enjoyed making paintings that leave the Art History 6C TA Section week 3 04302012 Realism and Photography 0 Section goals 0 De ne Realism 0 Establish the differences between Realism stylemovement and images that are depicted naturalistically 0 Continue practicing formal analysis and developing an argument van 2i u 397 l l quotJ 39 r 39 Courbet Burial at Ornans 184950 Courbet is trying to question arti cial and academic painting of the 19th century 0 Questioning structures of power scenes of his family scenes of the countryside o Saying this is what s important to every day ifemoderngenre painting 0 Time of a lot of political and social unrestCourbet paints scenes of the countryside and so on 0 Not painting for the aristocrats and classically trained upper class people of the Salon 0 Might like this difference bc it s kind of like an escape Courbet turns it around and paints people workingnew genre of painting for the middle class 0 Realist painter bc scenes of every day life that are real but with arti cial components calls attention to the arti ciality of Salon painting 7 7 L5 9 439 n Marilyn Minter Stepping Up 2005 0 Medium of Photography 0 Accurate depiction of real life Photographers have different tools and opinions that are re ected in the photo Can posestage things as they wish just like a painter Baudelaire thinks that photographers are washed up artists who couldn t make it and that photography will eventually corrupt art and ruin the industry all together Photography as well as painting can give certain ideas to the viewer and portray things in certain ways 7 l 39l39 1 39j ir 1 r39 e O O 39 on 5292 This idea of barbarism vs human bonds of civilization Large painting in some sense contemporary history painting Doesn t depict particular moment shows bunch of people in after math even though not so good stuff still going on When Turks attacked the Greeks Emotional and human people are defeateddead and dying No sense of hope freeze of gures Massacre of paintingno heroes only color seduced by color and exoticism at same time as seeing utter hopelessness of their situation Uses red where shadow is usually rendered highlighted shadows in red Romantic brushstrokes looser Idea of knowledge order and equality are not here things are chaotic and violent and unresolved injustices that can t be righted Francisco Goya Family of Carlos IV 1800 Commissioned to do this portrait and then appointed as court painter Very weird portrait NoideaHzann Some gures are hidden and some are looking away some look scared some look angry some just scary Decorations and adornmentsa little much Velasquez Las Meninas 1656Velasquez is in the painting quotAGoya is in the background of the painting canvas just as Velasquez had possibly looking in a mirror bc looking wrong direction bc Goya is in the portrait Recognizing them rather than ennobling them Attack on the hierarchy of genre Francisco Goya r r39 l V 33317 I I The Third ofMay 1808 181415 Kind of historical event large painting but kind of contemporary history painting odd kind of history painting Heroes Heroicism but no heroes martyrs but nothing divine and no deliverance 5 thousand civilians lined up and executed bc revolt the martyrs have faces the French assassinators do not uniform not personalized like a wall lamp is lighting the way in the night as they murder the people not quite the enlightenment theme of light as was used to paint is layed onto canvas almost as brutally as the painting itself subject barbarianism vs humanity no hope of redemption dis gured quotquottied into the way that he lays the paint on Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading the People 1831 i 1 E 1 117 A n JMW Turner Rain Steam Speed before 1844 0 Dynamic sublime crazy abstracted spaces that you can t actually read Tried to account for the experiences of awe that made you fear for your life terror obscurity power vastness natural scenes 0 What s the relationship between us and the forces beyond our control 0 Heroic and epic subject matter 0 Almost an attack on the conventions of landscape painting 0 More attention to what is changing than the solid rock on which the train is moving gal2 in 39L n JMW Turner Slave Ship Sla vers Throwing Overboard the Dead amp Dying 7yphoon Coming 1842 Elemental experience of nature 0 Sunset storm coming dead in the water with giant sh and sharks swarming o terror obscurity power privation vastness in nityall qualities associated with the sublime thn Constl h Hy ain 1821 Landscape painting Subject matter and the way that a genre is being treated while deeply involved with nature quotsix footersquot lmakes his landscape paintings huge like history paintings exhibited this at the Louvre became so much a focus of attention that they actually had to relocate it so it was given a better position of honor so everybody could see it father was a shipper and also 4th biggest land owner nature has already been shifted river indicates something about commerce that the viewer would understand subjectthe hay wagon intricacy and varietyshape the disposition of boundaries are what characterize the picturesque and distinguish it from the sublime viewing nature in o Contrasted with the sublime o Gives sense of nature with beautiful details and makes these things large on the canvas 0 Intimacy and beauty of nature and landscape o The beautiful is idealized goes back to perfection and balance antiquity Honore Daumier Combat Between the Schools Ideaism and Reaism Lithograph 1855 K quot aquot 7 i 1r L Jquot EB Courbet After Dinner at Ornans 1848 9 Changing reality that he is depicting doesn t look political Uprising in Paris in 1848 after it was crushed restoration of a monarch Suddenly the countryside becomes a point of focus because it is an escape from Paris people are nice not rude idealized vision Unclear what is going to happen in the countryside politically align with democrats who started uprising in Paris Nature is no longer a source of well being eternal truth and comfortable starvation in countryside farmers subdividingetc His vision of society is the difference of the rich and poor sharpens this instead of downplaying it by showing the scene in the countryside No details no moral preoccupation kind of odd Large size like history painting 0 Guy not facing toward the viewer is smack in the middle cant really see around him painting of a genre scene is usually open so you can see everything 0 Painting becomes metaphor for that anxiety Courbet takes real circumstances of the world and makes paintings of them puts tensions into the paintings that makes them seem a little less real 0 Not dramatic genre scene messing w genre bc painting picture a lot bigger than usual genre scenesetc i I a i JL E Meissonier The Barrca e rue de la M0 I39i rtelierjune 1848 1849 Roots of Realism Revolution of 1848 Paris June days 1 overthrow of government 2 establish 10 hour work days nationalized railways national workshops for those who were unemployed 3 June days guns soldiers enter ParisEmperor Napoleon lll takes overSecond Empire established 4 uprisings stop in 1849 but tremendous uncertainty 18501 Courbet 3 major paintings 1 The Stonebreakers 1849 o 2 Burial at Ornans 1849 3 Peasants of Flagey Returning from the Fair 185055 0 quotTo know in order to be able to create that was my idea To be in a position to translate the customs the ideas the appearance of my epoch according to my own estimation to be not only a painter but a man as well in short to create living artthis is my goalquot Courbet quotThe Realist Manifestoquot CR 149 41912 Today Consider the question of quotthe realquot what is it how do we know it what does it mean Reaism Juste milieu literally the middle way Academy and academic painting losing their force the photograph quotrealquot or Rene Magritte The Treachery of Images 1929 this is not a pipe in the Los Angeles Museum of Art 0 What constitutes the real Its not as clear cut as we would assume Courbet s vision of society exacerbates class differences painting of After Dinner at Ornans Got medal from the state for the painting good thingdidn t have to show his work to a jury before he entered it in the Salon Nature peasants paintingsconstructions in our minds that contain certain meaning 7 1 1n J Gustave Courbet Stonebreakers 1849 Destroyed in Dresden WWII o Politically charged even though nothing in the painting would tell you that Stonebreakersowest job on the totem pole their job sucks 0 Created quite a stir when it was shown 0 Not showing the peasants faces impersonal although personalized One of the men looks young and the other looks old quotin this occupation you begin like one and end like the otherquotno upward movement or anything Attracted to the most complete expression of wretchedness ls showing the hopelessness of many peasants lives ash point 0 Not a lot of reassuring sentimentality emotion or connection bw individuals or indiv and uspeople get very nervous 5x8 lnot your typical genre painting 0 compositioneverything is pretty much in the foreground almost no room in the painting points out how limited the sky is JeanFrancois Millet The Sower 1850 0 Subject matter is similar to Courbet Face is hidden Palette color similar in drabness Not quite as harsh as Courbet s but still bringing attention in rough terms of what the peasants do critics said in contrast of Courbet that there is beauty poetry and art in Millet s painting he is softer and more artistic truer love of country life and country people lmore loving sympathetic image Millet The Gleaners 1857 0 Put the painting in a space that gives us lots of room Peasants sheep and then three women in the foreground o Nicely framed reassuring repetition Red white and blueFrench ag colors 0 Doing backbreaking work but looks beautiful and happier Conforms to the idea of a happier peasant 3 EL U 39 E at V 7 7 2 r VEI a quotEE 5 Gustave Courbet Peasants ofFagey Returning from the Fair 185055 Seen as very stiff and unnatural Not clear that they sold anything Association w popular printspeasants bought and collected those and told stories woodblock prints 0 Crude working style as opposed to hierarchy and academic tradition o Stylistic problem Awkward peasants not integrated as a whole Not a good t with the landscape Urban population of Paris doesn t want to see this kind of thing 0 Not doing what peasants are supposed to do 0 Don t seem happy somber and dark 0 Don t look like they ve sold a lot Still produces the kind of reaction of unhappiness and darkness even though it was shown in 1855 Figures expressions are completely unreasonable can t really tell what they re feeling realism argues that the noble and the beautiful is unreasonable want to erase that boundary bw beautiful and ugly beautiful is ideaHzed 8 yds in length shows Courbet s uncle s funeral Given the conditions in the countryside and the political volatility in France this picture is a political timebomb o The way they re depicted the style and the formal elements etc 0 Was disturbing to it s Paris audience History painting size but genreeveryday lifemodern scene Doesn t teach lesson Depth of feel portrayed space being delineated Stacked the people up on top of each other used before the Renaissance All the people are portraits all identi ableljsupposed to be generic bc genre scene not supposed to be speci c time w speci c people No smooth color transitions Church beadles in red The man kneeling seems to be the only person interested in the funeral Everyone is crammed up to the foreground no happy distance Becomes metaphor for disobedience and nonconformity Emphasizes economic differences Disobeys countryside ideals no deference obedience None of the people are paying attention A lot of ambiguity in the spacepart of why this is a disturbing picture political timebomb Bealism Rejects the notion of quothigher realityquot in art Rejects the old traditions of art with its mythic and often fantastic subject matter 0 Focus on things of one s own time things one can see experiences and sights of everyday life 0 Usually depicts peasant life life in the countryside Not just about subject matter 0 Painting as a pictorial construction 0 Paint application and composition call attention to themselves Beginnings of real effort to point up tension between the process of representation and the subject matter Idea is not to produce a naturalistic lifelike painting but to call attention to the world the here and now Gustave Courbet Young Women from the Village 1852 0 weird landscape Courbet s sisters recognize from funeral bourgeois woman giving money to the little girl other two looking on skeptical or approving ambiguous 0 Not putting on appearance that they re meant to o The perspectivedimensions are out of wack Almost too deliberate to be an accident or bad painting 0 Not clear brushstrokes globs of paint dot of white in skycoud o No illusionism in the picture 0 Can recognize things but couldn t step into painting and walk around Chooses to compress the space and put the gures closer Bertall caricature of Courbet39s Ladies ofthe Village lithograph appearing in lejourna pour rire 16 April 1852 JeanLeon Gerome The Slave Market early 18605 C 1838 Terms 0 Flaneur Modernity Spectacle Section goals 0 Identify the characteristics and issues of modernity in the late 19th century Paris 0 Consider the role of class and gender and the role of the aneur Discuss how the theme of leisure relates to modernity in Impressionist painting l J Edouard Manet Berthe Morisot with a Fan 1872 1 ai Edouard Manet CafeConcert 1878 Fleeting moment hastiness can see the paint on the canvas 0 Don t have time to blend all the paint get it down exactly how it is o If removed the man from the picture would you understand it was a face 0 Middle class or higher sitting at a caf 0 Not very personal not engaging with each other do not know each other 0 The idea of not knowing your neighborsmodernity o The man aneur observing everything but not interacting with it no emotions stands back from everything and just observes attention isn t caught by any speci c thingtherefore knows everything that s going on 0 Very cultural speci c character Stylish educated intellectual has the time to walk around Paris and observe at a level of remove 0 Woman in the backmaybe worker there 0 Drinking on the job 0 Lower class because standing and dress isn t very stylish or fancy 0 Woman in the frontnot kosher for single women to sit alone at a bar 0 We can infer that she s a lower class woman hanging out 0 Dress isn t very fancy or colorful either 0 Woman in the far backperforming re ected image of a ballet dancer Places her in front of the people we re looking at Weird that the performer is not the central image turned the idea of performance aroundfocusing on the audience the people observing the performer because this scene is a quotspectacle of modernityquot in itself Spectacle of modernitywe are all actors in our own ways of life its okay to make every day life a scene and of importance 0 Point of the picture Noisn t really a point 0 New type of painting new genre of painting 0 Genre of modernity gtlltgtlltgtllt Modernizationthe shift from past to modern times the technical advancements and industrial advancements industry and technology Modernitythe process of becoming modernized and also the effects of modernization upon culture people and the human psyche the ephemeral Modernismthe incorporation and depiction of modernity in the visual and literary cultural spheres alludes to the state of being modern quotBy 39modernity I mean the ephemeral the fugitive the contingent the half of art whose other half is the eternal and the immutablequot Charles Baudelaire quotThe Painter of Modern Lifequot 1863 lmpressionismthere is light there is color and there is a way that we see things Tries to draw attention to the fact that even something as basic and biological as seeing is a societal construction 0 Draw attention to the act of seeing by painting only light color and the quotraw sense dataquot of an image your brain constructs how you interpret it 0 Raw sense datathe light the color the way that hits this thing and disassociate it from the actual thing itself 0 Main components of impressionismdisassociation o Fugitivethe cusp of reality the eeting of time also the runaways and the people breaking with convention 3 H WilliamAdolphe Bourguereau Rest c1879 Berthe Morisot The Wet Nurse 1879 Mary Cassatt W0 7 u a man with a Pearl Necklace in a Loge 1879 Looking at the audience Mirrorsee her and then see everybody else Go to the operatheater to see and be seen go to look at each other High class womanby the way she s dressed and the pearl necklace 0 Her seatingupper classbox seating don t want to be mushed up next to the smelly lower class 0 Privatization of your own spacemodernity Space is a commodity in itself Gazingcan t really tell what she s looking at o The mirror is more to see other parts of the room than as an actual mirror in reality make it show you what I want you to see o The viewer understands that those are people even though they re little splotches of paint 0 Our brain understands itpart of modernity Snapshotlike qualitythings slightly offkilter o Contingent on your placement as a viewer and the placement of the artist 0 Not structured or closed like say David 0 The frame works in these images asyou could move the frame around and see more and more your brain can ll it in Revolutionary can show more just by implying it Georges Seurat Bathers at Asnieres 1884 0 Showing the industrial revolutionmodernization is ever present in the background Juxtaposition of landscape and nature with factories and industry Encroaches on naturepeace and leisure 0 Bit of nervousness and anxiety about it 0 Turns nature into the eeting and ephemeral Middle classbecause they have time to lounge 0 Nature is a space for the comportment of the public individual 0 Brush workpointilism o Dots of individual colors placed next to each other 0 Trying to get at what it means to see againeye resolves the image for you o The re ection of light light waves what are they made of Dots lock the world down not necessarily eeting anymore 0 Is leisure but it s frozen 0 Might say that he wants to live in the moment and trying to 0 hold on to the ephemeral trying to freeze time Certain amount of anxietyfeels constricted by modernity Leisure timestrange because it s new for the middle class 0 O O O Aristocrats used to have the leisure time Now everyone else gets leisure time Makes it less valuable Becomes less personal and more involved in a crowd of strangers Georges Seurat Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grandejatte 188486 Worrying about the way that other people perceive you Changes people s motives for going outgtgoing out for appearances instead of relaxation Seeing your alternative to the lower classpower o Seeingpower because you know what you re missing out on Blurs the tradition class lines things not as separate as they used to be 0 Everyone s kind of lounging together More constricted image 0 Anxiety about new found free time idea that you have time that is yours 0 Free time causes social anxiety because we can t manage people in closed doors 0 Lines between public and private more distinct 0 Social tension bc don t know what people are doing Edouard Manet CafeConcert vs Georges Seurat Bathers atAsnieres 0 Different approaches to the materiality of paint 0 Both parts of a whole 0 Both men are gazing out at something 0 Neither are distinctly de ned 0 quothistorical materialismquotwe should construct a history based off the products and materials we need to survive and be a person 0 I want to talk about the materiality of paint the individual materials and components 0 Art talks about itself 0 The more forward we move in time the more art is going to talk about itsefcritiquing itself and the components of making an image 0 Breaking of the illusion of creating an image o It speaks to something it s a revolution it talks about itself 0 Goals The real continued 0 The Academy just milieu The Avantgarde opposition to the Academy Photography quick study daguerreotype and calotype and Impressionism quotHausmannizationquot and modern Paris Leisure A 39fFH39 39 Honore Daumier Third Class Carriage c 1862 Beggars peasants bourgeois also in back 0 Dark painting don t look particularly excited or happy 0 Not idealized fr 4 iii I I a g n 39 a 1 7 1 Edouard Manet Baudelaire 39s Mistress Reclining Study of jeanne Duval c 1862 Edouard Manet Street Singer c1862 Honore Daumier First Class Carriage 1864 I II w 5 A r i quot 7 i 1 L K r r j p gt A vi 1 u a a r 5 3 GaspardFelix Tournachon Nadar Sarah Bernhardt c 1864 Julia Margaret Cameron Mrs Herbert Duckworth 1867 Edgar Degas Edomond and Therese Degas MorbiIi 1867 Edgar Degas Interior c 18689 Renoir The First Outing 18756 Sikh T a 3 5 L 139 Gustave Caillebotte Interior Woman at the Window 1880 Mary CassatCup of Tea 1889 ma f luv 5155 I X 39 631 i5quot AdolpheWilliam Bourgue reau The Little Beggar Girls 1890 Example of quotthe realquot Most popular painter in France in the latter half of the 19th century More light more lifelike Could actually be at your door look more idealized however not dirty angeliclike even well dressed More life like but much more arti cial The just miieuquotthe middle wayquot demand for commodities of this sort of painting is fueled by the bourgeoisie to see what they want to see tasteful not offensive identifying with the subject licked surface smooth nothing in the material way that s reminding you that you re looking at a painting Loathed by the realistscreated Normalization 0 robs them of their critical potency 0 no political weight when succumbing to the will of the bourgeois just milieu literally the quotmiddle wayquot quotjust milieu is perhaps a more typical product of such a modern society and feeds off normalization lt robs both Romanticism and the 39elevated Classicism of Academic art of their critical potency Both are reduced to sets of styles and typical subjects which can be reshuf ed without regard to their original ideological functionsquot CR 141 jeanLeon Gerome Police Verso Thumbs Down 1872 no moral esson not a history painting but a painting of ancient life Popular taste is what drives the paintings and the painter rather than producing art that speaks out or makes a statement or even teaches a lesson Drama of Romanticism but no substance See it and consume it Geromeworking with the Academy 0 Academy is getting more and more conservative 0 Using these kinds of techniques just to please the populace at same time the Impressionists are rejecting the Academy ideas and making their own genre p A i J 7 39 l u by 139 E 5 r R V 39 395 t u 39 H 139 7 21 i l l Lixi 39 I ll r A H l l H H l i i r m I I ll 7 r a u nag I N I a I M I a r l all l N ul 1 L l l 1 l and 7 l 7 er v I 7VV ri H M 39l i ll Gerome The Bath 1870 a Not scandalous bc historically correct and exotic Don t see the woman s face so we can t identify her little propriety Everything has been researched and made accurate 77 39l39 i Gerome Moorish Ba th 1870 Even the tiles are the same as history quotget the formula down and do it over and over again and you do it really wellquot not terribly interesting what he s doing with that skill quotGerome is not re ecting a readymade reality but like all artists is producing meaningsquota painting produces meanings that often aren t obvious they can reinforce or disrupt the status quo 0 his contemporaries insist so strongly on the objectivity of his workljused as a justi cation that the painting really happened and is a historical document 0 is a kind of fantasy of what the people in the orient do reproduces an ideological fantasy quotwe can have our cake and eat it tooquotall couched in history and all accurate tooso it s real Bourgeureau Birth of Venus Springtime Nymphs With Satyr Different kinds of the real obsession with making perfect nudes Idealization no hair on bodies but on head Lithographyoi on a rockcan reproduce the image over and over easy ows Photographyused as a means of recording something and remembering things Obsession with the real Liked dioramas Shapes of facehead told you something about your character Obsession with criminality and identifying characteristics of all criminals origin of the mug shot and identity Anonymous daguerreotypebizarre because this man and woman are holding a photograph of a family 0 Hard to know 0 Ways in which the real is manifesting itself 0 Battle between art and photography Nicephore Niepce View from Window at Le Gras c 1827 Gerstein drawing of Niepce s photo Inscription quotthe world s rst photograph from naturequot 0 Light draws the picture light as the draftsman Took about 8 hours for the picture to register 1843 LouisJacques Mande Daguerre The Artist s Studio 1837 Daguerre View of the Blvd du Tempe Paris c 1838 Daguerreotypeimage on highly polished metal plate producing a single positive image Cannot be reproduced one image only Slow exposure times 5 to 60 min Must x the image for a certain amount of time in order for the light exposed to the plate to record A daguerreotype was actually not accurate at all because couldn t accurately record everything Discovered that the mercury vapor from a thermometer makes an image come quicker and reduced the exposure time to about 30 min and eventually all the way down to 1215 min Still very expensive and labor intensive couldn t reproduce so couldn t circulate it Calotype paper negative unlimited reproductions bers make fuzzy edges not entirely sharp method ultimately adapted to photography in general negativeprint can document your belongings for theft or criminality lifelike of this world is fast disappearing souvenir or memory always a sense of death in every photo because it s a captured moment that s now gone William Henry Fox Talbott The Open Door from The Pencil of Nature quotArticles of Chinaquot Pencil ofNature a photograph is always and never the real never really registerscaptures the reality of what you are trying to record frames the world can t get the whole thing can be modifiedphotoshopped can see more details in a photograph than you can with the eyebecause you have more time to look Daumier Nadar raising the photograph to the heights of Art 1862 Nada r The Arc de Triomphe and the Grand Blvds Paris from a Balloon 1868 Aerial View Opera and Hausmann Boulevards Baron Hausmann and the Second Empire Was prefect of police In charge of the city Close to Louis 18th Created the big huge blvds that you now see in Paris that make it easier to drive through the city Had huge impact on the city Destruction of Parisljcan see what the transformation of Paris looked like Grand Staircase Interior The Opera Charles Garnier The Opera Paris 18611874 Charles Marville Destruction of Parisian Neighborhoods Marville Top of Rue Champlain Au Bon Marche department Store Engineered by Gustave Eiffel Where women could actually go unescorted and shop 0 Don t have to go to the shoemaker and buy custommade shoes don t need a seamstress can buy things quotoff the rackquot Opening Ceremonies Grand Staircase Opera House 0 This kind of entertainment shopping consumption are very closely tied to looking and the quotspectacle of lifequot I P n w quot quotcr Interior of the Bon Marche advertising print c 1872 quotBy 39modernity I mean the ephemeral the fugitive the contingentquot that is quotthe half of art whose other half is the eternal and the immutable Baudelaire Edouard Manet Music in the Tuieries 1862 Manet himself is in the painting Baudelaire is also in the painting 42612 Goals What is Impressionism 0 Who are Impressionist painters o What is their relationship to the Salon 0 Why is Impressionism a language that speaks to the conditions of modernity o What is modernity What is modernism Who are these people Degas Monet Manet Renoir Pissarro Modern Spaces Gustave Caillebotte Pont de L Europe 1876 Caillebotte A Balcony 1880 Hausmannljcrowd control ow of traf c etc through Paris 0 Wide blvdmodern o Flaneur Edgar Degas L Absinthe 1876 ri Couple Alienated facesdon t know if they re together Absintheaddictive drink Barriers in front of us so its not particularly easy to circulate even visually gr t 739s E gar D gas At the C fe Concert quotLes Amabassadeurs quot 1877 PierreAuguste Renoir La Loge the Theater Box 1874 Timeline Baroque RococoleeoClassicism and Revolutionljldramatic neo classicismljRomanticismljRealistSecond Empire just milieu and mpressionism FrancoPrussian War The Commune and Post Impressionism quotBy modernity I mean the ephemeral the fugitive the contingentquot that is quotthe half of art whose other half is the eternal and immutablequot Baudelaire Claude Monet Boulevard des Capucines 18l73 if I I l L39 39 r A 39 r E l k r l Bf l lts moving Nothing is stable The most solid thing in terms of paint are the balloons blobs of paint Tension bw the painting breaking away from giving everything has a little resistance on the service know you re looking at a painting and nothing but a painting Paint itself becomes a marker of modernity in these paintings The viewing experience is both familiar but unfamiliar Painting is as eeting brushstrokes as light airy and moving as the subject matter people moving through the city things changing and shifting etc Trope of modernism the beginnings of it I r r A Edoa rd Manet Dejeuner sur herbe Luncheon on the Grass 1863 0 Academy refused a record number of paintings 3000 o Forced to open another salonSalon de Recuse Was one of the refused paintingsquot The men are dressed and the woman is naked 0 Coming out of looking at Realist painters Courbet still prominent presence 0 Meaningful to his own time modern Rejected bc of scandal Included a nude a clothed gure a landscape and a still life Compressed the spacewhen woman in back standsgiant 0 Can t make sense of the scale Ferdinand Lancofffuture brother in law Gustave Manetbrother woman bathingsistersoon to be married nude womanfavorite model Consciously or not they critique these academic traditions become small band of artists w similar interests 0 Impressionist exhibitions rst phenomena of a group of organized painters getting together L nunhl 0 Changing the fundamental structures of the way art was made and exhibited big shift Arti ce about modernity 0 Dress how you want go to space and be looked at always looking not knowing others leisure time 0 Being seen and seeing Naked womandifferent than nude contemporary woman also could be anyone Forms absolutely unavoidable contrived A canvas that constantly announces itself by going against tradition etc Salon des Refuses 1863 Napoleon III was forced to create it to accommodate the 3000 paintings that were refused by the Academy iquot Edouard Manet Olympia 1863 Salon of 1865 Hand paired with the lookmaybe a prostitute Created another scandal critics hated it No one said anything about the prostitution factor 0 Because it s unclear even worse BraceletManet s mothers Ambiguityproblem No soft voluptuous setting or curves like Titian s o Pushed right up to the surface no escape Looking right at us Problema modern Venusgoddess but not godly Viewed as a dirty body had gorilla hands hadn t washed Giant bouquet cat etc Handshameessy exed quotshameless contractionquot Creates a lot of problems Important to invitebe inviting in the economy ot nude 0 Does something entirely different while still using traditional waysscene Not adequately downgraded may be kept woman quotwho among us don t know if we ll meet her on the street or not OOOOO I39L lv It SEEElg lllifl IFH i39 liai in39ie n39 h iliviru 391 r quotr39lin ii iiwr Hiill ailia II HIE39 FBill I39 IiI uri39illzr mu iilniluia IliHIIra39 15 5 Ti39t u 5quot Mfr 1min arr m n 4139 iii Iii Jz tru Mil l31 r Jain rim Cham Caricature of Manet39s Olympia May 1865 Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 Marcantonio Raimondi after Raphael 1517 Giorgione Pastoral Concert 150910 iq in 1II I l l 391 i 39 rfhlii lquot i l Claude Monet Woodgatherers at the Edge of the Forest c 1863 0 Ten years before Blvd Capucines Monet was following Courbet and was interested in the way he was painting before found his own style and technique 0 Thick thick paint application Takes characteristics of Courbet and hikes it up a few notches Daumier Impressions of Travel c 1865 Monet Rue BavoIe Hon eur 1864 o Sticking with the people of the town rather than showing the bourgeoisie Gustave Dore Arrival in Asnieres Return to Paris 1861 Monet Hotel des Roches Noires at Trouvile 1870 Bourgeoisie subject 0 Thick paint application very much paint blotches Stylistic qualities of Impressionism Rapid brushstrokes Emphasis on surface as well as subject matter Painterly another way of talking about rapid brushstrokes 0 Interest in color and light making light visible through color and o Brushstroke pein airpaintingpainting outdoors gured out how to put paint in tubesquotquotmore modern thing 0 Focus on bourgeois life primarily leisure activities see bourgeoisie in the countryside rather than peasantry Light re ections on light interest in odd spatial constructions motif is slice of life rather than a posed scene typical of academic painting not all of these apply to everybody but some of them apply to most of the painters included in Impressionism The FrancoPrussian War 187071 0 The Commune Marchjune 1871formed by the Parisians when they rejected Napoleons surrender 0 Separation of Church and state 0 Womenright to vote 0 Contentions to unmarried peoples for veterans wives or commonlaw wives 0 Gave employees the right to take over and run an enterprise if the owners had left 0 French govt started to bomb Paris essentially destroyed the City Hall and all the records in it Manet and Degas joined the Commune o Resulted in o L hote de ville after shelling by National Assembly forces outside of Paris 0 1000050000 killed or deported in May 0 quotwell now Damn rascal we will knock you down just like your crook of a nephewquot 0 Rue de Rivoli looking toward Louvre after shelling and re 0 after all this the bourgeoisie really locked down to prevent any kind of uprising 1870many of the Impressionists were gonehad left Manet The Barricade lithograph 1871 Manet Civil War lithograph 1871 lthe Impressionists decided to form a group and had their own exhibition 0 First Impressionist Exhibition Societe Anonyme 1874 Beginnings of an avantgarde Berthe Morisot Reading Artist s Sister and Mother 196970 0 Painted right around the time of the Commune Painted indoors bc Morisot couldn t just go out and paint on the streets 0 Subjects limited much to family members and such Edgar Degas At the Races c 1872 o The horses are leading off the edge of the canvas so you get the sense that it really is a slice of life Monet Impression Sunrise 1873 o The painting that gave the movement the name Impressionism Paul Cezanne A Modern Olympia 18734 0 Too crude too sketchy not accepted by the Impressionists o Exhibited with them once and wasn t invited back Cezanne Dejeuner sur herbe 186970 0 Picnic looks scary dark sky people hunched over gures don t make sense Paints weird dark pictures PierreAuguste Renoir Mouin de la Gaette 1876 Paints murders rapes biblical scenes he s a bit of an anomalyvery strange Changes his subject matter in about 20 yrs quotiii I Hi lr quot 39 I E K is I r 1 i ll ll ya I u quotLI t C More of a working class clientele not as well off as the bourgeoisie Windmill of the cakeMoulin de la Galetteljgathering place where people would come and relax and have fun People are talking and laughing and dancing Much more relaxed sensibility and sociability Tension between the subject matter and the paint itself Effects of light critic said it looks like they have grease spots all over their clothing 0 Light coming through trees Or maybe a terrace 0 One more way of conveying that movement and leisure Another space of modernity of pleasure and leisure time Uses image to deliver the ephemeral movement as opposed to being xed in a position No real hard lines Become aware of the fact that you re actually looking at a painting that you may not be able to quite gure out Tour Edgar Degas Women ata Cafe Terrace Evening 1877 Oblique angles obstructs our vision Posture clothing etc suggests that they re not conforming to a strict behavior that bourgeois women conform to 0 Maybe working tonight Blurred sensibility is suggestive of a mirror and sort of shifting within Figures are marginalized especially if they re prostitutes o Pushed towards the edges Most prominent women s gesturevulgar in French 0 Also suggests they re not high bourgeois people Next week s section meets in front of Campbell Hall for Architecture Terms being discussed in class Abstraction Analytic Cubism Paul Synthetic Cubism Trompe I Oeil Passage pronounced like massage Cezan quot ne Still Life with Plaster Cupid 1895 Still life antiquity studio paintings in the background Perspective is funky what s going on with the space Bends into the background Can t really tell if the table or whatever is connected to the oor if it is a oor that s weird The fruit looks like it s oating kind of expect it to roll down 0 O O 0 Size disproportional Casting a shadow the wrong way what s happening with the light source Don t know what kind of fruit it isvery questionable Not enough visual information is provided to you to parse out what is going on o All of the fruit is the same size makes the space hard to negotiate 0 Trying to call attention to the fact that this painting is a representation of everything not real 0 Just a representation of a fruit plaster cupid etc and because of that he can do whatever he wants shift the perspective make the fruit look like its gonna roll down the table etc o Representing painting within painting Passage The playing with forms and spacethe breaking down of forms Challenging representation 0 Line is used as a representation of information but when the line s removed we don t know what to do with that information anymore Cezanne plays with this idea in his painting 0 Messing with the viewer 0 Drawing attention to the fact that we re interpreting things 0 Challenging the fact that we take in info through representation of reality Signsymbol or representation of a meaning 0 The fruit in the painting is a sign because it is actually paint on canvas meant to describe the shape of a fruit Signifierthingobject in reality that gives signs meaning 0 The actual fruit in reality gives the sign of the fruit in the painting meaning relationship between sign and signi er is what Cezanne and cubists are playing with in their art how far can I take it until it stops making sense we come to understand signs visual imagery is a set of signs too all writing reading etc is a set of signs quotThey speak of naturalism in opposition to modern painting I would like to know if anyone has ever seen a natural work of art Nature and art being two different things cannot be the same thing Through art we express our conception of what nature is notquot CR 268Picasso 0 we must remember that nature and art are different things paintings of lakes and nature are not real lakes or real nature because it is a painting and not reality 0 must understand the difference between representation and reality Georges Braque Violin and Pitcher 1910 0 Don t really know what the space is o The lines are not solid just blend in Passage on steroids 0 Broke up all the natural forms in reality and distorted it 0 Push how far we re willing to go with him on a representation of a violinpitcher etc Supposed to make you work 0 Lack of color makes it even harder for us 0 Abstractionall signs and no signi ers o All it becomes is a representation of paint on a canvas and nothing more Moving farther away from the representation of reality to just representation of such sti register what we can from paintings we can make sense of things because of the movement towards abstraction in art trying to call attention to the fact that we are perceiving things and not looking Trompe Oeitrick of the eye 0 trick makes you interpret things that aren t real Analytic Cubismto break something down into it s constituent parts and reassemble it to analyze it and understand that info 0 What its trying to do 0 Violin and Pitcherexampe of it Pablo Picasso Guitar Sheet Music and Glass 1912 0 Trying to represent music visually uses a system of signs that is a visualization of music can read it and see it nstrumentso vaguely and basically an instrument if took certain things out it would cease to be a guitar 0 Le JouLe Journalnodding to another system of signs language 0 Jouerto play 0 Put it next to a guitar play the guitarjoke play on words 0 Referencing play on words 0 Painted it to look like wallpaper Painted it to look like wood Synthetic Cubismassembly of different things synthesis of things into a painting to form something more Combining parts to make a whole as opposed to breaking down parts to make a whole like analytical cubism Guitar Sheet Music and Glassexample of it quotI do not read English but this does not mean that the English language does not exist and why should I blame anybodybut myself if I cannot understand itquot Pablo Picasso quotWe know that Art is not truth Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth at least the truth that is given to us to understand The artist must know the manner whereby to convince others of its truthfulness in lifequot MidtermTuesday May 8 0 Slide comparison multiple choice matching short answers essay queonn Images from Gauchospace and Course Website Readings lectures Covers material up to this Thursday May 3 o No bluebookseverything will be provided the Impressionists are kind of torn between portraying a spectacle of the world for the viewer s entertainment and getting seduced by that spectacle The style itself points to modernity Claude Monet Bridge at Bougival 1869 Might be a wet nursenurse as opposed to the mother Workers walking around Shadows light sky Monet Train in the Countryside 18701 Bourgeoisie in the country relaxing and leisure time Going out into the countryside as a painter was about depicting bourgeois life different population being depicted compared to realists Camille Pissarro Seine at PortMarley the WashHouse 1878 Sketchy painting clear brush strokes you can see Rather drabby scene all together the Impressionists are producing a certain kind of imagevision of modern day life but not necessarily a realistic kind of vision particular version of what modernity looks like primarily through the eyes of the bourgeoisie Camille Pissarro Red Rooks at the Cote de SaintDenis Pontoise Winter effect 1877 Paintextremely thick wall of paint ha The whole thing ties together because it shares the same kind of texture and paint etc In a sense the real substance that a structure would represent has no more weight than the trees have weight With paint on so thickmaking all the subjects of the picture on the same level equal impressionists as interested in the actual paint as the subject they are trying to portray Work to be done in order to make an image cohere Not just trying to portray a window into reality Interested in showing the viewer that it is in fact paint Lose motif of painting patches when painting becomes too large lose subject matter Paul Cezanne Turning Road 1875 Now out there painting outdoors Doing something differently Never got as thick as Pissarro who followed more in Monet s footsteps How do we know what we re seeing and be able to differentiate between objects Short hatching brushstrokes not the free owing long line very controlled Berthe Morisot Summer s Day 1879 A lot more paint application in comparison to her previous work Almost impossible to avoid looking at the brushstrokes The painterly artists are loading their canvas s with paint The brushstrokes threaten to dissolve the gure can lose the motif under the weight of all that paint Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral in the Fog 1893 The mass of the structure sort of dissipates under the weight of all that paint and color Monet Rouen Cathedral at Noon 1894 Painted in oil not sitting out for one day to paint it adding more and more stuff each day Tension Mass of building taken over by mass of paint Painting about paint as much as it s a painting about a cathedral ii 7 Paul Cezanne Mont Sainteiictoire 188587 PassageCezanne s technique of transitioning from one thing to another often creating what is needed to make the subject coherent George Seurat Sunday Afternoon on the Grandejatte 18846 quotSeurat is the only one to have inscribed the modern conditionwith its alienation and anomie the experience of living in the society of the spectacle of making a living in a market economy in which economy in which exchange value took the place of use value and mass production that of artisanal productionthrough the very fabric and structure of his pictorial productionquot Linda Nochlin Seurat s name for this quotdivisionismquot also called quotpointillismquot He s devised a scienti c form of the way we perceive post impressionists are very interested in the way we perceive things how does it work Jules Cheret Ba au Moulin Rouge 1889 Georges Seurat The Circus 1891 Dots actually solidify and freeze the characters in midmovement 5312 v N V rt 1 Paul Cezanne Compotier with Fruit 187980 Passagebowl bleeds into the newspaper glass starts to lose its stem table drop line a bit off barely visible line between glass and wallpaper 0 how much can he play with this before it s not cohering as an object anymore Paul Cezanne Large Bathers 18981905 Philadelphia Museum of Art 0 Tree looks as though the sky is taking a bite out of it 0 Sky obscures the edge of the two things Perception Hair becomes part of the tree and then the sky bites into her back 0 Hand and disappearing head Armsegs too Instability in the image we can see what its supposed to be but a lot of ambiguities Vincent Van Gogh Night Cafe 1888 Tried to express the idea that the caf is a place where one can ruin oneself tried to express the terrible passions of humans through red and green Devil s furnace of pale sulfur The white owers symbolize purity Uses painting to symbolize evils and passionsetc Strong brush strokes thick paint application bright color Post Impressionism Seurat Cezanne Van Gogh Gauguin 0 Interested in colors and meshing of lines passage etc o More obvious than with the impressionists Van Gogh Self Portrait 1888 did 37 self portraits in his lifetime At museum at Harvard Weird sickly green around him Almost colorless in ashen tones aimed at character of simple bans worshipping the eternal Buddha Motion and emotion in his work everything kinda seems alive In a vortex It was given as a gift to Paul Gauguinljinscribed it at the top to his friend Gauguin Inventing the Primitive Paul Gauguin Vision After the Sermon 1888 Picture of quotsimple folkquot after a sermon ofJacob wrestling with the angel Really compressed the space and almost attened it out entirely Enamel work Color issue very interested in really strong colors Simple folk would actually get paid to dress up in their out ts for the tourists in Brittany o Idea of paradise and lost andsomething Gauguin was deeply committed to Gauguin Tahitian Pastorae 1892 Goes to Tahiti and begins painting images like this Image of tranquility and beauty He paints these things from memory when he goes back to Paris Simple tons of mistresses makes up words etc Paul Gauguin Na Te Varua lno Words ofthe Devil 1892 Henri Lamasson quotFashionable Tahitian Womenquot c 1895 0 Photograph taken around the same time Ii I l x it at H a H Q Willi in all i if 39 EEE i i Ayah Gauguin Mahana No Atua Day of the Gods 1894 0 Much of it is a kind of fantasy a reaction to modernity but also a modernist painting 0 Not looking at a window on the world but a painting with expressive color rather than being accurate Paul Gauguin Nevermore 0 Taiti 1897 Theodore Gericault was the rst to create a contemporary history paintingThe Raft of the Medusa r quotL39 39 39 39 lg El 7 p g a V Ef r isr 7 3931 1 I 39 a u n a 1 I Hi Henri Matisse Luxe Came et Volupte Luxury calm an pleasure 19045 exhibited in the Salon des Independents spring 1905 Treecrazy with color not exactly clear but doesn t quite have the passage 0 Outlines on the gures woman has very strange back picnic Flying saucer clouds 0 Taking expressiveness of color and detaching it from any emotion Avantgardea group that is innovative against tradition and commonality ahead of other painters critics and audience 0 Only liked by small minority of people 0 This notion of them actually articulating progress modernity moving forward etc Resists that easy consumption of images 0 Usually registers a struggle how to make representation meaningful to its moment Salon and whole academic practice are corrupt at this point no politics behind it no real resistance or substance behind it etc Salon des lndependantsest 1884 spring exhibition no jury Salon d Automnefounded 1903 to supplement breakaway Salon des lndependants juried by progressive artists critics A critic walks into the room middle of the room were two statues somewhat academic and classical quotDonatello among the wild beasts fauvequot lFauvism these artists were given this name quotDonatello chez les Fauvesquot critic Louis Vauxcelles on seeing pait of ltalianate sculptures surrounded by ptgs by Matisse Derain amp Vlaminck 1905 Salon d Automnea classical tradition among the quotwild beatsquot les Fauves FAUVISM 7quotl VJ I39 ri Matisse Woman with a hat Madame Matisse 1905 SF MOMA Henri Matisse Open Window 1905coors and expression from Cezanne and Van Gogh 0 Looking out a window to a balconyterrace Sketchy owers and boats 0 Everything is framed picture of a picture or picture within a picture 0 Those boats are pretty big compared to where we are in the painting 0 Sky and waterpink 0 Windows in doors re ecting something Who knows what Matisse Bonheur de ere 1908 0 Crazy colors beautiful gures outlines proportions Wild 0 Aiming for harmony and balance unlike a wild beast Surface of the painting is completely equal 0 The colors balance each other and make the eye travel rather than rest on one thing within the image 0 An entire arrangement with no extra details that might distract from the overall whole of the painting quotExpression for me does not reside in passions glowing in a human face or manifested by violent movement The entire arrangement of my picture is expressive the place occupied by the gures the empty spaces around them the proportions everything has its share Composition is the art of arranging in a decorative manner the diverse elements At the painter s commanda work of art must be harmonious in its entiretyquotMatisse Pablo Picasso Gertrude Stein 1906 Came after the blue period and the rose period Masklike face 0 Eyes offkilter Massive blocky body Formidable presence in reality quotI can t see you anymore when I lookquot Picasso effacing stein s face in portrait before painting it Guest at Stein s home tells Picasso quotIt doesn t look like Gertrude at allquot Picasso quotIt willquot Picasso DesmoiseIes d Avignon 1907 Prostitutes Scary looks and masks drawn from African tribal masks quotit is as though you want us to drink gasolinequot wasn t seen again until 1925 when the Surrealists convinced a fashion designer to buy it nothing but questions even too much for the progressive artists Some descriptions of Cubism it enables us to quotsee an object from everywhere grasping it conceptually as a composite of views equivalent to what we see when we move around itquot REALLY 41 4 39quotf Georges Braque Still Life with Fruit dish 1908 Picasso Fruit dish 1908 Conceptual knowledge wins out over perceptual realism Picasso Portrait of 0H Kahnweiler 1908 Is this an image of a person quotfrom all anglesquot Kahnweiler s Cubism minimal color so that the focus is on lightshade Flattened visual space 0 Visual vocabulary to describe spaces between the attened now boundaryless objects 0 ANALYTIC CUBISM 1911 Georges Braque The Portuguese Pablo Picasso Majoie 1912 Pablo Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning 191112 n77 7 V Picasso Houses on the Hill Horta de Ebro 1909 ruJ bl Lquot 39i r Henri Matisse Green Stripe 1905 Picasso Girl with Mandolin Fanny Teler 1910 Ii Picasso Glass and Bottle of Suze 1912 Picasso Bottle of Vieux Marc Glass and Newspaper 1910
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