Ionizing, non-ionizing radiation, and noise pollution
Ionizing, non-ionizing radiation, and noise pollution PUH 220
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Isis Dana Kanakri on Friday October 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PUH 220 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dale Dickinson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Environmental Science at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Lecture 15 Radiation energy travelling through space Radiant energy 1 electromagnetic waves energies and wavelengths variation 2 accelerated atomic particles energy mass and charge variation 0 What was the most harmful radiation recognized in 1895 and why The Xray because it is associated with various health effects including cancer due to ionizing radiation Ever since the Xray numerous radiation types and their health effects were discovered and characterized Atom the basic unit of elements Consists of nucleus Protons and neutrons inside atom and electrons outside atom Ion An atom that is missing one or more electrons Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an unstable atom In result of the emission the radioactive atom is converted or decays into an atom of different element that might or might not be radioactive Ionizing radiation Energetic radiation that is capable of making ions from atoms Ionizing radiations are those forms of radiation that can deposit enough localized energy in living cells to break chemical bonds and give rise to ions and free radicals Short waves 1 Gamma 2 Xray 3 UV Long waves 1 Infrared 2 Microwaves 3 Radiowaves Natural ionizing radiation sources 1 primary cosmic rays originate from outerspace the earth s galaxy and the sun and interact with the earth s atmosphere to produce secondary cosmic rays cosmic rays have the ability to penetrate and cross the human body easily Uranium a common element in the earth s crust It ores uraninite and pitchblende are found in large amounts 2 in North America Africa and Australia Nearly all plants animals and aquifers contain tiny amounts of uranium 3 Radon an inert colorless and extremely toxic gas produced by the decay of radium and uranium which are found universally in the earth s crust in varying amounts It is classified as a Class A carcinogen and causes long term adverse health effects source of exposure 30 4 Manmade ionizing radiation sources Xrays and other procedures used in medicine medical tests and therapies consumer products smoke detectors radioactive substances used in industry nuclear power generators accidents decommissioned or abandoned nuclear power plants and storage of wastes radioactivity e g radioactive fallout from the production and detonation primarily for testing purposes of nuclear weapons QMPPP Medical procedures use largest source of exposure 40 1 Xray machines 2 Nuclear medicine 3 Radiation therapy Exposure to radioactivity can be measured by 1 Duration how long you were exposed 2 Distance how far were you from the radioactive source 3 Degree what was the rate of energy emission from the radioactive source Dose amount of radiation Dose rate time span of the body receiving the dose of radiation more important than dose because how quickly your body absorbs it is important Genetic effects of radioactivity Any cell in the body may be altered by radiation However when the DNA is altered it can cause the number and structure of the chromosomes inside the nucleus The mutated gene can also be passed on to your offspring Genetic carcinogenic effects of radioactivity Tumors caused by radiation takes years to develop and show and they look like any other tumor until it looks really bad The carcinogenic effects of radiation resemble those of chemical carcinogens in being modifiable by hormones nutritional variables and other modifying factors Types of radiation effects are additive synergistic and mutually antagonistic depending on chemicals exposure conditions Somatic cell effects of radioactivity The exposure decreases a somatic cell s ability to survive and reproduce tissues may atrophy due to reduced capacity to perform cell functions for tissues Radiation accidents remain a significant cause of injury Possible acute effects of ionizing radiation on the more radiosensitive tissues of the body include skin rashes blistering ulceration bone marrow and lymphoid tissue hemorrhage depression of immune system intestine possible fatal dysenterylike syndrome gonads reduction of sperm count sterility respiratory tract in ammation respiratory failure lens of the eye opacity cataracts whole body radiation sickness chronic radiation sickness localized radiation injury skeletal and gland injuries How do we preventstop it 1 No activity involving ionizing radiation should be considered justifiable unless it produces a sufficient benefit to those who are exposed or to society at large to offset any harm it may cause The dose or likelihood of exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable ALARA Radiation exposure of individuals resulting from any combination of such activities should be subject to dose limits low enough to prevent harmful effects as much as possible AND facilities dealing with ionizing radiation must U PP FN Be properly designed Carefully plan and oversee its operating procedures Maintain a careful radiation protection program Ensure workers are adequately trained and supervised Maintain a welldeveloped and wellrehearsed emergency preparedness plan Lecture 16 Nonionizing radiation Radiation that has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate but not enough to remove electrons Nonionizing radiation examples 3 bands of spectrum based on wavelength 0 UVA 315 to 440 nm or black light 0 UVB 280 to 315 nm most harmful to health 0 UVC 100 to 280 nm UVR confined to skin and eye injuries Sunlight main source of radiation for the public varies in intensity with 0 latitude 0 elevation 0 season Fair skinned people extremely vulnerable Can cause photoaging of skin increased pigmentation freckles retinal damage etc UVR protection includes staying out of sunlight from 114 using UVRscreening lotions protective clothing and UVRblocking sunglasses consists of electromagnetic waves ranging in wavelength from 400 nm violet to 800 nm red common high intensity sources other than the sun include 0 lasers 0 electric welding or carbon arcs 0 tungsten filament lamps Lights too bright can damage eyes but too little light can cause eyestrain and aggravate SAD seasonal affective disorder a kind of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year usually in the winter consists of electromagnetic waves ranging in wavelength from 7 X 105m to 3 X 102m Such radiation is emitted by all objects with temperatures above absolute zero but potentially hazardous Sources of IR include 0 molten glass and molten metal 0 furnaces and ovens 0 welding arcs 0 heating lamps Injuries caused by IR are mainly burns of the skin and cataracts of the lens of the eye consists of electromagnetic waves ranging in frequency from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz Sources of MWRFR occur in 0 radar 0 television and radio 0 cellular phones and cell phone towers 0 various industrial operations household appliances and medical applications High intensity exposures can cause cataracts of the lens of the eye The biological effects appear to be primarily thermal when MWRFR can penetrate deeply enough it can burn dermal and subcutaneous tissues burns that heal slowly Lecture 17 What is sound Sound is a form of energy that is produced by the vibration of objects which compress and expand air water or solids to produce sound waves It is measured by 1 Frequency Hz pitch high medium low 2 Amplitude dB loudness high medium low Noise sound that is unwanted including when it interferes with tasks distracts annoys or disturbs causes losses in hearing alters physiology in a negative way PP N Determining damage 1 Intensity Loudness dB the higher the intensity the greater potential for damage 2 Frequency Pitch Hz the higher the pitch the greater the potential for damage 3 Duration time the longer the exposure the greater the potential for damage Sound pressure level SPL is a measure of the intensity or loudness of sound SPL is reported on a logarithmic scale that uses decibels st An increase of 10dB represents a 10fold increase in sound intensitv every 3 dB increase DOUBLES the sound energy Ototoxic agents that can produce hearing loss loud sounds drugs antibiotics etc When is loud too loud 0 when there s a need to speak very loudly or shout directly into the ear of another person 3 foot rule 0 ringing sensation or hearing noises in the ears esp after the work day 0 when the sound of speech and music seemed muf ed after leaving noise but hearing clears by the following day Agents of occupational disease 0 Noise 0 Dust 0 Toxic heavy metals 0 Carbon monoxide 0 etc Noise in the workplace during an 8hour shift is 85 dB by NIOSH This increases safety and decreases hearing loss Noise and psychological stress Noise pollution can cause 1 Annoyance and aggression High stress levels Hypertension Ischemic heart disease Sleep disturbances Decreased immunity 7 Tinnitus and other hearing loss Stress and hypertension are the leading causes to many health problems and tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness severe depression and at times panic attacks QMPPP There is over 40 billion per year economic loss due to noise The bulk of the loss is from traffic noise alone that s harming the health of workers and causing less productivity Control measures for noise 1 Engineering controls 2 Administrative controls 3 Personal protective equipment PPE
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