First 5 notes on Media Psychology
First 5 notes on Media Psychology
Popular in Media Psychology
Popular in Communication
This 117 page Bundle was uploaded by Jade Notetaker on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to at Nanyang Polytechnic taught by Ms Ang in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Media Psychology in Communication at Nanyang Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
P mogmplng lt2 E Votic BM0668 Wee ifhe S Pornography differs in one fundamenfal and imporfanf way from ofher falooo media ecil Case of Porno No film direcfor however provocafive and unprincipled has ever produced a violenf film wifh fhe infenfion fhaf viewers suloseauenfly imifafe ifs confenf Film direcfors mighf Talk of fheir infenfion fo scare fhe panfs off audiences louf no one has ever said I made fhis film so fhaf psychologically healfhy children leave The cinema ifching for a punch up Pornography however is made solely To produce specific effecfs on viewers No porn producer has ever claimed fhaf sexual arousal is an accidenfal by producf of fheir films From The cave painTing To The prinTing press To The moving image To The digiTal file The capaciTy To make and communicaTe images of The sex acT has ofTen been The killer app which drives a Technology To The hearT of a culTure More people have used The inTerneT for accessing porn Than any oTher caTegon of image When The web was sTill a minoriTy inTeresT wiThouT obvious commercial viabiliTy online porn was one of The few Things people would pay for How blg ls The Prn buslne558 manure Worldwide revenue in TETIIl I IET PTTETTTTT 2006 is esTimoTed 0T 97 Sillle 2 521 Japan 513 SHEETS US 1333 ENE mellralia 52m SHEET UH 3194 3154 Porn revenue IS larger Italy 5141 524m Than The revenues of The 1 2 39I39Op 39I39eChnOIOgy Taiwan 51m 54341 Germany SE4 3 companies combined Finland 5 5mm Microsoft Googel Ezelzll39n epuhlln 345 54434 Emma 3255 Eif Amazon eBay Yahool Apple and NeTflix ETTT FT 553 rmer 2 12 Unavailable 1 lms E llicjrn l C l W C W H n n n 391 quot 90 Why Aquot Q 793 lt quot a x 7735 leth L L UH 2 Zaxgll gh L 69 HQ ore QM L L 2 H ow bl is T h e Po rn b u sl n Revenue in The US rose olmosT 2000 fold beTween T972 dnd 2006 from 7 million To 1 3 billion more Thdn The revenue of CBS ABC amp NBC combined doorox 6 billion IvldrllteT expdnsion Through The inTerneT hds fuelled This explosive growTh Though oTher medid videos films TV mdgozines hove dlso done well Porn hds gone mdinsTredm El Over 95 of Hollywood films dre ddulf movies El Some big hoTel ohdins now mdllte up To 70 of Their orofiTs by feeding oorn To TVs in guesT rooms on d pdyperview bdsis CI The mosT profdeble odrTs of Generdl lvloTors dre no longer iTs duTo oldnTs buT The porn ohdnnels thoSTdr dnd DireoTV owned by lel subsididry Hughes Technology ass How 9 is The Porn busin Consumer goods monufdoTurers dre dlso linked To The porn business Through Their use of sofT porn in ddverTising odrs oloThes shoes oosmeTios eTo Fdshion modelling in pdrTiouldr hds close links wiTh The indusTry The Free Speech CooliTion esTideed boTh globdl dnd US oorn revenues hdve been reduced by 50 beTween 2007 dnd 20l 1 due To The dmounT of free oornogrdohy dVdildble online Art or Pornograph Robert Mapplethorpe 194689 quotSelf Portrait Mdpplethorpe s work hds consistently provoked strong redctions Some hove condemned its explicit content notdbly during the soCdlled Culture Wdrs of the i980s Others defend the drtist s right to freedom of expression dnd ddmire his mdstery of the photogrdphic medium Art or Pornography Many of The argumenTs and deloaTes around pornography are very similar To Those surrounding media violence excepT ThaT There are 2 crucial elemenTs added To The mix 1 The issue of TasTe in which moraliTy is confused and used inTerchangealoly wiTh decency and olosceniTy 2 The issue of gender implicaTions for feminisT Theory DeTihiTiOhs Pornography is characTerised by The represehTaTioh of The sex acT for iTs own sake unadorhed by disTracTiohs such as ploT characTer developmehT or aesTheTics Pornography iTself is a futhiohal gehre produced solely To sexually arouse The viewer IT is generally classified as eiTher sochore or hardcore porhography depending on how expliciT The sexual acTiviTy is Pornography Tehds To be cohTrasTed wiTh erotica which is ofTeh used for picTures movies or sTories ThaT focus on The beauTy of sexualiTy and implies a degree of arTisTry or good TasTe A brief hisTry of Origins of The media pornography indusTry can be Traced To The sTarT of The 20Th CenTury when The firsT expliciT films were made Early scenes of sexual inTercourse were highly prized maTerials waTched by groups of men in clubs and fraTerniTies During The l920s a spliT emerged beTween heTerosexual audiences and boTh gay and feTishisT audiences The sTraighT audience gaThered momenTum and evenTually infilTraTed mainsTream cinema wiTh The lST public screening of a hardcore feaTure film in l968 in New York AT This poinT The pornography indusTry wenT inTo overdrive In The l970s films such as Deep ThroaT Toolt porn info The mainsTream and achieved world wide fame BuT because of The film39s noTorieTy The FBI indicTed acTor Harry Reems for conspiracy To disTribuTe obscene maTerial across sTaTe lines He was convicTed in April l976 buT The convicTion was overTurned a year laTer The invenTion of The video casseTTe recorder made The porn indusTry highly lucraTive wiTh home pornography l H mvrcncv The position in most countries until the 1960s wos thdt sexuolly explicit moteridl of dny kind should be prohibited A shift in dttitude come with the lifting of restrictions on erotic literdture in the UK such We ds DH Lowrence s dey Chdtterley s Lover Qll3939 lmy ro l3rlt dnd novels by Henry Miller In l969 the anish government took the unprecedented step of decrimindlising pornogrdphy dnd for short while Denmdrk become d hive of pornogrdphic dctivity English filmmdkers swomped the mdrlltet with incredsingly violent mdteridl such ds Her Doughter Roped Despite fedrs of incredsed sexuol violence there wos dctUdlly or reduction in sexuol offences in Denmdrk in the yedr following decrimindlisdtion Findings collecled by psychologisls in l970s on medid effecls suggesled mixed evidence lhdl porn or medid violence would produce hdrmful onlisocidl effecls dllhough lighler reslriclions were subsequenlly pldced on porn in The medid In The US dllhough some CClUSClI reldlionship Ioelween violenl porn dnd dggressive Ioehdviour loword women were esldlolished dny legdl reslriclion wos seen ds violdling free speech Avoildloilily of porn dnd incidence of sex crime dppedr lo hdve lillle dssocidlion Rope in 3 counlries Denmdrk Sweden dnd Germdny hdd incredsed slowly reldlive lo olher violenl dssdulls despile lhe incredse in The produclion dnd dislriloulion of porn during lhdl sdme penod Neverlheless ii is oflen drgues lhdl porn is slill hdrmful lo women whelher il couses men lo dssdull lhem or whelher il simply conlriloules lo mdle domindlion where The femdle form is olojeclified for The Ioenefil of The mole specldlor Wilh inlernel porn children hove Ioecome susceplilole dnd There is d coll for lighler reguldlion of online moleridls Effects and Uses of C hll Porno rd p hy Internet has also brought about increased demand and production of child porn Not only makers are subject to prosecution but so are those caught in possession of such materials In a high profile case l970 glam rocllter Gary Glitter was arrested and convicted for possession of over 4000 indecent images of children on the hard drive of his laptop which included scenes of rape and torture and sentenced to 4 months of jail time The case highlighted the seriousness of child porn use but many are still in denial about the seriousness of the offence failing to see it as harmful hence the lenient sentence often pronounced Are individuals driven to attack children as a result of viewing explicit sexual imagery E m Q l n Q Fe m l h lST over m e n l By l980s wiTh expanded feminisT noTions of female sexualiTy grew a recogniTion ThaT females were equally capable of being aroused by The objecTifying conTenT of porn Madonna was The pop cuTura expression of This movemenT ThaT women wanTed access To The same kinds of sexual represenTaTion as men The pro porn playfulness of Madonna s Sex book i 992 depicTed sex rape fanTasies and suggesTion of beasTiaIiTy This spawned an era of oTher female sTars such a JaneT Jackson BriTney Aguilera and Minogue who aThough did noT malte porn They represenTed a female sexualiTy which delighTed in provocaTive displays of semi nudiTy and self objecTificaTion as did Their female fans m i n isT M v e m e nT As The l990s progressed The feminisT criTics condemned wth They chordcTerised ds rdunch cuTure drguing Tth if wos d loeTrdydl of feminism s dchievemenTs d sTep bdclltword To dn edrlier pre feminisT erd in which women were reduced To being The pldyThings of men A more widespredd dnxieTy focused on The dppdrenTIy decredsing dge of The young women dnd girls who were pdrTicipdTing in This rdunch cuTure ds Teens wenT shopping for The sltimpiesT of Thongs or TdughT Themselves pole ddncing for Their boyfriends CulTurdl seXUdlisdTion iT wds drgued wos ledding To The IndpproprIdTe sexuollsdTIon of children dnd young ddulfs In The loTe 20Th cenTury iT Ioecdme cledr Tth if wos noT jusT The preddTory mole Tth uses porn louT olso gdy menwomen dnd sTrdIghT women dnd couples From IP to Art a sexual representatlon ln noneporn culture There has been a bornographication of mainstream culture the infiltration into the mainstream discourses about born references to born of fashion and music trends influenced by born documentaries on porn Mainstream cinema also engaged in a meta discourse around born in films such as Boogie Nights 1997 and People vs Larry Flynt Such films made in Hollywood with major stars and screened to millions depicted variants of the sex act often in the context of addressing issues around born but without the intentional arousing characteristics of porn itself woom39 COL mu FY EDNA I D HARRE LSON LOVE NO RTON THE PEOPL quot39quot VS39 396 ll 0 I q THE BEST i lCTURE or THE YEARquot 22 From Porn to Art e sexual representation in nonporn culture More recently films made in Europe Asia and Latin America while not pornographic became more and more explicit in their representation of the sex act Egs The Idiots l 997 Romance l 999 Intimacy 200i and A Hole In My Heart 2004 All of them toollt graphic liberties justified as a vehicle for exploring relationships societal attitudes towards disability female sexuality and the nature of the porn industry lvlany produced under the art house label raised few eyebrows So advanced was cultural sexualisation by now that graphic scenes of gaystraight sex masturbation and sadomasochism were of little interest to the broad moviegoing public This trend found its way into big budget mainstream movie industry eg In the Cut 2003 and Ang Lee s Lust Caution 2007 ihe Effecfs of Pornography Experimenfal Findings Findings from viewing porn in fhe lab l General increase in aggression a simple physiological response Parficipanfs gave highesf infensify shocks fo learners affer wafching an erofic non violenf film 2 Affifudes foward rape a Parficipanfs reporfed higher sexual arousal affer lisfening fo sfories feafuring consensual sex fhan fhose feafuring coercive sex alfhough fhis effecf is reduced if fhe female vicfim of coercive sex was pleasured b Rape myfhs Increased exposure fo porn led fo greafer accepfance of myfhs such as only bad girls gef raped a woman can resisf a rapisf if she really wanfs fo women cry rape when jilfed and rapisfs are eifher sex sfarved or insane fhe Effeofs of Pornogrdphy Experimenfdf Findings 3 Desensifisofion As wifh medid violence viewing sexually explioif mdferidl over or long period of fime insfils dn dppefife for ever more exfreme mdferidl ds viewers become bored wifh soffoore confenf As similarly observed wifh drug dddiofs 4 Dissofisfdofion wifh pdrfners lvldle pdrfioipdnfs who hdd viewed slides dnd video of bedufiful models gdve lower rdfings fo fheir redl life pdrfners fhdn did fhose viewing slides of undffrdofive women Also offer 6 weeks of viewing porn bofh mdles dnd femdles reporfed lower sexuol sofisfdofion wifh fheir pdrfner Crifioism of experimende resedroh i Pdrficipdnfs dre offen limifed in ferms of response opfions ie fhe only opfions ovoildble dre fo behdve dggressively When d nondggressive opfion is ovoildble if wos found fhdf mosf of fhem seleofed fhis opfion even offer viewing violenf sex scenes ii Hdrd fo generdlise from resulfs fo redl life uses of porn The Effecfs of Pornography e Nlonexperimenfal Findings 1 2l 3 4 Pom as a funcfional alfemafive To acfual sex cafharfic fool for men in masfurbafion avoids likelihood of confracfing sexual diseases no possibilier of rejecfion especially when resources are scarce and compefifion is high Improve couples sex lives providing menfal and physical sfimulafion or To recharge a flagging relafionship Sexual info source on eg oralanal sex and foreplay In a sfudy quesfionnaires on pornography use wifh 422 male sfudenfs 86 claimed To have used pom af leasf once in The previous monfh 25 had used pom fhaf depicfed fhe rape of a woman 36 used pom feafuring forced sex againsf a woman 28 admiffed To likely using some force To achieve infercourse and l l admiffed fhaf They were capable of carrying ouf an acfual rape The Effecfs of Pornography a Nlonexperimenfal Findings 2quot s fhere a causal relafionship befween pom use and rape Look of porn use among convicfed sex o endem Shorfly before his execufion in 1989 fhe US serial killer Ted Bundy blamed porn for his crimes arguing fhaf if was his addicfion fo pom fhaf fumed him info a murderer Theodore Roberf quotTedquot Bundy Pom like media Violence plays a scapegoaf for wager Americansenombr aggressive behaviour rapisf kidnapper and necrophlle who assaulfed and murdered numerous young Sfudles of sex offenders In general find We supporf women and girls during fhe for fhe pornrape model A negafive relafionship 97Osond poss b y Gamer befween fhe fwo was acfually observed If is an error fo equafe rape wifh sexual arousal as essenfially rape is a violenf crime and can occur as a resulf of viewing violenf media in general regardless of sexual confenf Neverfheless feminisf anfiporn wrifers argue fhaf if is fhe sexual climafe produced by pom fhaf resulfs in abuse againsf women nof jusf a simple causeandeffecf relafionship Gender lssues Overwhelmineg it is men rather than women who use porn Feminist critics maintain that porn is a tool that men used over the centuries to subordinate women There are women who enjoy the same sort of porn as men even the extreme material A study shows that women who admitted to reading porn magazines were more likely to have divorced parents divorced themselves have less positive attachments to their parents and have twice as much sex as nonporn users Women in the porn industry are often viewed as exploited but with Internet porn they are seizing control of their own careers by setting up their own websites Future of porn may well lie with the Internet Apparently there are more website today dedicated to porn stars than to mainstream actors Jenna Jameson a millionaire through porn set up her own online business featuring her own roster of models with 2 million hits a day Teri Weigel set up a successful site where she is filmed constantly by 18 webcams set around her flat and communicates with fans via email Week 1 B Awareness Awareness is The sTOITe or obiliTy To perceive To feel or To be conscious of evenTs objecTs or sensory paHems WOW D39rd you see rdl op Q0 Self Awareness Selfawareness is on undersionding of one s own knowledge oiiiiudes and opinions quotThe xes oF Samunneusssj 1 51 ii We wwwsawaqevuukens cow I WANT GREATER SELF39AWAREIIE L BUT CAN I comNuE To BE UNAWARE OF HY BAD QUALITI39ES l 839 rue 5m 3008 cw 96 ac moc 08 Mass Media Ivldss medid hove enriched our culTurdl lives over The IdsT cenTury in woys Tth could hdve never been imdgined STdTisTicdlly The use of TV hos been widely reporTed We consume medid consTdnle rddio Television inTerneT elecTronic gdmes eTc TV s role in communiching world evenTs is inTegrdl Ivledid hove edrned d dreddful repquTion over The decddes sensdTiondl news reporTing uneThicdl ddverTising pornogrdphy dnd violence These dre fdulT of people noT The medid They use To communiche wiTh one dnoTherB When Thinking dloouT medid one impoernT Thing To noTe is The ddTe humdns hdve very differenT medid experiences in differenT hisToricdl periods m 7 quot7 C 3 39 C 0 Hum 3913 a3 3 Q quotquot1quotquot I v A u gtlt gt39 E g lm 395 g 3 a tumumtmquot u Locum m C s m 39 0 mm a U j m 39D 2 What39s left 10 Years Ago Today 5 Years From Now Offline Media Onl ne Media Psychology Definition Science of behaviour and menTaI processes Media Psychology Definition Impact of mediaTea communication on behaviour and menTaI processes indiviauaIgroupsociefy Media Psychology The study of how people interact with produce and are impacted by Technology and media from traditional mass media to emerging media like the social networks of chebook and Twitter The applied study of what happens when people interact with media as producers distributors and consumers through the lens of psychology Beginnings Only wifhin Idsf 10 15 yedrs hds medid psychology emerged ds d disfincf dnd explicif subdivision of psychology Found ifs roofs wifhin fhe discipline of socidl psychology when Hugo lvlunsferloerg loollted of fhe psychologicdl impdcf of film 1916 LL Thursfon sfudied film s influence on youfhful dudience s lodd loehdviour dene Fund Resedrch 1928 ln 1950s wifh penefrdfion of TV more dffenfion given fo ddverfising dnd TV s pro socidl dnd dnfi socidl effecfs on young dudience Pervasive Effects of Media Today The media shape The way of news gaThering and Transmission and how adverTising ooiTica processescampaigns diplomacy educaTion enTerTainmenT and socialisaTion are conducTed Pervasive use of media sees sTUdies addressing gender condiTioning sexism racism ageism violence and sex Kindred Disciplines OTher disciplines olso look oT The impocT of moss medio oh socieTy eg communicoTioh sTUdies populor culTure sociology oTher psychology subdivisions persoholiTyclihicol sociol psychology TogeTher They offer 0 fuller undersTondihg of The dyhomic ihTerreloTiohship of medlo onol socleTy There is olso 0 need To consider The Timeperiod lmpocT ihculooTioh Threshold ghd syherglsTic effecTs ih oll sTUdles Medium as message Medium irrespecTive of whaT TT is TransmiTTing shapes The way The audience inTeracTs wiTh TT and wiTh The canTenT being TransmiTTed Audience of a new medium musT hence be Trained To decade The message of a medium learn The proper language grammar emaTianaI impacT and reauisiTe senses skills and apTiTudes demanded by The new medium Media Psychology Questions How do media hardware and The informaTion They TransmiT influence The way we Think The way we reIaTe our aTTiTudes values and beliefs aloouT The world How do They shape our use of leisure and work Time limiT or expand our recreaTionaI ouTIeTs and simulTaneoust expand or diminish our world How does The proporTion of mediaTed and direcT world experience change as a funcTion of reliance on communicaTions Technology How does miniaTurisaTion porTaniIiTy and wireless Technology radically Transform The whenwherewhaTwhyhow people communicaTe Information andasor Entertainment 70 80 of users of TV movies or internet do it for purposes of entertainment or relaxation or fulfilling a social function dcguisitionoutredchbonding Film amp TV Dominant media not only entertain but virtual teacher and inspiration machines educate or create dreams hopes and fears through products of pop culture Portrdydls and representations of groups ShortLong term negdtive positive effectsstereotypesself perceptions Impact on learning abilities eg poor reading skills Effective teaching tool drive pdssion direction illumination Incorporate pro socidl messages into storylines more effective than mere PSAs Information andasor Entertainment Now l4 35 year olds spend more time surfing than watching TV Use music camera angles editing lighting colour image size to create impressions and facilitate our suspension of disbelief to become absorbed in fictional stories Print Migration of readers online Studies though show that info recall is higher for print thdn TV Content emphasis shifted to less in depfh coverage more communitybased news Online readers prefer headliners Media as Treatment Delivery Platforms Film therapy using fiction to touch people where they emotionally live and sometimes hurt lhterhet medical sites and medical chat rooms have increased dramatically more knowledgeable and dare to ask improved treatmeht Media amp Crises Phenomenon of disdsler mdrdlnons of inlense medid coverdge of lrogedies eg 91 l Jdpon s nucledr melldown Possible deslruclive consequences on viewers dnd on journdlislic elnics of These lrdumdlic dnd lrdumdlising evenls Videos going virol How To keep public informed wilnoul inflicling more ddmdge r l 739 o k BRLAKI39Nl I i CRASH JAPAN HIT BY89 MAGNITUDE QUAKE A M r A AVquot 39 m MAJ sEN luvhtd annnnso sciontism any quan m 88 magnitudn H56 v 27 70 Business and Citizen Consumers lvledid commercials designed To influence consumers To buy dnd They do iT Through enTeerinmenT progrdmming producT pldcemenT dnd embedding messdges inTo sTorylines lvledid mdnipuldTion is powerful dnd despiTe sdfegudrds The consumer is suscepTible To million dolldr dd cdmpdigns blurring line beTween progrdmme dnd commercidl How is media psychology useful UnolersTonol inTerocTion of people and meolio Technologies in The conTexT of currenT culTure gt To be more owore of now meolio hove become everyoloy life To on exTenT TnoT we frequenle foil To reolise PoTenTioI impocT on eolucoTion neolTncore science business public policy onol enTerToinmenT eg websiTe design for pre scnoolers gomes TnoT promoTe olTruisTic benoviour immersive leorning environmenTs menToI models Teaching Tools online eTc Media psychology is oboul all Thai is human and all Thai is of inleresl lo humans in word insound in image Questons thT do dudiehoes do wiTh medid produoTs Why do They do The Things They do thT medhihgs do medid forms hdve for Them The role Tth medid odys in Their lives How do These dffeoT Them emoTiohdIIy Ioehdviour wisephilosophiodIly Early Annroaches to Media The hisTory of medid research begins in The period leddihg up To World Wdr II when rddio wos loegihhihg To mdke dh impdoT on The oulTurdl ldhdsodpe 2 impoerhT edrly sTUdies The Psychology of Rodio l 935 by thTril dhd AlloorT on possible psychologiodl effeoTs of moss oommuniooTions The Invosioh from Mors A STudy in The Psychology of Pohic T940 by thTril GoudeT dhd Herzog Orson Welles is seen rehearsing his rddio depio rion of HG Wells39 oldssio The War of The Worlds at New nrk Eimw g 0 0 9 0 0 0 Y 0 9 m Radio Listeners in Panic 0 Vt oKK UO H AT OTTUKXR 11 o O 1N Taking War Drama as F act M any Flu Home to Escape 39Cal Raid From Man39 Phone Call Swamp Police at Broadcast of Well Fantasy A one of IL guuoo on quotMan ncs o39ot39v H quotHawu 0 I w H39Inm I U o M D I on tuc uh uh I 39 an o o 39tmoHHOL I H 3 7393 lOt39oOv 397 039 9 Ibo 90 36 Humonto H tanquot quota on Xnn uho oos mm M onquot or unsur I39NOIO no 0 Cr cub 0N J39v rxt39 3 t tn cru hit 30 39 quot3910 0nd 04 o39o39wo O go 0 a Qioo n I 39Do hdof 9039 0M 039 OJ aim gen v on 371090 ovamoo 00 no Mo quotdo 1quot quotcum v0 Mv 04 r I I 00 Iquot h Vowvny 7 H 0 No A39 t o39n39vo I39AI C 08 f own quotto I 39mh I um39c mo Hltun quot 0 quot quotan On Or b 1quot Mn guy u wooc902 390 o u on OQJ39A 9o Early Annroaches to Media A populor meTophor in This period for The psychologicol effecTs of medio wos The hypodermic needle THEORY gt which likened The effecTs lmo Q of propogohdo To oh 1930s m injecTioh of ideologicol mm i quotquot5quotquot blClS ThClT conTomihoTed a mmnmcs quot rodio lisTehers roTher ih The monner of loroihwoshihg Early Approaches to Media Academic liTeraTure in The early days of radio amp TV was largely negaTive mass deoepTion oulTure indusTry anTi inTelleoTualism Some considered iT junk oulTure which would impede The developmenT of auTonomous independenT individuals and arT was under ThreaT from being absorbed by mere enTerTainmenT EnTerTainmenT seen as increasingly filling The gaps of every day life so ThaT people were waTohing TV raTher Than doing noThing subjeoTed To abuse of adverTising and unable To break The spell of viewing l The Elects Tradition Slarled in i930s Focuses on The negalive psychological effecls of media Causal link loelween violenl media and violenl behaviour lO 70s relaled research inlensified Designs referred lo as doseresponse sludies Hypolhesis is Thai The degree of exposure dose is relaled To The amounl of aggression displayed or negalive mood reporled response Typically a group of undergrads was exposed in The media lalo lo undesirable conlenl eg sex violence They lhen performed some olher aclivilies eg compleling a aueslionnaire work logelher on lasllt under oloservalion I The tweets Tradition Behoviourism humans learn Through imi ro rion Allbe Bahdum 19603 g 3000 dun g no TO YOUR CHILD I 71 b I l The Elects Tradition AlloerT Bdndurd l C260s Bobo doll Found Tth children who hdve been exposed To violence live or recorded performed significdnTIy more dggressive dcTs Toword The Bobo doll Thdn Those exposed To nonviolenT deeridI ExciToTion Trdnsfer Theory proposes Tth viewers Ioecome physiologicolly droused by Wchhing dggressive scenes dnd if subsequenle provolted mdy response in on indppropridTer dggressive mdnner due To misdTTriIouTion of The source of Their drousdl CogniTive revquTion effecTs of medid on The ThoughT processes of The individuol memory comprehension Criticisms of Ii ects tradition ln ldter yedrs cognitive psychology exerted or much gredter influence thdn behdviourism so thdt the effects of medid seen more to be moderdted by individuol thought processes dnd persondlity chordcteristics In oddition to dreds of public concern such ds violence resedrchers hove studied the prosocidl effects of educotiondl dnd other medid Sociologist deid Gountlett drgued thdt the term influences is more dppropridte ds it implies or complex interpldy of socidl dnd environmentdl fdctors on behdviour of which medid is one port whereds the term effects ignores wider socidl dnd culturdl contexts dnd suggests thdt the CClUSClI reldtionship between medid dnd humdn behdviour con be studied in isoldtion 2 Cultivaton Desearch Todoy os socieTy becomes increosingly medio soTuroTed iT hos become horder ond horder To disenTongle medio from oTher modern sociol ond culTurol phenomeno Eg on embryonic bond reheorsing in o goroge will require press oTTenTion in order To oTTrocT record compony inTeresT Once The bond is signed successful and underToIlting inTernoTionoI Tours medio concerns conTinue To dominoTe dicToTing To some eXTenT The creoTive oquuT will iT geT ployed on The radio 9 and The band s behoviour hiding from poporozzi ovoiding reporTers This poved The woy for or more globol opprooch To medio effecTs which regords medio os or key elemenT in culTurol sociolisoTion os or whole looking oT The woy in which individuols grow up in or socieTy in which medio heo shope our undersTonding of The world This is known as The culTivoTion Theory or culTivoTion onolysis 2 Cultivaton Desearch 2 key ideas in cullivalion Theory lvlains rreaming differenl cul rural backgrounds and values gradually converge as a resull of inlernalional TV cul rure eg imporled US con ren r cul rural imperialism Resonance media simply ac rs lo reinforce people s reallife expenences lvlos r cullivalion research uses viewing pallerns as a key measure comparing heavy and lighl viewers on various scales lvlos r of The research uses survey melhods such as aueslionnaires diaries elc 3 Uses 8 Grati cations Desearch Unlike culfivofion fheow fhis dred of research focused on individuol differences dmong viewers If sfudies how dnd why people use medid in generdl Kofz Blumler dnd Gurevifch 1974 idenfified 5 dssumpfions of UampG resedrch l lvledid use is gool direcfed dnd purposive 2 lvledid is used fo grofify wonfs dnd needs 3 Effecfs need To be sfudied fhrough d filfer of persondlify individuol differences dnd environmenf fdcfors 4 There is d compefifion loefween medid use dnd ofher forms of communicdfion 5 lvlosf of fhe fime fhe use is in confrol 3 Uses amp Gratin esea mh A number of opprooohes 1 Dependency Theory Boll Rokeooh amp DeFIeur 1989 2 Expeoronoy volue Theory Polmgreen Wenner amp Roylourn 1980 enendency 11130 In or medidsdturdted world people hove come to depend hedvily on medid outlets for informdtion dbout dll mdnners of topics We develop dependency reldtions with medid in 3 key woys gt Information Eg wedtner forecost Most of us will hove or further level of dependency in thdt we will trust oertdin wedther bulletins more thdn others gt Orientation either in terms of option eg deciding to go on or diet or interdotions how to dedl with sooidl sitUdtions gt Opportunities for pldy either for solitdry reldthion or sooidl dotivity such ds visiting the cinemd Exnectancv Value Theory According fo fhis fheory we wofch TV shows fhdf we expecf will fulfill our needs eg wofch d sifcom fo be enferfdined dnd dlso ones fhdf we volue highly our friends recommend if Then we weigh up how well fhose needs hove been grdfified did we ldughB Were we offended in order fo mdllte d decision fo reoedf fhe loehdviour in fhe fufure If our expecfdncies dre ledys mef we esfdlolish odfferns of hdloifUdl medid use eg dddicfed fo d sodo operd The Active Audience Sees media users as social groups Thai are slrongly influenced by media loul far from passive Encodingdecoding of media messages are diclaled loy audience social and cullural characlerislics Lalerworllts Jenkins 1992 credil The audience wilh much more inlerprelalive power media producls viewed nol as polilical propaganda dislurloing imagery loul as cullural malerial from which viewersreaders can conslrucl idenlilies eg Slar Trellt fans Deseai ch Methods With such a diverse range of theoretical approaches to media research it is not surprising that there is little agreement on methodology The Experimental Tradition Survey Methods Qualitative Approaches Analysis of Media Texts The Exnerimental Tradition Research wos only Token seriously if if ddhered To The rigid conTrols of experimenToTion compleTe conTrol over confounding vorioble ThoT is noT The focus of sTudy buT correloTes wiTh The dependenTindependenT voriobles voriolbles roIndom olllocoITion of poIrTicipdnTs To TredTmenT oInd conTrol groups dTTenTion To The design of experimeanl moTerioIs eTc The Classic effecTs sTudy is or preTesTposTTesT experimenTol design wiTh one conTrol group end one or more TreoITmenT groups Eg TreoITmenT group onches or film clip wiTh violenT oIcTion while conTrol onches oI neuTroII clip PdrTicipoInTs were TesTed on The some meoIsure eg mood invenTory or physiologicol meosure or dTTiTude scole before dnd offer The screening Then or sToTisTicoII TesT is used To find ouT wheTher The film hos produced or significoInT chonge in ThoT meoIsure for The TreoITmenT group a m ems Ihe Exnerimental Iramtmn Moer common woy of iesiing for signifioonoe is To do onolysis of vorionoe ANOVA Mean Score on Mood Inventory High Positive Before Film Preiesi Afier Film Posiiesi Treoimeni Group 35 18 Conirol Group 33 34 Hypoiheiicol Doio From on Effecis Experimeni file Exnerimen m irad itlon Mean score on mood inventory 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Treatmewnt Gimp Control Grp Pretest Posttest Lineplof of means for hypofheficol example Crtcsms of Exnermenta Approach 1 External validity To whdt extent cdn the findings be dpplied to the behdviour studied especidlly when subjects dre ldrgely students in drtificidl Idb environments Furthermore ds ethics procedures begdn to tighten up in the 1970s following the controversy surrounding studies like Ivlilgrdm s obedience experiments dnd Zimbdrdo s prison study the medsures of behdviours like dggression dnd violence become incredsingly tdme But universdl behdviourdl ldws still dpply people will displdy the some cognitive dnd dffective responses under dny conditions use more redlistic stimuli widen subject pool Criticisms of Exnerimental Approach 2 Statistical significance The whole research process mdy be driven by or desire to support or specific hypothesis More dttention given to studies showing significdnt medid effects of the expense of reporting those with null effects other Uses of Exneriments in Medan Psycholony To examine physiological effecTs of media eg pulse raTe brain acTiviTy eTc To record overT behaviour eg eyes on screen measure of aTTenTion To Television CogniTive processing of media maTerial such as newspaper headlines or adverTisemenTs eg recall for differenT Types of news conTenT cogniTive load on media processing and reacTion Time Social psychology percepTual responses eg faces seen in close ups are responded To more inTensely Than Those seen in smaller scale dualiTy of media sTimuli gender voice personaliTy of media figures and gender sTereoTyping eg paired associaTion of gender and parTicular behaviours other Uses of Exneriments in Medan Psycholony Field Experiments In addition to laboratorybased studies media researchers have also used experimental designs to carry out fieldwork in natural settings Eg media violence studies in the 1970s were carried out using relatively controlled environments such as young offenders institutions Natural Experiments Do not confused field experiments with natural experiments in which researchers use naturally occurring behaviour as the basis for statistical analysis eg introduction of television into new environments These designs lack the control of lab studies but make up for this by their enhanced ecological validity However establishing causation is nearly impossible in natural settings where there are many confounding variables in operation Survey Methods As opportunities to corry out noturol experiments ore rore we hove to resort to more contrived methods of doto collection to study everydoy experiences of medio The survey method is the principol tool of cultivotion reseorch Study ossociotions or relotionships omong 0 number of meosured dependent voriobles Eg questionnoire thot meosures demogrophic info obout respondents ogegenderethnicity olong with quontifioble info obout medio use omount of TV wotched no of mogozines bought no of hours spent on internet meosures the degree of ossociotion between 2 voriobles the correlotion coefficient r Bivoriote vs multivoriote correlotions in reolistic settings Survey Methods 90 80 3970 60 50 40 30 20 10 Age 05 05 15 25 351 Hours Spent Surfing the Web Dailiy Scatterplot of hypothetical negative association between age and Internet use 39 v Sun9y Methods Sample selecTion sampling ThaT is represenTaTive of The overall populaTion eg age gender eThniciTy ExcepT in depTh sTudies wiTh smaller groups over long periods where richness of daTa overTalltes represenTaTion QuesTionnaire usually used An alTernaTive approach To measuring audience acTiviTy is To Track media use as and when iT happens Eg diaries l980s onwards people meTer used To Track viewing habiTs Survey Methods One crilicism of people melers is lnal viewers may forgel lo swilcn lnem on and off especially during long viewing period Diaries and olher self reporl Techniques may be prone ro seleclive dala possibly for social desiraloilily faclors eg a 50 year old falner wno doesn l wanl lo admil lnal ne religiously lunes in lo walcn Korean dramas In defence of ralings il could be argued lnal They have auile nigh lesl relesl relialoilily Duaitative Annroaches Quantitative research control and predict human behaviour Qualitative research seeks an understanding of human behaviour In media psychology qualitative research looks at the meanings that media hold for their users for both individuals and groups A few qualitative methods interviews one to one focus group ethnography stay with participants under observation use of archival data Analysis of Media iexts Research on media maierials Themselves has been imporTanT and cenrral pari of European media research As wirh audience research Texrs have been siuaiea boih auanrirarively and aualiiarively Content analysis Discourse analysis Analyss of Medan iexts Content analysis Quantitative approach To investigate the nature of media representations eg ethnic groups and the different texts to be covered eg different genres of TV shows Count frequency of occurrence Eg appearance of men and women in beer and food advertisements If we want to argue that television ads or shows are sexist we must carefully define what we mean by sexist and then study the ads or shows to see if they fit those criteria If we are studying how much violence is on TV we must carefully define operational definition what we mean by a violent act Without that we will not know what acts to count Analyss of Meda iexts Discourse analysis Qualitative approach InTeresTed in The meaning of Tesz raTher Than in simply counTing The frequency of occurrence GenderadverT Type analysis may look inTeresTing buT The figures alone do noT possess any explanaTory power Concerned wiTh language use and TexT embedded in a varieTy of social prdcTices Tth TogeTher consTiTuTe a version of realiTy 39 0 v v v 0 O 2 4 m Conclusions It is important to regard all the methods as complementary Experiments can tell us useful things about media and psychology Questionnaires interviews observations and textual analysis both quantitative and qualitative are essential for full understanding LI Psychological Principles BM0668 Week 2 What is Psychology Derives from rools psyche meaning mind and logos meaning word Scienlific sludy of behaviour and mental processes Behaviour is anylning we do Talking sleeping blinking or reading Menlal processes are our privale inlernal experiences Thougnls perceplions feelings memories or dreams What is Psychology Emphasis placed on i empirical evidence or informalicn acquired by airecl observalicn and measuremenl using syslemalic scienlific melncas ii critical thinking process of objeclively evalualing comparing analysing and synlnesising info Goals of Psychology 1 Description Tells wnal occurred Allempl To describe or name and classify parlicular behaviours by making careful scienlific oloservalions eg Boys are more aggressive inan girls Requires specific definilion of aggressive 2 Explanation Tells why a behaviour or menial process occurred Explaining ii depends on discovering and underslanding ils causes eg aggression reporls numerous inleracling causes including cullure learning genes hormones elc Goals of Psychology 3 Prediction ideniifying The condi39 which d fuiure behdviour or men39 ionsunder 39dl process is iltey To occur eg Knowing ihd39 quotth more fighis wi erupi when d di sporis mdiches ihdn when if is 4 Change Bringing dboui desired 39dlcohol edds To incredsed dggression we cdn predici Icohol is sold noi pod ve gOdls eg improve work environmeni or fdmily reldiionships siop dddiciive behdviours Psychological Science A Brief H istory Wilhelm WundT l 832 T920 Origins of Psychology Wilhelm WUth crediTed as faTher of experimenTaI psychology when he esTainshed The 1 lab for psychological research in 1879 aT The UniversiTy of Leipzig in Germany He separaTed psychology from philosophy by analysing The workings of The mind in a more sTrucTured way wiTh The emphasis being on objecTive measuremenT and conTroI This marked psychology as an independenT field of sTudy making iT possible for oTher scienTisTs To replicaTe his experimenTs elsewhere a developmenT ThaT proved essenTiaI To The developmenT of psychology as a modem scienTific discipline Origins of Psychology Wilhelm WunolT sTuolieol conscious experience how we form sensoTions images and feelings Chief meThodoIogy inTrospecTion ie moniToring 0nd reporTing on The conTenTs of consciousness eg lisTen To sound of Cl clicking meTronome 0nd reporT on your immedioTe reocTion To Them ie bosic sensoTionsfeeling WundT39s meThool of inTrospecTion did noT remoin Cl fundemenTol Tool of psychological experimenToTion posT The early 192039s His greoTesT conTribuTion was To show ThoT psychology could be Cl volid experimenToI science STrucTural Perspective One of WundT39s sTudenTs Edward B TiTchener formally esTablished sTrucTuralism The analysis of The basic elemenTs ThaT consTiTuTe The mind le iT focused on breaking down menTal processes inTo The mosT basic componenTs or building blocks or sTrucTures of The mind Edward B TiTchener l 867 T927 TiTchener believed ThaT The elemenTs of conscious experience combined To form The compounds of The mind To form The whole of experience Structural Perspective Criticisms of Structuralism By today s scientific standards the experimental methods used to study the structures of the mind were too subjective the use of introspection led to a lack of reliability in results Other critics argue that structuralism was too concerned with internal behaviour which is not directly observable and cannot be accurately measured Functional Perspective FuncTionalism formed as a reacTion To The sTrucTuralism Influenced by The work of William James and The evoluTionary Theory of Charles Darwin William James 18421910 FuncTionalisTs soughf To explain The menTal processes in a more sysTemaTic and accuraTe manner RaTher Than focusing on The elemenTs of consciousness funcTionalisTs focused on The purpose of consciousness and behaviour eg why do you have anger whaT funcTion does 1T serve FuncTionalism also emphasised individual differences which had a profound impacT on educaTion Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud 18561939 Founder Sigmund Freud on AusTridn bhysicion who wos fdscinoTed by The mind s influence on behoviour dnd bhysicol body Physicdl combloinTs hove bsychologicol bdsis due To conflicTs beTween whoT They believe To be occedeble behoviour dnd Their unoccedeble moTives of primorin o sexuol or dggressive noTure These conflicTs dnd moTives were The driving forces behind behoviour BuT They ore hidden in The unconscious Hence we mdy develop bhysicol combloinTs or do dnd soy Things wiThouT recognising our True underlying moTives Psychoanalytic Perspective According to Freud personality is composed of 3 elements The id basic needs driven by the pleasure principle which strives for immediate gratification of all desires wants and needs If these needs are not satisfied immediately the result is a state anxiety or tension For eg a need to eat when hungry The ego dealing with reality The ego operates based on the reality principle which strives to satisfy the id39s desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways The superego adding moral values The superego acts to perfect and civilise our behaviour It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles According to Freud the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id the ego and the superego The Id I wa H12 chmmlate Ea ta Small b3 r inf Eh lat Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud also believed Thai early childhood experiences help shape our aduli personaliiies and behaviour To deal wiih These unconscious conflicis and early childhood influences Freud developed a form of psychoiherapy called psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic Perspective Crilicisms Uhsciehlific approach relies Too much on amloiguilies for ils aala such as dreams and free associaliohs Over emphasis on sexual and aggressive impulses Carl Jung and Erik Erikson among Those who broke away Psychoanalytic Perspective Carl Jung 1875 1961 Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiaTrisT who became a follower of Freud in early l900s parTicularly supporTing his Theory of The unconscious and meThods of dream analysis However his Theory diverged from Freud39s sexually charged analysis To a wider encompassing focus of The unconscious rooTed in spiriTuaIiTy Founded his own Theory AnalyTical Psychology which sTaTes ThaT The mind consisTs of The conscious and The unconscious wiTh unconscious being furTher caTegorised as The personal unconscious and The collecTive unconscious The personal unconscious consisTs of forgoTTen or repressed experiences The collecTive unconscious conTains The cumulaTive experiences of previous generaTions and forms The basis of personaliTy His concest of inTroversion and exTraversion have conTribuTed To personaliTy psychology The conscious is cenTered on The ego which forms one39s percepTions memory ThoughTs and feelings Psychoanalytic Perspective Erik Eriksn 19021994 Erik Erikson was a German born American developmental psychologist known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings While teaching at a private school in Vienna he became acquainted with Anna Freud the daughter of Sigmund Freud Erikson underwent psychoanalysis and the experience made him decide to become an analyst himself While he was influenced by Freud39s ideas Erikson39s theory differed in a number of important ways Freud claimed that personality is determined by the age of five but Erikson s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan in 8 stages of development Erikson suffered from his own identity crisis which led to his development of identity crisis concept which states that an identity crisis is a necessary stage in development that accompanies the growth of an appropriate identity son39s Theory of Social Developmen Stage Basic Important Outcome Conflict Events Infancy birth to 18 Trust vs Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when months Mistrust caregivers provide reliabilty care and affection A lack of this will lead to mistrust Early Childhood 2 Autonomy Toilet Children need to develop a sense of personal to 3 years vs Shame Training control over physical skills and a sense of and Doubt independence Success leads to feelings of autonomy failure results in feelings of shame and doubt Preschool 3 to 5 initiative vs Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and years Guilt power over the environment Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval resulting in a sense of guilt School Age 6 to 11 Industry vs School Children need to cope with new social and years inferiority academic demands Success leads to a sense of competence while failure results in feelings of inferiority Adolescence 12 to identity vs Social Teens needs to develop a sense of self and 18 years Role Relationships personal identity Success leads to an ability to Confusion stay true to yourself while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self Yound Adulthood 19 intimacy vs Relationships Young adults need to form intimate loving to 40 years Isolation relationships with other people Success leads to strong relationships while failure results in loneliness and isolation Middle Adulthood 40 to Generativity Work and Adults need to create or nurture things that will 65 years vs Parenthood outlast them often by having children or Stagnation creating a positive change that benefits other people Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment while failure results in shallow involvement in the world Maturity 65 to Ego Reflection on Older adults need to look back on life and feel a death integrity vs Life sense of fulfillment Success at this stage leads Despair to feelings of wisdom while failure results in regret bitterness and despair Behavioural Perspective Russian physiologisl Ivan Pavlov s concebl of conailioning To explain how behaviour resulls from observable slimuli and observable responses ie dog salivalion experimenl 391V54giolv gg WATCH WHAT I CAN MAKE PAVLOV Do P6 soon AS I DROOL HEM 5mm AND wane j 39 lN His HT YLE 890K Behavioural Perspective In America John B Wolson buill 0 new school of psychology lholl he colleol behoviourism ground Povlov s clossicol conolilioning He believed slruclurolism onol psychoonolySiS JZW T C1 son were unsCIenllfIc experimenl 1878 1958 Emphosises objeclive observoIble environmenloll influences on overl behoviour The cenlroll idea is lhol oll oIclions ore olcquireol Through conolilioning processes Conolilioning occurs lhrough inleroclion wilh lhe environmenl Behoviourisls believe lhol our responses lo environmenloll slimuli shapes our behoviours Behavioural Perspective quotTwelve infanTsquot auoTaTion Give me a dozen heaIThy infanTs wellformed and my own specified world To bring Them up in and I39ll guaranTee To Take any one aT random and Train him To become any Type of specialisT I mighT selecT docTor lawyer arTisT merchanTchief and yes even beggarman and Thief regardless of his TalenTs penchanTs Tendencies abiliTies vocaTions and race of his ancesTors John WaTson 1930 His mosT famous and conTroversiaI experimenT LiTTle AlberT ExperimenT Behavioural Perspective B F Skinner wos o prominenl loenovlourisl who focused primorlly on leorning now loenovlours ore ocquireol Used ologs rols pigeons onol olner nonhumon onimols for loenoviour sluoly B FSkner 19041990 Successful in lreoling people wiln overl problems eg pnoloios onol olconolism Classical vs Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning First described by Ivan Pavlov a First described by B F Skinner an Russian physiologist American psychologist Involves placing a neutral stimulus Involves applying reinforcement or eg the sound of a bell before a punishment after a behaviour reflex Passive learning focuses on Active learning focuses an involuntary automatic behaviours strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviours Today both classical and operant conditioning are utilised for a variety of purposes by teachers parents psychologists animal trainers and many others Humanist Perspective HumonisTic psychology emerged during The i950s os o reocTion To psychoanalysis onol Ioehoviourism ConTrosTeol wiTh psychoonolysTs onol IoehoviourisTs who sow humon Ioehoviour os shopeol onol oleTermineol oy exTernoI couses beyond personol conTroI HumonisT Thinkers feIT ThoT ooTh psychoonolysis onol Ioehoviourism were Too pessimisTic eiTher focusing on The mosT Trogic of emoTions or foiling To Tolte inTo occounT The role of personol choice Humanist Perspective Humdhislio psychology st ihsledd focused on edoh ihdividUdl39s polehlidl dhd slressed lhe imporldhoe of growlh dhd self dolUdlisdlioh The fUhddmehldl belief is lhdl people dre ihhdlely good dhd lhdl mehldl dhd SOClClI problems resull from devidliohs from This hdlurdl lehdehoy Cdrl Rogers dhd Abrdhdm lvldslow believed lhdl dll ihdividUdls hdlurdlly slrive lo grow develop dhd move loword self dolUdlisdlioh Cdrl Rogers Abrdhdm Ivldslow 19021987 1908 1970 Humanist Perspective CriTicisms HumohisTic Theories ore Too hoively opTimisTic onol foil To provide ihsighT No The evil side of humoh hoTure HumohisTic Theories like psychoonolyTic Theories connoT be eosily TesTeol Mohy cohcest ih humohisTic psychology like ThoT of The self ocTuoliseol persoh ore vogue ohol sulojecTive Some criTics orgue ThoT This cohcepT moy reflecT Moslow s own volues onol ioleols HumohisTic psychology is loioseol Toworol iholivioluolisTic volues Humanist Perspective ln l2 Abraham lvlaslow published Toward a Psychology of Being in which he described humanisTic psychology as The quotThird forcequot in psychology The firsT and second forces were behaviourism and psychoanalysis respecTively IT is noT necessary To Think of These Three schools of ThoughT as compeTing elemenTs Each branch of psychology has conTribuTed To our undersTanding of The human mind and behaviour HumanisTic psychology added yeT anoTher dimension ThaT Takes a more holisTic view of The individual Cognitive Perspective 1950s present Until the 19505 behaviourism was the dominant school of thought in psychology Between 1950 and l970 the tide began to shift against behavioural psychology to focus on topics such as attention memory and problem solving Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think perceive remember and learn Cognitive Perspective 1950s present How is Cognifive Psychology olifferenf Unlike loehoviourism which focuses only on oloservolole loehoviours cognifive psychology is concerned wifh infernol menfol sfofes Unlike psychoonolysis which relies heovily on sulojecfive percepfions cognifive psychology uses scienfific reseorch mefhools fo sfuoly menfol processes Cognitive Perspective 1950s present Jean Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development To Piaget cognitive development was a progressive reorganisation of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental expenence Jean Piaget 18 1980 Practical applications for cognitive research include improving memory increasing decision making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning NeuroscienceBiopsychology Perspective Biopsychology analyses how The brain and neuroTransmiTTers influence our behaviours ThoughTs and feelings lT had a sTrong hisTory of conTriIouTing To The undersTanding of medical disorders I v 3 1 including Those ThaT fall under The purview of Donald Hebb A clinical psychology 1904 1985 Donald Olding Helolo was a Canadian psychologisT who was influenTial in The area of neuropsychology where he soughT To undersTand how The funcTion of neurons conTribuTed To psychological processes such as learning NeuroscienceBiopsychology Perspective Bosic ossumplions Psychology should be seen os 0 science To be sluolieol in o scienlific monner usuolly in o loborolory Behoviour con be lorgely exploineol in Terms of biology eg geneshormones Humon genes hove evolved over millions of yeors lo oolopl behoviour To The environmenl Therefore mosl behoviourwill hove on oolopliveevolulionory purpose Evolutionary Perspective The history of evolutionary psychology began with Charles Darwin who proposed that humans have social instincts that evolved by natural selection Behaviours that contribute to survival will be passed on through the genes to the next generation Psychologists have recently applied Darwin39s theory in explaining how the human mind evolved to benefit the individual From this point of view complex aspects of human behaviour and experience including language memory and consciousness dII evolved because of their adaptive fitness t hv Charlesin 1809 1882 Sociocultural Perspective SocioculTurdl Theory is d emerging Theory in psychology Tth looks dT The impoernT conTribuTions Tth socieTy mdltes To individuol developmenT Emphdsises socidl inTerdcTions dnd culTurdl deTermindnTs of behdviour dnd meanl processes 2 L y T k chTors such ds eThnIcITy rellglon occupdTlon 396 910934 dnd socioeconomic cldss hdve d psychologicdl impdcT SocioculTurdl Theory grew from The work of psychologisT Lev VygoTsky who believed Tth pdrenTs cdregivers peers dnd The culTure dT ldrge were responsible for The developmenT of higher order funcTions Structural Func onal Psychoanalytic Behavioural Humanist Cognitive NeuroscienceBiopsychology Evolutionary Sociocultural Maern persec ves Many appraches one unifying theme Valuable insigni from each bui na ONE view has all The answers so combine several lvlare widely accepiea unifying Theme is The biopsychosocial BPS maael biopsychosocial framework an approach to describing and explaining how biological psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence physical and mental health Psychological teor39l39tig 0 memory 0 emotions 0 l rrfepiim S 0 hlnkmg 0 beliefs 0 muses 0 S39ress management 39 w rv 39 5 meate t it I if l I Biological r39 3cm 1347 itquot I o i n 1 0 cm 39 071mg t tl 39 39Cgtquot Cgtf l39 39Q39iil 73718 l 9 0 39 quot quot Iw 0 Jtlrclt39gdrrm HemI39m I l a 139 93 ECCt lflt T 3mm 39 Cili tvti m 39 C39i39quot v39539C l 9391 quot3933 0 tlJTCajttizr Biopsychosocial Perspective Views The inferrelofeol influences of loiologicol processes eg genefics loroin funcfions neurofronsmiffers evolufion psychologicol focfors eg leorning Thinking emofion personolify mofivofion onol sociol forces eg fomily culfure efhnicify sociol closs polifics This infegrofive model proposes fhof oll 3 forces offecf onol ore offecfeol by one onofher onol lnseporolole
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