Last 6 notes of Media Psychology
Last 6 notes of Media Psychology
Popular in Media Psychology
Popular in Communication
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Pl 0SOCi l EiieClS 0i MB i Week 6 Prosocial vs Media Violence If meaia violence can be cilea as a causal faclor in aggressive behaviour Then The reverse could also hold lrue viewing orosocial behaviour should make us hicer To one aholherZ Perceplual ahol coghilive resoohses To TV slimuli should hold lrue whalever The programme cohlehl eg allruism in a slory could prime us To show acls of kindness e i d V T 0 I e H C e Prsocidi vs Research on orosocia media has lagged behind ThaT on anTisociaI media bUT There is a body of IiTeraTure on orosocia media effecTs ThaT is noT dissimilar To research on media violence in Terms of Theory and meThodoIogy Ah imoorTanT difference beTween The anTisociaI and prosocial effecTs of media is ThaT The former are amosT invariably accidenTaI The primary funcTion of mosT violenT media is enTerTainmenT noT viewer aggression On The oTher hand media producers freauenTIy seT oUT To creaTe maTeriaIs ThaT will have oosiTive long Term benefiTs on consumers h l S pro 3 C i Q l b h Cl V l U r 3 Prosooidl bendviour nds been defined by Penner el dl 2005 ds d brodd oolegory of gels indl dre defined by some signifiodnl segmenl of sooiely dndor one s sooidl group ds generdlly benefioidl To olner people Benefioidl bendviours dre generdlly dssooidled wiln kind dllruislio individuols lypiodlly helping dnolner person in difficully or dislress Much prosooidl medid seems To ndve dn eduodliondl dim from progrdmmes dimed of developing young children s voodbuldry dnd number skills To public nedlln dereness oompdigns indl seellt To encourdge nedllny bendviours ExperimenTl rsedrch on One of The edrliesT sTudies of medid dnd prosocidl loehdviour concerned The US show The WdITons d l970s fdmily lodsed drdmd wiTh sTrong mordl overTones Groups of 7 To 9 yedr old children were shown clips from The show Tth fedTured eiTher cooperdTive non cooperdTive or neuTrdl loehdviours Then on dssocidTe of The experimenTer wolllted pdsT The room dnd dropped d pile of books Children who hdd onched The cooperdTive scenes were more likely To offer help To The dssocidTe dnd more quickly Thdn children in oTher groups Bdrdn eT dl l979 Experimeth rsearch arl GehTile eT al 2009 gaT college sTuaehTs To play vialehT heuTral ar prasacial games and Then gaT Them To ihTeracT in a puzzle campleTiah Task Those who played The prasacial games were more likely To help aTher parTicipahTs Ta campleTe puzzles while Those in The vialehT cahaiTiah were more likely Ta selecT difficulT punles far The aThers OTher experimehTal research has explored prasacial caghiTiahs raTher Thah behaviours feelings of empaThy in response To media characTers NOT 0th mighT prasacial meaia praviae models for people To imiTaTe They may also prime mare pasiTive caghmahs i ii iii id Educational Med Sesame Street is one of the most researched as it was designed with deliberate prosocial aims First aired in 1969 still running today in over 140 countries many with localised versions ts aims were Educate preschoolers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds about the alphabet and number system Promote racial harmony Encouraged parents to watch with children Studies showed that frequency of viewing was a good predictor of vocabulary knowledge children s later performance in science and math and of nonracist attitudes and behaviour Parental mediation discussion about the show s contents also enhanced the effect of viewing SESAMSTHMI HOOR WIE KLOPT DEAR KINDEREN en andere hits ult Sesamstraat Social lssue Awareness Appeal in fhe world s media for charify have successfully raised money for needy cause mosfly famine relief Powerful images of fhe vicfims are offen used fo visually represenf fhe impoverishmenf The Live Aid appeal in midl 9803 was inifiafed by Irish pop sfar Bob Geldof as a mulfiarfisf charify pop single affer news reporfs of appalling droughf condifions in thiopia Two concerfs were sfaged in UK and USA and raised over 100 million for fhe famine vicfims This was followed by We Are fhe World anofher charify single wriffen by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie for Africa This sef in mofion many ofher similar fund raisers Singapore s Presidenf s Sfar Charify Ren Ci and NKF charify shows have also raised subsfanfial amounfs for fhe less forfunafe in sociefy l l ll Hi i l s v I L I nu 39o V 39 f H 39 39 H I 1 quot J39x 39 gr sf mul L39 aquot Iquot n 39 39 a quot 5 39 v 39 39 39 A r A g g i Wee i v 39 1 I r i g leh Awr SS lnformaTional power of media To promoTe desirable behaviour has been harnessed by healTh auThoriTies and agencies for Their campaigns on road safeTy cancer risks smoking and HIVAIDS How effecTive are These campaigns A loT depends on The Type of info ThaT is being communicaTed For eg cervical and mammography screening campaigns in AusTralia and US where The adverTisemenTs presenTed several popular excuses associaTe wiTh cervical screening such as I m Too old To need a Pap smear followed by The slogan Don T make excuses make an appoinTmenT acTually backfired While iT goT The message across iT also lowered The women s selfefficacy in ThaT They used The excuses offered To avoid The TesTs raTher Than galvanised Them inTo Taking The necessary sTeps To be TesTed How effective are these campaigns OFHm mum39 l Do it for her t 1 Mental Health Problems Affect 1 in 4 People Do it for yourself 1 S Cervical health is not something you think about every day and you l o shouldn t need to That s why a regular Pap test HPV testing and the d Awareness Isn39t a Cure It s a Start WIN POINTS HPV vaccine are so important Think about your cervical health today so every other day you dOn39t have to January is Cervical Health Awareness Month World Mentali eallihBayo 10 October o wwwmenuhallhmgmk r Set the example of health for everyone you love and sign up for your early detection cervical cancer screening today More information is available online at VAemployeewellnesscom Or call us today 18885551256 Trap the germs by using your handkerchigf39 I t N VA Employee Wellness Program Wellness Is Now ADANCE E39 quot TRANSFOHMING POTENTIA mm PERFORMANCE a Department oi Vealans Affairs Eat your vegetables lg w Nair r39 1 39il t prevent knitnth f39 1 Alzheimer s 9 YA Q OI l Heleh AWdren Smoking is probdbly The besT edeple There is of d True medid effecT lvledid Trends hove eiTher fuelled or doused The ooouldriTy of smoking In The edrly yedrs of Hollywood rdTes of smoking rose drddeicdlly owing To The gldmourising effecT of dcTors dnd dcTresses smoking in films BuT during The ldTer quorTer of The 20Th cenTury ds heleh risllts dssocidTe wiTh smollting become d mdjor concern governmenTs worldwide were commiTTed To reducing The incidence of smoking CigdreTTe ddverTising wos resTricTed dnd evenTuolly prohibiTed while The ddngers of smoking were cdmpdigned Screen chdrdcTers dre noT seen lighTing up in mdny counTries l5powerful dnTismoking dds Eg of on inTerdcTive cdmpdign cycles Education Throu Entertainment Pay If Forward is a 2000 American drama film based on the novel of the same name by Catherine Ryan Hyde It was directed by Mimi Leder and written by Leslie Dixon A young boy attempts to make the world a better place after his teacher gives him that chance The energetic and idealistic boy decides he will do a good deed for three people something they can39t do for 39 WA themselves and then will ask each one of them to quotpay it forwardquot by doing A similarly difficult big favours for three 39 o ers It s a film of kindness generosity warmth and gratitude EclquTion Through EnTeerinrnenT When posiTive socidl messages dre embedded in ndrrdTive Tesz lillte drdmdsOdps They cdn hdve d sulosTdnTidl impdcT even if only on public dereness of impoernT issues Soops dre found dcross The conTinenTs dnd cdn fedTure sTonlines Tth dre explicile prosocidl eg locol ordcTices dowry in lndid heleh issues HIV prevenTion glolodl concerns green movemenT EffecTiveness mdy vow from projecT To projecT Show Hdnd Chdnnel U A fdmily sTruggles wiTh The lures of gdmbling If d pdrenl is on hdnd lo expldin some of The more difficull or dislurbing scenes d child wilnesses on TV or video This mdy help blun r dny negdlive effecls ThClT occur during lone viewing by consoliddling lhe prosocidl or edUCdliondl conlenl 4 medidlion slyles d Non medidlors co view wilh children bul don l discuss conlenl lo Oplimisls generdlly lrusling of TV so commenls moslly posilive on The conlenl c Pessimisls don l redlly lrusl TV so commenls dre generdlly negdlive dnd Wdlch less prime lime TV d Seleclives more or less edUdl bdldnce of negdlive dnd posilive conlribulions DEVEMDPMEN I AL ISSUES IN MEDIA e r Do you still remember these theories Chill dev Psychoanalytic Child Development Theories lopmnt fheri S A Sigmund Freud The theories proposed by Sigmund Freud stressed the importance of childhood events and experiences but almost exclusively focused on mental disorders rather that normal functioning According to Freud child development is described as a series of 39psychosexual stages In Three Essays on Sexuality 1915 Freud outlined these stages as oral anal phallic latency and genital Each stage involves the satisfaction of a libidinal desire and can later play a role in adult personality If a child does not successfully complete a stage Freud suggested that he or she would develop a fixation that would later influence adult personality and behaviour C h ill dl ev 1 Oral BirTh To 1 Year During The oral sTage The infanT39s primary source of inTeracTion occurs Through The mouTh Oral fixaTion can resulT in problems wiTh drinking eaTing smoking or nail biTing 2 Anal 1 To 3 Years During The anal sTage Freud believed ThaT The primary focus of The libido was on conTrolling bladder and bowel movemenTs If parenTs are Too sTricT or begin ToileT Training Too early Freud believed ThaT an analreTenTive personaliTy develops in which The individual is sTringenT orderly rigid and obsessive This is in conTrasT wiTh analrepulsive personaliTy in which one is reckless careless defianT and disorganised 3 Phallic 3 To 6 Years During The phallic sTage The primary focus of The libido is on The geniTals AT This age children also begin To discover The differences beTween males and females In a girl a phallic sTage fixaTion mighT lead To a girl becoming a woman who conTinually sTrives To dominaTe men eiTher as an unusually seducTive woman or as an unusually submissive woman In a boy a phallic sTage fixaTion mighT be conducive To becoming a vain over ambiTious man Chll dev nT Theri lopm 4 LaTency 6 To PuberTy During The ldTenT period The libido inTeresTs dre suppressed The developmenT of The ego dnd superego conTribUTe To This period of colm The snge begins ground The Time Tth children enTer inTo school dnd become more concerned wiTh peer reldTionships hobbies dnd oTher inTeresTs There dre noT usUdlly fiXdTions dssocidTed wiTh The LdTenT Snge probdbly becouse There isn39T much going on in Terms of psychosexuol developmenT However There hdve been suggesTions Tth problems of This snge con resulT in difficulTy in feeling comfoerble wiTh members of The opposiTe sex 4 GeniTal PuberTy onwards During The findl snge of psychosexuol developmenT The individUdl develops d sTrong sexuol inTeresT in The opposiTe sex This snge begins during puberTy buT IdsT ThroughouT The resT of d person39s life As in The phdllic snge The gendel snge is cenTered Upon The gendelid bUT The seXUdliTy is consensUdl dnd ddUlT rdTher Thdn soldery dnd infdnTile The psychologicol difference beTween The phdllic dnd gendel snges is Tth The ego is esTdblished in The ldTTer The person39s concern shifTs from primdry drive groTificoTion insTincT To dpplying seconddry process Thinking To grdTify desire symbolicolly dnd inTellecTUdlly by medns of friendships d love reldTionship fdmily dnd ddUlT responsibiliTies Chil J devel menT The B Erik Erikson TheorisT Erillt Erilltson dlso proposed d snge Theory of developmenT louT his Theory encompdssed humdn growTh ThroughouT The enTire humdn lifespdn Erilltson believed Tth edch snge of developmenT wos focused on overcoming d conflicT For exomple The primdn conflicT during The ddolescenT period involves esleolishing d sense of persondl idenTiTy Success or foilure in dedling wiTh The conflicTs dT edch snge con impdcT overdll funcTioning During The ddolescenT snge for exomple fdilure To develop on idenTiTy resulTs in role confusion Child dlevelpnnenT Theri Cognitive Child DeveloomenT Theories TheorisT Jedn PidgeT suggesTed Tth children Think differenle Thdn ddulTs dnd proposed d snge Theory of cogniTive developmenT He wos The firsT To noTe Tth children ody dn dcTive role in goining knowledge of The world According To his Theory children cdn be ThoughT of ds liTTle scienTisTs who dcTively consTrucT Their knowledge dnd undersTdnding of The world C h lll dl ev Behavioural Child Development Theories Behavioural Theories of child developmenf focus on how environmental inTeracTion influences behaviour and are based upon The Theories of TheorisTs such as John B WaTson Ivan Pavlov and B F Skinner These Theories deal only wiTh observable behaviours Developmenf is considered a reacTion To rewards bunishmenfs sTimuIi and reinforcemenf This Theory differs considerably from oTher child developmenf Theories because if gives no considerafion To infernal ThoughTs or feelings InsTead iT focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are Child developmnT Theries Social Child Development Theories A AlberT Bonduro PsychologisT AlberT Bdndurd proposed wth is known ds socidl ledrning Theory According To This Theory of child developmenT children ledrn new behdviours from observing oTher people Unlike behdviourdl Theories Bdndurd believed Tth eXTerndI reinforcemenT wos noT The only Wdy Tth people ledrned new Things InsTedd inTrinsic reinforcemenTs such ds d sense of pride soTisfdcTion dnd dccomplishmenT could dlso ledd To ledrning By observing The dcTions of oThers including pdrenTs dnd peers children develop new skills dnd dcquire new infordeion Chll evelopmenT Theri B Lev Vygotsky Lev VygoTsky proposed a social learning Theory ThaT has gone on To become very influential especially in The field ofeduca on Like Piaget VygoTsky believed ThaT children learn acTively and Through hands on experiences His sociocultural Theory also suggested ThaT parenTs caregivers peers and The culture aT large were responsible for The developmenT of higher order functions Today contemporary psychologists often draw on a variety of Theories and perspectives in order to understand how kids grow behave and think Case STudy The SooTy Show SooTy a yellow bear has been a popular characTer for over 50 years on UK TV Only form of communicaTion is To whisper inTo The ear of his handler Has 2 friends a dog who doesn T speak eiTher and a panda who does Viewers 5 years and below need To engage in a complexiTy of preTence in order To appreciaTe The show gt Figure how SooTy communicaTes gt Believe SooTy can somehow communicaTe wiTh The oTher characTers gt Hence puppeTs represenT oTher animals 3433px gaging 5439 I gt ThaT puppeTs can be adulTs and children aT some n quot 393 TIme gt PuppeTs are alive wiTh mobiliTy and abiliTy DespiTe all These even The youngesT children seem To undersTand and enjoy The show Above sTudy conducTed by academics Michael Emmison amp Laurence Goldman 1997 Chilren amp TV These sTudies show how sophisTiodTed young children s processing of The medid odn be lT hds been dssumed Tth The only possible oosiTive role Tth TV mighT hdve is Tth of formdl eduodTion ds wiTh Sesdme STreeT IT is drgued Tth medid use odn fdvourdbly impdoT The oogniTive developmenT of children beyond ledrning driThmeTio To whal exlenl can children dislinguish fanlasy from realiin This has caused concerns among adulis on wheiher Bugs Bunny falling off a cliff will be seen as real or ariificial hence selling up a coniinuum of regarding such programmes as harmful or pure enieriainmenl Adopling eiiher exireme would suggesl children as unable lo dislinguish loelween symbolic represenlalions Bugs Bunny and naluralislic represenlalions a soap characler Successful cogniiive developmeni requires an awareness of which loiis are real and which fanlasy Fantasy reality distinction is made via a 3 stage process a 1st stage 23 years Children fail to make a fantasy reality distinction before 3 years old Can t imitate actions presented on video but able to imitate live ac or b 2nd stage 45 years flat denial of reality status for anything on TV Dismisses TV happenings with own explanation of reality eg violence as acting c 3lcl stage 67 years awareness that some programmes are real and others are fantasy Onset of tele literaoy due to ability to read media texts Able to identify TV genres eg ads cartoons news and children s from adults programmes IFnTsv vs re liTy One of The problems inherenT in sTudying children s undersTdnding of The difference beTween fdansy dnd redliTy is meThodologicdl in ndTure Young children dre noToriously unrelidble inTerviewees The problem wiTh so much of The liTerdTure on children s undersTdnding of The fdansy redliTy disTincTion is d cledr one dnd Tth ddulTs hove no difficulTy in idenTifying iT Themselves Even if The disTincTion is cledr ddulTs do noT ledys behdve Tth Wdy OfTen sodp dcTors compldin Tth The viewing public is undble To see beyond The chordcTers They ploy eg on EdsTEnders dcTress received dbuse from d London cdb driver for The Wdy her chdrdcTer behdved dnd RoberT Young who pldyed d docTor in lvldrcus Welby lvlD received over 250k leTTers seellting medicdl ddvice Fdntdsy vs redllty Ivlany adult responses to media are profoundly irrational we perform a host of emotional behaviours in response to fantastical media like cry at a sad film aroused by erotica and make person judgements about soap characters or forming strong attachments to yellow complexion cartoon characters with blue hair Even with a genre lillte news media the fantasy reality distinction is blurred We often display an inherent trust in the veracity of stories that we read in newspapers and hear about on TV news bulletin yet even pictorial evidence may be doctored Fantasy vs reality Ivlessaris l C287 identified 3 different types of mother child discussion about fantasy and reality in relations to TV l Magic window thinking by the child the mother comforts a tearful child by pointing out that the scenes he or she has witnessed are only pretend that the blood is really tomato ketchup 2 The realism of fictional portrayals A child viewer envious of a character in a children s drama asks his mother why he can t be like the TV character His mum s replies That only happens on TV 3 Reinforce realistic media making comments like that s what happens when you take drugs FanTasy vs realiTy Broadly speaking TV cohTehT can be conceived on a sliding scale of realism live evehTs eg sporT aT The real end and carToohs aT The oTher end There are 2 properTies of realiTy ThaT children learn To idehTify facTualiTy eg Adrianna Wow is hoT a real news anchor and social realism loUT The news anchor posiTioh she plays does exisT lh laTer childhood The more realisTic The medium is The more emoTiohally involved will children become Hehce Their preferences shifT form carToon characTers Toward real people ScripT ExplandTins OTher sTudies have looked aT children s processing of TV narraTives and memory for TV sTories Young children are happier when evenTs fall inTo place in a familiar manner ThaT echoes Their limiTed previous experience This mighT explain why children are so capTivaTed by TV ads where ads repeal ad nauseum and children ofTen respond by joining in wiTh jingles or slogans Barney s I love you is also sung repeaTedly as These offer a sense of reassurance and sTaniliTy and The illusion of conTrol where one knows whaT is coming nexT The acTiviTies in These programmes also resemble The kinds of games and inTeracTions beTween children and parenTs TV enables Them To experience a rich varieTy of discursive and narraTive forms This is imporTanT for The developmenT of TransformaTional power The abiliTy To apply concest To differenT siTuaTions s socialisaTion Throu medid Childr TV may also Teach children more direchy abouT how To behave and respond in social siTuaTions Children also learn To idenTify media characTers as analogous To people They know in real life As young as 28 monThs They offer descripTive Terms such as nice bad naughTy Children s perspecTive of TV characTers could be explained using PiageT s 3 key sTages a b c Preoperafional egocenTric only able To describe The physical seTTings and superficial aspecTs of inTerpersonal behaviour ConcreTe operaTional reasoning based only on personal experience malte inferences regarding characTers ThoughT and feelings and how These helped To shape The inTeracTion Formal operaTional abiliTy To reason using absTracT premises deeper analysis of The ploTs and moTivaTion behind The characTers and sTorylines Children s socialisafion fhrou medi Children s exposure fo a vasf array of human and nonhuman figures on TV malltes fhe media an imporfanf agenf of socialisafion While focus has been fhe harmful influence of unsavoury figures if has also promofed a more posifive view of differenf efhnic groups and nafionalifies A sfudy of Alaskan children during The firsf few years fhaf fhey were able To receive TV showed improved affifudes fowards Black Americans as compared fo The period prior fo TV lmaginaTionl preT and Theon of mind FiC Theory of mind refers To our undersTanding of people as menTal beings each wiTh his or her own menTal sTaTes such as ThoughTs wanTs moTives and feelings ThaT are differenT from one s own We use Theory of mind To explain our own behaviour To oThers by Telling Them whaT we Think and wanT and we inTerpreT oTher people s Talk and behaviour by considering Their ThoughTs and wanTs By age 2 children clearly show awareness of The difference beTween ThoughTs in The mind and Things in The world In preTend play eg preTending a block is a car Toddlers show ThaT They can disTinguish beTween an objecT The block and ThoughTs abouT The objecT The block as a car They also undersTand ThaT people will feel happy if They geT whaT They wanT and will feel sad if They do noT And of This age children see ThaT There may be a difference beTween whaT They wanT and whaT anoTher person wanTs lrnainaTi reTence and Theory of mind A crucial developmenT occurs around 4 years of age when children realise ThaT ThoughTs in The mind may noT be True For example children are allowed To discover ThaT a familiar candy box acTually conTains pencils Threeyear olds assume ThaT The friend will know if has pencils inside jusT as They now do buT 4yearolds recognise ThaT The friend Will be Tricked jusT as They were The False Belief TesT By The age of 4 or 5 years children realise ThaT people Talk and acT on The basis of The way They Think The world is even when Their ThoughTs do noT reflecT The real siTuaTion and so They will noT be surprised if Their uninformed friend looks for candy in The box They know has pencils inside lrnainafi refence and fheory of mind There are differences in fhe rafe of fypical developmenf fhaf parfly depend on facfors in fhe environmenf such as family folk and disciplinary sfrafegies inferacfion wifh siblings sfory books and prefend play as well as facfors in fhe child such as language and cognifive confrol abilifies Environmenfal facfors do influence ifs developmenf If can be enhanced by opporfunifies i fo engage in rich pretend play ii To talk abouf people s fhoughfs wanfs and feelings and The reasons why fhey acf fhe way fhey do iii fo hear and folk abouf sfories especially fhose involving surprises secrefs fricllts and misfakes fhaf invife children fo see fhings from differenf poinfs of view for example Red Riding Hood doesn f know fhaf fhe wolf is dressed up as grandma lmdgindfion preience dnd iheory of mind IT is ceridinly possible ihdi TV provides preschool children wiih dnoiher opporiuniiy To ledrn dbou r oiher minds Children s TV con rdins much rich inlerdclion belween cledrly defined chordclers Eg preschoolers dre dble To dssocid re differenl chdrdclerislics of Telelubbies Tweenies dnd Bob The Builder A sludy wi rh d clip from Borney amp Friends were shown To preschoolers where or group of children silling on d bench were prelending To be rrdvelling on d pldne The preschoolers were dble lo recognise ihdi The kids dcliviiies ds pre rence They were dble To infer rhe men rdl sldles of The kids Children ds young ds 3 ore dble To mdllte complex psychologicdl judgemenls dboul chdrdclers dnd plols depicled in cdrloons tmdgindtion pretence and theory of rnin gt Does media spoil children s imaginative abilities with too much stimulating visual material Research seem to suggest no detrimental effect of TV viewing on fantasy play Educational TV appear to stimulate pldy involving props and materials gtHow about TV s effect on daydreaming Amount of TV watched does not have an effect on daydreaming but the content of programmes does influence the nature of the daydreaming Eg the preference for violent TV shows is associated with aggressiveheroic daydreaming gtgtgt Overall it seems that TV cannot either stimulate or suppress imagination although it may help shape the nature of childhood fantasies Developmental Issues in Media Psychology ll BM0668 ADIDLBSOEVLOE Week 9 iTive IDevelo rnenT rd Ti 0 h d l 8 id g e This snge is chdrdcTerised by on dbiliTy To use dbsTrdcT concest The logic of formdl operdTiondl Thinking goes beyond The concreTe derils of edch incidenTproblem To The underlying dbsTrdcT principles involved Achieving This snge endbles Teens To dpply iT To differenT dreds of Their lives dnd They dppedr To be preoccupied by concest such d TruTh jusTice dnd The medning of life ds This dbsTrdcTion is new To Them BuT Their cogniTion is of imdeure duoliTy possessing d form of egocenTrism Tth while differenT from Tth of young children sTill disTorTs Their percepTion of redliTy Conil rive Development Formal perational Stage There are 4 primary features of adolescent egocentrism Elkind 1981 a Imaginary audience many adolescents act as though they believe that an audience is watching everything they do Small pimples become huge facial blemishes awkward encounters with friends become fullblown social disasters b Personal fable the adolescent ofleh believes that no one has similar problems or could understand what she is going through Sometimes I feel like nobom understands me i Aren39t you supposed to say i quotAwwwquot and then give me a bosomy hug Yup That39s because you are a complete weirdo with an attachment disorder l l l l l i CogniTive DevelomenT Frmal OpraTion l STage There are 4 primary feaTures of adolescenT egocenTrism Elkind 1981 c Hypocrisy This is The naTion ThaT Teens are applying rules To oThers buT noT To Themselves AdolescenTs have a peculiar form of maraliTy in which The inappropriaTeness of acTians They Take is enTirely obscured from Them However if someone else makes even a minor misTake iT is viewed as a major breach of faiTh cl PseudosTupidiTy They use oversimplified logic Eg if alcoholics know They will die of liver disease why don T They jusT sTop Failure To consider The many facTors involved DisTorTed Thinking due To egocenTrism This makes Their relaTionships wiTh each aTher and wiTh adulTs more difficulT aT Times The onset of puberty brings a distancing from parents to peers This shift can be seen in the dramatic increase in conformity to the ideas and judgement of the peer group that occurs from ages 1113 but declines from age 15 on Contrary to popular views of adolescence research shows that about 80 of them are relatively happy and well adjusted However there are 3 areas that they appear to have greater problems in a Parentchild conflicts these focus mainly on dating hours allowed away form home where they can go and who they can be with b Mood changes more shift in moods including more extreme positive and negative moods They are also much more likely to feel selfconscious embarrassed awkward lonely nervous or ignored c Risky behaviour Sharp increase in the amount of behaviour that exposes them to danger eg drinking drugs reckless driving unprotected sex aggression delinauency lescenT BvelopmenT Adolescence is erUdbly The mosT significdnT period of The life spdn when iT comes To medid psychology Young children s medid use consisTs ldrgely of Television dnd video by ddolescence They hdve begun To use persondl compuTers dnd mobile phones Moreover Their medid use becomes soliTory pdrTiculdrly in fdmilies Tth own more Thdn one Television or video recorder Peer influence becomes incredsingly more impoernT Thdn pdreanl influence dnd much of This involves medid conTenT lescenT Develpmenl Adolescence is d period during which individuals we dcTively involved in consTrucTing d coherenT idenTiTy dnd medid pldy d ldrge pdrT in supplying The culTurdl deeridls for This use Much of The resedrch on ddolescenT medid use hds focused on iTs nengive dspecTs The effecTs of modelling lodd celeloriTy loehdviour dnd lisTening To dggressive music The role of The privoTe bedroom in ddolesoenT medid use is worThy of menTion here science The privoTe bedroom is on impoernT siTe in ddolescence ds H is d privoTe spdoe Tth sepdrdTes The Teen from hisher porenTs dnd siblings dnd Through d shdred medid oulTure end use of communiodTions Technology oonneoTs himher To peers The privoTe bedroom is d spdoe Tth Teens con use To oresenT Their emerging idenTiTy Though The employmenT of oosTers music ohoTos origindl drT work dnd TdvouriTe Toys The use of bedroom objeoTs ohdnges Through ddolesoenoe ds medid become incredsingly inTegrdTed inTo The individuol s sense of idenTiTy Girls dre more likely Thdn boys To hove d single besT friend dnd more likely To soend Time wiTh Tth friend in The bedroom Typiodlly engdged in medid use Media Use in Adolescence t T Q U s e in A dl l es c e n c e Television As children grow older Their TosTes in Television conTenT chonge Iooys Ioecome increosingly inTeresTed in soorTs whereos girls Ioecome increosingly inTeresTed in soops AT The some Time ooTTerns of viewing chonged Too AdolescenTs onch increosingly omounTs in isoIoTions This is o problem for porenTs who wish To regquTe The conTenT of Their children s viewing Though There ore Technologicol ooTions for This such os The V chip One of The greoTesT concerns oloouT odolescenT viewing is ThoT Television is o Iorgely sedenTory ocTiviTy ThoT moy hove deTrimenToI effecTs for Teenoge heoITh oloesiTy e id lU se in Ad C e Fl C e Music lT hds long been ThoughT Tth populdr music hds d profound impdcT on ddolescenT sociolisdTion However iT is noT cledr wheTher This is due To The music iTself or Through The idenTifichion wiTh differenT suloculTurdl groups dssocidTed wiTh differenT kinds of music LivingsTone amp Bovill l 999 found Tth inTeresT in music Tends To be Idrgely d sTepping off poinT for on inTeresT in fdshion consumerism dnd romdnce lT sTdrTs somewth edrlier for girls dround The dge of 10 or ll One dspecT of pop Tth cdn rdise ddulT dldrm is lyricdl conTenT Medici Use in olesoence New lvleolio Wilh bedroom loosed Television porenlol concern over privole inlemel use hols focused on ils negolive ospeols such oIs eoIsy oooess To pornography oIs well oIs The more obvious issues reloling To oosl fhe role of rnedid figures during olescenc One of The mosT impoernT funcTions of medid in ddolescence is Tth They provide young people wiTh d hosT of ddulf figures who pldy dn incredsingly impoernT role in Their lives Adolescence is d period when children seek ouT figures from beyond Their immedidfe socidl environmenT who cdn dcT ds heroes idols or role models These ore believed To guide children Toword ddulf life Erilltson 1968 referred To such reldTionships ds seconddry dTTdchmenTs mdrking The TrdnsiTion loeTween primdry dTTdchmenTs To pdrenTs dnd ddulf dTTdchmenTs eg inTidee romonTicsexuol IT is dlso during This phdse Tth ddulf volues ore dcquired Is durln adlolescence The rolle of media figur Greene and Adams Price 1990 saw these secondary attachments as falling into 2 broad groups a Romantic attachments eg having a crush on a pop star gt For teen gals in particular this lST type of attachments may act as a kind of rehearsal for the development of intimate relationships in adolescence gt A study on Elvis Presley fans surmised that it helped girls resolve the confusions of adolescent sexuality by allowing it full expression while keeping the fantasiser from having to enact the fantasy with nearby unpredictable boys But an excess of preoccupation with teen idols may be related to later difficulties in relationship formation The role of medid figures during ddolescence b Identification dTTdchmenTs eg ddmiring d foodeller gtThis refers To The process of role modelling especially if The medid figure compleTes d link To The world of ddulT worllt dnd occupdTions eg d budding foodeller mdy well model himself on d professiondl sTdr gtRole models Tend To be mosT useful when The quoliTies They offer ore dTTdindble which rdises concerns for ddolescenTs who dTTdch To gldmorous indccessible show business sTdrs Eg KdTe Moss dnd her wolf like figure lihe rolle of media figures during adllescence These secondary attachments may be related to the processes of emotional autonomy in middle adolescence Children begin to see their parents as real people performing other roles beside parental functions and this leads to a decline in their heroic status Although to children their parents may seem omniscient and omnipotent when children reach adolescence their parents human fallibilities become all too apparent and may pale by comparison with the apparent virtues of adult figures in the media Also during this period stronger attachments are formed toward peers and romantic partners Culiural iunclrins media use Media malerial figures more highly among girls who are sexually aclive earlier in adolescence wilh many piclures displayed of movie slars and pop slars The use of media malerials in conslrucling adolescenl idenlilies has been lermed palchwork idenlily by some researchers Media offer young people a wide range of lifeslyle and consumer choices Thar They are able To conslrucl a unique idenlily by mixing differenl slyles CulTurdl funcTions of meolid use In The I970s Teen subculTures proliferdTed dnd group membership wos d lltey objecTive where one could choose To be d slltinhedd punlt mod heddbonger or soul boy where Their dppedrdnce dnd musicol preferences of These groups were cledrly defined 1 lt if 3 v 39 rz g v 3939 L r b z quot 39 r I III llll 2 quot 1 f i l 1 7 1 39 If a I n Ivlodern youTh cuTure however hds moved dey from such poldrisdTion Toddy s medid offer The ddolescenT o cuTurdl Tool box for idenTiTy consTrucTion Eg of d Teen s descripTion of himself I m d Homeboy I wedr These exTrd Idrge cIoThesdnd I m d rover because I like Techno music And I m d sporTsmdn I don T hove on idol CulTural TuncTins media use CulTural scholars have seen This as an increasing Trend Toward individualism of life worlds and lifesTyles a gradual merging of public and privaTe spheres IT is mosT apparenT in The use of The lnTerneT as a means of connecTing individuals across geographical and culTural boundaries Eg The case of one European boy from or small Town wiTh on inTeresT in Mango comic books who found no one in his area To share his enTh usiosm buT IocaTed may soul moTes on The lnTerneT e y l lh Tl U n c es n B 0 ol y lm a g Gender idenTify begins in Toddlerhood wiTh gender roles being assigned To Tasllts early in The preschool yeam A child s body image develops as The resulT of many in uences a A newborn begins immediaTely To explore whaT her body feels like and can do This process conTinues her whole life b A child s body image is influenced by how people around her reacT To her body and how she looks c As pre adolescenT becomes increasingly aware of whaT socieTy s sTandards are for The ideal body x e dl lCl ln ill U li lCS hi Ilmq W One of the most fedred effects of the medid on ddolescents is thdt they promote body shdpes thdt ore unredlistic dnd undttdindble encourdging girls in pdrticuldr to ddopt unhedlthy diets in mdny cdses with both physicol dnd psychologicol consequences Most studies of body imdge support the drgument thdt the modern Western idedl of super slim low woist to hip rdtio femdle figure is the result of culturdl chdnges rdther thdn d biologicdl necessity It is often drgued thdt the thin idedl reflects the economic independence of the modern womdn for whom childbirth is on option rdther thdn d prerogdtive The medid hdve been strongly dssocidte with promoting the contempordry idedl Media lthlU39 IT is The cumulaTive effecT of images of Thin women in magazines TV films and The fashion indusTry ThaT is said To promoTe body image dissaTisfacTion and eaTing disorders among Teenage girls The desire for Thinness is mosT prololemaTic during adolescence when The body is sTill growing AT The age of 15 girls Typically experience an increase in The disTriloUTion of faT around The hips and Thighs Tallting Them furTher away from The conTemporary culTural ideal This aggravaTes The crises of idenTiTy and aTTracTiveness anxieTies Media lthuehces on Body lmdge Usually loy adulThood a healThy female should have 22 25 body faT louT mahy celeloriTies and models have as liTTle as 10 Even so They complain and resorT To cosmeTic surgery If They wiTh Their high profile dieTs ahol loeauTy TreaTmehTs cahhoT fihd self fulfilmehT Through weighT loss Theh whaT chahce does The ordinary Teehager and e y l lh Tl U n c es n B 0 ol y lm d g Some findings CI 390 d In o survey of girls 9 dnd 10 yeors old 40 hove Tried To lose weighT dccording To on ongoing sTudy funded by The NdTiondl HedrT Lung dnd Blood lnsTiTuTe l990 The dmounT of Time on ddolescenT onches sodbs movies dnd music videos is dssocioTed wiTh Their degree of body dissdTisfdcTion dnd desire To be Thin l 996 AT dge T3 53 of Americdn girls dre unhopby wiTh Their bodies This grows To 78 by The Time girls redch 17 l 997 In d sTudy dmong undergroduoTes medid consumoTion wos oosiTively dssocioTed wiTh o drive for Thinness dmong men dnd body dissdTisfdcTion dmong women l 997 e d id ln Tl U e n C es n B ody lm d e e Teendge girls who viewed commercials depicTing women who modelled The unredlisTiodlly Thin idedl Type of beduTy felT less oonfidenT more dngry dnd more dissdTisfied wiTh Their weighT dnd dppedrdnoe 2002 f lO yeor old girls dnd boys Told resedrohers They were dissdTisfied wiTh Their own bodies dfTer onohing d music video by BriTney Spedrs or d clip from The TV show Friends 2002 g Teens who onohed sodps dnd TV shows Tth emphdsised The idedl body Types reporTed d higher sense of body dissdTisfdoTion h Redding mdgdzines for Teen girls or women dlso oorreloTed wiTh body dissdTisfdoTion for girls i ldenTifiodTion wiTh TV sTdrs models girls or dThleTes boys posiTively correldTed wiTh body dissdTisfdcTion 2002 The TheoreTical approach mosT used To accounT for media effecTs oh adolescehT body dissaTisfacTioh is The social comparisoh Theory SCT SCT occurs for media users when They compare Themselves wiTh images of people on screen or in The pages of mm media By age 12 or 13 adolescehT females compare Themselves wiTh models in adverTisemehTs The period when eaTihg disorders are mosT lilltely To sTarT appea hg Ah aTTracTioh Toward Thih celebriTies predicTed a number of eaTihg disorder sympToms ihcludihg bulimia anorexia and general body dissaTisfacTioh 39 e dl l lln fl U nces on ody lm An alTernaTive explanaTion is ThaT adolescenT females may noT aTTribuTe Their body dissaTisfacTion To The media of all insTead blaming Their own biological make up Their parenTs genes or specific insTances of rejecTion or unreanTed love Thus They conTinue To read arTicles abouT Thin celebriTies convinced ThaT if is simple faTe ThaT prevenTs Them from looking like Those celebriTies However There is a general percepTion wiThin The media as a whole ThaT Teenage magazines and in parTicular fashion models are responsible for The prominence of dieTing fads and eaTing disorders Media lnTluences on Body lmage Vii L V 39 Unbelievable Results iyrrl OJ W QQE l JULBC DIE a v Hilaryrerun v m I 1 fmtm quotii L39fl J i v7 A l 1 39AR 31 f Iquot j 39 39 H 39 hungv5 n a S x TRAINLESS I GAINMDRE quot359113 ABS ND n 45quotquot m quot RECIPES K L 7 The research on Thin media and female body dissaTlsfachon has been mirrored in recenT years by an increase in similar sTudles of males in response To The muscular body ideal promoTed in The media Body dissaTlsfachon Typically increases in experimenTs where male parTlcipanTs boys and adulT men are exposed To muscular and aThleTlc male images Media lthuehces on Body lmdge Research has claimed ThaT exposure To ideal male images in The media can resulT in a condiTion called muscle dysmorphia where The individual believes ThaT his muscles are less developed Thah They really are lvlosT research on male dissaTisfacTion has been measured in Terms of Drive For MusculariTy a psychomeTric scale ThaT assesses The preoccupaTion wiTh building muscles 39 e d i Ilh Ti u hoes oh ody Tm w Even so There dre oTher fdoTors Tth dre sighifioth behind The rise in edTihg disorders or Peer ihfluehoe 44 of 12 To 14 yedr ods discuss mdgdzihe oohTehT wiTh Their friehds Much of H ihvolves fdshioh oppedrdhoe dieTihg dhd uITrd Thih oeleloriTies Some TV dhd video is onohed wiTh peers dT This dge Thus joihT oohsumpTioh mdy hdve dh ihfluehoe Too d IhTerdoTioh IoeTweeh fdmily ehvirohmehT dhd medid use STudies suggesT Tth hedIThier dieTs dre observed when fdmilies edT medls TogeTher wheh porehTs dhd childreh hdve more oosiTive reIdTiohships dhd even when They shop TogeTher C n c l USl o n s Concerns over The lyrical excesses of rap and heavy meTal are parT of an age old TradiTion of disapproval whereby adulTs have conTinually freTTed over The suiTabiliTy of yoUTh culTure whereas adolescenTs conTinually invenT new ways To shocllt Them Being misundersTood by parenTs is parT of yoUTh s rallying cry bUT being undersTood by Them is worse Media probably have more To answer for in Their conTribUTion To eaTing disorders Than To any of The negaTive effecTs ThaT have been aTTribUTed To Them bUT The processes by which young people incorporaTe culTural maTerials inTo Their growing sense of idenTiTy are sTill far from clear The Social Psychology of BM0663 the Media Representations of Social Groups Week 12 IT has been esTimaTea Gerbner T997 ThaT The average US chila encounTers 350 differenT characTers in Television arama each week Never before have people been exposed To such a huge varieTy of differenT Types of human beings Than on TV Impressions are formed on The represenTaTions of social groups in Terms age gender eThniciTy culTure occupaTions sexual preference or physicalhealTh sTaTus Television drama in parTicular provide us wiTh memorable images of professional groups ThaT we are unlikely To encounTer in real life Eg our ideas abouT prison life The police force eTc Ivlany sTudenTs enrolled in psychology courses in The UK afTer seeing The drama Cracker in which acTor Robbie ColTrane porTrayed a Tough glamorous criminal psychologisT who Takes a key role in solving crimes AlThough iniTially helpful in raising The profile of such professionals media represenTaTions of occupaTional groups are freauenTIy criTicised by members of Those groups for being unrealisTic Crimihal psychologisTs have criTicisea Cracker for aisTorTihg aha sehsaTiohalisihg The role of The psychologisT ih realiTy mosT sTay well away from The acTioh Are our images of forensic ihvesTigaTors aisTorTea loy CSl s porTrayal of These professiohal characTers Cohcerhs arise on The porTrayals of some mihoriTy groups which could prove hegaTive aha sTereoTypical CerTaih agegehaer groups are also under represehTea aha saliehT characTerisTics in some groups misrepresehTea ofTeh resulTihg in less posiTive hoTiohs aloouT ThaT group One consisTenT finding is ThaT mosT news abouT women focuses on Their physical appearance or domesTic role Media reporTs on cases of sexual violence Tended Toward a blame culTure where The vicTim is seen as deserving of The assaulT Sexual violence is sensaTionalised disTorTing The incidenT To Trivialise women s experiences of The aTTaclt Similarly female poliTician receive skewed coverage Hillary ClinTon s campaign for The DemocraTic presidenTial nominaTion in 2008 was marked by hosTile scruTiny of her L appearance Her credibiliTy was Hiquot jTf r P Again derogaTed wiTh observaTions abouT her boxy jacllteTs unflaTTering haircuT Her emoTional display was seen as eiTher weak or manipulaTive or i AfTer severdl deoddes of underrepreseanTion dnd sTereoTyping of women Things dre improving There were more nonIoIe gdins in The woys in which women were porTrdyed in i990s Television The rdnge of professiondl roes wos much Iorodder Thdn edrlier dndlyses Femdle ohdrdoTers were displdying ess TrddiTiondIIy feminine oehdviours Too indeed They mdde signifiodnTIy more nengive oommenTs Thdn did mdle ohdrdoTers dIThough This figure mdy refleoT The Idrge number of siTooms in which femdle ohdrdoTers TrddiTiondIIy hold The upper hdnd over mdles quot quotquot39 quotquot39 l quotquot L quot l l l l l l l l l g l l l l l g l g g l g l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 7 quot In The l970s gender sTereoTyoing showed women mosle in The home ds housewives dnd moThers in deoendenT dnd subservienT roles Their sTdTus wos Tth lower Thdn men in socidl dnd economic soheres exceoT in mdllting ourchdsing decisions on household oroducTs Women dlso Tended To be oorTrdyed ds odssive vicTims woiTing To be rescued by heroic mole figures Tuchmdn T978 Goffmdn s fdmous T979 sTudy of gender in ddverTising edeined sulee woys in which women were cdsT in submissive roles by ceerin phoTogrdbhic dngles dnd The use of bdssive oosTures Ivlore ofTen Thdn men femdle models were seen lying down Touching objecTs or gesTuring submissively Toword d mole model Women s bodies were dlso frdgmenTed in ddverTs visually disseoTed To show only The lips eyes or bredsT presenTed ds d oomposiTe of problems edoh requiring d produoT soluTion The effeoT is To deny women s humdniTy To presenT Them noT ds whole people bUT ds objeoTs In The 80s dnd 90s Though ddverTising responded To more medid sdvvy dudienoes who grew up wiTh MTV dnd persondl oompuTers dnd feminisT oriTidues of The bidsed represeanTions of women ldedlised beduTy ofTen undTTdindble ds porTrdyed by The medid wos oriTioised In 2007 Dolce dnd Gobbond s prinT dd sporlted conTroversy ds iT suggesTed gong rope ond wos bonned from ITdIidn publichions g3 7 a I 1quot 1 3 V v 4 TE I v Y r 39 11 y I I I z r I quot 397quot 39 T r v u O It31 v A A I I 4 r v 9 39 J p 39 J 8 I 7 I DULCE GKBBANA According To dn orTicIe by Agence Fronce Presse quotThe ddverTisemenT showing or womdn pinned To The ground by The wrisTs by d bore chesTed mon wiTh oTher men in The bdcltground looking on offended The digniTy of The womdn in The sense Tth The feminine figure is shown in d degrdding mdnner The womdn hos on dIiendTed expression wiTh on dbsenT ooltquot AdverTisers suloseouethy shifTed gedr dhd used models Tth sooTTed slighT imperfecTiohs like freckles gdpped TeeTh dhd older women such ds Ldureh HuTToh lsdloelld Rossellihi dhd Andie lvlchowell The Dove cdmpdigh mdrllted d loredllt in The mould wiTh The Theme Tth loeduTy comes in mdhy shdoes dhd sizes dhd dges In The lasT decade The porTrayal of women has shifTea from showing Them as passive muTe sex olojecTs To aepicTing Them as acTive heTero sexually desiring sulojecTs In a l994 Wonderbra aa Eva Herzigova represenTea a woman knowingly playing wiTh her sexual power Or are you jusT pleasea To see me Is ThaT a gun in your pockeT l r i 39 H 5 quotI HELLO BOYS Triumph also ran an ad ThaT had a slogan New hair new look new lora And if he aoesn T like iT new boyfriend The emphasis in such dds is on women s playfulness freedom dnd dloove dll choice Women dre presenTed noT ds seellting men s dppronl louT ds pledsing Themselves dnd in so doing They jusT hdppen To win men s ddmirdTion STill some mdianin Tth This is sTill olojecTifichion ds now They dre porTrdyed ds powerful pldyful sexuol olojecTs IT could be drgued Tth This represenTs d shifT in The woy power operdTes or move from exTerndl mdle judging gdze To or self policing ndrcissisTic gdze in which Their own olojecTifichion is seen ds pledsurdlole dnd self chosen Men have received less aTTenTion Than women in Terms of Their media represenTaTion over The years largely because The underrepresenTaTion of women on TV has provided The impeTus for research on gender represenTaTions FurThermore iT has long been assumed ThaT The Typical viewer of media producTs is male Now The employmenT siTuaTion has changed and wiTh women playing a major role as consumers adverTising is aimed aT Them almosT as much as aT men The rise of feminism and The changing role of women have loroughT aloouT an inTeresT in The ways ThaT men are represenTed in The media and The conTemporary images of masculiniTy Types oT Mascullany 1 Hegemonic MasculiniTy The predominanT influence of males values and preferences over The oTher groups Hegemonic masculiniTy manifesTs iTself in a hierarchy of men based on The hypermasculine ideal of sTrengTh and Toughness The men mosT admired are Those who are mosT capable of dominaTing oThers In media Terms TT is mosT obviously represenTed in The form of Superman His name iTself suggesTs ThaT The characTer is an embodimenT of The hypermasculine ideal power conTrol success sTrengTh aggression all aTTribuTes ThaT are associaTed wiTh men who are high in The hierarchy AnoTher aualiTy is Their sexual aTTracTion To women eg Lois Lane was noT aTTenTive To Clark KenT unTil he dons his suiT SUPERMAN Types of Masculinity 2 Conservative Masculinity Although Superman may represent the American way other figures represent a form of middle class masculinity eg Teachers or artists or as politicalphilanthropic figures The new man was used as an example of conservative masculinity in the T9803 He was a shift from the hegemonic virtues of toughness to a sensitive nurturing ideal They engaged in childcare or overt displays of emotion eg weeping The new man was symptomatic of 19803 therapy culture in which stressed workers were encouraged to release their frustration through tree hugging primal screaming and other acts of emotional abandonment The thinking man was portrayed as intellectually superior possibly to women and certainly to lower class men Types oT Masculinity 3 Subordinated Masculinity A kind of aITernaTive or ouTcasT masculiniTy which is generally seen as negaTive eg homosexualiTy TradiTionaIIy gay men in The media have been The subjecTs of derision or as a problem for sTraighT men To solve OThers in The same caTegory include The underclass or Trailer Trash sTereoType permanenle slumped in fronT of a TV seT surrounded by empTy beer cans or Takeaway packaging Mole Representations in Ads l l g l i 5 g 5 g A good oldce lo invesligdle mole represenldlion is in dds for beer Given lhdl men dre The mdin consumers of beer dnd lhdl loeer consumolion is d hugely ooouldr mole leisure dclivily il would seem lhdl loeer ddverlisers will reoresenl men in d woy Thor is specificdlly designed ro dooedl To or wide voriely of Them Slrdle 1992 loollted of 5 dsoecls of men in Americdn Ioeer dds l Ac rivi ry d reword for hdrd work 2 Sellings ouldoors in d bdr or in or living room wi rh The TV on 3 Rile of Possdge on ddull lifes ryle 4 Mole mole inlerdclion mdsculine bonding 5 Mole femdle inlerdclion sexuol Allhough for mdny dulhors The feminisdlion of men hds hdd ils downside in lhdl il hds led lo lrddiliondlly femdle dolivi ries being undermined or rrividlised Segdl 1990 dnd Horrower 1995 oiled exomples of Hollywood films in which men ldllte on lrddiliondlly 7 7 femdle roles such ds Child Ioirlh dnd 39 Child Cdre eg Three Men and d Bdby Mrs Doublfire elc Child Ioirlh dnd Child Cdre dre oorlrdyed ds reldlively edsy idsllts for moles lo decomplish given Their opporenl dddplive dnd lronsferdlole life skills STEVE TEO GUTTENBERC DANSON A signifiodnl lrend during The 1900s hds been The developmen r of d profildlole mdrlltel for men s mdgdzine e n s I ies n cl ls l Cly LasT 2 decades saw a shifT in visual culTure in The broliferaTion of The male body occupying billboards cinema screens and magazines lvlale bodies deoicTed in an idealised and eroTicised aesTheTic way as Toned and young This Type of reoresenTaTion codes men s bodies in ways ThaT give permission for Them To be looked aT and desired So boTh sexes are objecTified now Will men s wellbeing also be affecTed ie selfesTeem menTal healTh eaTing disorders and body image relaTed condiTions Minority Representation in the Media The medid cdn be or probledeic dred where eThnic minoriTies dre marginalised excluded or sTereoTyoed The medid ldndscdoe is usuolly influenced by The domindnT rdcidleThnic group wiTh underrepreseanTion from The minoriTies lT wos publicly dclltnowledged by BBC s ex direcTor generdl Greg Dyllte Tth The BBC is hideously while following his visiT ground The BBC debdrTmenTs This infers Tth There is d lock of eThnic minoriTy decision mdllters wiThin The UK broddcdsT medid Cldrllt l 969 wos The firsT To devise d chchdll model Tth would expldih how mihoriTy groups dre porTrdyed over Time T Exclusioh eiTher The group is hoT idehTified or deliloerdTely suppressed lhiTidl snges of represethTioh usuolly ihvolve ridicule followed by reguldTioh in which pressure groups ihsisT oh mihoriTy represethTioh in d rdhge of porTrdydls before full respecT is pdid dhd The group is represehTed in The full rdhge of roles looTh posiTive dhd hengive IT is oliffioulT To oleTermihe wheTher respeoT for mihoriTy is eoIrheol Through ouoIhTiTy of represehToTiohs or ouoIiTy The issue of how olifferenT groups ore porTroyeol ih olifferenT roles wiThih meoliol moly Tell us someThihg olloouT how They ore seen by The moljoriTy AhoTher problem wiTh Clork s sToIge model is ThoIT iT oIssumes or cerToih degree of homogeheiTy wiThih The mihoriTy group iTself STereoTyping refers To The process by which or reducTive imogeimpression is produced by or given sociol experience The Asidn ImmigrdnT Bldck Mugger Muslim TerrorisT ore lobels conying severol connoToTions dnd we use if To os bdsic info blocks To credTe d ouiTe deToiled profile of whoT ThoT person consTiTuTes olThough noT necessorily occuroTely These more ofTen Thon noT They convey negoTive imoges Mind Your Longuoge is d BriTish comedy TV series which premiered on ITV in loTel c277 AlThough The series wos oTTrocTing some 18 million viewers The progrdmme wos cdncelled in 1979 by Ivlichdel Grdde direcTor of progrommes oT ITV who considered The sTereoTyping offensive TBC YET TO BE CLASSfIED MulTieuTTurJT Prgrdmrning UK s Chdnnel 4 US s Public BreddCdsT Service dnd AusTrdIid s SBS sTdTions dddress The needs of minoriTy viewing dnd represeanTion of eThnic minoriTy in Their progrdmming MDA funds Surid VdsdnThdm dnd Kids chdnnels To proTecT The eThnic minoriTies cuITurdI dnd socidl represeanTions MdinsTredm progrdmmes dre dlso encourdged To represenT The differenT eThnic groups A Winner Hugely Enjoyable lncrease min a rlSlbllllry w Brilisn Asian fealure films such as Easl is 5 W V Easl and Bend illillte Beclltham have quot quot successfully crossed over from arl nouse lo mainslream cinema Slumdog Millionaire is anolner leading example of now souln Asian popular cullure has been commodified Realily programmes have also roulinely fealured parlicipanls form a range of elnnic and social backgrounds where minorily people are an imporlanl parl of The mix casl in order To be represenlalive of The real lived diversily Eg Big Brolner X Faclor Wife Swap Med People wiTh olisoloiliTies ore unolerrepresenTeol on TV i0 representations of disobiliTY Comporeol wiTh on esTimoTe of 142 of people in The reol world only 14 of people on TV hool on obvious olisoloiliTy Anol oerToin olisoloiliTies were represenTeol more Thon oThers eg wheelohoir or sTiok using inolivioluol onol disfiguremenT Disololeol persons were leosT common in lighT enTerToinmenT onol gome shows On The oTher honol people who meeT normoTive oulTurol sTonolorols of physiool oTTrooTion ore vosle overrepresenTeol in moinsTreom TV WhoT is The effeoT on meolio consumers of These represenToTion of olisoloiliTy Media representations of disability 74 of non disabled viewers claimed nol To be embarrassed al disabled represenlalions on TV while 37 claimed lhal some disabililies were loo dislurbing To be broadcasl Posilive represenlalions could involve nol jusl bumping up The numbers bul of casling disabled aclors in more empowering roles Eg characler Kerry Weaver in ER 1999 and House in House Even so There were crilicisms lhal Weaver wasn l using her cane righl and Thai her characler was loo one dimensional Real disabled aclors casl wilh lheir disabilily include Ivlarlee Ivlallin in Reasonable Doust 7994 How can The problem of slereolyping and underrepresenlalion be lackled ll is suggesled lhal They could be involved as consullanls aclors media personnel However These decisions are in The hands of The producers who may be reuclanl To see a reduclion in ralings Marlee Mallin as DA Tess Kaufman Medio representations of mental health Also underrepresented but most psychidtric conditions ore Idrgely gross exoggerotions of normdl behdviour mostly due to it seen ds entertdining in d fictiondl context In populdr culture dnd medid entertdinment the division between obnormdlity dnd pothology is often deliberdtely blurred For eg the term psycho short of psychopdth seems to derive from the Hitchcock film of the some home i 960 This is d cledr exomple of the medid perpetuoting populdr stereotypes the Normdn Bdtes unstdble loner figure hos since become the icon of mentdl illness Negotive stereotypes of mentdl illness ore still common on TV with 3A of mentdlly i chordcters portrdyed ds either violent or victims of violence with porticuldr exoggerotion for femdle chordcters This oppedrs to serve the drdmdtic needs of the story These needs result in overemphdsising the negotive dnd stigmdtised imdges of the mentdlly i such ds violence bizorre behdviour dnd foilure a m and amm 39 dietit W fill GAVIN i Eilfl l I A 39 39 39039 t 39IVZVB l39uul 39llVH u mun um it rml v tankme swarm ran lama 1mg m p mun 1 I39mmnme h r 932 A H 182 39quot quot Tm1wmn7n 3 nTerviews wiTh programme makers indicaTe ThaT They face The dilemma of Trying To balance sympaTheTic porTrayals wiTh The need To make good Television This is difficulT wiTh menTal illness as The images of recovery and posiTive behaviour are far less inTeresTing and dramaTic Than are The specTacular negaTive aspecTs of The condiTion Similarly murders and oTher sensaTional crime sTories are prioriTised over menTal healTh A sTudy 2000 on carToons found ThaT almosT half of The programmes made aT leasT one reference To menTal illness Typically using Terms such as crazy mad nuTs cuckoo loony To label characTers ideas or acTions as illogical or unreasonable Also depicTed by moTions To The head and rolling eyes IT is argued ThaT his overwhelmingly negaTive porTrayal of menTal illness inviTes The viewer To generalise from The depicTions To all menTally ill individuals 5m CARREV r l f 7 7 7 7 l l l r 777 7 7777 7 777 7 7 777 777 77 77 7 7 777 l r l l l l l l l l l l l l l 9 How Then do films wiTh The subjeoT maTTer of menTal illness affeoT The audience39s peroepTion and are They a help or hindrance To The sTaTus of menTal illness in sooieTy The way a film depioTs menTal illness may inspire derision disoriminaTion and osTraoism Me Myself and Irene or IdenTiTy for schizophrenia or if may empower people inTo aooepTanoe and undersTanding Good Will HunTing for OpposiTional Disorder As Good as IT GeTs for 0CD From The audience perspeoTive even if you don39T have a menTal illness healThy soepTicism of whaT you39re waTohing means ThaT in real life you can reaoT wiTh calmness if someone says They have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder raTher Than rushing To hide all your disinfeoTanT MenTal Illness in Movies There are 4 main ways To Tell wheTher a film is accuraTe in iTs depicTion of menTal illness 1 Director has done Their research for example Ron Howard who direcTed A BeauTiful Mind spenT Time wiTh The cenTral characTer John Nash and read The biography of Nikolas Tesla To gain an insighT inTo how The invenTive brain works 2 Based on True sTorybookbio Girl InTerrupTed was based on The original memoir of The same TiTle by Susanna Kaysen who spenT l8 monThs in a psychiaTric hospiTal and was TreaTed for borderline personaliTy disorder 3 Genre lisTing which aisle you pick up ThaT DVD from has a loT in fraugwmmgg common wiTh The Theme The more accuraTe films Tend To be in s The Drama area raTher Than Horror The ExorcisT Thriller Psycho or Comedy Nurse BeTTy which seek To exploiT menTal illness for shocks or laughs However As Good as if GeTs OCD is lisTed as a comedy 4 OscarGolden Globe awardsnominafions generally means ThaT The film was well ThoughT ouT and noT merely a box office populariTy conTesT focused on enTerTainmenT For example acTress Angelina Jolie won BesT SupporTing AcTress for her role in Girl InTerrupTed and Geoffrey Rush won BesT AcTor in Shine WNClA 4m NILLM 12 Increasingly decisions aT The media producTion level are based on financial consideraTions raTher Than poliTical ones For example The BriTish Tabloid The Sun only eliminaTed racisT spins on news sTories during The l980s afTer iT realised ThaT a significanT proporTion of iTs readership was Black In adverTising oTher eThnic groups may simply disappear from The screen if They are noT perceived as cenTral To The marllteTing sTraTegies of adverTisers A lilltely ouTcome lies in furTher expansion of TV neTworllts wiTh increasing numbers of minoriTy channels ThaT have Their own adverTising agendas WheTher such as move will prove beneficial for culTural harmony as a whole is open To auesTion Genres Week 14 BM0668 w I39 i t 39 quot ARCHER 833 WCCBRJFF SEMOUSLY WOL39KBED CHRISUANE mmua um cum mn 50am mosraeczmmmmom DECEMBER 39 D e Ti n i Ti News is The TruThful reporTing and reporTs of conTemporary evenTs Human beings are always inTeresTed in evenTs beyond Their immediaTe purview 18 quot cenTury German philosopher Immanuel KanT idenTified Two forms of realism a Empirical believing only in The exisTence of Things ThaT are derived from observaTion or experimenT b Transcendental basis of knowledge as independenT ofexpenence Hence we TrusT news sources for informaTion on happenings To provide some TranscendenTal realism Nl ews e di p Three functions undertaken by news media a News gathering report contemporary events b News production package those reports into some form or another for eg a newspaper radio programme TV bulletin and website c News dissemination distribute them to as many people as possible 2 b r y r a r r r s e ro h a STuay of The oohTehT of The news iTseIT oohTehT basea approach To news media b ExamihaTioh of The impaoT of news on The viewer or reader ihformaTioh prooessihg approaches To hews reoepTioh news media ConTenTebased apraches Examines The way The news is oUT TogeTher by journalisTs and broadcasTers To achieve cerTaih effecTs This may reflecT The ihTeresTs of media owners and is known as agenda seTTihg where news wiTh hegaTive impacT on The owner may be under reporTed This agenda would be worsened if The owners are also The governmehT Agenda seTTihg can occur oUTside of poIiTics eg aggressive PR campaigns for celebriTies IR l e f 1W In ewsr I Newsreaders need to communicate a sense of trust especially given that TV is considered a more trustworthy source of news than newspapers Moreover newsreaders may influence the audience interpretation of the material in ways of which they themselves may be unaware Even the facial expressions of newsreaders may loias a viewer s response to the info being reported In the 1984 US presidential campaign in which Ronald Reagan was re elected students were asked to rate the facial expressions of various network newscasters without hearing their voices One newsreader ABC s Peter Jennings displayed significantly more positive facial expressions than his rivals when reporting on Reagan s campaign A followup phone survey revealed that significantly more ABC viewers intended to vote for Reagan R oT W newsre der Viewers also prefer newsreaders To display human aualiTies They like iT when newsreaders joke around wiTh each oTher as The loanTer was reassuring especially when The news was load lT indicaTed ThaT if They could find The Time To share a joke iT meanT ThaT life goes on regardless This is explained as providing conTinuiTy for The viewers PsychoanalyTic Theory likens iT To a TransiTional olojecT a comforT lolankeT To which we cling for reassurance ThaT all is well wiTh The world R oT TV newsre der Shows how much medid exisT ds d Trdmework for everyddy life For eg when we reTurn from d foreign holiddy one of The TirsT Things we do is To swiToh on The TV jusT To see wth s been going on while we ve been dey This dlso expldins why Trdgedies on TV unseTTIe us A sense of our oomforT bldnlteT being Tdlten from us SomeTimes when mdjor ohdnnels dre filled wiTh The horrors of wor dnd desTruoTion iT is oomforTing To be dble To Turn To odble ohdnnels for odrToons music videos eTo which dre oblivious To word evenTs Bad nws amp seri Tendency To find bad news more inTeresTing Than good news US h eWS One argumenT is ThaT The appeal of bad news mighT be rooTed in evoluTionary psychology News media perform a surveillance funcTion as we use This as a way of moniToring ThreaTs in our immediaTe environmenT eg if we hear abouT a rape or murder ThaT has Tallten place in The alley aT The end of our road we know To avoid iT in fuTure A sTudy supporTed This idea when confronTed by disgusTing news images parTicipanTs backed away from The screen buT when The images induced anger or fear people acTually moved closer for a beTTer loolt s e ri o u s news Toddy There is on incredse in humdn inTeresT news Thdn redl news Also more difficuIT To diseanngIe serious poliTiodI news from TiTTIe TdTTIe gossip Eg d poliTioidn in d sodnddl is more likely To be remembered for his ddllidnoes Thdn his poliTiodI success Mdjor poliTiodI figures ooerdTe in Three overdooing spheres of doTion insTiTuTiondI poIiTiodI privoTedomesTio dnd publicpopuldr dII doTiviTies visible To The medid This is pdrTiouldrIy gldring when d poliTioidn is involved in d sexuol sodnddl The medid odn swing The sympdThies eg ClinTon Lewinsky Where do sports end and MedidSport begin One way is to see sport as a media construction in itself if the media present a game as a sport it is a sport The sport label deems it serious and worthwhile pursuit as compared to one termed as game The impact of the media on specific sport can be very significant The most popular sport on a global scale is soccer with over a billion people watching the World Cup final lvledia also shape sport in such a way that the games themselves are effectively a backdrop for a constantly unfolding drama with personalities incidents moral issues feuds heroism betrayal heartache and elation The advertising generated phenomenal revenue and TV stations pay record license rights for soccer matches Leading clubs wear their sponsors name and logo on players jerseys for a high fee Paporazzi s fovourife athletes Cpcrczziquot fNOUJIFWg IJQCI cthlleres V n PHOT03T ln recenT years Technology has been used To seTTle issues in sporT where The TV camera is used To pinpoinT accuracy by officials Every on field gesTure from a varieTy of camera angles and close ups puT The players under scruTiny The level of scruTiny heighTens The level of parasocial inTeracTion wiTh The players making us armchair psychologisTs inferring ThoughTs moTives inTenTions sTudying body language and drawing our own conclusions abouT characTer TemperamenT personaliTy and even menTal healTh These speculaTions form a narraTive sTrucTure of mediaTed sporT from The buildup To The evenTs The maTch commenTary ofTen superfluous To The posThoc analysis All This lend To a sense of a sporTing communiTy where The personaliTy characTerisTics of cerTain sTars become parT of The shared knowledge of The sporT GD Thg 0f If 1nhe eeelnemliee hehlilnci Why IElFlL eeete yea elixty dellllare Ear Tim ath39y He Fuhllitehed em 23 JUL 3313 Whitr watclilini a game at teathall in Sinlgap is letting mare and mare expeneiee EVEN year and what thall fans tn ti he make a tili erence The last time I watched an EF39L game at hme wee when Sergtia Aguere ace the winning gaal te clinch the Premier teague tilie tar Manchester Sitar in 32112 llt elect the clay I cteclclecl net ta renew my ehhecriptian far mie W anytimere I am sure we all remember new car etateat theert htie W eetap Icein hung ae were all attempting ta switch chanhele 1 en the t Mancheeter game39s ll t eure what type at technelegtr Mia W le EE lt E en hut tt EUH39E was feeh e anti weeneincing that the technelegzlr ceuitlln1 cape the large trelurne at chanhel emrlilrtg Try telling wear hientle album it and watch them huret nta laughter Juet thie EingTel anheuhcetl that its paces tar lEL wealtl lhcreaee tie BEE tel ll39l39iiEll39IlE up far the fact that Startla temhecnre are n at t Sign Hi as wellquot Thlie e tllp ft lTl the cturremt price et ita an increaee ref cleee tje T i39hc In theem ane weulcll think Startlet viewers heihg ahle tel ehhecrlhe tel the EF39L men he a gd eeurce at ad ilienal tar SihgTel That ef cearee ie net new ingTel e eeelhg it The argument frarn the SingTel came le that their have aheaye heeh eahelhielrtg the caet t the EFL tar their euheclrtherel Since EF39L le new atrallahle tel hath Startlet and ElhgTel embec re lt ne lenger realtee analr eenee tel eaheitlliee the EFL tram EingTei pelnt let view Seande sqhite fair cleeen39t it wadollorsondsensesg 28 July 2013 Moiivoiions ior viewin oncl enjoying sporlr Uses and grolificolion lrodilion idenlifies 3 main molives for viewing 1 fondom or fonship The desire To Thrill in viclory 2 Desire To lei loose or kind of colhorlic funclion for sporl 3 Desire To learn skills and ladies by wolching lop performers MoTivaTions yiwing and enl sp Fandom plays a cenTral role in media sporTs For eg supporTers of college fooTball Teams demonsTraTed higher affiliaTion wiTh Their sides afTer vicTories Than afTer defeaTs This is The basking effecT whereby The Team would be referred To as we social idenTiTy Theory explains This as idenTificaTion wiTh a successful group in order To promoTe a posiTive self image Terror managemenT TheorisTs Take The sTand ThaT idenTificaTion wiTh winning Teams produces a degree of self worTh ThaT acTs as a shield againsT The fear of dying MoTivaTions Tor viewing and e nioying sprT However These Two approaches do noT explain The behaviour of commiTTed sporTs fans who are unlikely To change allegiances because Their Team loses These affiliaTions become an essenTial parT of Their social idenTiTies and affecTs Their individual well being American college sTudenTs TesTed showed depressed mood caused by waTching Their Team lose Motivations tor viewin and enioying sport Other features that make media sport attractive 1 Live sport has immediacy takes place in real time unlike scripted drama It has an independence of its own which exists regardless of media coverage The media creates the impression of simply being bystanders to record the action 2 Offer live cultural experiences that are shared simultaneously by TV viewers around the world Eg Superbowl and FA Cup constitute an imaginary community that carries patriotic overtones 3 pro lernngc gspecTs oT sporT in The rnedig 1 Violence SporT reloTed violence comes in mony forms from rule bound oggressive conTocT in soorTs such os boxing ond ruby To on field breoches of The rules in fooTboll ond ice hockey ond off filed conflicT beTween rivol groups of ions Violence in some of These ore seen os inTegrol To The exciTemenT generoTed by The gome In rugby so much oggressive conTocT is ollowed by The rules ThoT iT hos proved eosy for ployers To sneolt in bunches ond sTomps undeTecTed Squeezing opponenTs TesTicIes during The scrum has long been porT of rugby s TrooliTions A lineor reloTionshib hos been found beTween The omounT of oggression in soorT ond The level of soecToTor enjoymenT borTiculorly for men 3 prbledeio ds eoTs oT sporT in The medid This could supporT The ooThorsis Theory ie sporT should hove o pooifying effeoT However some reseorch hos linked on filed violence To off field Trouble eg fooTboll hooligonism espeoiolly when The Teom supporTed by The hooligons hos losT Severol sTudies suggesT ThoT moToh oommenTory is o mojor fooTor in promoTing sporT os on oggressive speoToole When oommenTory dwelled on oggressive inoidenTs They were seen by viewers os oggressive ond when ignored They were noT noTed os oggressive inoidenTs In some ooses medio s highlighT of oggressive Tons wiTh The inTenT To shome Them inodverTenle fomed Them insTeod ond gove Them elevoTed sToTus omong The fons 3 problemaTic as Ts of s orT in The media 2 Gender SporT is The only TV genre for which male viewers ouTnumloer females There is a serious underrepresenTaTion of women in sporT media Some see if as loenefiTTing men in ThaT sporT is used as a prime siTe for displays of male power governed by The virTues of musculariTy and sTrengTh Where women are feoTured There is a Tendency To dwell on nonaThleTic aspecTs of The sTars such as Their off field relaTionships Coverage of female oThleTes is limiTed To feminine sporTs such as ice slltoTing and gymnasTics ia 3 prlmaTlc specTs of sporT In The me When female aThleTes finally aTTracT The aTTenTion of The media iT ofTen dwells on inTrinsically feminine aspecTs of Their personaliTies American sprinTer FloJo during The 1988 and 1992 Olympics won mulTiple gold medals buT The media focused on her fashion sense and elongaTed fingernails The coverage of glamorous Russian Tennis sTar Anna Kournikova vasle ouTweighed ThaT of more successful players While The lasT decades have seen more women obTaining roles as sporTs M presenTers if can be aTTribuTed more 39 To Telegenic facTors Than To experTise E 39 39V L l W 1 l 39 391 I l h 1 u ENTERTAINMENT8 LIF kl EMAGAZINE OFTIl 39 4 v I s roblemdtic dspects of sport in the medid 3 Xenonhobia amp racism lvledid hds mdndged to bring different cultures dnd notions together Through sporting events but hds dlso resulted in crude stereotyping dnd outright rdcism For eg different Europedn medid outlets tended to deploy the some representdtions of Africon sports performers English medid were found to be uniquely unpledsdnt pdrticuldrly toword close neighbours Frdnce dnd Germdny English medid stereotypes in dttempts to excuse their own tedms poor performdnce without crediting opposing tedms Negotive terms used on the other winning tedms include overly serious ruthlessly efficient irrdtiondl religious fdndticism or temperdment 3 problematic aspects of sport in the media A frequent issue surrounding representations of different ethnic groups in sports is the debate about the apparent superior natural athleticism of African descent since the vast majority of successful international sprinters are Black Attribution for this has ranged from musculature to heel bone no conclusive evidence surfaces o cg v o 39139 lquot e I 6 in l p gig Nx 2 0 39 39 39 I 39s I V 11 4 I t 3 quotf rs39 y g 39 0 1 O Soaps The popularify of ficfional media parficularly fhaf of soaps rivals fhaf of any ofher genre In some counfries such as Brazil fime sfands quotx sfill for soap felenovelas viewing and in f rural India soap has acfed as a cafalysf for v social change Love amp Infrigue The appeal of soaps is fundamenfally psychological resfing in our abilify To bring ficfional creafions fo life in our cognifive acfivify and in our falllt The difference befween soaps and dramas is fhaf a soaps focus on romance is long running and heavy on fhe cliffhanger Soaps offen go on for years buf dramas have a limifed number of episodes IF rrh oll F e o TIU re s PopuloriTy of soop olue To common soop feoTures o Persohol life os 0 core problemoTic eg JR s oil business in Dollos Tokes second ploce To Tomin issues b Soops ore morkeol by meloolromoTic excesses hecessory for Their emoTiohol impocT c Soops oclt horroTive resoIUTioh Thereby moihToihihg Their cohTihuous exisTehce ol SiTuoTiohs ore cohTriveol To bring TogeTher o regulor cosT of chorocTers eg hospiToIs pubs offices e Soop chorocTers need To be olromoTic buT They olso need To be reosohobly oTTrocTive To viewers eveh os villoihs ps Fns Sfio Feminism Tradifionally soap has been regarded as an overwhelmingly female concern where The female fans are shallow senfimenfal and even pafhological Some explain if as a consolafory acfivify for women who have lifer else beffer fo do This view could be affribufed in parf To The percepfion fhaf facfual enferfainmenf is more frusfworfhy serious and meaningful Anofher perspecfive suggesfs fhaf if offers posifive and progressive pleasures in which feminine compefence is recognBed Soap s basic premise is fhaf women are undersfandable and rafional seen as skilled in fheir emofional abilifies The women are also porfrayed as building managing and mainfaining relafionships Aspecfs of femininify are celebrafed The viewer ds PsychologisT e ldenTifiCdTion dnd Pdr socidl lnTercTin Identification Theory would find ThoT sodp viewers could idenTify closely wiTh The chordcTers in Terms of socidl cldss occupoTion or fomily issues One sTudy found Tth followers of EdsTEnders ciTed redlism in The dcTing convincing porTrdydl of emoTion dnd depTh of The chordcTer ds The moin redsons for onching Appedl could dlso be due To The viewers pordsociol inferdcTion wiTh Their fdvouriTe chordcTers This is exploined by The unceerinTy reducTion Theory d cogniTive process found To be imporTonT for forming ordinoly socidl reldTionships Reduced unceerinTy dbouT d person mdlltes iT edsier To dnTicipdTe hisher responses To socidl siTudTions dnd This resulTs in dTTribuTiondl confidence The feeling ThoT we know whoT mokes d person Ticllt The viewer as PsychologisT e ldenTiTicaTion and Far social lnTercTin The longer a Time a viewer has spenT wiTh The characTer The higher The uncerTainTy reducTion which explains why many soap fans become sTrongly aTTached To long sTanding soap characTers EssenTially The appeal of soap is noT unlike ThaT of deTecTive ficTion in which The viewer Turns psychologisT analysing characTers moTives for behaviour and predicTing Their emoTional responses This Taslt is accomplished Through a Viewers have biographical knowledge abouT The characTers concerning Their relaTionship hisTories including Things unknown To oTher characTers b Viewers may have access To some of The characTers privaTe momenTs revealed in separaTe scenes or close ups of expressions The viewer as Psycholo e ldenTiTicTion and Prasocial lnTercTin This kind of informaTion is rarely accessible in real life Hence can of The soao s enjoymenT is iT allows us To indulge in our social curiosiTy wiThouT experiencing The repercussions of real involvemenT lT also allows us To discuss The deTails wiTh fellow viewers making ficTional creaTions come To life Reolily TV is on umlorello Term for ouolienoe poriioipolion shows where orolinory people ore on TV Conslilules o suloslonliol oorlion of progromming from gome shows To ouolienoe lolllt shows oloousoops fly on lhe woll olooumenlories lolenl onol mokeover shows lST reolily series oflen oreolileol To Big Brolher 1999 loul BBC s Driving School 1997 is ooluolly The firsl of This genre Moureen Rees from Woles become 0 nolionol superslor in UK olue To her ineol driving Psycholicdl uesTi PsychologisTs inTeresT Which aspecTs appeal mosT To The audience Why WhaT moTivaTes individual viewers To parTicipaTe in These shows WhaT are The psychosocial consequences of parTicipaTion WhaT does This genre Tell us aloouT The relaTionship loeTween public and privaTe life WhaT snapshoTs does This proved of human behaviour pq rfici w hC Audi TOW H 39l39l JJCHVIBION39E BENSATIONAI Ir l950s quiz show formdf loecome exfremely successful By l957 hdlf of fhe lO highesf rdfed nefworllt shows were quiz shows Ivlosf well known wos The 64000 Quesfion wifh d fop prize of or mere 64 If dffrdcfed Revlon ds or sponsor mdde sfdrs ouf of ordindry confesfdnfs dnd scooped 85 of viewing dudience 399 If wos concelled in l958 due fo d rigging scdnddl fogefher wifh fhe dnofher quiz show Twenfy One which led fhe ldffer s producer fo loe chdrged wifh perjury As or resulf sulosequenf gdme shows offered nonmonefdry prizes The compefifion elemenf remdined in mdny gdme shows even in The Ddfing dee dnd Blind Ddfe The live elemenf offered dudiences fhe grdfifiCdfions of unpredicfdloilify dnd dir of dufhenficify Aud By the 2151 century the basic game show format had been stretched beyond all recognition iencepdrticipdtion media a history Prize money of up to 2 million dollars is not unheard of The Amazing Race Who Wants to be a Millionaire Survivor and Big Brother have run multiple seasons silencing sceptics who doubted the their staying power minis rill Talent formats were spawned following the success of the Pop Idol franchise Producers were quick to capitalise on the popularity of the judges element with The X factor AmericaBritain s Got Talent America s Next Top Model The Voice and So You Think You Can Dance The Apprentice Project Runway efc YOUTHINKYOUCAN L v s I r I I 39 it 7quot i l I 3939 p tr 1 quot I 39 In 39 l 4 39 r Q t f o I s 39 39 n C39 I W tne y Carson AWE 1 vTS A l3939 Critical opinion touch on the show s ethics to the worthlessness of modern celebrity DocuSoops Audiencepdrficipdfin meolid A documenfdry fhdf follows or group of people in d cerfdin profession dround fhrough fheir professiondl dnd somefimes persondl lives If is or form of redlify show fhdf shows redl people UHSCFlpTed doing day Tcde E93 KEEPINGUPWITHTHE Americdn Chopper Midmi Inllt Deddliesf Hl g Cdfch Undercover Boss 39 Pnemene Modified formdfs fo focus more on persondlify 39 celebrify s persondl or domesfic lives egs The Osbournes The Simple Life Keeping Up wifh fhe Kdrddshidns Producers come up wifh incredsingly credfive sifuofiondl sefups such ds Wife Swop One Born Every Min ufe My Sfrdnge Addicfion id Aucl Makeover Television Members of The public appear alongside experTs from fields such as cooking DIY gardening peT Training and fashion iencepdrTicipdTion med UGGI q 9 The objecT of mosT of These shows is for The 39 g experT To display hisher skills while aT The V same Time providing a service for a member by 39 1 Of The public llllill EH Makeover programming also ClVCllIS ITself for I sponsorship and markeTing opporTuniTies eg I 1 producT placemenT l NANNY 911 EETQEEVAID Egs Nanny 9 l ExTreme Makeover Queer Eye for The STraighT Guy Dog Whisperer RenovAid 1v ll39r39 llill k lumil Tll Lll l AudienceapdrTicipdTion media Talk Shows Covers a wide range of show ThaT are orienTed around a single personaliTy or hosT who presides over The conTribuTion of a parTicipaTing audience buT wiThouT any elemenT of compeTiTion niTialy serious poliTical and social issues eg working moThers sTaTe benefiTs racism homophobia were debaTed alongside lighTer issues such as psychic phenomena and sexual preferences v UNCENSORED 139 x 52 n l990s There was a shifT Toward more personal concerns where The hosTs became younger and more ordinary and casual less of a voice of auThoriTy Some of These have been known To inTenTionally seT up The discussion for poTenTial conflicT eg provoke hosTiliTy beTween guesTs eg on The Jerry Springer Show where H has been criTicised as voyeurisTic enTerTainmenT Fake guesTs have also been reporTed thdid video AUlehCGpClliilClplt1lilh meolid Emerged ldrgely Through The dVdildbiliTy of Technologicdl eouiomehT Tth ehdbles The public To dcouire foonge of Their own dcTiviTies thdid Comerd wos The firsT To seT up discreeT recording eouiomehT To film unsuspecTihg members of The public blunderihg ihTo booby Trdos quot Jng Nine J While eouiomehT goT more sophisTiched The quot forde sTill rerihed iTs dooedl Through shows like You ve Been Fromed Americo s FunniesT Home Videos Punk d dhd JusT For Loughs The appeal of This genre Ta TV companies are ReIaTiver cheaper To produce Papularamang audience Have birThed many TV persanaIiTies as presenTers ar experTs Far The audience The appeal of This genre can be grouped under Twa broad areas a Parasacial inTeracTian and idenTificaTian b ReveIaTian and auThenTiciTy Froscioll lrlTerolcTih ldehTiTicoTiOh Viewers recognise versions of Themselves on The screen Porosociol ihTerocTioh operoTihg here viewers coh reloTe To onol con empoThise wiTh The members of The public who oppeor in These shows The Tolllt show for eg gives The public 0 voice ThoT empowers o group of people ohol ocTs os o viTol forum for public oleboTe ohol o mouThpiece for opihioh The Tolllt show coh olso creoTes o sense of presence The feeling ThoT we ore There UampG TheorisTs hove orgueol ThoT porosociol ihTerocTioh moy be used To compehsoTe for lock of sociol cohTocT Frascial lnTeracTi ldenTiTicaTion In some cases cerTain members of The public clearly sTand ouT and become memorable because They share some characTerisTics wiTh The viewing audience who can empaThise wiTh Their experience eg Maureen Rees in Driving School or because of They have an excepTional abiliTyTalenT eg Susan Boyle in BriTain s GoT TalenT One of The problems wiTh members of The public who become famous in This way is ThaT They ofTen sTruggle afTer an iniTial honeymoon phase To mainTain Their celebriTy sTaTus Several conTesTanTs on Big BroTher UK found iT hard To cope wiTh Their declining fame ln exTreme cases They suffer greaT disTress eg a paramedic commiTTed suicide several years afTer becoming a naTional hero for rescuing an 18 monTh old girl largely as a resulT of his fading sTar R e v ell H For mdlteover fordes The defining momenT is The reveIdTion dT The end of edoh show when viewers respond To The Trdnsfordeion of The pdrTioipdnT or The pldoe Tth hds been ohdnged signifiodnTIy These redoTions dre Typiodlly dooompdnied by demonsTrdTions of emoTions 2 kinds of redoTion from The viewing public ensue i Too senTimeanI dnd disTdsTefuI poTenTidIIy oorrupTing influence usuolly d redoTion when The pdrTioipdnTs ore from The IowesT sooidl oldsses dnd The viewers ore undble To idenTify wiTh Them ii Too voyeurisTio espeoidlly when The unsuspeoTing pdrTioipdnTs dre duped by hidden odmerd seTups odusing disoomforT for The viewer ReveldTion 2 AuThenTiciTy lvlchh mdking shows like Blind DdTe dlso pivoT on d momenT of reveldTion when boTh pdrTners who were previously blind To edch oTher s idenTiTy meeT crdTing or double reveldTion Tth provides viewers wiTh The opporTuniTy for much dmoTeur psychology eg PerfecT MoTch on Ch U BeouTy amp The Geek Much of our pledsure in oudience pdrTicipoTion medid derives form The redding of chordcTer of esTimoTing oTTiTudes moTives dnd inTenTions dnd idenTifying verbdl dnd nonverbdl clues from The behoviour of people onscreen Their fociol fedTures dre scruTinized prior To Their findl dnswer in Who WonTs To be d Milliondire dnd couple Tedm dynomics dnolysed in Survivor One of The mosT imporTanT funcTions of mallteover shows is ThaT audiences believe in The credibiliTy of The members of The public who appear on Them because They have an inTense desire for auThenTiciTy R ev e l a H AnoTher explanaTion is ThaT audiences acTually revel in The arTifice behind some producTions ThaT seTup The parTicipanT for an emoTional evenT violenT exchange eg Talk show where a jilTed lover waiTs in The wings To confronT The ex supposedly unbelltnownsT To The ex buT known To The audience The build up adds To The audience enjoymenT and They are usually noT disappoinTed wiTh The fighT ThaT follows Talllt shows are someTimes crediTed for pushing nonconformiTy closer To normaliTy eg gays Transsexuals ie ouTcasTs geT airTime on areas ThaT no oTher planorm offers and as a resulT exposes The regular viewers To Their concerns y m e lt15 Q 0 J a l I I i I j we osm BM0568 Week 7 BBIIZIL PUT THE HILL III THE IIET Kids build Lego 39 Lego builds kids The two ways your child can make 1m mark In life are with his mind and his hands And 1 he can develop his mmd and his hands domg somethmg he on joys all the better That s what LEGO 15 about More than lust a building toy LEGO makes anythtng your child39s mmd imaqmes any thmq tns hands buiid So you might say as he butlds LEGOLEGO bmlds him LUMX t 39 H t Jquot 39 quot as l 339 I r w u quoth anquot in 1 I Mm de A k Flo 0 COLDI39USION DIVELWIRS JOURNll Mozill quotMOI v Am 5 Enwmd 1m 5 1r mm 39 h L I ma y39JccU39Luzn 392th crr vex39wJ39Ll am 1 tr V v 5 I c pu4 unmit nmm nuna Mabo x Gcoql Manes mm mm u an A m noun muuxzum um mtg not H lk I mei t V HF mumquot COI39lIlIClAlXP FREE WEBIHM DOWNUMD m November 1 213 1thustunotWeb Content Management and Dtscussmn Fomms d Hyatt in SEquot FI39BI on quotECquot SA 52C 1 t l DAMmm gigggggggtou urnInc Alxr quotquot m um 539 39u m For a snack quotunto IL pm Fats Rmmumnt x39o e re Just mound the DUI orncr From 0 Mrdia 1 Wmm lotion canonn Serve Vlludnm om um ember 1213 2007 39 d Hyatt in San Francisco quot39 Successful dd cdmpdign Levi s 501 buttonfly jeans mid 1980s Sdle of 501 increased by 800 Music in dd Mdrvin Gdye s 1960 s hil l Hedrd ll Through The Gropevine wos re reledsed dnd wenl lo no i in The singles chdrls Spdrked off or succession of re reledsed oldies Model Nick Kdmen loecdme d mdjor celelorily for d shorl while Boxer shorls were rejuvendled ds essenlidl underwedr for dll young moles The word advertising originates from a Latin word advertise which means to turn to The dictionary meaning of the term is to give public notice or to announce publicly Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea The American Marketing Association Chicago has defined advertising as any form of non personal presentation or promotion of ideas goods or services by an identified sponsor Wlnai39r is Aolveriiising Adveriising is a parasiie Thai aiiaches io media IT needs media for iis survival Unlike mosi parasiies ii is also crucially imporiani for media Themselves In faci wiihoui adveriising many media would noi exier in The firer place Advertising Media Online Internet Televisiw39 Radio Billboard Newspaper Magazine Lea et O O O O O O 0 C n s u m e ris m d n A d v e rTisi n AdverTising is d key driver for commercidl medid supporTing The growTh of press rddio Television movies dnd so on ThroughouT The pdsT 150 yedrs AdverTising hos d mdjor socidl impdcT by helping susTdin mdss communichions medid dnd mdllting Them reldTively inexpensive if noT free To The public Newspdpers mdgdzines rddio dnd broddcdsT Television dll receive Their primdry income from ddverTising WiThouT ddverTising mdny of These forms of moss communichion mighT noT exisT To The exTenT Tth They do Toddy or They mighT be considerdbly more expensive offer less vorieTy or even be subjecT To governmenT conTrol Through subsidies Ad v e rtisl n th r u h h is to W Birth of ddvertising trdced to l7Th century with news sheets or mercuries thdt provided trdders with findncidl info Corried publicity for locdl foirs dnd mdrkets By 1853 billlooord ddvertising dnd hdndloills hdd Ioecome prevolent Newspdpers owners storted to sell up to 50 of dd spdce to lower the price of their product lnitidlly they credted the dds themselves with info from the client By 18803 credtive tedms declored independence from newspopers dnd received direct pdyment from mdnufdcturers of products Advertising Ioegdn to develop its own industry becoming d medium of its own thure of ddvertisements themselves Ioegdn to chdnge from text posed to visuol mdteridl initidted by big soop mdnufdcturers AdverTising Through hisTon This Pears Soap ad daTes back To 1886 The manufacTurer A amp F Pears purchased This painTing from arTisT John EvereTT Millais simply inserTed a bar of Pears soap in The scene and sold The picTure To numerous ouTIeTs The success of Bubbles as The Pears boy became known sparked a debaTe abouT The appropriaTeness of mixing commerce wiTh cuTure a debaTe ThaT remains perTinenT To media psychology To This day Adverlrisi lnoluslriol revolulion hool enormous implioolion for meolio oolverlising onol oonsumplion of non essenliol goods Rise of The lilerooy slolus consciousness onol users olifferenliolion Through oonsumplion The lone of The oolverlising wos olso ohonging No longer did oolverlising simply oresenl lhe prooluol benefil Adv rtlsln M uh histry Instead it began to create a product image Bill Bernbach founder of Doyle Dane Bernbach in New York City Leo Burnett founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago Illinois and David Ogilvy founder of Ogilvy amp Mother in New York City all came to prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s and led what has been called the 39creative revolution Bernbach39s agency captured the spirit of the new age Bernbach believed that advertising had to be creative and artistic or it would bore people He also believed that good advertising began with respect for the public39s intelligence The ads his agency created were understated sophisticated and witty Avi mil in 111 a aw gt with 115 We try Wh n waf e imt that bigt h 12ou have fun H jmn tau t f ft tlirilfgJr Eartha tray It halfEmpty gents it rls ll ia a W ilt wipc r unmaskEd Earth r Elmv tiwsp r anything I a igm t i t r that adjHEEL l lieamrt that hEaL u L39Il ti that thatMal bwuu jll Ht thing we try ertlrt it fur it ju l 3914th Think small swimInt 3mm mfgLyn right with a new Ema mill 3 li39lr39IEIE39 EHIJIJI39I39E m Firtil and a Flt Ei Ei iiite Tm it this 5a when yum giggt gainEll FE E itl mi andwit39lm in Duluth Why Bantam Ltkgm t a rd hi1 mitt th I m Er t i an r n ith am that limit 39he iim at mut t u t l it r ll l39ii r Adv rTisin Throu A h hisT ry AdverTising dgencies iniTidIIy focused on prinT The inTroducTion of radio credTed d new opporTuniTy dnd by The end of The i920s ddverTising hdd esTdeished iTseIf in rddio To such on exTenT Tth ddverTisers were producing mdny of Their own progrdmmes The edrly i930s ushered in dozens of rddio drddeic series Tth were known ds soap operas becouse They were sponsored by sodp compdnies Television hdd been inTroduced in 1940 buT becduse of The high cosT of TV seTs dnd The lock of progrdmming iT wos noT immedidTer embrdced As The Americdn economy sodred in The i950s so did The sole of TV seTs dnd The ddverTising Tth pdid for The populdr new shows Soon TV for surpdssed rddio ds dn ddverTising medium Modern ddverTising is indispqubly on on form dgencies employ credTive direcTors dnd dds win prizes on The bdsis of drTisTic criTerid rdTher Thdn sdles effecTiveness Globl Ad Spend TV slill holds The lion s share bul online spend is likely lo overldke lhdl of prinl in 2015 413 nalwh 2012 if 2amp15 139 153 Newspapers h Eha we 53 Magazines Share of Gilubai Ad Spend by Medium l E I I T Emma Elm lq Raudln E In ll 11115 55 E339 l im l lm l ut mr Cil lllEllTlE 39S urm lenlth wtllmedla Role QT c in AdverTlsing Propaganda AdverTising War recruiTmenT posTers in The 20Th cenTun were used in UK and US where conscripTion was adverTised using a figure poinTing aT The viewers addressing Them direchy Principal TacTic of persuasion is direcT eye gaze along wiTh The finger poinT creaTing in The viewers an illusion ThaT The gure in The posTer is making conTacT wiTh em ExpliciT appeal made louT adverTisers soon realised The imporTance of developing more subtle meThods of pemuadon 3 7quot 397 1 1914 J lN Y UH B lJNlRY39S ARMY GOD SAVE THE KING 1917 roR SARMY l N EAREST RECRUITING STATIO w R T Fsyc h II f i n Ad ye rTisi In OTher persuasion TacTics were based on The Freudian Theory subconscious awareness visual percepTion memory comprehension and credibiIiTy sTudies Brand image sTudy of adverTising should noT be confined To The shorT Term effecTs of buying behaviour buT oolt aT The longer Term effecTs of impression building and The eemenTs of ads ThaT shape iT niTive amp Behaviourai ETTecTs AdverTising Research inTo The effecTs of adverTising Tends To fall inTo Two groups of effecTs produced by ads i Perceptual effecTs eg low camera angles To make The speaker seem auThoriTaTive ii ATTiTudinal effecTs which examine The shorT and long Term impacT of an ad on The consumer s impression of The brand and producT Percebfuai EffecTs Uses The ciassic informaTionprocessing model where The ad message is unambiguous and direcT and The receiverjusT absorbs and undersTands if as is inTended CriTicism is ThaT The inTerpreTaTive eiemenT is missing Idea of adverTising working aT a ievei beiow fuii consciousness is recognised in mainsTream psychoiogy as The concepT of subliminal adverTising Iconic memory is The Term given To The sTorage of a fieeTing visuai sTimuius presenTed fora brief period 50 miiiiseconds or so Percepfual Effecfs Experimenfal research has suggesfea fhaf our refenfion of such displays is beffer fhan we realise ie we are able fo recall more fhan we consciously perceive Hence a belief fhaf aa messages can be injecfea info The memory fhrough exposing audiences fo brief snafches of persuasive fexf in The middle of TV or cinema programming Perceptual Effects Subliminal means imperceptible but powerful It is used of secret messages said to be inserted into advertising and other media forms and to have measurable on behaviours bypassing the conscious brain According to an unconfirmed study in the 19503 The messages eat popcorn and drink Coca Cola were flashed onto a cinema screen for 13000Th of a second every 5 seconds during film showings Over 6 weeks this led to an 18 increase in sales of popcorn and over 50 increase in sales of Coke at that particular cinema As a result the US govt outlawed the practice of subliminal messages in advertising in the 503 and the ban has remained despite mixed scientific evidence PercepTuoTT ETTecTs CriTicisms of This underhonded Technique conTinueoI inTo The 70s onol 80s WB Key wroTe books on SUBLIMINAL The use of coverT sexuol tLAM i PLATE SEDUCTION e ORGY imogery in shoolows onol Emma TECH muss reflecTIons m smm BEHAY DOCS I M mun MAN A 110 mmquot Ifsuloliminol ool is copolole of influencing consumer 3 THE NEWEST AND REVELATIONS YET behovrour Then IT IS WITH AN EYEOPENING 37 FAG PHOTO iNStRT Through The process of cogniTive priming clrs FC e p T U Q l E Sublimindl ddverlising is d conlenlious dred dllhough is seems cerldin lhdl some of The success of ddverlising musl be dllribuled lo unconscious processing If we hedr d jingle enough Times on TV or rddio il will inevildbly seep inlo our unconscious lhoughl Furlhermore our exposure To dds is rdrely governed by conscious deliberdle dilenlion TV dnd cinemd ddverlising hdve been hugely successful becduse lhe dds hdve d cdplive dudience pdrliculdrly in The cinemd 80 of TV viewers ledve The room during commercidl bredllts dnd fosl forword Through The dds when ii is pre recorded progrommes Progrdmme genre loo hds d slrong effecl on cognilive processing of commercidls Bolh violenl dnd humourous progrdmmes hdve been linked wilh low recoll of ddverlising moleridl ll oppedrs lhdl emoliondl response blunls The degree of dilenlion lhdl viewers cdn pdy lo ddverlising Alliluinal Eliecls Theories of subliminal adverlising work on The assumplion lhal allenlion perceplion and memory are sufficienl molivalion for consumer To buy produc rs Ivlosl consumer decisions however are made on a largely ralional basis and many lallte place in a social conlexl where alli rudes play a parl Allilude research uses psychomelric inslrumenls such as The Lillterl scale for which respondenls are asked To agree or disagree with a series of slalemen rs by selec ring a poinl on a conlinuum Useful approach To providing info aboul public impressions of producl and brands A TTi T u din a l ETT c Ts Increasingly The effecTiveness of an ad is measured by wheTher consumers like The producT on offer and The ad iTself raTher Than wheTher The ad has acTually inspired Them To purchase The producT Their emoTional appeals The use of music and humour as effecTive devices are also sTudied One heavily researched area in The psychology of persuasion concerns The degree of personal involvemenT wiTh The producT if consumers are highly involved wiTh a producT eg means a loT To Them They will devoTe more ThoughT To The message conTained in The adverTisemenT A ffi f u d i h a l Eff c fs ther approaches include hard sell and soft sell A hard sell ad approach would appeal direcfly To The producf ahd ifs basic elemehfs So a hard mobile phone ad would focus on The cehfral roufe fo persuasioh lofs of Technical and pricing ihformafioh A soft sell approach would appeal more To The peripheral roufe so an adverfiser mighf use music imagery and harrafive fo seduce consumers in an ihdirecf fashioh AfflfU in l Effecfs Synder and de Bono 1985 found fhaf The appeal of hard and soff sell was affecfed by The degree of self moniforing fhaf people engage in Consumers who scored highly on a fesf of self moniforing fhose socially more self conscious ie fhose more adapfable fo differenf sifuafions had more favourable affifudes foward soff sell ads Hard sell ads focusing on facfs eg describes benefifs of producf appeal more To low self monifors Those who fake more pragmafic approach To life and are less concerned wifh image ATTiTuindl EffecTs This means ThaT all kinds of assumpTions are poured inTo adverTising eg loesT way To appeal To menwomen olderyounger adulTs differenT eThnic groups AdverTising is less aloouT how people are acTing Than aloouT how They are dreaming iT reflecTs The aspirations of The consumer raTher Than hisher currenT siTuaTion a difference loeTween one s currenT sense of self and an ideal self which is one of a number of possible selves ThaT a person mighT generaTe of any given Time i ii theforical Effecfs of Aclverfising Anofher approach fo research on fhe effecfs of adverfising is To ignore The consumer alfogefher and focus on fhe way adverfising is creafed parficularly fhe use of rheforic The arf of rheforic uses persuasive fechniaues which appeal fo fhe emofions build credibilify and frusf iii using logic and reason Early adverfising relied on a very simple sfrafegy of persuading The consumer if provided informafion aloouf fhe producf in simple language F L 13339 DE LIE W S 3333 Nu Skull 73Hquot 39l new 39quotI39 39 Re voiving Refrigeratorg In dtln flz EH r siiD Irrngr f Fquot39Ifi Iquotquot ul39 1 412 quot Rquotl1v slf039h I39HI39II HHJI 11x quot 11 quot A5 El 1L t1 2 uff21 l lquot tra Inn Lax 5x11 le39lh ElioIFlX39liilu39 v39l IV39I ILXTVUk Z39K39L39 This Rxfziccralir ir maria 2 N turtzrgvnx furtn mu ia erv n nl39lmmui 3 Well 15 Infra 39I Lu feFluttzlf39f39r 3 ltrate 339 tlm 31 rumupyiu ulm half tilt rumL rl Ivln e 11M and xlmut Lalf itr 39quotquot 39I I9quot 110 l39ulquot ul39 HI lulI nf 15103311 m inlf flu fir x 39 l39 flu i 39 I Elk39lr9151quot in H1quot mill and butter clt 111551 739Z I l quot u1 and i m Lin1 separate 1139 m nllml39 parts 239 flu 1111 igeii39at39sh if 39351 33111 0 lii 39A z39 3F UH it39l ti llfu jn j Nil39 3 39 UH MIL I nrlcr tint zi39k and lrz39lr 1 g utmu ism l39 the mum Sillquot The lullzvxnn 09 33911 Sirl39I39leoiL CJ 3939 in cm yemml mnaz tuzc zt Hn39l r all 39HimIz 3 Inszit Iplnih y sh fruit gr1 age 22 L1 imp in t Hl39t e Iquot lth39 l 1quot 39i39ln39e man3 cam at cf u h39culS N39E EIT39D 144 u 911 HEN l 39it l n39 mv lt39iiu 39 that may in dlf iil39t ll in fl ulri if it rreqrrlive 13939W The mm W 11 Wiltilalii II 12539 Very I th in zulzl 111th fill3C zilll rl m much N39m39l Trio311 1 MI they lrfr cm Bfquoth 131133 the 91mm spams 0quot HM flnur Magus ml and mm 111cm or sum for cir39xt u Firing 61 nlnsrrElinx 39l39h39 ran in shipped L any 1 Eur 0121 CIrxlr39 with safety 6 j 39n1 attention pn39nl to heating ventilating repairing in can in city ca ctuutry Appeared on Harper s Weekly 14 April 1860 Rhel rrical Ei iecl rs o Adyrlrising lvledical adver rising for minor ailmenls nol requiring physician prescriptions eg cures for headaches colds and indigeslion usually fea rure appeals lo science wilh phrases such as clinically proven lo and lesls show rhal are employed along wi rh olher signifiers such as while lab cools and les r rubes Increasingly ads for consumer goods such as cerlain foods loolhpasle and washing powder also draw on The discourse and imagery of science Since oulrigh r deceil in adverlising is regulaled in mosl slales adverlisers avoid legal aclion by issuing disclaimers usually as unoblrusively as possible Eg of disclaimers Can only did slimming as parl of a calorie conlrolled diel or Offers apply only To RheToriccii ETTecTs oT AoiverTising AdverTisers drow on poro sooiol reIoTionships IoeTween The public ond well known oelebriTies To buy 0 produoT The use of oeleloriTies To promoTe odverTised goods is known os produoT endorsemenT The oeleloriTy performs o duol funo on o As 0 fomilior fooe The celeb is seen os o reliolole source of info Io As They hove on exisTenoe beyond ThoT of The oommeroioIproduoT They hove US20 million deal makes Catherine Zeta Jones one of highest paid celebrity endorsers R h eT t ri c l E TT e c Ts T A v EffecTiveness of celeb endorsemenT is mixed In d sTudy of over 5000 TV commercials celeb endorsemenT wos noT found To enhdnce The communichion of The dd messdge eg Chdnel no 5Brdd PiTT rTisi n Presence of d fdmilidr fdce mdy overwhelm The messdge iTselT The sTdrproducT connecTion mdy need To be esTdblished Through d more susTdined dd cdmpdign One woy in which celeb endorsemenT mdy work is To Trdnsform The imdge of The oroducT Through iTs dssocidTion wiTh The sTdr on effecT known ds flow of medning from endorser To oroducT SomeTimes chdrdcTers dre credTed whose oersond is permdnenle dssocidTed wiTh The oroducT eg Energizer s Bunny Kellogg s Tony The Tiger These chdrdcTers cdn cdrry The messdge of The ddverTisemenT beyond The confines of The origindl TexT Brand awareness is buiIT up Through years of viewing and inTerpreTaTian The message canTained in a specific ad is hard Ta isaIaTe from The everyday experiences of The consumer Linlts beTween adverTising can be seen as a farm of inTerTexTuaIiTy This has The effecT of sTreTching The meaning of an ad inTa aTher TexTuaI farms sa campaigns can build up meaning Thraugh differenT media A famous ihTerTexTual example of placing The ad in The culTural and brand conTesz is seen in The AbsoluT vodlta ads When The viewer sooTs The boTTIe ahd undersTahds The social or cuTura conTesz of The specific AbsoluT adverTisemehT heshe feels a cerTaih sense of accomplishmehT for undersTahdihg The ad mac 395 L uckyp 0 0quot K V Rd m U eg Where s Lucky Where39s Lucky T39s The auesTion plasTered across billboards newspaper ads posTers pinned To Trees even cards in newsagenTs39 windows ThaT has prompTed Thousands of phone calls and web hiTs from Those curious To find ouT more The ads which look like an appeal for informaTion abouT a losT dog called Lucky direcT people To call a phone line or log on To a websiTe wheresluckycom and ThaT39s whaT hundreds of people a day are doing To The delighT of ad agency Ogilvy 8 IvlaTher IT was acTually a campaign To promoTe peT insurance by The insurance group Royal 8 Sun Alliance There was no menTion of The company s name or producT info as The posTers were designed To simulaTe privaTe pamphleTs for losT peTs Shorle afTer a TV commercial appeared wiTh Tull company info enabling viewers To compleTe The puzzle AdverTisers acTually see The inTellecTual efforT involved in inTerpreTing complex adverTising as a selling poinT Though The campaign has been deemed disTressing To The animal lovers Rhetorical Effects of Advertising Another form of intertextual advertising is whereby manufacturers pay for their products to be visible during a showmovie The movie also gain realism with the visibility of contemporary consumer goods Seems unlikely that exposure to one single instance of a product will have much impact on long term behaviour Advertising amp Children Some governments have seen a need to regulate the advertising of products aimed at children on TV amidst concerns that children could be unwittingly influenced by what they see Psychologists are divided in degrees on the sophistication of children in filtering these ad messages Clemr Comes to emqu I wt gt gee Mum Normal People 370139 i hM fb h HN39L Oxfi39g ng e Box 3 96quot 13 61quot Wage IraqY anckf 39 39 five h mes an hour CI lb 039 AverTisin amp Children Children pdss Through 4 snges in Their developmenT ds consumers Infancy 02 yrs children become inTeresTed in brigthy coloured TV progrdmming includes commercidls dnd by T8 monThs sTdrT dsking for producTs They hove seen ddverTised Preschool period 2 5 yrs children dre dT Their mosT vulnerdble To TV ddverTising They find iT hdrd To resisT TempTing producTs which ledds To TdnTrums in sTores when denied 70 of pdrenTs of 5 yr olds reporTed experiencing such conflicTs 58 yrs old Children become more sophisTiched consumers of medid dnd hove developed sTrdTegies for negoTidTion wiTh pdrenTs over purchdsing 912 yrs old findl phdse where They displdy independence in purchdsing ds They become more criTicdl medid users ATTrdcTed Toword more ddulT forms of enTeerinmenT Peer influence is more impoernT dnd ddulT sTyles of consumpTion such ds brdnd loyley seT in AdverTisin amp C hil ren ArgumenTs ThaT cogniTive maTuraTion is The main deTerminanT of adverTising awareness fail To explain how young children differ in Terms of The producTs They reauesT If The effecTs of adverTising are a simple maTTer of aUTomaTic responses To sTimuli why don T boys ask for Barbie dolls While cogniTive maTuraTion plays a parT in children s media inTeracTion inTeracTion beTween co viewers parenTs siblings will have considerable impacT on how children respond To adverTising AdverTising amp Children Phenomenon of PesTer Power and modem day consumpTion RepeaTed appeals on TV lead children To make prolonged demands on parenTs for producTs 1 39 39quot r r r f 8 a 4 v 39 J r I 39 2 1 39J r u quotI quot39 513 do n rg 39 quot V qvlg m 39 39 wan1 ia Tagzwv39G ga on 3 5 Wquot quot ut 7 a 39 t g e 39 39 V 5 4 r L Q l quot 539 u J I b iquot Q n I i c n V l p A 1 y y l I 39 1 l quot Q39 I 39 LJ n4 q 39 39 s u p 1quot l 139 s 7quot V T 1 4quot311554g39 39 fin mw v a a 39 W h J I uquot 1 v 393 x o a a 1 5 A sTudy relaTing TV use and gifT requesTs To SanTa Claus found ThaT The more Time spenT waTohing TV The more gifTs were reauesTed parTioularly The number of branded goods This was sTrongesT in children who waTohed TV alone suggesTing The effeCT of parenTal mediaTion Adv rTisin amp Chilldren AnoTher facTor is peer influence ParenTs may be familiar wiTh Their children s viewing oaTTerns louT noT wiTh The conversaTion They have wiTh Their friends and Thus overesTimaTe The influence of Television This ooinTs To a difficulTy wiTh sTudying aT a purely individual level The effecTs of adverTising To children HisTorical and social facTors are essenTial consideraTions for a developmenTal media psychology GunTer and Furnham T998 and Turow 2001 idenTified a number of facTors relaTed To The changing naTure of family inTeracTion ThaT have imoorTanT implicaTions for The children and adverTising deloaTe ll 2 3 lssues reldfing fo m derngddy cnsumpfi Children do nof demdnd only children s producfs such ds sweefs dnd foys lvlodern ddy children occupy d differenf posifion in fhe fdmily regdrding decision mdllting fhey hove more power over pdrenfdl choice eg holiddy desfindfion Ivlodern homes dnd fechnologies hove led fo children spending more fime dlone dnd fhese bounddries dre exploifed by ddverfisers who emphdsise fhe differences befween members of The fdmily rdfher fhdn fhe simildrifies Ivlodern pdrenfs hdve fewer children dnd more spending power so fhe number of producfs boughf per child is confinudlly rising 39 Fl AdverTisih q amp C There is dlso concern dbouT The woy in which ddolesoehT girls respond To ddverTisihg Tth fedTures beduTiful Thih models Resedroh ihdiodTes Tth mdhy ddolesoehT girls who dre unduly influenced by This sTdhddrd of beduTy become dissdTisfied wiTh Their own bodies dhd mdy develop edTihg disorders in pursuiT of d Thih figure New resedroh suggesTs Tth ddolesoehT boys dre dlso being influenced by ddverTisihg imdges of bulked up buffed bodies As d resulT mdhy become dissdTisfied wiTh Their own body imdge devoTe ldrge dmoUhTs of Time To weigthifTihg dhd mdy eveh lelte drugs Tth hdve hdrmful side effeoTs in order To develop more muscle Social lmpact ot Advertising Some critics suggest that advertising promotes a way of life by leading quot people to believe that happiness is achieved by purchasing products They argue that advertising creates a in which buying exciting new products becomes the foundation of the society39s values pleasures and goals n u w Social lmpacT oT AolverTising OTher criTics express concern over The way adverTising has affecTed women and racial minoriTy groups Ads in The 19503 depicTed women primarily as decoraTioh or AlThough millions of women worked ouTside The home in The 19603 ads conTinued To focus on Their role as homemakers WheTher owing To The feminisT movemenT or To women39s increasing economic power afTer The 19603 iT became more common To see women depicTed in professional roles However many ads Today sTill emphasise a woman s Cdse study Cad Uri5 Gorilld Tried to work ds on entertdinment piece dnd provoke virdl mdrketing by word of mouth This dd omitted ony direct cloims for the product except for the colour purple Viewers were tdscindted by the ombiguity of the imdges wos this d redl gorilld Why this choice of film Or soundtrock Ivldny enjoyed odding their own music Polling compdny YouGov reported thdt public perception of the brdnd hdd noticedbly improved in the period following the lounch Go to willtipedid for more of the production of and reasons for this campaign Fufure irecfi in Adverfising Confemporaw consumpfion is many fhings a sign of affluence a funcfion of enjoymenf and modem leisure and somefhing relafed fo individualism offering liberafion fulfilling needs and fhus aiding in fhe formafion and sense of fhe self As media fechnologies evolve adverfising will be forced fo adapf Adverfisers will affempf To use more infrusive means of confacfing consumers recenf concerns have been voiced over fhe use of spam fexf messaging on mobile phones
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