Notes on Multi-camera Production
Notes on Multi-camera Production
Popular in Media Psychology
Popular in Communication
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Date Created: 10/10/15
SCRI PTS amp CAMERA CARDS WEEK 4 13M0625 MULTICAM STU IniRODUCT39ON The lefthand side of the cam script describes in brief the shots which will be seen on the screen It also includes shot numbers the number of the camera giving the shot and its position 0 The righthand side gives the speech stage directions booms being used and other sound info eg tape or sound effects basic layout should be used throughout BIVIOEZS The important thing is whether the script is 2 pages or 90 pages simple or complicated the use of the same layout means that everyone in the studio knows where to look on the page for the things which concern them Lines are used to indicate cutting points Slant strokes at the end of the line gives the actual camera cutting point El 39lhe cam script for most programs will contain all the info necessary to put the program on the air But because of the amount of info involved each one must markup his own script so his responsibilities stand out clearly This applies particularly to the SD many News amp Current Affairs programs the most important document is the Running Order A complete Running Order is a shorthand version of the program s script listing sequences in words out words timings and every facility to be used in chronological order Each sequence will be numbered and titled your group name and the name of the NP P 99quot group members at the top of the script Make sure camera operations are clear and standard terminology is used Use standard abbreviations Clearly indicate camera cutting points Remember to include sound cues Number your shots Adhere to the times agreed for handing in scripts operators don t have scripts as they both hands free to operate their cams Their info is given on camera cards each one an extract of the cam script relevant to each cam Each card consists the shots numbers for that particular cam descriptions of that shot as well as moves and positions for the various shots There should also be sufficient space on the camcard for the camera operator to add his own notes I a MCU Mid Closeup MS Mid Shot LS Long Shot Zs 2Shot M25 Mid 2Shot WA Wide Angle HA High Angle LA Low Angle FG Foreground BG Background Fwd Forward X s Across Cam R Camera Right Cam L Camera Left C Center OS Over Shoulder FU Fade Up FD Fade Down Sl Superimpose SB Standby OL Overlay CSO Color Separation Overlay DFS Digital Frame Store VT Videotape VTR Videotape Recording CAPCap on SampV Sound amp Vision TX Transmission Mic Microphone FX Effects tape or CD Spot FX Sound effects made physically in the studio not recorded VO Voice Over SOT Sound on Tape 75 WEEK 4 wBM0625 MULTICAM STU werODUCTION Ahen deciding what sets should go where in the studio you have to plan the best positions like you would do when furnishing your room 0 The difference is that once the set positions have been agreed on the floor plan you cannot start changing your mind In other words your planning needs to be exact Aar efully consider what space the various items may require and any likely relationship which may be needed between one area and another There is no definite rule but it is best to get the largest or most important area positioned first on your plan and then work from there For eg in a breakfast TV show obviously the most important sets would be your presenter information areas n resenters may need to be arranged so that they can move from position A to B to C in vision when required or can be visually linked with another presenters in a 2shot or a wideshot HtquotERSDH LlHI tquotElFtEIIT39nquot 7 Radio and Tolovioion Arts Studio B Enoorlorjglr and Blowing Scale 154 linoquot 2 w looquot 2 o of movement with cameras In a 3 current affairs show there is rarely time for a lot of camera movement So try to place sets so that a camera can get a number of shots from one fixed position or with the minimum of movement It is essential to keep your operating areas on the floor as clear as possible to allow for quick easy amp silent movement orking on a live show always think about what might happen if a camera goes down particularly on your main presenter Can you position sets so that another camera can quickly pan to provide cover Positioning of other equipment Keep in mind the space needed for monitors autocue Monitors need to be placed so that they can be seen by the presenters but others should be kept well clear of the operating floor orking on a live show always think about what might happen if a camera goes down particularly on your main presenter Can you position sets so that another camera can quickly pan to provide cover Positioning of other equipment Keep in mind the space needed for monitors autocue Monitors need to be placed so that they can be seen by the presenters but others should be kept well clear of the operating floor heautocue is being used keep in mind the fact that the camera should not be more than a maximum of 4m from the presenter At the planning meeting stage your lighting supervisor and designer may want adjustments to set positions Before agreeing to these changes do ensure you can still get the shots you want n39 first on rough paper using paper cutouts for furniture and cameras Don t cheat Pay accurate attention to scale Chairs and tables sizes need to be correct Booms can travel over cables cameras cannot Check camera cables don t tangle Clarity is needed Beware of overmarking camera positions 75 WEEK 5 wBM0625 MULTICAM STU werODUCTION Lighting amp Sound 0 Lighting amp Sound for Different Program Genres Lighting is a major factor in the creation of the desired effect in TV pictures quot39lighting can be simplified into 4 situations 1 A presenter newsreader or person talking to camera Two or more people talking to each other The interview The demonstration Drama or Variety A combination of 13 0 Highkey means bright cheerful with no deep area of shadow Faces can always be seen especially eyes that communicate so much IIJ is often lowkey Shadows are deep and there may be areas of light and shade The mood is dark and serious 0 Lowkey lighting is sometimes used for a late night discussion program But although backgrounds are dark faces are correctly lit Two people talking in a lit area with a dark surround keeps viewers attention on the speakers nusual camera lenses or mountings to be used 2 Are there large areas of cyclorama Here considerable lighting power is required 3 Is the setting day night or evening 4 How are the people going to look White colored or sunburnt Color of costumes If possible avoid very white and deep black Red or deep red looks noisy on camera r quotf A U o Costumes or suits with pattern or stripes can cause strobing or bleeding on camera and must be viewed on camera before being used 6 Is flash photography or laser effects to be used They must never be pointed at anyone or any cameras r e 277 3 397 r quot73 J a V 39nar a I is about making pictures and sometimes pictures alone say all that needs to be said But it is the sound that conveys the hard facts through the spoken word and conveys the mood through music and effects quot 39l5ictures amp sound complement each other but F z because their individual ideal requirement can be conflicting in the studio planning is necessary The Sound Engineer will need to know answers to certain questions which are partly determined by the program format 7 quot7H 39nar a I J iwumany contributors are on the show Seated or standing and walking Use of graphic displays Prerecorded material Interviews with remote contributors via phone ommunication between presenters and outside interviewees is most important Communication is always important between director and sound supervisor about who comes next and if the presenter moves from one position to another 4 I a l i 1 A I Audience Need for public address Uvesound Prerecorded backing Lipsynching Backing vocalists Orchestra in studio Orchestral layout l Discontinuous recording 0 nprogram sequence Areas of studio in use Number of sets per recorded sequences 0 Relative positions of sets 0 Talent movements in set Telephone conversation Sound effects to the above questions will enable the Engineer to establish and book the necessary facilities and staff Placing or mic booms can be agreed as they affect both the camera positions and lighting 0 All this and other considerations places a high emphasis on planning through which the SD can draw together the many disciplines of TV production of which sound is one into a united force EAT Va l DIRECTING STUDIO N EWS amp INTERVI EW WEEK 7 x EBM0625 MULTICAM STUDIOPRODUCTION A studio interview can be produced with 1 2 3 or more cameras People can be seated in a number of ways and cameras directed with considerable variety 0 But one factor applies to all interviews the guest is the most important person in the program not only when speaking but also often when reacting to a question directors tend to cut between the interviewer and the guest as each one speaks This can be boring and predictable 0 It is sometimes better to keep the shot of the guest during the interviewer s question or vice versa e match in size and framing 0 When lining up your shot in rehearsal have people standin for the actual performers It is bad psychologically to waste the guest s time Spontaneity will also be lost 0 When working out your shot sequence remember to establish their physical relationship between the guest and interviewer at an early stage A wide 2shot can do this U trate on good composition rather than fancy camera angles These can be distracting to viewers Use lVICUs and CUs These are the bread and butter of any interview or discussion Never intercut between shots in which your interviewer is framed closer than your guest The guest is more important than the interviewer and should appear as large as the interviewer on screen of the shot Either include it or lose it completely Super name captions on a MS or IVICU Never on CU Writing across a chin looks ugly 0 An iv can be made even more interesting by including VT segment photos gfx but you will have to plan more carefully The director interviewer and guest must all know when the visuals are to appear and in what order i live commentary to a VT segment it will be quotwish the interviewer or guest to give a necessary to have them view the tape beforehand It s also important for them to have an unobstructed view of the monitor during the studio shoot Don t leave them with the problem of having to crane their necks to see around a camera that you had forgotten would be there Do To direct and interview properly you must listen as well as look The pace and timing of switching between cameras will depend on the type of interview 0 For example lively and controversial interviews require quick cutting whereas gradual trackins would be more effective in the personal or reflective type of interview twoway interview three cameras are a luxury but the third camera can be used for o A safety 2 shot Name captions Other visual photographs diagrams etc Profile shots of the guests Try avoid having your safety 2shot directly in front It should have depth and generally favour the guest AASitions for 3way iv Cam 1 concentrates on Host and 2shots of Interviewer ant Guest occasional 3shots Cam 2 concentrates on CUs L v 2 tameral amers Cam 3 concentrates on Guest 1 2shots of Interviewer and A EBIiiEtE 2 Guest and occasional 3shots w her that you may have to release your 3rd cam or even your 2nd cam for use on an item following the interview Give ample time for your cameras to reach their new positions and compose their shots Make sure you have allowed time for these moves before signalling the interviewer to windup the discussion During the setting up period just prior to rehearsal check that 0 The backgrounds are compatible 0 The lighting matches 0 The framing for the 2 shots IVICU s and CU s of all cameras match The sound levels and sound quality are balanced STUDIO DIRECTORS amp ETHICS director through control of the seating arrangements and the interviewer through choice of questions are both in the position to manipulate the tone of the discussion Wu can also editorialize with your shots A high camera shot looking down on the guest is sometimes interpreted by the audience unconsciously as putting the guest in the hot seat It implies an attacking position A very tight shot of the guest intercut with a loose shot of the host can give the impression that the guest is being squeezed by the interviewer in addition the interviewer can editorialize with facial expressions A smile or the lifting of an eyebrow captured by a close up shot can imply to the audience that the guest is not telling the truth If they are not telling the truth then the interviewer should be able to ask a question to reveal this Camera angles and shot types should remain neutral The content of an interview should determine the credibility of the guest ROLES OF OF MU LTICAMERA STUDIO CREW w WEEK 2 BMO625 MULTICAMERA PRODUCTION LECTU RER AZHAR ABDULSALAM STUDIO DIRECTOR S R RESPONSIBILITIES SD s ROLE Assignments to your crew must be clear often times in written form and usually distributed in the following order 1 Give the FM the oor plan and directions as to the set design and dressing Ideally you will have met with the FM before class so he she has a good idea of what you re doing SD s ROLE 2 Provide your audio engineer with his specially marked script and explain exactly what you want in the way of microphones audio carts CDs etc This should be written down to save time during production 3 Provide orientation for your camera operators as to position main subject for each camera shot lists etc Give operators camera scripts Remain flexible so that changes during rehearsal can be included in the final taping broadcast SD s ROLE 4 Meet with your talent to firm up last minute details and to make him her comfortable It is important for the FM to meet with the talent to explain what is taking place during rehearsal and what will take place during the actual production Also hand signals and cues must be reviewed so that the FD and talent are quotcommunicatingquot SD s ROLE 5 Provide your AD with a detailed list of graphics to be inserted and a copy of the script with graphics noted Ask the PA to double check the GFX pages for accuracy typos spelling 6 Make sure that your VT operator has playback tapes with cue points noted and the record tapes Ask the VT operator to review the playback segments that will be used in order to gain familiarity with them SD s ROLE 7 Check out your TP on any special or unusual vision mixing switcher effects to be used Routine switcher transitions should be picked up during the run through and rehearsal 8 Review the program with your AD making sure that he she understands the flow of the program and knows what time cues will be needed Important Make sure that you your AD and talent all agree as to whether the time remaining cues are to end of talent or end of show FLOOR MANAGER S RESPONSIBILITIES FM s ROLE You report to the Producer Director for instructions regarding the set and set dressing Be certain that you introduce yourself to the talent and call them by name when addressing them Review the hand signals that you will be using with the talent Make sure that talent is comfortable and understands what is going on You39ll be on intercom this whole time be sure to listen for the voice of the SD and respond quickly to his directions FM s ROLE As FM you are the most important crew member in the studio and must understand the production nearly as well as the director Make sure that the talent is as comfortable and relaxed as possible If there is a break in the taping all of the crew on headsets will know what is going on but you must remember to let the talent know what is going on FM SIGNALS amp CUES There are hand signals with accepted meanings which are used by the FM to communicate a wide range of messages to the talent These are major cues that an FM handles Time cues Performers cues Written information cues FM amp TIME CUES Time cues let the talents know how long it will be until the segments starts when to begin speaking and how much longer until the segments ends The time cues are the following are cues for a basic interview segment Standing by put hand up palm facing up Start point finger forward swing arm down We re on time thumbs up Wind up move finger in circular motion FM amp TIME CUES Everything s okay thumbs up Stretch move hands as if to pull elastic Cut pull finger across throat or fold thumb on palm four fingers stretched out place hand just below camera lens 10 seconds ten fingers 5 seconds 5 fingers FM amp PERFOMANCES CUES Performance cues give the talents directions about where and when to move how to change voice level which camera the performers should be looking at mainly for the interviewer host and also the performer s eye line FM amp PERFOMANCE CUES The performance cues are Come closer two hands palms facing in moving towards body Move back two hands palms out pointing out away from body Stop two hands palms facing out Speak up fingers pointing to mouth hold other hand to ear Tone it down press hands down FM amp PERFOMANCE CUES Go from this camera point at one camera with open hand point with the other hand to next camera to this camera Swing arm to next camera No good make fist with little finger sticking out place below camera lens Applause if shot in front of live audience FM amp WRITTEN CUES There are times when a presenter needs to be prompted with a name title or some nonsignable info When this happens writing info on a card works Limit this usage The SD will make sure the FM s signals are well rehearsed with the talents before a performance Once the recording starts it is solely through the FM to give directions to the performers THE STUDIO CREW S RESPONSIBILITIES AD s ROLE The role of the Associate Director AD is crucial to the smooth operation of the control room Live TV is a matter of splitsecond timing and the AD is the crew member responsible for informing the crew of time used and time remaining The two most important crew members to be informed of time cues are the Director and the Floor Director FD AD s ROLE The AD begins by counting the crew into the show ie announcing the time remaining to air This may begin as early as 30 minutes before airtime depending on the complexity of the show and continues right up until the 10 second countdown AD s ROLE For the sake of inclass projects the AD will give time remaining cues beginning at 3 minutes to air and as follows 3 minutes to air 2 minutes to air 1 minute to air 30 seconds to air 15 seconds to air 10 9 8 7 6 5 AD s ROLE Once into the program the AD continues to give time cues over the intercom for the benefit of the Director and FD These time cues should announce the number of whole minutes remaining down to the last minute and then every 15 seconds with the final 10 second counted down to black Be sure to give time cues with enough vocal authority to be heard over the normal din of control room chatter AD s ROLE In addition to time remaining in program the AD may be requested to time individual segments such as VT clips and commercial breaks For this reason it is sometimes necessary to have a stopwatch in addition to the master countdown clock That way the stopwatch can be used to time individual segments while the master countdown clock can remain dedicated to showing the time remaining in the program AD s ROLE At some networks and stations the AD rolls VT clips and sets up camera shots However not all directors like the idea of giving up control of these crucial tasks So be sure to discuss with your director exactly what he she expects of you as AD AD s ROLE The Associate Director AD is the second pair of eyes and ears for the director During the run through and rehearsals the AD will be at the side of the SD making any notations regarding script changes and timing Once inside the control room the AD is expected to perform various tasks probably the most important being keeping track of timing and giving timing cues to the studio and control room crew AD s ROLE In addition to timing ADS are sometimes asked to assist the SD by watching the monitors for framing setting up the next shot calling for videotape segments to roll in calling graphic supers in and out etc It is important that the AD become familiar with the operation of the countdown clock and stopwatch AUDIO ENGINEER S ROLE Obtain marked script from the producer and note the audio elements specified by the script When laying microphone cables consider camera movement and placement Cables should be positioned so that they are out of sight of the cameras AUDIO ENGINEER S ROLE Ideally you are responsible for mikeing talent or delegated to the FM Be sure that mikes and cables are hidden When assisting a member of the opposite sex with a clip mike be careful to protect his her privacy The talent may want to step into the green room or backstage to run the cable under her blouse Make sure that mike batteries are inserted properly and that switches are switched on AUDIO ENGINEER S ROLE Next test the microphones to make absolutely sure that they are working Mark the audio console39s channels for talent39s name and the approximate level for each microphone Be sure they are speaking at a level representative of their real performance Next check out the other audio sources that you will be using Audio carts must be checked for level and to ensure that they are cued CDs should be previewed for level and to become familiar with the cut to be used VISION MIXER S VM ROLE a The vision switcher takes their instruction from the director Basically the director decides what is going to happen and tells the W switcher to do it A typical set of instructions might go like this quotMix VISION MIXER S VM ROLE Meaning Preview camera 1 and prepare to put it online Director39s Instruction Ready 1 or 1 next 39 39Take 1 Cut camera 1 online Preview camera 2 and prepare to put it online 2 next 39 Mix camera 2 online CAMERA OPERATOR S ROLE Get your camera scripts from the SD and attach them to the back of the camera Make sure that you have sufficient cable to reach the furthermost position you will occupy Your studio cameras should be set to 3200 K to match the studio lights Adjust the viewfinders VF brightness and contrast controls for optimum picture on your monitor Unlock the pan and tilt locks and adjust the pan and tilt friction drag adjustments to suit your preference CAMERA OPERATOR S ROLE Next familiarize yourself with the program and your responsibilities Visualize the shots that will be required of your camera and rehearse any complicated moves Practise with the zoom and focus controls to ensure that you can operate them smoothly CAMERA OPERATOR S ROLE While operating the camera the pan and tilt locks are to remain unlocked at all times Locking down a camera shot during a rehearsal or production is unacceptable in most studio operations On the other hand never leave your camera without first locking the pan and tilts locks and capping the lens VT OPERATOR S ROLE Once you have been given the playback videotape cue it up and familiarize yourself with the video to be played back into the program Note video levels and color accuracy Regarding setting cue in out points for videotape you have two options Either make note of the TC time code numbers of the in and out points or set the readout to CT control track and zero the counter at the in cue point VT OPERATOR S ROLE Confirm the position of the record tape and cue it up for recording Again set the readout to control track and zero it at the proper recordin point This should be approx 10 secs past the last audio video recorded on the tape Confirm the proper setting of switches and patches so that you are in fact recording program video When recording the new program be sure to record at least 10 secs of black video and silent audio after the program fades to black VT OPERATOR S ROLE At the completion of the project being recorded remain in record mode for at least 10 secs after video and audio has faded to black At this point stop tape rewind into the program and play for a few seconds to confirm that audio and video have been successful recorded VT OPERATOR S ROLE Once you have confirmed a successful recording for the crew cue the tape up to a point exactly 10 seconds past the end of the recorded program and reset the control track counter to 000000 Wait for the next VT operator to arrive and confirm the position of the record tape VT OPERATOR S ROLE Remove the playback videotape from the playback VTR and return to the Producer Director If it is the last project for the day return the record tape to the instructor COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION IN STUDIO To achieve good and effective communication in a TV studio we the crew must all speak the same language and obey the rules and practices This is particularly so in the case of the SD who is the most important communicator of the team having to give and receive info from such a variety of sources COMMUNICATION IN STUDIO The SD is like the conductor of an orchestra but with two major differences The SD s voice is the baton so it s not only what is said that s important but how it is said Few members of this orchestra can see the SD so their interpretation of instructions is solely dependent upon the SD s voice amp tone COMMUNICATION IN STUDIO In the course the SD s main sources will be Studio Sound Lighting VT In the industry you can also have Outside Broadcast OB and Transmission TX Cue This is used for everything in the studio Go This is used for sound eg go CD Run Roll This used for VT Lights For lights to come on COMMUNICATION WITH FM Standby Studio Cue James speech only Cue Action Cue FX Sound effects Wind him her presenter up Hold it to stop rehearsal or recording immediately Not to be used to stop camera zooming tracking or panning COMMUNICATION WITH VM For this course this is done through the FM but in the industry you may use the talkback The talkback enables the presenter to hear instructions from the gallery when the talkback key is pressed When using the talkback avoid talking to the presenter when he is speaking Be clear and concise The language used during TX with the presenter must be carefully chosen especially if On Air since obviously no verbal reply is then possible COMMUNICATION WITH CAMCREW The following instructions cover movements which a cameraman will be asked to make Track nTrack Out Zoom n Zoom Out Pan Left Pan Right Tilt UpTilt Down Crane Up Crane Down Crab Left Crab Right Focus Defocus Favour someone something Freeze To halt a pan zoom or track COMMUNICATION WITH VM It is extremely important that the Vision Mixer VM and the SD work on the same wavelength During rehearsal your working relationship with the VM will develop and you will discover where and when you will need to give instructions In News amp Current Affairs Shows SDs normally call the cuts even during TX But in most other cases you will have established with your VM where you want the cuts and they will take them without instruction COMMUNICATION WITH VM There are some things that all VMs expects from SDs 1 The SD will come to fully prepared with a precise knowledge of what he wants to see 2 The info is put onto the script clearly amp correctly 3 Every SD should be consistent eg when you are calling shots during a discussion you must keep doing it not just when you feel like it COMMUNICATION WITH VM VMs like the SDs to use and use consistently a cautionary word before giving an instruction involving cuts mixes supers and wipes The word is And This helps the timing of the cut Your tone of voice amp speed of delivery is important from the VM s point of view esp when it comes to mixes and supers If you say and mix quickly the VM will react accordingly and give you a quick mix COMMUNICATION WITH VM It also helps the VM cutting to say Cam One when the SD uses the word One but is talking to the Camera and not the VM For eg SD Previewing his next shot Coming to 1 next VM s finger is poised on the Cam One button SD 1 can you tighten your shot In an instance like this the VM might well have cut to Cam One which you don t want COMMUNICATION WITH VM The following are the established word used to the VM And 1 or 2 3 or 4 according to camera number for a cut And Mix And Super And Lose Super And Wipe COMMUNICATION WITH VM Fade Up Fade Down Coming to Cam No Next or Cam No Next or Ready Cam N0 Fade Sound amp Vision Take VT 03 CB Commercial Break COMMUNICATION WITH SOUND 1 At the start of the program sound AND vision should be brought up together Never allow the picture to precede the sound Say Go Sound Fade Up 3 and NOT Fade Up 3 Go Sound At the end of the program it is better for the sound to fade before picture so we say Fade Sound amp Vision COMMUNICATION WITH SOUND 2 When the Sound Supervisor brings up a problem do listen because you can be sure he has a problem that needs to be solved We tend to get carried away with pictures and take sound for granted Don t COMMUNICATION WITH LIGHTING There have never been any definitive words of command for lighting Normally the Lighting Supervisor will act without a cue according to what has been agreed at rehearsal But to get the exact lighting changes you may require does take considerable time and extra rehearsal DIRECTING COMMANDS amp ROUTINES WEEK 3 BMO625 MULTICAMERA PRODUCTION LECTU RER AZHAR ABDULSALAM if COMMUNICATE It is essential form the crew to know what s happening at all times during a production Therefore the director has the task of keeping all the various production areas informed especially if there are last minute changes The FM on the studio floor must pass on the relevant information to the talents eg why there is a delay in shooting the next take why a segment has to be reshot COMMUNICATE As SD you must make sure that everyone knows what you want to have happened and when you want it to happen and what you want it to look like All crew involved in the production must be kept constantly informed of any changes A new shot list of camera changes to the script different camera movements a change of shot order everything must be communicated to everyone involved COMMUNICATE In the heat of the moment it is easy to forget that you as SD are the source of all action The rest of the crew have to act on your instructions Keep them informed and always give them plenty of warning SD S COMMANDS amp CUES FOR LIVE SHOWS SD this message is relayed via the FM Standby everyone We 11 be going in 30 seconds Everyone Okay Standby studio Standby videotapes standby audio When theses areas have acknowledged that they are ready the director continues SD S COMMANDS amp CUES FOR RECORDINGS AD Is the floor ready FM If ready FM will reply Floor is ready If not ready FM will say no and explain AD Is the panel ready e a Panel If ready Panel Crew will reply Panel is ready If not ready Panel Crew will say no and explain 39 e if FM VT VT SD S COMMANDS amp CUES Standby for rehearsa l recording Standing by for rehearsa 1 recording Roll VT1 for recording When tape has startedrecording Tape is rolling Roll VTZ for program opening title Tape is rolling 10 seconds to the floor First shot on Cam 2 Standby to cue presenter Sometimes the SD gives this command also SD S COMMANDS amp CUES ADFM Countdown 7 6 5 4 3 Z 1 SD Up sound to Sound Supervisor Cue presenter and mix to Cam 2 The program is now on air AD Cam 2 on Cam 1 next Cam 1 on M5 on cue zoom in to MCU 10 secs to Cam 1 5 secs to Cam 1 SD S COMMANDS amp CUES During the course of production the director tells the VM when to cut either according to director s camera script or in the case of an adlib program as suitable The director is responsible for telling the VM what to put to line SD SD S COMMANDS amp CUES Cue talent cutmix to VM amp light up Standby to super and super and loose Ready one Take one Ready three Take three Ready two Take two And so on SD S COMMANDS amp CUES Camera Operators also need to know if their picture is about to be used SD Cam One can you get me a close up of Guest One Focus up give more head room please Good Ready one Take one SD Cam three frame up 2shot on guest on cue pan left and zoom in to MCU on guest one SD S COMMANDS amp CUES The same process applies to videotape sources and to the character generator CG SD Up sound roll VT Clip on tape Up sounds talent mic Cue talent and cut Standby graphics Take graphics on cam 3 Ready cam one take one Ready cam three take three Last shot on cam two track back to 3shot Standby to dim lights amp dim lights Up music Ready roller and roll Fade sound and fade vision STUDIO ROUTINE Directing live television can be either a great adrenaline kick or a major frustrationthe key is your organization and communication We39ve already addressed organization so let39s spend a moment on communication STUDIO ROUTINE The first rule of communication for live TV is be precise and concise But first you39ll have to master the lingo that directors use Be warned that the lingo can and will change from market city to market station to station But one thing is fairly consistent Always give a ready cue before giving the cue to execute the command This allows your crew to prepare to do what you want them to do and then when you call for the command to be executed the crew can respond immediately For example SD SD SD SD STUDIO ROUTINE Ready Cam 1 Take Cam 1 Ready to Roll VT Roll VT Ready to Cue Host Cue Host Ready with Name Super Super Lose Super STUDIO ROUTINE In each case since the crew has been prepared with the ready command they can execute the take command at the instant the director says 39Take Roll Cue etcquot The ready cue becomes worthless if the director changes his her mind eg I39ve heard directors say quotReady Cam 2 Take 3 and in these cases only a really good VM can save the director39s a STUDIO ROUTINE Finally learn to watch your monitors You can see a lot about what39s going on in the studio simply by looking at your monitors Often you can see a problem before it gets to air and still have time to do something to correct it And look at your camera shots before you put them quotonlinequot Is the framing right can it be improved slightly by asking the camera op to adjust the framing a bit You are the director and the look of the program is your responsibility Now go get 39em STUDIO ROUTINE Marking a position once a position for a talent has been lit the FM will mark the talent s position on then floor with masking tape This is to lock in the action area Studio coordination during a rehearsal the FM conveys the director s instruction by using these standardized calls STUDIO ROUTINE FM Silence please we are standing by for rehearsal The signals the first attempt at coordinating all production elements talent cameras audio lightning At this stage stops and starts in repeating the action several times is expected FM Silence please talents speak up for sound check This means testing if the audio at the optimal level STUDIO ROUTINE FM Stand by for a rehearsal This means a continuous rehearsal of a segment or scene hopefully with few interruptions From this the crew should get a clear idea of the overall performance and rehearsals continue with improvements until FM Silence please we are going for a take Commitment Everyone gives 100 percent as tape rolls for a live transmission STUDIO ROUTINE FM Five minutes to airtime Three minutes to air time one minute 30 seconds ten seconds 5 4 3 2 1 Throughout the rehearsal it is important the FM lets the talents know as soon as possible for each stop the pickup point FM We will pick it up from e g page 5 host link 2 All communication in the studio and studio floor should be clear and concise so as to avoid confusion and the time wasting Studio time is expensive The FM is the key figure in the passing on accurate information STUDIO ROUTINE Presegment responsibility The FM is also responsible for providing the identification for each taped segment and graphic inserts The FM s Tool Kit Before rehearsal the FM must make sure he has a talkback headset with sufficient cable length for adequate movement The FM should be equipped with Cue cards with written lines for talents Doublesided tape Floor marking tape FM S SURVIVAL GUIDE Preparation Study script and floor plans carefully Assess problem areas Discuss them with your director Liaise with technical and services staff Schedule appropriately Check progress on all work prior to production penod FM S SURVIVAL GUIDE Production Be early Check that everything and everybody is ready Start rehearsals on time Give adequate and timely refreshment breaks FM S SURVIVAL GUIDE Overall Use common sense Be calm and courteous even when the director is shouting at you Don t pass your frustration on to the talent and crew Maintain a quiet discipline Anticipate the director s needs Care for the cast and crew m E IrWh 39 Y39l39 39 39 quotI 2 I quot SHOT COMPOSITION MIXING VISION MIXING The following are meant to be guidelines to new directors in the art of shot composition and vision mixing They are not intended as unbreakable rules Many of them will be broken by a directors as he becomes more experienced However at this early stage of direction it is useful to have some simple rules of thumb by which to work THE CONVENTIONS THE CUT The cut is the method of getting from one camera to another when the action is continuous in time ie when there is no lapse of time to be indicated THE DISSOLVE OR MIX The mix is used when a lapse of time is to be indicated or in getting from one scene to another between which there could have been a lapse of time THE CONVENTIONS THE FADE IN AND OUT The face out to black and the fade in from black are used in the same way as the mix but are accepted to mean an even longer lapse of time and as it were to indicate the end of a chapter VISION MIXING 1 When fading up opening caption routines at the start of the w programme never allow the picture to precede the sound bring them up together if possible but ifnot a contrive the sound to precede the picture by the tiniest fraction I 2 Roll captions at a speed atwhich they can be comfortably read aloud VISION MIXING 3 Do not have a caption on the screen which says one thing while a voice is saying something else Sound and picture should be partners and not rivals 4 In superimposing a caption on a background picture make sure the lettering and the background are of contrasting tones 5 Cut mix and fade always to the rhythm of any music used never against it VISION MIXING 6 Fade out music only at the end of a musical cadence never in the middle 7 Do not use a very fast mix 2 secs in the minimum and 3 secs the standard time allotment 8 Always when possible cut on movement within the frames cut when the subject is in the act of sitting rising turning etc rather than when the subject is stationary Even in closeup prefer a movement for cutting when the head is in motion VISION MIXING 9 When cutting on dialogue do not be rigidly bound by ends of speeches 10 Never change the picture by cutting mixing panning or tracking without adequate motivation from either the action or the accompanying sound 11 Although the essence of television is the closeup do not ignore the value of the long shot 12 13 VISION MIXING As soon as possible after going to a new scene give a long shot of it As soon as possible after the entrance of a new character of any importance or after the re entrance of a character who has not been seen for some time give that character a closeup 1 COMPOSITION On close shots of people avoid both too little and too much headroom Remember that the head of the subject should never touch the top of the frame and the chin of the subject should never touch the bottom of the frame unless the shot is so close that the upper and lower edges of the frame cut both the chin and the forehead COMPOSITION Make certain that all cameramen in a team have the same idea of head room allowance and stick to it In an individual close shot if the subject is looking to the right compose the picture with him slightly offcentre to the left If he is looking to the left compose the picture with him slightly offcentre to the right COMPOSITION Avoid shots in which objects appear to grow out of the top of the person s head because they are on the same line as the subject and the camera Avoid shots that are wider than they need to be to contain the action and even more rigorously avoid shots that are too close to contain the action COMPOSITION In general avoid shots in which people seen full face or nearly full face are cut vertically by the edge of the frame In group shots compose in depth and avoid a straight line COMPOSITION Avoid grouping artistes in such a way that someone who is not essential to a shot will be seen half in the background and half masked by someone in the foreground Balance the objects of interest in the frame Avoid getting them bunched up in the middle with nothing on either side or getting them at the extreme edges of the frame with nothing in the middle COMPOSITION 10 Provide foreground objects in very long shots to achieve more interesting compositions 11 When composing in depth consider depth of focus CAME RAWO RK Do not pan across a static scene merely to get the camera from one point of interest to another Only pan with a moving person or object Avoid the fast pan Do not track back unless it is with a person or object that is moving towards the camera or while panning with a group that is widening during the track or when the track back is motivated by the action or dialogue CAME RAWO RK Avoid restless camera work In no circumstances whatsoever cut between cameras which are both giving practically the same shot There should be a difference either in subject size or angle between the shots offered by different cameras n cross cutting sequences prefer matched shots to unmatched shots complementary angles to angles which are not complementary CAME RAWO RK At all costs avoid framing the subject looking out left of frame in one shot and out right of frame in the next and vice versa If several actors are looking offscreen at an object unseen by the audience make sure that they all look in exactly the same direction all have the same eyeline When cutting between either end of a telephone conversation arrange for one speaker to be looking out right of frame and the other speaker to be looking out left In no circumstances should they both be looking in the same direction CAME RAWO RK 10 At all costs should avoid so disposing cameras that a person or thing will be travelling from left to right in one picture and from right to left in the next and vice versa that they will change direction in mid travel 11 Avoid making a major point of interest jump from one side of the frame to the other on a cut If the point of interest is say on the left of frame in one shot it should be on the left of frame in the ensuing shot 12 13 14 CAME RAWO RK On closeup keep the shot clear of distracting objects and parts of objects In cross shots never let the head of one person overlap or mask the face of another Keep the angle of the camera as close as possible to the eye line of the subject CAME RAWO RK 15 Never let a performer look straight into the lens of the camera unless it is necessary as it often is in educational instructional television to give the impression he is speaking directly to the viewer BASICS OF MULTICAMERA STUDIO PRODUCTION WEEK 1 BM0625 MULTICAMERA PRODUCTION LECTU RER AZHAR ABDULSALAM MU LTICAM ADVANTAGES 1 Covering continuous action over a wide area or when events overlap 2 Redirect the audience attention introduction fresh information alter emphasis point out new details by switching to a second camera 3 When shooting live you can change the shot size or intercut camera viewpoints without missing a moment of the action MU LTICAM ADVANTAGES 4 Avoids the need to interrupt and repeat action just by moving camera position 5 All editing can be carried out by the production switcher saves a lot of time 6 Can combine two cameras in various ways eg superimpose subtitles keying different background insert small detail shot within the main shot reaction shots cutaways and create special effects split screen etc 0quot MU LTICAM DISADVANTAGES Need to plan your shots beforehand and convey your ideas in advance to the crew Intercom instructions to cameras and switcher operator need to be clear and anticipatory Switcher operations must be accurate because it is not always poss1ble to correct errors eg live shows Must avoid cameras getting into each others shots Expensive setup equipment crew m E IrWh 39 Y39l39 JV39 39 39 U 2 quot MU LTlCAMERA STUDIO CREW PRODUCTION ROLES It is important that each person understand and perform his her job responsibilities with maximum efficiency Multicamera TV production is teamwork and for the team to operate effectively it must coordinate and communicate While the TV production process may at times appear to be a confusing there is a method to the madness PRODUCTION ROLES Following is a list of crew positions you could encounter in a multicamera television production Not all positions will be filled all of the time smaller productions will not have some of the more specialized job duties or one person will fill several positions PRODUCTION ROLES Lighting Director Camera Operator Associate Director Technical Producer Vision Mixer Set Designer Videotape Operator 39 Talents Sound Operator Other Roles Floor Manager Producer Studio Director PRODUCTION ROLES The Producer is the head of the production and responsible for the satisfactory completion of the project The producer selects program concepts the personnel to carry them out and control the budget PRODUCTION ROLES The Studio Director is responsible for creatively staging the production coordinating services and directing performers and crew The director usually decides the final visual and audio treatment and generally takes the credit for a wellpresented production PRODUCTION ROLES The Associate Di rector AD L is expected to undertake detailed admin work act as w 539 I the director s gobetween Equot Faisalha with every department f f h involved in the production II 1 w g 5 I The AD times the segments calling shots and watching continuity on complex shoots Overall the AD must communicate effectively and shield the director from unnecessary problems PRODUCTION ROLES The Vision Mixer VM takes cues from the SD in switching shots at the vision mixing console An experienced VM will use his initiative in cutting or mixing Some directors prefer to do their own vision switching and cutting AVN needs to be attentive in order to avoid mistakes especially during live shoes and can sometimes alert the SD to problems eg boom in shot camera not in position yet PRODUCTION ROLES The Floor Manager FM is the rep of theSDonthe studio floor He s incharge of the studio floor during the production and is in constant contact through headphone with the SD Hehas an overall idea of what s amp happening in the control f room 9 PRODUCTION ROLES The FM must have a clear line of communication with the talent and make sure the tension in the control room does not affect their mood and performance He is also incharge of floor organization safety and discipline and the efficient running of the production in the studio PRODUCTION ROLES The Videotape VT operator is responsible for cueing up all inserts and rolling all tapes on cue reacting quickly to cues from the SD and AD He must understand all types of video machines and be able to cope with problems that arise PRODUCTION ROLES The Sound Engineer has to balance microphone sound selecting the suitable type of mike and placing them in such a way to get the best sound from the various sources He has to combine and mix the different outputs such as microphones tapes disc etc into the correct audio channels He must control and ensure that the level is consistent neither too high nor too low PRODUCTION ROLES The Lighting Director DOP is responsible creatively and technically for studio lighting He must be able to understand what effect the SD is trying for and how to get it and how to deal with all the problems arising from the lighting area PRODUCTION ROLES The Camera Operators Cam should have a full understanding of what coverage is required of them by the end of rehearsal On most structured programs they work to camera cuts which illustrate the required shots as worked out by the SD In other programs they may be called upon to find shots themselves and offer them to the SD PRODUCTION ROLES The Technical Producer TP is incharge of the booking and operation of all technical resources The TP with liaise between the SD and the crew The Designer is responsible to the Producer amp SD for the overall aesthetic appearance of the production He controls the wardrobe makeup and props design and dress the set according to the theme amp requirements PRODUCTION ROLES After designing the set he will give the floor plan to the SD They have to be completed on schedule amp in time for rehearsal amp recording The term Talents is applied to anyone appearing in front of the camera such as actors anchors interviewers presenters entertainers dancers Other roles In large studios the production team would include many other positions such as makeup artist stagehands grips riggers THE STUDIO The Control Room Gallery is where the actual selection and assembling of camera shots occurs It contains a row of monitors one for each cam VT monitor preview monitor and line monitor amp TX monitor all in front of the console and are for the SD to switch during a rehearsal or recording THE STUDIO At the Control Room sit the Associate Director AD Studio Director SD Vision Mixer VM Technical Producer TP There are talkback facilities to the studio floor to the Videotape Operator VT Lighting Director and Sound Engineer who are usually in other rooms Program sound is heard over a loudspeaker From the control room the program signal is either sent to broadcast or it s recorded THE STUDIO The Studio Floor is the area where talents of w T cameras microphones graphics and props forthe making of the program are located w This Vision Control is to make sure that all the technical aspects are met such as making sure video signals are properly relayed and camera colour brightness and contrast are correct THE STUDIO The Sound Control is where the sound mixer sits His job is to adjust the volume and quality of the program sound make sure the sound matches the picture make sure the correct selection eg mic sound 36 music VT sound of sounds are being recorded m E IrWh 39 Y39l39 JV39 39 39 U 2 quot PLANNING MEETINGS Depending on the complexity of the show there may be one or more Planning Meetings attended by various people held at various times in relation to the TX date PLANNING MEETINGS Actually a considerable amount of planning will already have been done before the meeting This meeting is on so that the SD can get together with all the key members of his team to outline what he is trying to achieve what he will need to achieve it and to consider and discuss the problems involved 1 BEFORE THE MEETING You will already have discussed with the Designer who will have supplied a ground plan drawings models etc If you have any special requirements you should have discussed these with the person concerned eg special lenses special camera mounting BEFORE THE MEETING 3 Send out scripts and any other relevant info well in advance to the TP FM AD Sound amp Lighting Designer Makeup amp Costume 4 You should have worked out when possible and pencilled in your main camera positions and moves checked Be aware of cabling WHO COMES TO THE MEETING This will depend on the type of program but you should always have Production Team Producer Scriptwriter Director SD Associate Director AD The Technical Producer TP Lighting amp Sound Supervisor Designer Makeup Supervisor Costume Designer 1 2 AT THE MEETING Make you know who everyone is In BMO ZS make sure you know who is playing what role Brief your meeting What is the program about What s the idea feeling or mood which you wish to create This is super important If you re not enthusiastic about your project how do you expect your team to be AT THE MEETING 3 Get to the how Hand out the technical requirements and Running Order Go through it item by item giving intentions talent and cam positions main moves etc 4 Give your team a chance to contribute ideas and once an idea sparks off another idea things get exciting On the other hand only accept the idea if it actually enhances your production No lame ideas please AT THE MEETING 5 Use every possible means to communicate your ideas mood required For eg show the recording of that music video with the great camerawork that you liked or that documentary with awesome lighting AT THE MEETING As you go through the Running Order check with your team that there are no obvious problems If there are at least you are aware of it and can try to solve it A I kww h V 3quotquot u u g 4 I STUDIO RUL I Vquot PRACTICES PREREHEARSAL 1 Do as much homework as possible on the script item or program before camera rehearsal The more you know the easier the communication process during rehearsal 2 Go onto the studio floor CAMERA REHEARSAL The tone amp attitude of the SD s voice is vitally important It is not just what you say but the way you say it Don ts 1 Don t shout people will merely turn down their volume controls 2 Don t swear amp get abusive you will never get cooperation this way CAMERA REHEARSAL 3 Don t adopt a no that s wrong attitude to members of your team It may be wrong because you did not communicate effectively in the first place 4 Don t mumble with the VM The Cameras Lighting amp Sound all want to know what shot is being taken next Don t click your fingers for cuts VMs hate it and so does everyone else CAMERA REHEARSAL Do s 1 Do use the tone variation and enthusiasm of your voice as much as possible Do keep an efficient businesslike approach but at the same time retain a sense of humor Appreciate what other people are doing on your behalf Really
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