Exam 2 Notes and Study Guide- Nick Drummond Mizzou
Exam 2 Notes and Study Guide- Nick Drummond Mizzou 1100
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Political Science Exam Two Notes and Study Guide 924 2015 Homework Reading Textbook Chapter 11 The Politics of the Media 111 113 114 Mass Media Mass Media The means by which information is transmitted to a large population across a large region The mass media includes television radio and magazines newspapers and the internet Market Place of Ideas The concept that ideas and theories compete for acceptance among the public allowing for public debate and awareness A free press and vigorous press is essential for the marketplace of ideas to develop and for democracy to thrive The need to balance a free press with government regulations raises delicate issues During time of war the public sides with more regulations The Growth of Mass Media Party Presses Newspapers popular in the early nineteenth century that were highly partisan and often in uenced by political party machines Penny Press Cheap newspapers containing sensationalized stories sold to members of the working class in the late 19th and 20th century Yellow Journalism Sensationalistic stories featured in the daily press around the turn of the 20th century Technology gap The differences in access to and mastery of information and communication technology between segments of a community Newspapers were the rst form of mass communication in the US Radios then became of really popular form of communication Also the television cam about and became mass produced Since the 19805 the internet has gone through so much growth Functions of the Media Investigative reporting a type ofjournalism in which reporters thoroughly investigate a subject matter to inform the public and correct injustice Muckraking investigating and exposing societal ills such as corruption in politics and abuses in business The Media performs many important social functions including the monitoring of the government and interpreting the news to socializing citizens Political Use of the Media Earned media coverage Airtime proved free of charge to candidates for political of ce Pseudoevents Events that appear spontaneous but are in fact staged and scripted by public relations experts to appeal to media or the public 0 Agenda setting The process featuring speci c stories in the media to focus attention on particular issue thereby setting the political agenda Gatekeepers a group or individuals who determine which stories will receive attention in the media and from which perspective 0 Press Release Written Statements that are given to the press to circulate information or an announcement News Brie ng A public appearance by a government official for the purpose of releasing information to the press 115 The Media and the Public Arena 0 Sound bites A short outtake from a longer lm speech or interview 0 Citizen Journalism Nonprofessional members of the public who are involved in the collections presorting and commenting of new 0 Competitive News Markets Local market check each other 0 New monopolies single news rms that control all of a given market 116 Governmental Regulations Libel the publication of false news 0 Prior Censorship forbidding publication 0 Equal Time Rule an FCC rule requiring the broadcast media to offer all major candidates competing for a political of ce equal airtime Fairness doctrine Policy that required television and radio broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints on controversial issues to ensure fairness Liberation view There should be no regulation on media 0 Social Responsibility Theory The idea that members of the media should consider the overall needs of society when making decisions 924 2015 Class Notes Politics of the Media Who In uences Whom The media public opinion and governments are linked together in an interactive relationship 0 Media gt Public Opiniongt Government Of cials Public Opinion gt Media gt Government Communication Bridge Politicians gt Media gt Public Opinion Tocqueville and the Media 0 A free press in an unfortunate necessity He valued it for the bad it prevented than the good it caused lnherently Destructive This was good because you need whistleblowers The downside is that the press will always be negative and sensationalist Thought Americans could lter out partisanship political bias quotJust the facts pleasequot Democratization Empirical Research Research Study Levenduslql 2013 Talks about the Misperceptions of Party Polarization in America People are StriCtly dE HEd to One party39s ideas over all issues Read this studyAAAAAAAAAA Marketplace of Ideas Market Place of Ideas The concept that ideas and theories compete for acceptance among the public allowing for public debate and awareness Authoritarian Vs Democracy Hate Speech ls Hate Speech 0k 1 Legitimize or Neutralize Legitimize By allowing hate groups to exist you legitimize it Neutralize By not allowing hate groups to exist you make them operate in the shadows is bad By allowing them to exist we know they are there and can dispute them Who Decides what is hate speech Madison quotAny effort to control free speech will cause the government to abuse itquot Madison says that free speech must be accepted good or bad UJN The Growth of Mass Media Media is plural form of medium The means by which information is transmitted to a large population across a large region The mass media includes television radio and magazines newspapers and the internet Marshal McLuhan said that quotmedium is the messagequot different forms of media effect users differently Example JFK vs Nixon People who listened on the radio thought Nixon won People who watched it on TV thought JFK because of his looks History of the Print Media Early News Papers Revolutionary War Newspapers exaggerated the victories and downplayed the losses Thomas Paine quotCommon Sensequot Talked about the causes of the revolutionary war Watch Video in Class quot Thomas Paine common sense httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvkaBv4HV0lM The Federalists wanted the keep the constitution The Federalists papers Madison Hamilton Jay The 1800s Party Presses very Bias Penny Presses Sensationalized Intention of the Telegraph changed the media and made news faster Class Video httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvDmolT6pl8el Yellow Journalism Gossip smut and false news Named after the yellow paper that it was printed on Concerns with the Print Media Concentration By 1933 6 newspapers chained owned 81 daily papers Syndicated Columnists Is the print media dying Technology and the Electronic Media Radio quotFireside Chatsquot Roosevelt gave reside during the great depression in order to get people to trust the government Television Vietnam rst televised war Americans began to hate the war because of the carnage 24 hours news cycle changed the game Turner Created CNN in 1980 quot We won t be signing off until the world endsquot Too much competition Internet changed the way we see news Technology Gap Pseudonyms Functions of the Media The media perform a multitude in the US which are entertaining performing and persuading Entertainment The line between news and entertainment may be blurry Even as entertainment the image can affect the image of institutions and officials Saturday Night live Jim Fallon and the Daily Show with John Stewart are all examples Laswell Surveillance Interpretation and Socialization Surveillance draws attention to problems that need attention Investigating and reporting Watergate and the DNC are examples Can their ne too much coverage Laswell Surveillance Interpretation and Socialization Surveillance draws attention to problems that need addressing Investigative reporting Watergate and the DNC Homelessness fraud in pan handling people who beg for money on the streets put aren39t homeless Are some things off limits Too much coverage Corruption kidnappings shootings terrorism Climate of fear A portrayal of society that is not accurate because they only report the bad things happening Interpretation Putting events into context Framing heroes villains the media is telling us who is good and who is bad Bias Hilary Clinton felt like she was being unfairly treated because there was an infatuation with Obama Socialization helps shape our culture Copycat Effect quotThe Copycat Effectquot Coleman People saw stuff happening in movies media ect they go out and try it because they know it will get national media coverage Batman Movie Shooting Goes into a movie theatre and shoots 12 people in the theatre Statistically mass shootings have not grown more prevalent it just seems that way because of the media Morality and the Media There are 2 theories regarding selfimposed control of the media Libertarian View the media just gives us what we want and if we didn39t want it we wouldn39t buy it Social Responsibility We should control what people see in the media to protect them How Politicians Make the News Earned media coverage Free media coverage they chose to cover to you you aren39t paying for it Staging pseudoevents Mission Accomplished Bush ew in a helicopter and had a mission accomplished banner lots of backlash Going Public when a president wants something done and congress gets in the way they go to the media where then congress needs to react 0 Political Gaffes They say something funny they don39t mean so then it will be played over and over to get attention 0 Bush Biden 0 Political Of cials and the Media Adversarial Relationship Trump vs Fox He didn39t want to do anymore interviews with fox because they were out to get him Empirical Research 0 Who in uence whom If something happens the media will decide what to focus on then the public will become interested and the president will become involved Edwards 0 Does going public work 0 Yes this is effective the more they appear in front of the camera the more likely the bill is to be passed Barrett How Journalists Report the News Gatekeepers Setting the political agenda Chris Matthew and the BP oil spill Put light on an event and forced politicians react Is the power of gatekeepers diminishing Why Is it bad or good Ron Paul he wouldn39t have gotten any exposure if it wasn39t for things going viral Empirical Research Priming and lran Contra Affair Krosnick and Kinder Media put it on tv over and over what did it do Didn39t have much impact on people who watched the news all the tie Class Notes 1012015 The Strategic Use of Media 0 A news leak is the unsanctioned release of con dential information 0 Why are leaks Financial Incentive trial balloons White House Security Leaks 2012 0 Interest Group Reaction OPSEC Media in Campaigns Sounds bites John McCain quot The Fundamentals of the economyquot Paid Advertising Negative Campaigning Global Media Globalization international integration arising from increasing human connectivity and interchange of world views products ideas and culture This is good it spread democracy The Arab Spring 2010 Objections Excessive Sinfulness and Consumerism Homogenization Concentration of Media Ownership Major media corporations has decreased from fty in the early 19805 to six by 2001 GE NewsCorp Disney Viacom Time Warner CBS Is this a threat to liberty Is Citizen Journalism the solution Viral Videos blogging social media De nition Interest Groups organizations outside the government that attempt to in uence government39s behavior decision making and allocation of resources The Interest Group Explosion The number and level of activity of interest groups have grown a lot since the 905 Federalism and the Sep Of Powers are a reason Changing Social and economic characteristics of the American Population Growth of Government and its responsibilities Victimology to the victim goes the spoils for example Everyone gets a participation trophy in middle school Five Functions of Interest Groups Empower individuals Civic Activity Educate the Public Monitor and evaluate government Bring attention to ignored issues Case Study Chick Fil A and Interest Groups Chick Fil A is a religious organization that doesn39t serve food on Sunday because of their Christian roots and it caused media outrage Family Research Council Shooting Southern Poverty Law Center Important Interest Groups US Chamber of Commerce AARP American Association for Retired People National Ri e Association LULAC League of United Latin American Citizens ThinkTanks EnvironmentalGroups Labor Unions 0 Labor Unions are groups formed to promote collective interest and bene ts of workers Often opposed by corporations 0 Minimum wage vs Robots Mancur Olson s Organizational Barriers Three potential barriers to those wanting to create a group to bring about change 0 Free Ride Problem Cost The absence of Individual ef cacy Overcoming Organizational Barriers Selective Bene ts Material Bene ts Solidary Bene ts and Purposive Bene ts 0 Unions and membership required 0 Right to work and right to work for less Homework Reading 1062015 133 Political Parties in America Rational Party Model The goal is to win of ces and to control the distribution of government jobs Responsible party model shape public policy Platform the set of issues principles and goals that a party supports Nominees the individuals selected to run for a party There is a difference between a political party and an interest group Political Parties run candidates under the own label while interest groups do not Political parties have a platform over a broad range of ideas 0 Political parties are subject to numerous state and local laws They have some characteristics of private organizations but they are similar to public organizations They are deemed as quotquasipublicquot organizations However interest groups are purely private and have no government regulation Tripartite View Thinking of Political parties in three parts in government the electorate and as an organization 0 Party identi cations the belief that one belongs to a certain party 0 Independent A voter who is not registered or af liated with a certain party 0 Democratic Republicans were the rst American political party formed by believers in states39 rights and the followers of Thomas Jefferson Federalist Party Founded by Alexander Hamilton its members believe in strong centralized government Corrupt Bargain of 1824 The alleged secret agreement in the disputed election of 1824 that lead to the house of representatives to selectJohn Quincy Adams who had come in second in the popular vote as president if he would make speaker of the house Henry Clay his secretary of state Candidate centered Era after 19605 a period when candidate began to portray themselves as independent from party politics even though they often ran under a party banner Ballot Access Laws Laws that regulated whose name appears on the general election ballot In some states it is easier to accomplish in other states Attitudinal barriers Personal beliefs regarding the viability and necessity of a minor party candidate 0 Open primary system a nomination system where all are allowed to participate regardless of their party af liation National nominating convention events are held in the summer of presidential election years where party delegates selected through primaries and caucuses pick their party39s presidential nominee 0 Binding primaries a system where delegates selected through primaries and caucuses are bound to support the candidate that they originally said they would support Nomination caucus essentially meetings of rank and le party members where quali cations of candidates are discussed and debated and where a nal vote determines the groups support 0 Invisible primary a process that involves raising money and attracting media attention early in the election process usually before the primary election yeah 10615 Class Notes Political Parties Political Parties 0 De nition an alliance of likeminded people who work together to win elections and control the government 0 Democratic party 435 Republican Party 413 Million Libertarian party 325807 0 Number of Independents growing What is a Political Parties Rational party Model Win of ces and distribute jobs Responsible Actually care about country 0 Three Distinguishing factors Run Candidates Platform and quotQuasiPublicquot What Parties do Organize Elections Facilitate voter voice Aid recruit and vet candidates Christine O39Donnell Augustin lnvictus Organize a complex government Ensure accountability 0 Ensure Plurality Party Eras in American History Emergence 179051828 0 The framers were initially against parties Thought parties were divisive and selfinterested Thought parties were against the Principles of the Enlightenment But in the decade following rati cation of the constitution parties emerge The democratic Republicans and the Federalists were the rst political Parties Federalist James Madison wanted a strong national government Wanted Commerce Banking 0 The Compromise1790 The Duel 1804 The Heyday of parties Era of Good Feelings Democratic Republicans The Corrupt Bargain of 1824 Backlash Return of Party Politics Whigs and Democratic Party Jacksonian Democracy Politics for the common man Jackson1828 a man of the people White Universal Manhood Suffrage The Civil War 0 KansasNebraska Bill 0 Slavery or the Tariff Morrill Tariff o A New republican party replaces the Whig party NP P PP N Party Decline The in uence of party machines and bosses diminish 0 Secret Ballots 18921925 o Spoils System vs Civic System 0 New Deal Program 0 Candidates Centered Campaigns emerges 0 Don39t want to be seen as a pawn 0 Consultants television radio and direct mail made parties less important Party in the Government 0 Members of the Party Hold Of ce 0 The PIG in the United States System 0 Joe Lieberman 2006 He is a democrat who formed a third party so that he could run 0 Loyalty to Party is often determined by Party Scores These scores show how often a person in of ce stays with their party39s framework Uni ed Party Control Vs Divided Party Control 0 Uni ed party Control means that a party has the presidency and both house of congress 0 IF a party doesn39t have control all three positions of power presidency and both house of congress then it is divided party control 0 Democrats had Uni ed Party Control in 2008 2010 0 Unity Vs Uni ed For the test you have to know the difference between Unity and uni ed Party Unity just means that you vote or comply with your party with legislation concerns 0 Uni ed party Control is where Uni ed party Control means that a party has the presidency and both house of congress Party as an Organization 0 Party as an organization is a formal apparatus 0 Many layers BUT NOT A FOMRLA HIERACHY They have party activists State National and Local Party Organizations 0 Denton County and Antifederalists are examples Gender and Local Party Leadership 0 Empirical Research 0 Women were found to be more conservative or liberal They were less likely to be moderate Shea and Harris 2006 Party in the Electorate The citizens attached to a Political Party 0 The Party Identi cation is the belief that a particular party best represents one s interests Independents A voter who isn39t with a certain party 0 Party Identi cation is acquired through socialization process 0 Party Identi cation is the single best indicator to tell who someone will vote for 0 Straight Ticket Voter only picks a person from a certain party 0 Split Ticket Voter Swing Voter Realignment Theory 0 1 The partisan balance of power rapidly changes in response to a crisis or event 0 2 A critical election occurs in which a new party or coalition needs control 0 3 The new political party rules for a durable period of time until the next realignment Realignment Theory is Controversial 1932 1994 2002 2008 Realignment Theory can reduce compromise 0 Affordable Care Act De cit Finance Cuts are examples of neither party compromising Other Alignment Theories Secular Alignment o A subtle threshold election occurs 0 More gradual DE alignment 0 Movement Away from Party Politics all together Party in the Electorate The citizens attached to a political party 0 Party Identi cation is the belief that a particular party best represents one s interests and out looks towards government and society lndependents a voter who is not registered with any certain party Crashing the party Minor Parties in the American 2Party System 0 America is dominated by a 2 party system 0 But minority parties do wield in uence 0 Fledging Parties 0 Third Parties 0 Bring more citizens in the Political Process 0 Impact election outcome Even if they do not win 0 Ross Perot and the Reform Part 0 The Reform Party of the United States of America RPUSA generally known as the Reform Party USA or the Reform Party is a political party in the United States founded in 1995 by Ross Perot Perot who had ran as an Independent in the 1992 presidential election and wanted to participate also in the 1996 presidential election thought Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues and desired a viable alternative to Republicans and Democrats The party has nominated several notable candidates over the years such as Perot himself Pat Buchanan and Ralph Nader but its most signi cant victory came when Jesse Ventura was elected Governor of Minnesota in 1998 Barriers to Minor Party Success 0 Institutional Barriers 0 Single Member District System quotWinner Takes Allquot 0 Durverger39s Law fusion or desertion The law that states that all Winner take all system end up being a two party system because the other parties either form together or spread apart 0 State Ballot Access Laws Attitudinal barriers 0 Vote Wasting o Widespread Support for centrist policies 0 Americans are particularly moderate we don39t like extremists Ron Paul and the Media Relationship 0 Ron Paul was almost completely ignored by the media 0 They branded him as an extremist and gave him no media coverage 0 Other Political Candidates had less popularity than him over the internet but the media gave him proportionally less coverage Exam 2 Study Guide as Provided By Nick Drummond Media and selfregulation Regulations are formal and compulsory instructions about the structure conduct or content of the media Examples include limits on monopoly ownership or media crossownership limits on the amount of advertising on television found in many European media systems or requirements to have an operating or receiving license for television or radio The legal system provides an important category of formal regulation for media even if not speci cally part of any communication policy as with laws that govern wireless broadcasting telephony and other electronic communication Legal requirements that de factohelp to regulate the media include prohibitions against libel and defamation laws protecting privacy laws concerning intellectual property rights and prohibitions against incitement to violence or racial hatred pornography or obscenity Generally the justice system protects itself by law against media activities that might pervert the course ofjustice eg the publication of information about accused persons In some countries political communication is regulated especially at election times in order to maintain fairness Why do people join parties and run for office The run government and in uence policy in the way they would like to be in uenced A candidate must be in a party in order to win Family Research Council Shooting the Shooting came about because the Southern Poverty Law Center labeled certain groups as hate groups The man behind the shooting was crazy but the point of this is to show that no one organization should be able to decide what a hate group is or is not Interest groups and the free rider problem Interest groups are nearly all voluntary associations out to achieve political goals Like all groups seeking public or collective outcomes they encounter the free riding problem How do they get volunteers to join their ranks Russell Hardin outlines the core problem as an nperson Prisoner39s Dilemma where it39s better for the whole group if everyone contributes to a common cause but each group member has an incentive to sit back and allow others to do the work to achieve that If the group has leadership and accountability then it can police itself by making sure everyone pulls together to achieve its goals But per Hardin that quotnpersonquot coordination fails when n is a large number That39s what Mancur Olson39s The Logic of Collective Action 1965 hastaughtus Concentration of the media Political Parties What are they What do they do Why do they do it Covered in Notes PIG PIE PO Covered in Notes Party identification Covered in notes Straightticket voters Covered in Notes Realignment Theory Secular realignment Party Unity Uni ed Party Control Right to Work People have the right to work without joining unions Tocqueville and the media Covered in Notesc Minor parties Covered in Notes Thomas Paine Covered in Notes Marketplace of ideasCovered in Notes Jacksonian Democracy is the political movement during the Second Party System toward greater democracy for the common man symbolized by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters Allowed Universal White Male suffrage Ross Perot Covered in notes The evolution of newspapers Covered in Notes LULAC Covered in Notes The pros and cons of political parties Copycat Effect Covered in Notes Fireside Chats FDR Used reside chats as a way to speak to the American Public He gained press during the latter years of the great depression by using this radio technique in order to win over the trust of the people Difference between an interest group and political parties Covered in Notes TWICE Chamber Of commerce is a form of business network for example a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community Local businesses are members and they elect a board of directors or executive council to set policy for the chamber The board or council then hires a President CEO or Executive Director plus staf ng appropriate to size to run the organization NRA Converged in Notes Minimum wage vs robots Automated machines are being used instead of humans for simple everyday jobs If minimum wage rises then the use of robots could become more prevalent Mancur Olson39s organizational Barriers and how they can be overcome Empirical research Gender and Local Party Leadership Singlemember districts Covered in Notes Ron Paul and the media Covered in Notes
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