Notes on Creativity and Thinking Skills (elective)
Notes on Creativity and Thinking Skills (elective)
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Creativity in the Media ltlt1gtgt Where do story ideas come from Biographies A Beautiful Mind Shine Dragon The Bruce Lee Story A lifechanging experience Books The Hunger Games Twilight Harry Potter Bourne Identity Lord of the Rings Plays or musicals Evita Chicago Comics Spiderman Batman XMen News An Inconvenient Truth Super Size Me Bowling Columbine Fahrenheit 911 Sicko What if You had to make a movie about a Shakespeare play Let s take the one with a powerful story a love story ROMEO amp JULIET Written by William Shakespeare In 15941595 Shakespeare Did not invent the story of Romeo and Juliet He did not in fact even introduce the story into the English language Poet named Arthur Brooks first brought the story of Romeus and Juliet to an Englishspeaking audience in a long and plodding poem that was an adaptation of adaptations that stretched across nearly a hundred years and two languages Shakespeare Many of the details of Shakespeare s plot are lifted directly from Brooks s poem including the meeting of Romeo and Juliet at the ball their secret marriage Romeo s fight with Tybalt the sleeping potion and the timing of the lover s eventual suicides Such appropriation of other stories is characteristic of Shakespeare who often wrote plays based on earlier works Produced in 1968 Directed by Franoo Zeffirelli Starred Leonard Whiting as Romeo age 17 Olivia Hussey as Juliet age 15 This movie was one of the more realistic interpretations of Shakespeare39s tragedy This adaptation was the first to show Romeo and Juliet nude 5 m D 039 1 39E F to N O 5 O O E quot395 I x E O 0 I 92 g 0 Romeo amp Juliet 1997 Movie Website Romeo amp Juliet Prologue Two households both alike in dignity In fair Verona where we lay our scene From ancient grudge break to new mutiny Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of starcross39d lovers take their life Whole misadventured piteous overthrows Do with their death bury their parents39 strife RampJ Prologue The fearful passage of their death mark39d love And the continuance of their parents39 rage Which but their children39s end nought could remove Is now the two hours39 traffic of our stage The which if you with patient ears attend What here sha miss our toil sha strive to mend Excerpt from RampJ Shooting Script EXT VERONA BEACH MATTE SHOT NIGHT SUPER WIDE SHOT A trail of devastation winds up through gridlooked traffic to the burning supermarket In the distance looms an enormous statue of Christ flanked by two glass towers We push toward the towers One is neon orowned MONTAGUE the other CAPULET Excerpt from RampJ Shooting Script We hear VOICE OVER Two households both alike in dignity In fair Verona where we lay our scene From ancient grudge break to new mutiny Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean Excerpt from RampJ Shooting Script VOICE OVER CONT D From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pairlof star crossed lovers take their e Whose misadventured piteous overthrows Doth with their death bury their parents strife More R ampJ Romeo amp Juliet Act 1 Prologue Act 1 Scene 1 Verona A public place Act 1 Scene 5 A hall in Capulet s house More R ampJ Screen the movie Opinions vs Arguments When we offer our own views on an issue we are expressing an Opinion Example feel that using animals for medical research is wrong A researcher may say that this attitude is misguided Both are expressing Opinions Opinions vs Arguments But if both of us start offering reasons in support of our opinions then the discussion becomes an argument I might add that animals can feel pain like humans and that experiments inflict cruel suffering on animals The researcher might respond by saying that such experiments are necessary for medical breakthroughs to save human lives a The opinion is the starting point of an argument Don t be afraid of your opinions Be prepared to defend them with good reasoning What is an Argument An argument is a rational piece of discourse written or spoken that attempts to persuade the reader or listener to believe something Though many arguments are concerned with political issues arguments are not limited to such topics You can argue about any topic from cars and movies to boyfriendsgirlfriends Whenever you want to convince someone of the rightness of your position you are offering an argument a All arguments consist of two components 1 Premises 2 Conclusions The conclusion is the key assertion that the other assertions support The other assertions are the premises ie reasons that support the conclusion quot1 L L 31 7 L quot 394 i i an 4 J Li 7 7 1i 7 7 J Ll 7 7 7 7 1i lJ Ll 1 K 7 j H I 7 j i r 7 7 7 j L ifquot 7 j K J Ll 5 ii ii EL ii i i e ll a L L 5 L L L L 2 L L L L L i j ll L L L L L L 13 7quot r x f39 V n v Example Because the poor spend proportionately more of their income on gambling than higher income groups and because gambling sends a something for nothing message that erodes work ethic the government should take steps to contain and curtail the spread of gambling Structure of an Argument The conclusion that govt should take steps to contain and curtail the spread of gambling is supported by two premises 1 The poor spend disproportionately more of their income on gambling than the higher income groups 2 Gambling sends a message that erodes work ethic a For a group of assertions to be an argument the passage must contain a conclusion and at least one premise Structure of an Argument Another example I was horrified to read your article and learn that some people are trying a combination of crash diets slimming pills and surgery to lose weight fast What they are doing is dangerous such extreme measures will be disastrous to their health Mr Hugh Mungus Structure of an Argument Mr Mungus thinks he has written an argument against extreme weightloss techniques but his letter consists of a conclusion only which is in essence that these weightloss techniques are not a goodidea Because he fails to include any premises to support his conclusion he fails to present an argument and fails to convince the reader Structure of an Argument A conclusion repeated in different words may look like an argument but will not deceive a careful readen Can you come up with a premise that would transform the letter into an argument 39 A fallacy is very generally an error in reasoning Factual error is simply being wrong about the facts A fallacy is an argument in which the premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support Eg 1 Premise 1 Having just arrived in Ohio I saw a white squirrel Conclusion All Ohio Squirrels are white Eg 2 Premise 1 If Portland is the capital of Maine then it is in Maine Premise 2 Portland is in Maine Conclusion Portland is the capital of Maine eAt39 d Problem h e n I q f T h e P r o b e m In 1972 the musicians of Franz Joseph Haydn39s orchestra were mad because the Duke had promised them a vacation but had continually postponed it They asked Haydn to talk to the Duke about getting some time off 39 Creative Problem T e c h n i q T h e S o u t i o n Haydn thought for a bit and decided to let music do the talking and wrote the quotFarewell Symphonyquot The performance began with a full orchestra but as the piece goes along it is scored to need fewer and fewer instruments As each musician finished his part he blew out his candle and left the stage They did this one by one until the stage was empty The Duke got the message and gave them a vacation eAtifel quotoutiovchhoom L a e SCAMPE roblem i n I q Brainstorming Card Storyboards Creative Problemsolving Fishbone Diagram Trigger Sessions Lateral Thinking Mind Mapping P A CPS N gm F I go T Q 3 Q 1 l Can be credited to Alex Osborn the O in advertising giant BBDO 0sborn wanted to systemise the creative process to leverage his creative staff s creative talent After his ideas had been in use for a number of years in 1963 Osborn wrote a book Applied Imagination in which he described the basic principles of his work in the realm of brainstorming I i v 0quot fat n o v 7 quot 39 iN Later teaming up with academic colleague and collaborator Sid Parnes they created the quotOsbornParnes Creative Problem Solvingquot method known widely today as CPS It is on their ground breaking work that most credible and researchtested methodologies in the area of creativity are based What follows is a discussion of the simple but elegant and effective guidelines for creating novel solutions through CPS Brainstorming is a very powerful CPS tool that if used properly can contribute enormously to better exhibit and event design 39y 21quot 393 r a i n s t o r m i n Generating ideas in a group situation based on the principle of suspending Mgement a principle which scientific research has proved to be highly productive in individual effort as well as group effort The generation phase is separate from the judgement phase of thinking Be a Brainstormer come up with as many crazy different creative ideas as x possible No censorship of ideas is allowed That s a dumb idea is no go Write down all the ideas that you can come up with Include information that will help you clarify the idea later You can ask questions to better understand that idea Everyone must be involved Go in a circle within a group so everyone gets a chance to speak When you have a good list of ideas say about 15 39 take a break to review them At this point the team can combine ideas or choose one or more ideas that they will like to try Every idea is a good idea Don t decide how good an idea is just think of new ones 39 It is ok to combine one or more ideas to 39 form new ones an quot39 Brainstorming Class Activity Brainstorm ways to fight AGEISM using media You have 10 minutes Your time starts now A I quota 1 012125 Watson 67152117215211 0 I tlzjnk t1 ere 1395 a world mar maybe ve computers g x J 1 x quot I x 39 l 2 xx quot I 1 39 3 1 39 quot J x 1 39 39 m s 7 1 rmw 3 39 l 9 7 l W LC 0 Lil d a B V X l d An idea organizing method using tree logic The facilitator canconcentrate on idea generatlon of particular topics and sub topics much more closely than in open ended methods Cards are laid out in a tabular format a simple row of header cards and sub header cards each with a column of idea cards below it perhaps with added action or comment notes attached index cards kw PostIt slips could be used 0 v ar39dfgoryboar ar a Garden tmls Plants Ruckeqr Shed Get Lamuunwer Cnmpnst Weedmg R pamtmg Help l Hedge E39E39 39 j g Pruning Clemg nut trjlmuer 1531311t5 Mmt Emheque I311 Fertilizer Eli3km the pets eati 39el 39 roblem Usually focused on the5Ws and 1H P Used by Centre for Studies in Creativity of the State University College at Buffalo New York the Buffalo Creative problem Solving Group amp the Centre for Creative Learning in Sarasota Florida In its most extended and formalised form it has the six stages each with a divergent and a convergent phase l Mess finding Sensitise yourself scan search for issues concerns challenges opportunities etc that need to be tackled Divergent techniques include Wouldn t It Be Nice lf WIBNI and Wouldn t It Be Awful lf WIBAI brainstorming to identify desirable outcomes and obstacles to be overcome Convergent techniques include the identification of hotspots expressed as a list of lWWMs In What Ways Might and selection in terms of ownership criteria eg problemowner s motivation and ability to influence it and outlook criteria eg urgency familiarity stability 39 19 Data finding Gather information about the problem Divergent techniques include Five Ws and H Who Why What When Where and How and listing of wants sources and data List all your information wants as a series of question for each list possible sources of answers then follow these up and for each source list what you found Convergent techniques again include identifying hotspots Highlighting Mindmapping to sort and classify the information gathered and also restating the problem in the light of your richer understanding of it Probem finding convert a fuzzy statement of the problem into a broad statement more suitable for idea finding Divergent techniques include asking Why etc the repeatable questions and Five Ws and H Convergent techniques include Highlighting again reformulation of problemstatements to meet the criteria that they contain only one problem and no criteria and selection of the most promising statement but NB that the mental stretching that the activity gives to the participants can be as important as the actual statement chosen Idea Finding generate as many ideas as possible Divergence using any of a very wide range of ideagenerating techniques The general rules of classical brainstorming such as deferring judgement are likely to underpin all of these i Convergence can again involve hotspots or mind I mapping the combining of different ideas and the shortlisting of the most promising handful perhaps with some thought for the more obvious evaluation 1 criteria but not overrestrictively i 39 A 39 v r l I L5quot lt a E 39 mi i 7 Ci K K 7 i Solution finding Generate and select obvious evaluation criteria using an expansioncontraction cycle and develop which may include combining the shortlisted ideas from Idea Finding as much as you can in the light of these criteria Then opt for the best of these improved ideas eg using Comparison tables 39 9 j 39 71 0 m a C9 E Ci g it lJ Acceptance finding How can the suggestion you have just selected be made up to standard and put into practice Shun negativity and continue to apply deferred judgement problems are exposed to be solved not to dishearten progress Action plans are better developed in small groups of 2 3 rather than in a large group unless you particularly want commitment by the whole group Particularly for people problems it is often worth developing several alternative action plans 39 V 4 i m 39 4 424 A 1 A g I quot q E if V v i Originally developed by Professor Kaoru lshikawa is often referred to as an lshikawa diagram The technique can help to structure the process of identifying possible causes of a problem The diagram encourages the development of an in depth and objective representation ensuring all participants keep on track t discourages partial or premature solutions and shows the relative importance and inter relationships between different parts of a problem I I E g Planning Teamwork Inerie quete mi Techniques t ef skills Underete lacing51 Leeir ef eerurneri Weak H Purpeee Strategy Prehle n1 Inaliilitr tn nieet prejeet deadlines Peer dele getieri Iriepprepriete Se ware Wiles everail IT Reeperieibiiitp Illdefined priorities Prejeet Infernta en Management Teeltnelegr R R S E S 5 A good way of getting lots of ideas down from untrained resources The Problem owner defines the problem Each member of group writes down his ideas in shorthand 2 minutes only One member reads out his list others silently cross out ideas read out and write down Hitch hiked ideas The second member reads out his list of ideas not already covered followed in turn by other members d SESSIO The last member reads out his original list and his Hitchhiked list and procedure is repeated counter current ie if there are 6 people the order goes 1 234565432123456 A good group will be able to manage seven Lquot passes Everyone s paper is then collected I and can be typed up into a single list of ideas 3 a duplicates should have been crossed out during the session K 1 1 L T H I N Thinking outside the box By Edward de Bono About moving sideways when working on a problem to try different perceptions different concepts and different points of entry Covers a variety of methods including provocations to get us out of the usual line of thought seeking to solve problems by unorthodox or apparently illogical methods For example Granny is sitting knitting and three year old Susan is upsetting Granny by playing with the wool One parent suggests putting Susan into the playpen The other parent suggests it might be a better idea to put Granny in the playpen to protect her from Susan THINKI quotLateral thinkingquot can be used in two senses Specific A set of systematic techniques used for changing concepts and perceptions and generating new ones General Exploring multiple possibilities and approaches instead of pursuing a single approach The following anecdote is provided by DeBono 1967 A merchant who owes money to a money lender agrees to 0 settle the debt based upon the choice of two stones one black one white from a money bag If his daughter chooses I the white stone the debt is canceled if she picks the black stone the moneylender gets the merchant39s daughter However the moneylender quotfixesquot the outcome by putting two 1 black stones in the bag 39 TH m K gtThe daughter sees this and when she picks a stone out of the bag immediately drops it onto the path full of other stones She then points out that the stone she picked must have been the opposite colour of the one remaining in the bag Unwilling to be unveiled as dishonest the moneylender must agree and cancel the debt The daughter solved an intractable problem through the use of lateral thinking THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX Also called spider diagrams represents ideas notes information etc in farreaching tree diagrams To draw a mindmap layout a large sheet of paper in landscape and write a concise heading for the overall theme in the centre of the page For each major subtopic or cluster of material start a new major branch from the central theme andlabelH Each subsubtopic or subcluster forms a subordinate branch to the appropriate main branch 1 Carry on in this way for ever finer subbranches fl 7 E Eggs FE J A J L39Fa39dwj fj w 39 45 if A ETH39 nI39 539ij V 4 amm av I HE A k A J A EFTFE quoti393quot3939f39 Hal39Ef I39iE TkW n F i gr A Emu O 7 A T Mapping T 39 USE USE AN 39NTRP Y A T IMEK NZE A WITH 54 FOR INCOMING no INTERNET V mepymrg m 23 FAFER ggamp1ltmvres 0F l i 23 res 5 r 4 X SPEND IO mus WORK m 352 use ONLY QUIET 93 READ ANOT FAD 9 A T T OBILE x EACH DAY V FOCUSED AND PEN 9 me FACEBOOK IF READING ONLY CLEAR AWAY COMPUTER quot46 T5 I M HAVE THE BOOK ALL DISTRACTIONS 0 Va A d Iquot b m FRONTF you a 9 HHQMTHY g a quotquot quot Wm 2353 BREAKFAST 039 Sp 4396 WORK Q ME CLEAN ALLD Do 1THING k 4C 4 m DISHES V 6 3 12ch W Barry Youamp l cc 6 A DIGITA y TAKE L WALK 3 1 1 DISCONNECTION qu Ioam CREATING 4 V 39 SPENDING ON TIME WITH 9 m THE DAY FAMILY 8 D TURN 0F 2 37quot TAKE TIME EMAIL AL6RT5 PER DAY P TO REFLECT FIRST THING FRIENDS THE MD REVIEW RN44V WHAT ARE 1 I D THE 3 MOST a 39 IMPORTANT THINGS TO kalg PROGRAMS r x39 Iquot 39 T f 39 392 LOCKS Th WRITE f A 00M You OUT OF SELF ONTROL R J TYPEWRITER THE INTERNET g OMMWRITER DO TODAY AT THE END 39 OF THE DAY 3 gt WHAT CAN DON39T CHECK Youa BE IMPROVED EMAIL UNTIL You GET THE TASK COMPLETE LOCKS YOU OUT 5Eea39nq Fundamenfaf OF SPECIFIC SITES can 30 jamnos 27 l O quot7 The SCAMPER technique created by Michael Mikalko will assist you in thinking of changes you can make to an existing product to create a new one via a checklist these can either be used directly or as starting points for lateral thinking Substitute components materials people Combine mix combine with other assemblies or services integrate Adapt alter change function use part of another element 0 I Modify increase or reduce in scale change shape modify attributes eg colour Put to another use A Eliminate remove elements simplify reduce to core functionality 39 Reverse turningde Out 0quot UPSide Creative I BM0621 Creativity amp Thinking Skills Types of Problem Brainstorming Card storyboards solvmg Creative Problemsolving Techniques MOPS Fishbone diagram Trigger sessions L i gieiol inking Mind mapping SCAMPER Emotional Obstacles to Creativity wi wel i k Emimmmem ei i k Intellectual Blocks Expressive Blocks Perceptual Blocks Sfereofyping This assumes that once an item or idea is identified it can have no other use or func on Imaginary boundaries We project boundaries on the problem and solution that need not exist in reality Information overload Trying to satisfy an excess of information and detail restricts the alternative that can be considered Emotional Blocks These blocks decrease your freedom to explore and manipulate ideas in a realm that makes you uncomfortable They interfere with your ability to conceptualize fluently and flexibly Emotional blocks prevent you from communicating your ideas to others Emotional Blocks2 Fear of taking a Risk Risk taking is always difficult we start from childhood to be careful not to fail not to look foolish These prohibitions are deeply ingrained in us by the time we become adults Dislike for uncertainty To be a good problem solver you must be prepared to deal with problems that are sometimes confusing Some possible solutions must be explored when their relevance to the problem is not obvious or certain Some best solutions may even seem contradictory Emotional Blocks3 Judgmental attitude This block comes from a negative attitude Finding reasons why things wont work is easier than accepting a strange idea Yet wild ideas when explored further may lead to highly innovative solutions A positive approach to strange ideas can overcome this block Not invented here This block comes about when a new idea threatens a preferred idea or concept Emotional Blocks4 Lack of challenge Some times problems or solutions seem too trivial or easy to waste our time on Inability to incubate Attempting to rush a solution without taking time to mull it over can lock out additional and possibly better solutions These are blocks that we impose on ourselves due to the society culture or group to which we belong Cultural blocks refuse to accept that other societies or groups may see and desire things to be different Our way is right This refuses to accept that there are other ways of doing things We don 39t say or think that way This is a reflection of the taboos we carry with us But some time good solutions must be approached by first considering the unacceptable and thinking the unthinkable Cultural Blocks Environmental Blocks These blocks are due the distractions in our surroundings real imagined or anticipated Working in an atmosphere that is pleasing and supportive increases the generation of new ideas Intellectual Blocks These blocks occur because of insufficient knowledge of the kind needed to solve the problem being considered Or because of a fixation on the specialty with which we are comfortable and denying the possibility that a better solution can be achieved using a different specialty Expressive Blocks This is the inability or willingness to express ideas clearly to others or oneself Making models sketches drawings or diagrams may clarify ideas and aid in communicating them i e No Guessing at the answer is wrong Don39t appear foolish That39s not my job responsibility concern I haven39t been told what to do I haven39t been told how I don39t know how to start I haven39t been told exactly what is wanted I don39t understand I don39t want to be different It looks too hard It s too easy Overcoming creatlve Remove the fear of failure Blocks Encourage wild ideas from all participants Idea generation groups to be peer groups Emphasize that aH solutions belong to the group Encourage humorous atmosphere Have the ideas written down and passed around anonymously Overcoming Creative BIOCkS 2 Adjust attitudes Emphasize the positive aspects of the solution Ensure that risks are worth taking Encourage the acceptance of alternate solutions Change the rules Temporarily suspend the rules and conditions for the problem and its solution Especially where specific rules or conditions block progress Overcoming Creative Blocks3 Change the solution mode If the problem is being explored verbally try making a diagram or representing it mathematically Use analogies Assume a solution and see if it can be made to fit the problem Overcoming Creative Blocks4 Use provocative Questions Instead of dealing with the problem directly consider a question that stars beyond the perceived block Then work backwards Once the perceptual block becomes familiar it ceases to exist Ask quotWhat ifquot questions Use a check lists Dun Ian n Haltuntil U ifitiity 11 395 g lajiJ 1 II I a in 3 J 39L39 3 31 1 re tm an ff lieEh Frl39rlIFIE FIEI39m H hung Ila Tina5395 3quot if Faml39u 1f 51 I 1 n5 mitt Lilhill E39FWF i 1 Ifquot T39h TIME lm I IIiF quotaquot 111 ME 5 quotHm5 3quot TEE quot rquot I m H u IH39iEW39ELW FEmm ff id quotr kw WEEIf haw quot f r39 5 1 e 311 39quot HIE C39 lL EJEHL39I 39 LP 539 w l 39quot39 quotI i 39 F3 fEiFl 39339 EHn chJ FEHE39PTLL39 quot39 quot Hint139 f gr quot39 i quotIIIEH Iw mnME Ef I 1 HEW 4 quotlfl g I39ll 1quot H39alh39h 411F an 3939 L I39FI39quotI39I Iquot 39I quot n FrazerFquot 39 rquot 39 EHIELUEH 39f quot39 I quot39L n 39t quotE If Miran1 ELF int T39quot iquot E Hint 53me m 39Hg ia T151 quot3939 3quot 5391 En H39d39 Ll P 3quot 55 Inai I UziJ hi IIJIII 39 tan1 I Lair2139 If gLI39E39 m I 39quot 1 39 1 a I aim t r Fmme quot 39 tauJ 1 Fquot 139 39 Aft tun f diamgunk J FunFMJI 3 35quot J I Pitching Your Ideas What s a Pitch o A quotpitchquot is the oral presentation of an idea eg for a movie book magazine documentary etc where screenwriterswriters etc explain to studio executivesagentspublishers that their projectmovie is quotGhostbusters meets Titanicquot What is a good idea o IDEA 1 A cranky rude man has to relive the worst day of his life over and over again until he gets it right When he does he finds true love 0 IDEA 2 Two women receive in vitro treatments at a fertility clinic The good news is they both become pregnant The bad news is that their embryos were mistakenly swapped An odd couple they move in together to keep an eye on how the other one gestates quotherquot child What is a good idea o IDEA 3 A young gay man is accidently struck on the head and suffers amnesia His father who had never accepted his son39s sexual orientation tries to remake his son as a heterosexual o IDEA 4 A teacher who doesn39t care at all about her job she is a fading sex bomb permanently hung over entirely indifferent to her pupils39 education and interested only in snagging a well off husband has to pull out all the stops when a new goodlooking rich male teacher joins the schooL What is a good idea 0 Those are all good ideas The first and last have already been made into successful films Groundhog Day and Bad Teacher What is a good idea 0 We cite them by way of explaining what we mean by good story ideas All are simple If you read the description in a TV Guide you would probably be inclined to see these films because the underlying ideas are good 0 Which isn39t to say that bad movies don39t get made from good ideas But a good premise is where Hollywood likes to start Is Every Idea Pitohable 0 Not every good idea is a pitohable idea 0 Not every pitohable idea makes for a good movie 0 But pitohable ideas are what can be sold in a meeting in a matter of minutes Pitchable Ideas 0 To be pitchable the idea must be simple enough to convey in two or three sentences 0 For example the log lines in a TV guide that describe a movie are pHches 0 Watch TV advertisements for movies and study how the essence of the film is distilled into a few words words that make you want to see the movie Pitohable Ideas 0 Pitohable ideas are usually quothigh oonoeptquot For example a shallow man with terrible relationships with women gets hypnotized so that he can only see a person39s inner beauty He soon falls in love with the obese daughter of his boss and must face the derision of his friends and ooworkers Pitchable Ideas 0 That describes Shallow Hal Once you hear the idea you can picture how it could be funny The script that comes from the idea may not be good but the idea itself works That39s pitchable AVATA R A paraplegic exmarine is given a chance to walk again through the use of a unique alien body It is his job to gain the trust of the natives so that a greedy corporation can steal the precious metal from their lush moon The combination of live action and CGI experienced through 3D will be to this generation what Star Wars was to the last SALT As a CIA officer Evelyn Salt swore an oath to duty honor and country Her loyalty will be tested when a defector accuses her of being a Russian spy Salt goes on the run using all her skills and years of experience as a covert operative to elude capture Salt39s efforts to prove her innocence only serve to cast doubt on her motives as the hunt to uncover the truth behind her identity continues and the question remains quotWho is Saltquot Pitchable Ideas 0 Pitchable ideas are high concept and do not rely on perfect execu cn 0 Even if the movie is scsc audiences will turn out because when the hear the pitch now part of the ad campaign they will be intrigued A Good Pitch is made up of o Engaging amp persuasive oral presentation skills 0 The ability to be succinct 0 Good ccncepts o A good concept paper 0 Excellent preparation for the QampA 0 The ability to flexible o The ability to think on the spot Making The Pitch 0 quotI39ve noticed a good pitch seems to be one where the pitch communicates that there39s a clear question asked in the documentary and an intriguing answer or direction suggestedquot Michaelle McLean the Director of the Toronto Documentary Forum at Hot Docs Making The Pitch o A good pitch clearly demonstrates your vision of how your story will evolve in real time It also states why your project is best suited for print or broadcast Be Clear About 0 the idea If there s a story stick to WHAT HAPPENS where the story goes Get to the conflict the drama 0 If it s a magazine talk about why it will be different from the others on the market 0 the style verite narrated talking head etc for video 0 Magazine modern retro executive arty etc Be Clear About 0 the audience Specify if the program is targeted to a specific audience or age age group is very important particularly if you re targeting children 0 the genre your program or project might fall into ie educational entertainment scientific etc Preparing for The Pitch 0 Your initial pitch should be limited to a couple of sentences A pitch sums up what the project is about Preparing for The Pitch 0 Tell the story first detail characters side stories and issues last Start your pitch off with its relevance to viewers then progress with the story ie quotEating disorders affect X amount of women over 40 MY PROJECT tells the story of a group of women who ban together to overthrow the diet industryquot Preparing for The Pitch 0 Start with the specifics of the story Beware of communicating high levels of abstraction What is the story Why does your story matter to us and why does it speak to us all Why should people want to see your film Preparing for The Pitch 0 Include the program or magazine s structure For example character description is significant but how do you see the characters and story fitting into a structure 0 How will your magazine or newsletter be organized Preparing for The Pitch 0 Demonstrate you have command of the subject Be clear on what the question is that you are trying to answer with your project Know what answering this question will do for the audience and why it is important to them 0 You must do research into this topic Preparing for The Pitch 0 Have a good leadin tying the project into a current event or issue that society is talking about Tell why it s relevant that you do this project NOW and why it s especially of interest to audiences Preparing for The Pitch 0 State your point of view How are you connected to the story and why is it important to you Convey what you per se your experience your relationship to the material will bring to it This should also prove to the channel that you are going to bring a unique perspective that no one else could Preparing for The Pitch o Specify if your film is about a current event or if it s social commentary The immediacy of the issue is important as the network may not be able to schedule the film two years from now eg documentary about the bird flu Preparing for The Pitch 0 Talk about how you will handle and present all of the elements Mention the style or approach you will take with the material ie point of view amount of narration eto 0 Show you know your audience and the channel s Show the rep you care about their specific audience and tailor it to them Preparing for The Pitch 0 Include your credentials The network should be told who you are and have an idea of the experience you bring to the table Preparing for The Pitch o Rehearse out loud In front of a mirror In front of a friend As many times as you can Don39t memorize it because it will sound canned and insincere 0 You can refer to your notes but don39t read verbatim Making The Pitch 0 Always start out with a confident introduction about yourself and what kind of film you are making 0 quotMy name is Nathan Friedkin and I am making a firstperson featurelength documentary about friendship and bipolar disorderquot Making The Pitch oEngage the panel right away with your first few sentences oquotHow far would you go to help a friend who was in troublequot Making the Pitch oYou will only have 5 or 10 minutes to pitch your story Prepare a brief blurb about your story Go to a TV guide or the back cover copy of your favourite book and write something similar for your work in progress Praotioe writing a pitch on the back of a business card to limit your space Making the Pitch 0 Start with a onesentence synopsis using movie terms if possible such as quotPretty Woman meets King Arthur and the Knights of the Roundtablequot Add two more sentences to describe the most salient Characteristics of your hero and heroine and their oonfliot Making The Pitch 0 Answer the questions Why are you making this film Why does it need to be made What do you need to be the one telling it o quotI am making this film because I felt that my friend39s life was going to end in tragedy if I didn39t try to help him in someway Bipolar disorder is a major problem in the United States that touches most everyone in one way or another Because this is a personal story about a friendship that spans 24 years I have a unique approach to the subject matter Making The Pitch 0 Don39t assume that just because you find your idea or project compelling a broadcaster will 0 Explain why your idea or project is compelling 0 You should be able to distinguish why your project is different from existing shows or magazines You should acknowledge any similar programsmagazines out there now or in the recent past and how your approach and form is different Making The Pitch 0 Comparing your project to something already out there helps the rep being pitched to picture it in their mind and place your project within the context of current programming 0 Your pitch should tell the network why they should spend their money on you and your film 0 Remember to stay focused Don t I bring up your other projectls unless it comes up in the conversation Final Words 0 Once you pitch your project don t expect a definite outcome right away Think of pitching as a process oAbide by the quotthree R s Research Relationships and Realityquot Final Words 0 Do the RESEARCH on the options out there and decide on the appropriate outlets for your project By doing this you should then be able to tell the company or network why your project is indeed ideal for them Final Words 0 Pitching is not only a way to interest a network in your film but also the beginning of an ongoing RELATIONSHIP between you and the network 0 If they cannot get involved with your project at that time don t get discouraged Stay in touch with them as your project progresses and try to resohedule another meeting once you ve gotten to another stage Final Words 0 Be flexible The network may ask you to modify your projectprogram if they are to consider it which has its pros and cons In addition they may love your idea but not be able to be involved 0 The REALITY is that often enough oompanies oannot program or fund projeots even that they feel strongly about Keep talking to them about the ways you might eventually work together Successful Pitches o A kung fufighting panda is a contender to become one of DreamWorks39 next animated heroes DreamWorks Pictures has picked up quotMaster P Kung Fu Pandaquot for a midsix figures from writers Cyrus Voris and Ethan Reiff based on an original pitch Successful Pitches c quotThis is one of the best and funniest pitches we39ve heardquot Dreachrks SKG ccprincipal Jeffrey Katzenberg said quotWe39ve been looking for a story set in China with all of the amazing animals that live in that world specifically pandasquot Successful Pitches 0 quotKung Fu Pandaquot is being developed into a fully animated computergenerated feature 0 It s about a gang of snow leopard bandits that come down from the highlands to invade a bamboo jungle In response the jungle animals must search for a prophesied warrior to defend them They find their hero in a lazy underachieving panda who they must train to become the ultimate kung fu master Successful Pitches o A woman from Ozark Arkansas who I have not met to this day called or emailed me and asked me if I d be interested in a true story about a man who lives in the Statue of Liberty Successful Pitches o I thought it sounded pretty provocative because I d never heard of a man living in the torch of the Statue of Liberty So I called her back and I said I am a producer in Hollywood and do like interesting stories but I can tjust go out and sell this unless you can send me some documentation Successful Pitches 0 So she sent me a Xeroxed article from Parade magazine that mentioned that there was historically a man who did indeed live in the Statue of Liberty He was sort of the lighthouse keeper 0 I said This is a great idea and I will option the idea from you So I paid her a little bit of option money even though she didn t own anything and just sent me a Xerox Successful Pitches o I then went to a writer to package it a writer named Ryan Murphy who is wellknown now as the writer and producer of the NipTuck TV series 0 l pitched the idea to him and he liked it so we went together to Working Title which was a division of Universal at the time the company that made Four Weddings and a Funeral Successful Pitches 0 We pitched The Keeper of The Flame which happens to be the title the woman from Arkansas Emily Lloyd came up with They loved it and then paid Emily like US25000 of option money and Ryan s script is in development Successful Pitches 0 At one point they offered Michelle Pfeiffer almost US10 million to star in it 0 So while it hasn t been made it shows that from a little idea that someone from Ozark Arkansas saw in a magazine she got it to me and l was able to do what I do and now Emily will make even more money a bonus payment if you will when the movie moves into production In Singapore You can pitch ideas or concepts to o MDA o Broadcasters Mediacorp Mediaworks National Georgraphic Discovery Disney etc 0 Companies Lest u 4get everything Just remember that it s as easy as An A B C Audience Need Approach Benefits Competition The 4 PS of Creativity BMO621 Creativity amp Thinking Skills Definition of Creativity A creative product is the outcome of a creative process engaged in by a creative person all of which is supported by a creative press environment What is Creativity Definition Novelty and Value Murdock amp Puccio 1993 The 4 P s of Creativity Person Process Product Press 1 The Creative Person Active imagination Flexibility Curiosity Independence Acceptance of own differentness Tolerance for ambiguity Trust in own senses Openness to subconscious material Ability to work on several ideas simultaneously Ability to restructure problems isle fm QQfELQeLxgie cniagaQ yjigia 2 The Creative Process Fluency of ideas Uncensored perception and encoding of information Problem recognition and construction Unusual combination of ideas Construction of broad categories Recognizing solutions Transformation and restructuring of ideas Seeing implications Elaborating and expanding ideas Se ld i rec edeval u a to n ofi d eas poke holes in them gt selfcritical 3 The Creative Product Originality Relevance Usefulness Complexity Understandability Pleasantness A Q A l t t M is 4 The Creative Press Supervisory encouragement Workload pressure Freedom of choice Sufficient resources Organizational impediments u can be creative but sometimes the environment doesn39t allow it Musical Interlude l l Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart l 17561791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mastered keyboard at age 4 Composed first few compositions at age 4 Mastered the violin at the same age Played in tour of iiim it l Mozart s Creative Method His manuscripts show that although he made an occasional preliminary sketch of a difficult passage he almost invariably thought out a complete work before committing it to paper His music combines an Italian taste for clear and graceful melody with a German taste for formal and inenuit The Mozart Effect The Mozart Effect refers to the use of music to enhance quality of life in a variety of ways including health wellness education creativity and emotional expression in both children and aduHs It is based on the ear39s key role in the development of movement balance language and preverbal communication as well as the integration of neurological responses stimulated lquot iii llr39 i i l w ll The Mozart Effect A connection between the music of Mozart and early childhood development was first researched by Dr Alfred Tomatis a French physician psychologist and educator almost forty years ago Studies have proven that from the very youngest ages music can inspire right brain creative thinkinrocesses 4 P s All of the Four P39s person process product and press are intimately interrelated and dynamically interwoven None exists without being influenced by the others 4 P s Although one can theoretically separate out these four areas for study and evaluation you cannot look at the creative individual how she creates what she creates the medium in which the product is created or the environment in which she creates in total isolation Screen Exercise Screen Jap Ping Pong clip Seattle s Pike Place Fish Market Watch the clips in terms of the 4 P s Person Process Product and Press 39 Be prepared to discuss your thoughts in groups Evaluating News Critically What is Critical Thinking Refers to reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do Critical thinkers try to be aware of their own biases to be objective and logical The Purpose of Critical Thinking to achieve understanding evaluate view points and solve problems Since all three areas involve the asking of questions we can say that critical thinking is the questioning or inquiry we engage in when we seek to understand evaluate or resolvequot Maiorana Victor P Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Building the Analytical Classroom 1992 Uses of Critical Thinking plays an important part in social change institutions in any society courts governments schools businesses are the products of a certain way of thinking helps us uncover bias and prejudice Attributes of a Critical Thinker is willing to examine beliefs assumptions and opinions and weigh them against facts listens carefully to others and is able to give feedback sees that critical thinking is a lifelong process of self assessment suspends judgment until all facts have been gathered and considered Attributes of a Critical Thinker looks for evidence to support assumption and beliefs is able to adjust Opinions when new facts are found looks for proof examines problems olosely is able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant So how do we go about evaluating the media we see Understand that there is bias Nationalcultural Organizational Media owners advertisers governments Class EthnicRacial Gender Iteligious Personal eto Understand that there is bias gigg lniinBis30minactua1isfor30 Bias by omission o B as Sto ry 9 eCtiO n gl ii s39efrgd i f 2111 Bias by placement Bias by the selection of sources Bias by spi n Wrong facts putmthepaperand sufferfmmit Bias by labelling Dubbingsomeoneacenamway Bias by policy endorsement or condemnation Understand that there is bias News stories are influenced by the attitudes and backgrounds of interviewers writers photographers anchors producers and editors Most bias in news stories is not on purpose but you should be tuned in to the following ways that bias can creep in to the news How It Should Work Selection of news and stories by editors Selection of news based on what the public needs to know the public s own longterm best interests Code of ethics for journalists How It Sometimes Works News can sometimes be selected based on What is in the interests of corporations owning the news outlet What is in the interests of big advertisers with the news outlet What is in the interests of the government military What sells the most to the public by being entertainingsensational Sensationalism Eg Taiwan news reputed to sensationalise events incidents just to drive up ratings 5 terrestrial tv stations 7 cable news channels and 100 newspapers But verification of news sources limited hence reliability is ques oned darkest day in Taiwan media history April 07 Bias by Choice of Words Example 1 TIME magazine article FISHING FOR DONATIONS House Speaker Denny Hastert led 35 donors last Monday on a predawn flyfishing excursion in Valley Forge Pa Each donor got a personal guide from the local Trout Unlimited Minimum donation US5000 number of fish caught 1 Bias by Choice of Words Example 2 If peOpIe boo during one of President Bush39s speeches the booing can be described as quotremarks greeted by jeersquot or the boos can be ignored as quota handful of people who disagreequot How News Selection Affects Us The selection of the evening news can have an enormous impact on public opinion There is great power in picking and choosing while remaining truthful what to report and what not to report What situation are we the people in if we know only what the powerful want us to know Getting Around the Media Bias The best way to understand current events is to compare and contrast media representations from several different countries using the WWW Each country and each news source within that country has its own bias and in order to get the clearest picture of the truth it is necessary to be exposed to different sides of the story and proceed from there t t or egNews on the Middle East Arab News One of Saudi Arabia39s largest newspapers in English translation with comprehensive coverage of local regional and world current events as well as opinions editorials and Islamic QampA A slight Arab bias The Washington PostMiddle East section has indepth articles about the Middle East on a weekly basis Heavy American bias so it is good to contrast these articles with the BBC and Arab sources t or eg News on the Middle East BBC News Has briefer articles about the Middle East on a daily basis Provides a good contrast between American and Arab news sources Can show slight bias India TodayMiddle East section An English newspaper from India that provides another view of events in the Middle East from a regional nonMuslim perspective Dawn Pakistan s largest circulating English language newspaper This paper balances out the Times of India and provides a more Islamic look at events in the Middle East Evaluating Advertisements When we distinguish eooo ads from BAD ads we are not concerned with the distinction between effective ads that increase sales and ineffective ads that don t increase sales We are identifying a distinction between appropriate behavior and inappropriate behavior in advertising Evaluating Advertisements The most appropriate ads simply provide honest information that is relevant and helpful for our buying decisions The most inappropriate ads actually get into the erritorvf illegal behavior i P 839quot z 0 Evaluating Advertisements Inappropriate advertising is characterized mainly by manipulative techniques deceptive or misleading techniques irrelevancies exploitation of the power of images exploitation of a personal connection with the viewer Evaluating Advertisements The placement of ads can also be problematic Slimming ads next to restaurant ads The strangest ad placement was on 91101 on CNN After the two planes had crashed into the WTC but before the third plane hit the Pentagon CNN actually went to a commercial break and one of the commercials was an ad for Boeing Aircraftll The Clout of Media Giants Five multimedia conglomerates Viacom Disney News Corporation NBC Universal Time Warner exert unprecedented power in marketing messages and products The Clout of Media Giants It used to be that the large media companies 20 or 40 years ago only produced newspapers they only made movies they only had a TV network Now they39re dominant players in each of these markets They39re highly non competitive The Clout of Media Giants They own the music companies that sell 90 percent of the music in the United States those same companies also own all the film studios all the major TV networks all the TV stations pretty much in the ten largest markets They own all or part of every single commercial cable channel The Clout of Media Giants Eg 1 News Corp This Australianbased transnational owns Fox Television 20th Century Fox Films Harper Collins Publishers It39s also the largest owner of newspapers in the world Rupert Murdoch has Sky Television which broadcasts the world overBought over Dow Jones amp Co Wall Street Journal The latest plan June 2012 is to split into printpublication company and entertainment company Under the proposal one company will operate as a newspaper and book publisher while the other will be an entertainment company that includes the 20th Century Fox movie studio the Fox broadcast TV network and the Fox News channel The Clout of Media Giants E g 2 Viacom is a dominant player in radio It also owns MTV Paramount Pictures Comedy Central and Nickelodeon What Viacom can do is they can go to advertisers and say quotWell you advertise on our radio chain the CBS Infinity stations we own and maybe work out a deal with MTV or maybe work out a deal on VH1 or we can do posters in our Blockbuster stores or do something on Showtime or maybe we can have Entertainment Tonight which is a TV show we produce do something on your stuff too It gives them tremendous leverage to do much more commercialism than they could do if they only owned one thing
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