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First 6 notes on the intro to the media intrustry

by: Jade Notetaker

First 6 notes on the intro to the media intrustry

Marketplace > Nanyang Polytechnic > Journalism and Mass Communications > > First 6 notes on the intro to the media intrustry
Jade Notetaker
Introduction to Media Industry and Management

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technically that's it hahaha. i've split them into the weeks you need them: Introduction to Mass Media, Introduction to Mass Media, Media Marketplace & Strategic Alliances, Media Regulations,...
Introduction to Media Industry and Management
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This 299 page Bundle was uploaded by Jade Notetaker on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to at Nanyang Polytechnic taught by in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Media Industry and Management in Journalism and Mass Communications at Nanyang Polytechnic.


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Date Created: 10/10/15
MEDIA DEVELPMENT amp REGULATI N IN SIN P R E WEEK 4 BM0620 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRY amp MANAGEMENT HEW E in Apr aima aingcpura canara fina aale TH parath E1J fr ad fecfuring laaian Risa Eni Hewa E l ur A Sing zaer calhlha televi iiun uperalear ha been me faIr airin a EDMI39II39EEFEiHII tlha Eh l Ed twin muman kissing A S ngapaaue HHE ma anquot has been red lj39 a ng a cmmarc al Eliha t hula wmm kissing Eranding t a EI39IEEEE iaamad E51 iha EitvEtaia39a m dia FE lJ Et l39 m Wednesdayu Singa nra39a Nadia Wampumalt MEDlit an ii WEE EitE that it hag ned Etal uh Bahia HiEian Ei1i UE TFEE jI ar breaching tI EE TU Advar aing WE Ina5r ahawing a aimmalarial of a gang that latad labiaan Rising SISENE j The EEI39IWEI39EEEL a dh matEd Ea Sung la Simy C h ld SEE aridan Eia w E51 pop singer E liu a fan de E ii r a a racl an Mamda nrlamgwage dl39la 39ImEl last Hauarnhem lHTEH TIHE EH paita Land Hape Foundation will I senate 551413 tza salaried iZhiludlEI39IEE El39lEEitiEEi f i E1quot39quotE il39 i39ullEiEEI Eil39l all FHL39ijEEE Sign In HEg iEtEil39 MGEES GATE FH JEEETS ins TUEHEW muses ma m WHO Willi GET PEST e 39 r m GATE quot r r linli Tlilll A l i THE EHUW EF39ilEIEiE GUIE AHEELE MElILEAFF 30 Nov 2011 CNA announces Angel s Gate a businessfocused reality TV programme premiering Fe I a n n n i n n SG CNA is coproducing it with It offers budding entrepreneurs e c ance 0 pl c er ream usmess Ideas to venture capitalists and investors in the region r afinEyBcunju39a39u rg AST l39AII L39J E AJETJH39I l39aHi III ERIE Iiquot a IE 39139 Da In Media Development Authority MDA A Brief Histor F o r m e d 1 Ja n 2 0 0 3 quot 39 lVIerger Of ill Singapore Broadcasting Authority SBA Films amp Publications Department Singapore Film Commission SFC seeing the logo of the company at the start or end of the show they sponsored it Media Development Authority MDA A Brief History Film amp Video Print amp Publishing BroadCaSting Media Develment Fmthit Singapore Music Online Media Mobile Media Games checking censorship as well IVIDA s 1 Promotion of Singapore s lVIedia Sector Launched Singapore Media Fusion Plan SMFP media development blueprint in 2009 to develop media sector Invests in Enhancing innovative capacity of media sector Developing media infrastructure 0 Nurturing manpower thosestudying in media Supporting enterprise development Enabling Singapore media to go global MDA of Singapore s media sector Formulate clear amp consistent regulatory policies Guiding principles FederaL Comm commisgdon American Foster probusiness environment for industry players Ensure fair market conduct amp effective competition Safeguard consumers interests some maeazinee previously banned it39s okay now Increase media choices for consuiii2 F 39la Uphold social values in line with societal expectations Foster cohesive amp inclusive society thru quality content equivalent with wide reach and impact while promoting nation Of MDA f1 national day MDA Initiatives quotGovernment sets aside SSZ30m for Singapore Media Fusion 2015 initiative The government has set aside 5230 million over the next five years for a Singapore Media Fusion plan The aim is to help develop Singapore into a media hub and build a strong media talent base Parliament on Friday approved the Budget for the Ministry of Information Communications and the Arts The key objective of the Singapore Media Fusion to be launched in June this year is to boost Singapore39s media industry through close industry collaborations and strategic talent development so that media companies can produce attractive content like films TV serials and documentaries for Singapore and the international market Singapore Media Fusion Plan SMFP Launched 2009 Updated from Media 21 Blueprint why the update Shift in global media landscape Changed production and consumption of media Need for S pore media sector to reposition itself to seize new opportunities 2 key driving forces of change a a Digital Media Revolution f Elnga ure L il t b R39Se Of As39a Mdia Fusion some companies give some money to put content online www mff Key Driving Forces Of Change In Media Environment 1 Digital Media Revolution New generation of media consumers who expect to be constantly connected constantly in control broadband amp mobile connectivity convergence globalisation user generated content and social networks are changing media consumers Key Driving Forces Of Change In Media Environment 2 Rise of Asia strong global demand for media content from Asia Asia expressing its cultures and stories internationally thru all media Result of shift in economic and political power in favour of Asia APAC lVIedia spending to increase from US3331 bn 2007 to US5083 bn in 2012 economic power is in asia SMFP Vision Vision Singapore Trusted Global Capital for New Asia Media Trusted story ideas and transactions kept secure with IP protection and content management Global Capital international connectivity Next Generation National Broadband Network NGNBN EastmeetsWest sensibility New Asia Media Singaporeans at the forefront in creating media content that Asian audiences value and find relevant SMFP Desired Outcomes 1 Engaging Singaporeans morejob opportunities more media choices quality lVIadebySingapore content and new source of national pride SMFP Desired Outcomes Z Boosting Industry Foster diverse amp vibrant media sector Singaporeans as content creators amp consumers RampD enable leap into new markets Financial amp business development support Leading media companies drawn to S pore to open new businesses Korea has specifics to import a few overseas movies must have more Korean SMFP Desired Outcomes 3 Transforming the economy Encourage embedding of digital media within other economic sectors propelling growth of S pore creative economy Digital media will improve productivity foster borderless collaboration amp spur innovation in creating new consumer experiences SM FP Strategies 1 The Best City for Business Attract foreign talent amp nurture local talent Equip local companies with business skills eg market analysis fund raising amp intellectual property IP mgt Make S pore a global media financing centre by attracting international media funds Provide worldclass infrastructure that supports industry growth eg NGNBN lediapoisOne North Stateof theart Facilities Mediapelis Poised th Beast Singapore39s Media Ecesystelm Deee tnhet lli Eli ti tittieih iliiliiil EESilJli ei hie dieheiie eite herlh hie eight Siltgiepere39e tithe tel heeerhe a digital media capital where tep etlellth eehtent le preetleee ier internatlerlel markete ie geiruirlg htemeltttlht with the eeielepltteht hi at l iE39lh lttetrlie huh To be completed 2020 the 19 ha innovation facility will house Media ecosystem of soundstages with green screen capabilities Digital production studios Broadcast studios Interactive digital media facilities RampD facilities SM FP Strategies 2 On the Leading Edge of Digital Media I Improve reach amp relevance of S poremade content for local amp int l audiences thru creation of content across multiple devices I Develop amp attract high valueadding companies across media value chain from production to distribution amp media services I Create RampD ecosystem to be source of innovation for media sector SM FP Strategies 3 Connected to the World I Int l collaborations incl govttogovt policy exchanges coproductions content distribution RampD academic exchanges education amp skills training I Transform S pore into marketplace to facilitate networking dealmaking amp trading of media assets I Grow S pore media companies into global players thru participation in key int l trade markets In the News ij 39ill hitS the i D masaur Tram g SE hEduled t rem r39e am maricam ul lli bmaca ljrig te avi iam Saw PE in Eaitamljeru PHDTD HEM HERMI39I39 the Fmg39g Eu eatmu ES wurk uwg with a Simgapnn39e mmpanw 13 i 39 EHLICE a mew h lt u em39 tE EE i i 39l S mw J m Hansen E mpany anvil ig Ewmmumica t in ME callabiratin cm inmaaur Traim which Train gwet i 39EEath i l i 39 a In the News hearwinning n metin eleeumentery end liteetyle mgrmmea lee Singeeere e e eringa at MIFTV 2N lEmemll ithl e t e hrienn Printehile neweien HieJen Leninquot Hemndw quotleeennnl eereen quot appshennnn fer iEr39nJe nenean at Sentient nee Sinyenereg I A r EH1 11 Eiingennne rnedile mpeniee wi l he neeipeh39ing in mm hhe w e premier market her the buying and eelhng Infquot enn er nienel entertainment entent T E 39IEI with the Media Denelnpment AMHEFIEE nii Singepeilre HEAL the Einepere ernniee n39n he the ames enme 45 W h39hlee evening rnre illh ll39l E here niiff animating feetnell en dranne ennftenft an we as innneehiee heehnlziee With the tentiel he heinefnrrn the W viewin eerienee Nine Infquot the Ei ngenntre n1neniee Huguet Median Hang Prnnneh39ne In nite Frrernewrke h lenlieltlrnr Etienne Piehulr39ee Eerewl Emu11in Eermn enf Emth In Fietnr end Enemy E tEl39Tt Fhl l39 En l wi l he 2 e eetelnlue f ewenzl w nn ng enimeh ien eerieer he h39 thng feetnel nenmenten39ee en wen enetrlenl intereeh iee liheet e preferemmee Medial Denelnpment n 39unthuzn39it39ijr Singennre Aer 1eeni1 Tem te attend SereenSngepere film gele Ely Eae Eaamine Tern Hanlee hliquot graee the Elseeing Might Ealia the inaugural Etreen ingaere en Saturday June 11 FHEIITDE meme winner Tern Hanlluze will glt the eeing ight Gala at the inaugural Eereen iimgajpere em Saturdah June 11 The event wiillll he held at Shaw Degainieal enle needy refurbii hn ljde Theatre in ire39iard ad The thee lime eaemy Awe winner e new teatime lm Larry UFDWTFEIFE will he sheem at the Gala Larry Ereei39ne ie a ramatiite medy39 alheut hem the hard kimeeke ta39jr39e remeeiiem inepiiir39e ewe telPea my te unerge a nemenail reineemtien Hanll nze iiireetel ee writee an ee etare with fellow eeair winner Julia herte in the milPie le muted Harm ehiet executive eiF eelr ef the Media Deeelernent ul hmiity ef Singaere eaidl 39i l39e alr39e veryr excited 39l liatTeIrn Hanlee eeleeted EereenEingapelr39e ae the glehal launeh pad fer Larry Erewne Thie net enlif rea lnme eur elbjeehiee te eetahlielhi Eingaere ae a il l lm huh but Iaye an irnerlenl rule in ehaing 39l hie lm indu tw in the regien and heyend Media Conferences The 13 InhenmtIEiine lgi lai Mu imedia E Entertainment Tmmeag gii Ef 39ilhi EL Enemanee Jein CJLJi39 Mailing List it Receive the Lateet Lipdetee Heme eheut reedeeet ieie TEIEKI39iiEIIit TEI39Ii39iSiT Eenferenee Treeel eeeemmedetien ruiedie entre CenteetLJe JeinMeilinLiet Exhibitere nly ilniereeied in Wsi REGISTER ENLINE NEW marinasquot 5152113 meeemnewm WF E E I E r level 1 Ea Smd i Si P re I ntereeie d in Exhibiting HUGH A STAND r a 577 is Any u eeti e n e d C U MTAE T US Enneummt 39Eyent Remember The Datee firin ame iii39ixilfiiuenii Ff ll illiiii 39 71111 tment EDD T E iLE MDHR t h I I 5 I Hreadmeiheie 7 B i I 13 I i r7 1 r new 11ng 3 Wm I J mm 7 E rme WNW u in Pm ue en Eene 45 J 39 Eventinrignmms Spillover Benefits Of A Vibrant Media Scene H 39L Encouraging Coregulation IVIDA partners with media industry and encourages them to be socially responsible and to take adequate steps to ensure content meets with community standards Works with industry to ensure compliance of media codes also relies on public feedback to be alerted to possible breaches to the programme codes and content guidelines Public is encouraged to highlight to IVIDA problematic content on radio TV videos or publications for investigation Jade Seah Olympics 2008 she said IT CoRegulation in TV amp Radio TV Subscription TV amp Radio IVIDA does not precensor content but issues content codes amp guidelines for content providers39 compliance Codes drafted in consultation with industry and public advisory committees to ensure in step with community standards MedieCerp Redie in Singapere Fined fer re Centeet An APl fahee Melee article reperted Mendey that Media enp Eadie in Eingepere had eenteete tlhet aellted female etudie gueete te remindire their bras and peee fer trident web easier Married Men lost their jobs they called a person working in childcare said they could slap the poorer child not the richer child because their parents can sue News IHediaEerp Hedi ined Eli iir ee5 95395 Flying inilzclhlnian 39 nurse gt e Elleinin iiimpg Sen Talk bigeale HEW End en deem en CoRegulation for Publications Registered Importers Scheme introduced in 1997 to allow importers to coregulate Registered importers briefed on content guidelines for imported publications amp audio materials Based on guidelines importers coregulate and assess suitability of materials for local distribution and consult IVIDA when in doubt Coregulation helps facilitate approval process and reduce timetomarket for industr Film Video Video Games Board of Film Censors BFC allows companies to coregulate in content declaration Companies can highlight any contentious y it elements to the BFC Coregulation also practised by companie when declaring content Exemption from classification based on guidelines issued by BFC w a Selfregulation practised by industry whereby companies take ownership over r 1 marketing and publicity materials based quot a W W on BFC guidelines Classification Process V 39EEiEiii i m 39i tlriihuitnr Eu hmissinn PM hi in trans I titimn IFillsms Appeal E mmi e In epiliA nd ltuwmay hnmymhni a ntu me l w El n 2 The EH and M51111 EEITIZE39IIE Fur HIE the HHS WI DEI39IEIJIZ III39IE Fflil39l Enniuifza iua Penal EF EP E tn QEIII39IH me fiaadhack and print in waiting a Malian I ap 311 my III39IE39I i1 zrl1139radl uf 39le I i lg cmmma39 aw and ms bd39li39ldi 39le I i lg uf 39le an dHrIJutan ma a W H39IE HFE E li39lg minimnae tnedi 39le n tu me 39le QUHE39IEEI39 a lama IiiI19 In W I39IEI39E edii39lg WI EliEH11 this We 1339 Elana the HHS WI the HT d l39inutnr ag 39l aking Elia CNSULTTIJN r WI 41 CMMITTEES I I J 4quot It I I H w I Consultation with Committees IVIDA consults with various committees to ensure that their guidelines are in sync with community values and norms More than 260 members of public are engaged by IVIDA to review content codes and guidelines to meet changing needs and expectations Crosssection of society various agegroups races religions groups professions Seek feedback and guidance through advisory committees and focus groups 10 advisory committees and 2 appeal committees Guiding Principles behind MDA s regulations when working with committees Protect the young while providing more choices for aduhs Uphold community values and support racial and religious harmony Safeguard national and public interest J Community Outreach MDA aims to create greater public awareness and appreciation of the reach and power of media Games Community outreach efforts to support and promote games development thru various initiatives on public and industry front I National Family Celebration I NEmation I Digicon6 World Cyber Games Asia Championship I Singapore Game BoxE2ax Initiative Cquot39quotmi mei ty Outreach Media Fiesta icicles off this March I 3 MarchEMT 39 Media Fiesta 0 Annual monthlong festival IVIarch e 39 5i 83 POrea 5 a ages experiment with and engage in quot media for work learning and L Play w w w Showcase media content and technologies in animation games publishing film broadcast and Interactive Digital Media shows diversity of Singapore s evolving media landscape Community Outreach Cyber Wellness IVIDA advocates responsible use of Internet and healthy gaming among Singaporeans Raise awareness among educators parents youth and public to disseminate core values of cyber wellness Of Cyber Wellness 1 Balanced Lifestyle Integrate internet into daily lives but strike a balance between physical and virtual worlds 2 Embracing the Net and Inspiring Others Harness positive powers of Internet to be proactive and contributors who can inspire and benefit others 3 Astuteness Be astute and street smart when navigating the Internet 4 Respect and Responsibility Have a sense of respect for Internet and for other individuals Should not abuse power of Internet or condone subversive content MDA Grant Schemes IVIDA tailors grant schemes for different stages of media projects Idea development Content production Access to international markets Talent development Grants for Film Broadcasting Publishing Games Animation Music and Interactive Media MDA Grant Schemes can ask for money to make films lDE lH39ELEiIlPI39i39IIEHHII39 Assistance P ul 39ll39l l Assistance MARKETIHHG Assistem r We help 1er develpp gppd ideas intp a scri ptr game designr manuscript pr stnprglrhpa rd Find Emil I39I39IEIIE 3 We help yrpu turn yrnpur media prIitiitglrper stprglrhnpard pr script intp preductipn reality We help media preductipns that cpntribute tn the media sectprthrpugh hiring Einga ppre talent in credited rules and generating Einga ppre Spend ndeutmmre r 5We help 1er prpmpte yrnpur prpjects tp yrpurtarget marltets it We alsp help defray yrnpurcpst Iiltra1relr marlteting and prpmptipn Find put mere it We suppprt yrpurtraining needs and merit attachments a We p 39er schplarships Fpr undergraduate and pest graduate media related studies lTl39mt lmutirmlre E aIIItemEtiue ijbi eiia Grant schemes suppprting Research and Dieselppment in the Interactive Digital Media sectpr are alsp available QUESTIONS T H E T E E ST IA L TV I N U S T R Y WEEK 6 BM0620 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRY amp MANAGEMENT Time Spent Viewing TV US media is used for many things but shows like American Idol are dying because they39re not getting the viewers If i m 35 i 2m 1 l s his 2 EU U 1 i I 4 1 59 ms Ep rii Fer may Fer fii V tj A J A E I I j 41 F11 4 Ar Ln L 1 i L I 42 U 441 4r w 4 TV Transforms Daily Life Blamed for I Lowering literacy I Trivializing politics I Rises in violent crimes Praised for e I Giving instant access to world events quot l BRaKtNtTM Two PLANES CRASH INTO TOWERS H OF WORLD TRADE CENTER I Uniting audiences in times of crises TV is allowed to make fun of their public figures US But Singapore still cannot do such a thing TV Transforms Daily Life Television once meant programmes delivered by antennas through over theair signals Today it means the TV screen with programmes delivered via cables antennas satellites phone lines internet etc Terrestrial Television Terrestrial Television a mode of television broadcasting which does not involve satellite transmission or underground cables typically using radio waves through transmitting and receiving antennas or aerials The term is more common in Europe while in the US it is referred to as broadcast television or sometimes overtheair television TV Delivers Audience to Advertisers Misconception about the product To the viewer the product is the programming To TV executives the product is the viewer Strictly speaking TV stations do not make money by producing a programme that viewers want to watch MAKE MONEY BY SELLING AIR TIME ADS because advertisers want to hit shows with lots of viewers Money comes from selling advertisers the right to broadcast a message to the audience Commercial TV was created to deliver audiences to advertisers Early Television I I II I quotVisual wireless Visual radio Electric vision Television came in 1907 2 inventors best remembered for making TV a reality I 1927 Vladimir Zworykin Russian immigrant developed a circuit for transforming visual image into electronic signal that could travel through air I Around the same time 24yearold inventor in California Philo T Farnsworth developed the cathode ray tube which used electronic scanner to reproduce electronic image Early Television Philo T Farnsworth completed working model and applied for a patent Endured years of suits and countersuits before RCA paid him 1 million for rights to his patent David Sarnoff of RCA built one of the lst commercial TV stations in 1932 with transmitting facilities in the Empire State Building 339 Early Television at the World39s Fair in NY Franklin D Roosevelt became the first president to appear on television when he formally opened the Fair 0 Early TV sets did not sell because they were very expensive there wasn t much programming and there were no technical standards Early Television 0 Network A collection of radio or TV stations that offers programmes throughout the country during designated programme times At first 4 TV networks I National Broadcasting Company NBC I Columbia Broadcasting System CBS I American Broadcasting Company ABC I DulVlont Early Television NBC CBS amp ABC came over from radio DulVIont founded by Allen B DulVIont manufacturer of TV equipment DulVlont TV existed from 1946 to 1956 until industry got too large and it could no longer compete Early Television in Singapore Television Singapura was Singapore s first TV station and was launched on 151 February 1963 39 On 2quot April 1963 li39lrvi3inrl Singapum started regular MIMIUlTl iSZlUl l f iquot 5739 TV 739 A39H39Mh I Jan 9 Auwlzl39 IUWJ hrs iill39rn l mmurrsrl 1hr rmlinriquot firm real it lfi39ffll this ammluluinrni ml quotiiruje39mmrH rrrmmliun Hymn lilnluy39nu by lnifuiimrr f innit l rirni lllrlinlrr Mi if l uan WW I 1 Early Television Television Changes Family Life 0 TV continued social trends that radio started bringing family indoors to experience programming together but interacting less in time spent togethen 0 Families didn t talk during primetime programmes 7pm to 11pm they talked among themselves and among outsiders about what they d seen on TV the night before Early Television Entertainment Programming on early TV 53 genres as radio 39 Quiz Shows Variety Shows Situation Comedies Drama Westerns Detective Stories Soap Operas long running alwaysendswithcliff hangers Exceptions movies and talk shows me v a K quot V J14 4 a nr these were usually shown in the afternoon where housewives are reason for calling it SOAPS because of the advertisers who want to promote ads at that time Television s Golden Age 0 1948 to 1958 was a time of unusually good dramatic programming Quality dramas were needed to attract wealthy educated viewers who could afford TV sets 0 1949 the year that black and white TV overtook radio listenership in US 0 Network programming originated in NYC and producers had access to upandcoming Broadway writers actors and directors 0 Most TV dramas were performed live because videotape recording had not been invented yet and filming was too expensive Quiz Show Scandals Quiz show craze 1958 64 000 Question I lVIanyimitators Programming produced by the advertising sponsors themselves Charles Van Doren I Played on TwentyOne I Won 129000 I Admitted he was fed the answers Ended advertiser programming Charles Van Doren right on 21 E rf39 quot l M m A i39 mquot Wit 39 allle itjllailitrl my aim til l m rs r2 Channel 8 is easily Mediacorp s best channel AC Nielsen started reporting H ratings for TV by 19 505 of total number of Either households watching a particular TV St a t O n m w mam 95 mum T tl39 households of households watching TV that are watching a particular 255 million I V t t Program A I 25 mllll n 25 million 0 0 S eCIfIc Total Tiuquot I39m LIILEI39I tilde twill him 939 W 5E mun information on age occupation and income of audience Share Emil Share TV Landmarks 1 953 Sharp igemT 39 I COIOUF Ffrgi p z 1 i E u n 391 EH H 1 l HfHUh 313 u H u o 1955 Remote Centre I I h iul39 mania inn 39iIr r39n IEquotJII iha r E quot13 Whirl burghi lurng 331 In 39 r njinn ng uh Iml i rummanila Ir r ur In anal 31 it513 EIIHHIJIT L i r E 39ml HGHHLB WHILE FI EUVH H H EHIIIHIIEIE Q FM EGHEJEHJI u wn luk39nul ml 3 w 39 5 39Il F 5 il ll 4 I II 39IIE39I W dldmwyrng wlallr39 IHII pithyq rgrnmng M if nnw 1 Fran gnaw Lquot Vin Haw fth 5amp5 I T TIJ EEIEIIE39F39E I thn iuI39Ir39 marlmuse ru hu39mmrnl K 391I5139Isl391lnla39a urFavgImv was ans P M V r m quotaquot TV S Economic Golden Age By 1966 networks broadcast all primetime shows in colour and people rushed out to replace old blackandwhite sets TV s economic golden age considered as between 1960 and 1980 when the Big 3 networks had few competitors within and without the industry The real challenger to network TV was cable TV They didn39t think JFK was the better sounding candidate but Nixon on TV was sweating and hadn39t shaved looked worse I Sep 1960 JFK Nixon Open the Era of 1969 live broadcast of the moonwalk TV Debates The 19705 Growing Public Concern Surgeon General s report on violent TV Modest connection between heavy viewing and violence among some children Programming trends included crime drama then adult sitcoms then prime time soap operas Cable industry began competing with TV The 805 amp 905 Increased Competition Continuing erosion of the big 3 networks audiences Increased competition from new networks and cable channeb 2013 50th anniversary Singapore TV a DUMONT dropped out amwpm a a TV amp the let Century VIVID IMAGES Images of Grief Diana Princess of Wales death 97 Terrorist Attacks World Trade Center 01 Live from Iraq I First war broadcast live 2003 I Embedded reporters Network TV Prime Time Audience US Jainism 7 39 9351 V 5 v rr 9 i an IEmadeaEt Netwmks Share of Piriimee39iisme Aiu d aience LongTerm Decline TV broadcasting has been facing heavy competition and experiencing a decline in the last 2 decades Reasons 1 Emergence of Cable Satellite amp Online TV 2 Rising programme costs 3 Falling viewership Cable IPTV Satellite TV Hug Watch Suri Talk All with one Clever device DVRs can timeshift amp TIVO can skip ads TV networks and programme suppliers experiment with ways to offer programming downloadable from the Internet to home computers cell phones and other digital media Experts believe videoon demand VOD thru these downloads will be the future of TV Eg SingTel MioTV Starhub Online TV Broadband internet connections offer greater information carrying capacity Rent or buy download or subscribe monthly for limitless downloads Broadcasters web sites offer I Fullscreen hires streaming I Original online content I Social networking options I Advertising on sites and in streaming I Podcasts Not yet profitable but not too risky Reach younger audiences Will Broadcast TV Survive 0 Regardless of these threats many believe broadcast TV will continue to survive as it is still the most popular and powerful medium 0 Almost every home has at least 1 TV in developed countries H DTV 0 Broadcast TV industry in midst of changeover to digital HDTV promising clear and crisp pictures 0 HDTV is first major change in broadcast technology since introduction of colour TV 40 over years ago 0 Scanning lines more than double standard 1125 lines instead of 525 of conventional TV highquality digital sound interactivity and various advanced digital services NEW CHANNELS lBr ing your HDTV to lie Visit our HlJ mini5i HDTV CloseUp H DTV S DTV HDTV Advantages Clarity Greater clarity means picture on screen is less blurred and fuzzy Picture has about 5 times the details and sharpness compared to conventional TV Motion Smoother motion and ability to allow variety of input devices to work together eg internet More realistic richer colours Due to greater bandwidth Gaps between scanning lines smaller or invisible like looking through window Audio Dolby Digital 51 surround sound broadcast along with HDTV video signals allowing full surround sound capabilities On The Other Hand HDTV Broadcasters have been on digital services 1 Expensive replacement of transmitting equipment 2 Stations must transmit conventional and HDTV signals during the transition period 3 Cost of replacing old TV with HDTV Video Streaming amp 3DTV Sep 2010 Apple makes TV shows available on Apple TV for streaming at 99cents Apple also makes TV programmes available on iPads iPhones through iTunes 0 Major TV Manufacturers make 3D TVs available 1 2 3 Controversies The Nature of Programming a Perpetuating Violence b Reinforcing Stereotypes c Lack of Educational Programming Parental Advisory Ratings Excessive Viewing 1A Perpetuating Violence 0 Critics agree that TV entertainment is too violent esp when violence goes unpunished or when a programme ignores the real life consequences of violent acts 0 Study premium cable like HBO most violent with 85 of programming including some violence Basic cable has 59 violence and network TV has 44 violence still too high for most critics 1A Perpetuating Violence Critics say How violence is shown and why it is shown is important When children are watching it can be dangerous to present violence as a way to solve problems eg CSI Children will think it is all right to use violence instead of other forms of problem solving It is dangerous to ignore real life consequences of violent action eg no injuries whatsoever It is also dangerous when a violent act goes unputhed Tom amp Jerry painful fall and yet emerge unharmed CSI okay injured before with bandages in next scene Point to show th Perpetuating Violence after doing stupid acts Programmes requiring Parental Guidance PG usually contain adult themes or content which may be sensitive in nature Should be aired after 10pm and accompanied on screen before the start of the programme by a viewing advisory describing the principal elements which have contributed to the rating including their intensity andor frequency eg quotDue to strong violencefrequent horror scenes etc parental guidance is advised wwmda govsg lB Reinforcing Stereotypes Extensive research into TV indicates that exposure to TV material increases the acceptance of ethnic racial and sexual stereotypes The US National Gay amp Lesbian Task Force have asked producers to avoid stereotypical depictions of limpwristed lisping gays and truckdriving lesbians lB Reinforcing Stereotypes One form of stereotyping that critics find annoying is making an ethnic minority invisible During recent TV seasons the NAACP noticed a lack of minority actors on the 4 US networks The networks responded by pledging to 1 Establish minority recruitment programmes 2 Add minority writing slots to successful shows 3 Do more business with minority suppliers lB Reinforcing Stereotypes The defense that TV producers point out is that stereotyping is important in storytelling because it allows writers to establish characters quickly and get on with the plot L quot 4 17 39 l H W m m um EllEllilllllE 39 himquot 1 MV 7 I 7 i r r I r 39 I lB Reinforcing Stereotypes quotInformation themes or subplots on lifestyles such as homosexuality lesbianism bisexualism transsexualism transvestism paedophilia and incest should be treated with utmost caution Their treatment should not in any way promote justify or glamorise such lifestyles Explicit depictions of the above should not be broadcast quotProgrammes should not make careless references to any class or group of persons as being inherently inferior Programmes should not encourage or in any way discriminate against any section of the community on account of gender age disability or occupational status 1C Lack Of Educational Prog To reach greatest possible audience most TV programmes are designed to make limited intellectual and aesthetic demands on their viewers However critics are concerned that the quality of lowest common denominator programming damages viewers intellectually amp emotionally 5mg 39lii ii 1 1 f if E1Iji1215ili l The FCC requires stations to air 3 hours of educational programming per week but critics insist that this is notenough 2 Parental Advisory Ratings Some critics are concerned with what TV seems to teach effectively violence sex and unacceptable language This is where parental advisory ratings come in Advisory ratings will be shown in TV listings and on air before the show runs This enables parents to block out programming using the Vchip 2 Parental Advisory Ratings In Singapore Freetoair FTA TV broadcasters can show content up to a P613 rating to be aired between 10pm to 6am while Pay TV and video content can have a V18 rating As of September 2010 Singapore partially relaxed television broadcast guidelines allowing Pay TV operators to screen NC16 M18 and R21 films containing explicit content on VideoonDemand VOD 2 Parental Advisory Ratings Part 5 of the Code states that TV programs quotshould not in any way promote justify or glamorisequot homosexuality in any form IVIediaCorp has been fined repeatedly for violations of this Part 7 of the Code states that quotGratuitous and graphic portrayals of violence such as cutting up body parts and spurting of blood should be avoided Part 123 of the Code states that use of the local English based creole Singlish quotshould not be encouraged Part 124 of the Code states that quotAll Chinese programmes except operas or other programmes must be in andarin39l 3 Excessive Viewing E E E1 May M12 Leet updated 31235339 GMT Chilhoo screen time Warning over TV and comutere Parente need It rune ep child nen tspending much time watching televiein r playing iputer garnee ending a paychliet ierriit Swen Said screen nee e ta heiie a daily limit in a similar 1lirein te sell er alt i39l ll intake l le celle fer parents te rain centricllquot ar the1lnr mm ri ng a trmm m Danquot quotH Hem ileng eheuld ehfiildrean spend in frth ef the teleniefien He will epeel at the Regal Cele ef Paediatrics V and Ehil Heelthquote annual centerence in later Related Binaries Ilr Swen will erue that the Ellll39l t lll39lt f time spent in hunt f entreene ie at an all time hh with chil ren heuin te en euere ef the etreene in the heme and eften uein were then ene at ence such 35 a mrtphene and the televieien Cum puter g nmere hreine idi er Cell fer child EEFEEH time limit Thie ire Iiin lit tn 3 eerlenterjlr lileetylie Type diehetee and heart Ehil dren Screen he will habit revealed 3 Excessive Viewing Characteristics of compulsive viewers They watch double number of hours compared to the average viewer They rarely go out for entertainment they stay at home to watch TV They are not selective in what they view and will stay glued to anything even if they don t enjoy it Often will complain about programs while they watch They use TV as a distraction an escape from unhappy lives or unhappy parts of their lives r39v 4 1 399 M m 39i a 3D TV Holographic TV Future of TV MODULE OVERVIEW BMOGZO INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRY amp MANAGEMENT SEMESTER 1 AY201213 LECTURER amp TUTOR CHONG GIM HWEE CONTACT DETAILS Email ChongGimHweenypgovsg Office Location C212 Office Telephone 65501074 MODULE AIMS This module aims to provide 0 An overview and understanding of the various mass media industries and their competitive landscape around the world and in Singapore 0 A knowledge of the structure and issues surrounding the terrestrial cable and satellite TV industries as well as the radio print film and new media industries MODULE AIMS This module aims to provide 0 An appreciation of media management and organisational behaviour as well as the role of various players involved in the media industries 0 An understanding of the roles of the regulatory supporting and complementing agencies of various types of media and media institutions including Media Development Authority of Singapore lNCOURSE ASSESSMENTS ICAS CA1 Individual Written Test CA2 Group Project Semestral Exam Class Participation Insight Papers amp Professionalism Week 8 Week 8 14 Week 1819 All Semester 20 20 50 10 Media Ilm aat Ari iIZIIZE39E39IIJhEHE 1 Filing Ehliarlmlia Eiil li llil MEDIA IMPACT AN INTRODUCTION TO MASS MEDIA 10th Edition by Susan Biagi ISBN10 1111346364 ISBN13 9781111346362 Lecture 1 Overview BMOGZO Introduction to Media Industry amp Management Mass Media Are Everywhere You Are ed i m act AUEIENCE l i i i n 111 Peple Using Mae Maia Etch may ai39aarerag ei pxeple spend mre timl each day with the THESE media than with39ur themm Senna WEI135115 SEMET E terurenen Eummunieelzins 1114313511 Emmet Elit p wwwwa mmmemmn emuspMJfews1311 I THEE minutee in a ray 11 Halli Communication occurs when I i I I i l EEUFE E d a mes age thr ugh me ium tea a receiver pr dufing gimme e e 9 2010 The MCGrawHill Companies Inc All rights reserved Types of Communication to myself lntrapersonal Communication Interpersonal communication Communication between two people Face to face uses 5 senses Group communication Small group 0 A few students Large group 0 Audience Organizational communication Takes place in a structured organization Mass Communication Mass Communication 0 Definition Communication from one person or group of persons through a transmitting device a medium to large audiences or markets 0 3 Shared Characteristics of Mass Communication a A message is sent out on some form of mass communication system such as internet broadcast or print b The message is delivered rapidly c Message reaches large groups of different kinds of people simultaneously or within a short period of time Elements of Mass Communication Ii39lllustratiiinm 19 Elements at Mass Centmunies en The pteeess ef mess eemmueis setters series like this s sender senses puts e messege es s ehnnel medium thst deliv ers the message ts the teeeteet Feedback seems when the receiver I E39Ep t ldsg end that respettse changes subsequent messses ftem the sures Nise such as ststie at s dteped eenneetten est interrupt er Change the mes ssge during transmissth Messsgae 2 SALE Ethrsnnetl metiimj Feedihssk SMCR Model of Mass Communication 53mm Message Eaeeder Channel Deeader RECEW EIquot Sttrti ie RatlteIV equipment getg 39 Viewer Wards Strands readeaat Breadeaater w a rearing Imagea Listener traaamitter Breadeaet i g Feedback ratings SOURCE Encoder MESSAGE Feedback CHANNEL Noise stauc distraction RECEIVER Decoder i iti LCngica Source 0 A source is the originator of the message 0 Examples Producer on a local cable channel Newspaper reporter Television network news anchor 7 l VEHaHEu Hewsoral 7 77 7 7 if i 7 7 7 WDHJLD THE llJETIFIJEUEM EDUIEHMMEMT HES FLH TED Actor in a television situation comedy Author of a college textbook Recording artist Designer of a web page 0 New media source may be an individual A personal web page Encoder Decoder 0 Translates the message into one that can be communicated EncodersDecoders Television cameratelevision set Printing pressnewspaper reader Movie cameramovie projector Microphonespeakers Computer keyboardcomputer monitor Channel 0 Medium Means by which a message reaches an audience Plural of medium is media Eg A book A newspaper Broadcast TV channel A compact disk CD The Internet Receiver 0 Destination of message Reader of a newspaper Viewer of TV news Viewer of TV sitcomdrama Reader of a college textbook Listener of CD Surfer on World Wide Web 0 Audience Large number of people Interprets the message 0 Interpretation may differ from intent of sender Feedback 0 A response from the receiver to the sender Clicking a hyperlink on a web page Buying a product Radio and TV audience viewership Digital communication network allows for instantaneous feedback Sender and receiver can communicate with each other at the same time Noise Distortion or errors introduced to message Loss in message accuracycontent Physical andor psychological noise Sources of noise Damage to the TV cable Newspaper that gets wet from rain while being delivered TV news anchor s illfitting hair piece Commercial interruptions during TV show Low readability of a college textbook Scratch on a CD Slow web server EWV WE hutterstockcom 454590 Mass Media Today DIGITAL NATIVE younger people in this day and age had mostly smartphones DIGITAL MIGRANT where people move from analog to digital The Past Wired Needed an electrical outlet Limited mobility Today Wireless WiFi Wireless Fidelity Total mobility More choices Converged Media Complex network of media Global system e ewr ellowUOIIGWWP Defining Mass Media Mass Media refer to channels that carry mass communication messages and that reach a large audience Definition refers to Mechanical Devices that transmit or store message TV set Car Radio DVDs etc Institutions that use these machines to transmit messages ie the people policies organizations and technologies that go into producing and distributing mass communication Media Vehicle a single component of the mass media eg a newspaper a radio station a TV channel a magazine 6 movie producers powerful money usually goes to them executive producer finances the movies Drew Barrymore for Charlie39s Angels 5 Radio 13000 radio stations US Satellite and Internet radio regulators MDA case Howert Stern controversial 6 Movies DJ talks crap basically no longer on radio on the internet 30000 theaters 400 filmsyr DVDs downloads overseas Book Publishin there39s also selfpublishing fto the 21 st century 40000 titles a year US Audio books amp ebooks Newspaper how to tell the paper is successful thickness of it 1500 dailies US Magazine Diff between A and first is much richer 15000 publishedyr US 739 Te39ev39s39on D I 1600 TV stations US EC mm g th Igubscl lptlotn EV cabledsatteltlrite I h ey wou norma y ave oa verise accor ing 0 epeopew o Recordlngs watch eg Channel 8 counts more on the aunties than teens 8 Internet Newest media lt which is also how 39 earnings grOWing Google makes money ads in searches pay by quotclickquot quotclick conversionquot going into the site amp buying nnmnIhinn People over 25 buy CDs People under 25 download slide 29 3 Key Mass Media Concepts 1 Mass Media are profitcentred businesses movies are one that no one really knows if it will be a hit but people still invest a lot of money in them 2 Technological developments change the way mass media are delivered and consumed 3 Mass Media both reflect and affect politics society and culture 1 Mass Media are profitcentred businesses lilil M The Emssis industries sellsst bellies 3 year in ineeme Telleeisien and the entertainment meuis mesies sides games end resumed music see the tsp mnneymskees while redie generates the smallest emsunt elf revenue gamers wwpseal lshersergv wwwmrssem www seekers htiepiffhfzngumdmid esme wwwgfmpqmm hW39ffi d 39fma WWW rr mmmr Lew memerk eeeem wwwri serg ray1mm Efrueix39 cabs semi 3117a 39 ihlmm Iii sm ela ed musquot mull ween quotWeek merits limesquotmks Lile 1 Mass Media are profitcentred businesses 0 When revenues from advertisers and consumers exceed production costs profits result 0 The media reinvest some of their profits to make improved products that even more consumers would want 0 Example TV networks invest their profits in new programmes that they hope will be hits newspapers publishers invest in colour w printing presses l US MEDIA PRODUCTS DOMINATE THE GLOBAL SCENE W H They KNOW how to make good TV and such 39 even though sometimes the ideas came from Britain like American Idol w Pop Idol which was 1st both violence and are available BUT the first is a bigger taboo in the US because people havetherightto beararms Asia chances of us getting ammo is remote Audience Diversity Big Business ability to produce BigBudget Popular Entertainment FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION In US freedom of expression allows media practitioners to create a wide range of media products on a variety of topics with limited interference by the government US notion of freedom has been embraced internationally especially by young people to rebel against tradition and oppressive rules This freedom is a mixed blessing however when it goes too far and when children are exposed to violence and pornography AUDIENCE DIVERSITY 0 A greater likelihood that US media products will be successful overseas because US is made up of a very diverse society 0 US media producers have increasingly involved people with different backgrounds in production decisions slide 23 BIG BUSINESS HIT 0 The big business structure of the US economy makes it possible to finance and produce expensive media products 0 The large size of the American market encourages bigbudget productions 0 Bigbudget productions do not always correlate to highquality but they do seem to produce the most popular entertainment worldwide BOMB a I spent about 200 mil and only made 30mil CULTURAL IMPERIALISM american tv is one of the most influential things around because more often then not people from other countries tend to copy whoever they see especially for the youths speech habits change the dressing what they deem to be okay terms US uses US is admired for technological achievements People in most countries enjoy US movies music and TV programs BUT many countries accuse US of cultural imperilism the displacement of their traditional culture with US culture US ideas and customs are often disliked and seen as the ultimate propaganda weapon MEDIA GROUPS 0 One way that media companies grow is through group ownership 0 Many newspapers TV and radio stations movie studios and movie theaters are part of a group where one company owns the same type of medium in more than one market area DISNEY SONY SPH news but they also venture in other things such as Clementi Mall they own it MEDIA CONGLOMERATES 0 Conglomerates are large companies involved in many different types of businesses 0 Most conglomerates form through a combination of vertical integration amp horizontal integration 0 Vertical Integration is a business model in which a company owns different parts of the same industry thus controlling both production and distribution facilities 0 NBC integrated vertically when it bought Universal Studios giving it both the Universal production facilities and the NBC TV network and cable channels to distribute the programming that Universal produces VERTICAL INTEGRATION TABLE 1M Vertiel Integratien Vertienl 39integrntien eeenre when eernpnn39iee ewn teeth preduetien emit cttetttbnttun In t lttieeF e in en et the enInntns in the table Banks Literery39 egenei ee Publishing heueee Fr39intere per 11 itIe Beelc elube Beeketeree Ne39ee eereteee eyndi eetee PubInherit F39rtntezrefpnper tntle Emb r it ttenf Keeneere eenteee NEWEEI ndte MW Iesf 39l39elentetnie Intent ngeneiee Studiee F39ilrnfeidee menutneturere ietributerefnetwetks ThetereXteIeeieien etntiene Telent eenetee Reeetdl labels R r t i j menutneturere Reeetdt eIe beI netwenke I mreef deID E39I II ng Internet We eite deeignere web peels tntettneti en eeretees Internet service prettidere Eeemmeree eitee VERTICAL INTEGRATION 0 There is nothing illegal about vertical integration as long as it is not used to compete unfairly against other companies DOMINATION 0 Antitrust Laws can be activated when a firm vertically integrates for the sole of purpose of making it impossible for other companies to compete with them 0 Horizontal Integration occurs when a company buys many different types of businesses In this case the newspaper company doesn t buy a paper mill it buys a radio or TV station 0 Eg when MediaCorp buys a publishing company to produce books about its TV shows it is integrating horizontally HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION T ELE 1 Hari f I l Eng Harig nm Tniem n EZELJFE when E gaming Wf IE min EIIHEFEHI Wpaea DI buaineasea 115 in my DI the Fi W5 in this I II39JIE Banks Lifer ry EQEHEIE FUEIIEITIHQ II39l llJ 5amp5 Printers IE I Iubs BU I ZE I FES Newquot 5 gawkEEK Ey dic m F u IDIIIEII39EEIFE Fri mergequot pa per mIIIs Eu gcrip i nf de very SEWIEEE HEWEEIE nd 393 uviEij Ia i Taleni gen ie Etudii 39s FiImJ 39wIriden m nufmciu rem Them leragquot televisi n r I II a Tmleni E EIEE 1 quotilquot39EII IE E Regarding mmnufmcfu FE r5 RemrcI Iuibsf nehwmrlka Hard sh r35 FIE i IIIII39EI39EI Eb SHE asigners WEI Farms II39IFDI39I39I39I IIDI I SEWIEEEE l iarneia service gpmvideira E E m merge COMBINED INTEGRATION This is most common Disney Corp owns not only a group of movie studios but also movie theme parks where cartoon movie characters such as Mickey Mouse are featured and the topics of the movies become attractions In fact Pirates of the Caribbean movies were based on a longstanding Disney theme park ride Newspaper amp Broadcast Properties Attractive Investments 10 profits a year double the average for manufacturing company Scarce Commodities Limited number makes them more valuable Family Ownership Selling off inherited media companies Easier to buy than to create Expensive to start up 139 l n tril quot39h39nl wuljr can multti an nu Hit Hmwwimaquot triazt 39tllu L39 i tf lllil i ifi 7 Egan5 air tlttllijlj drill Asran Food Channel the guys offICIaIIy bought the rights to the name quotE1 quotElm mgrmwzmn ws Wm d piw115mm but Scripts bought them out tatiera d lln lllE Wll i f ED 7 limitmutm lt Pros amp Cons of Concentrated Ownership if one company owns it there will be a limitation to the ideas produced Supporters say the advantages are Employee training Higher wages News Corporation Better working conditions Greater resources 0 Critics say disadvantages are Limits diversity of opinion Loss of message pluralism Authoritarian corporate culture Rupert Murdoch in america you have to be an american to own media 2 Technological developments change the way mass media are delivered and consumed Stages of Economic Development 39M dI iif cmpl yrhc t inf n nati n creat imn an 39prumassin I n FCLITITI ti an Emil let in fumflat Linn R cvu luti can dE c l cm p103 IT 111 iii In an u m u ri n Industrial REVuluti mn M dE uni IF cmpl yr c t it quot agriculture Agricultural amulet PreAgricultural Society Mode of production Hunting and gathering Small but tight kinship groups 0 Communication Spoken word Pa 7 W m 7 4 I a r firrti t1g i 5 i 395 an r F 39 lgn an r 39 539 39 u A aquot T A F n T at r 339 r 3 if l O I C I O r C u u 39ttiiu39ailgi nality h r r J q Epic poems of western societies Iliad Beowulf Dream time Indigenous people of Australia Agricultural Agrarian Society 0 Modes of production Farming fishing mining Land owned by ruling class 0 Communication a 15 information Communications Revolution Development of phonetic writing 1000 BC 0 Needed to keep records Few books 0 Only nobility leisure class could read 0 Books were hand copied Industrial Society Mode of production Mass production Factories 0 Specialized jobs in industry 0 Communication 2quot Information Communications Revolution Movable Type 1455 Printed books 1446 Price of books decline Slow increase in literacy Workers needed to be able to read for industrial jobs Information Society 1950 s onwards Mode of production Work with computers 0 Create process store transmit information Information workers Communication 3ml Information Communications CL TImothy BernersLee Revolutlon Inventlon of dIgItal computers credited for starting the internet that can process store amp retrieve information 0 World Wide Web 0 Email Computer readable information 0 Digital video Multimedia Digital audio Ray Tomllnson Today s Digital Communication Network Uidee en demend eewleee fifii e Eamg EEWLCEE DJ mm Ceble eempe my Na unah International Netwan 1 a l r 3 V E l A 3 r v Satellite delivery Telephe He eempeny Cemputer l Televieien Cellular telephene 3 Media Affect Politics Society and Culture Media can affect political social and cultural institutions 0 Media is a mirror of society Eagle39s Muirl FEFW M Elan Illa Tin FEE Ling it Md Primm a i Si gamre Smgamme i FEEL39 u IHHDLi rLELTquot Ewartn hgv gs 1 ii Baum na 9939 E39ia ialg E 111115 nimuiI gmslquoti us cm FfHI Igjl VHF 75 1151 a g q Hem WEPJI ELI39I39 drain 39JT IFJ Gilnu39I39Eguljl l39ifujfJlj llJEHEIP LI En Mi Fly 115 PAID 39FiDihrJu lfiil i 39anrF i l 7uWH E3911 E a irWIE F Ei T PW E E i1 Li 5 IImli ih 39I39 14 in LEJEIi 39 Filafr P a EDEJTHF EEEMEFiEPI 5 EEGIE iJTEE liHEE ain EEhl quot ii 111i 1 7 7 fiwraiiim Elan lFlIJILPH ILI EE E1434 EEM hid 1 IHIIquotl Eljfl5 r l39IEf T 39la EIi39laa rmprna F PquotII F v W n V r T F I u f1 39ui39u E39I39 E I jrl l u quotE 39 in FREE 1 39 quot39 En IVsFIE urns n r n Media Affect Politics Society and Culture rwta httpWWWy0utubecomwatchv r0uCphP4q q s Media Affect Politics Society and Culture Selective perception Different people process messages differently Everyone brings their own background interests and education Diverse audience mean differing effects Today few people share identical media environment Difficult to determine cummulative affect of media The Future of Communicationis Now Internet TV gt EBook Readers The Future of Communicationis Now 1 39v mew Tablets Thompson DPpUI ti APPLE ER previously CEO BLOGGER b 7 9 l L23 i39 Slmon CO e iEvan Illlams may 2 BM 62 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRY amp MANAGEMENT DipIema in Medliia Studies amp Management SBMIINIY P The Organization 39 Definition 0 A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose 0Common characteristics of organizations 0 A distinct purpose goal 0 Composed of people 0 A deliberate structure basapeopmdowork MIEE I o N 1 vision is to be earth s most customer centric company to build a place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online Amazon 2 mission is to give people the power to share and make the world more open and connected Facebook 3 mission is to enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential Microsoft 4 lists its mission as quota work in progress as it has yet to be fully developed Twitter on and Mission NYP Visi Our Vision To be A Premier Polytechnic of Global Distinction Our Mission We provide quality education and training to prepare students and adult learners for work and life equipping them to be life long learners and to contribute to the technological economic and social development of Singapore We will harness our resources expertise creativity and innovation to support the development of business and industry and to complement Singapore s globalization efforts izatlona tructure MaCorpirgan LLIEE I39IEEE Etrum zture E F 39 TE EH4 rCiEHTIE iL FUHETTDHE nE I E JTjFEF IZE E mmiu icatin E Han n tinig Financ s Human REEHJ39EEE L gal SalE5 and HarkHm Taahnniy Telawisi n Pradugtgmnas Enterprriges Ehan aaghs free to air rv Ch 5 suria T l ml 39 Hh 91 ng HWET E i lli g mates Emmi Nam u 3mm In139l Hal EJ113511 H EW5 ml H FFEE Paper TODAY Eiatm FM Iglial39 Entelrtafnamem ames Eg m IVEElam iIT Emma ElmEH43 Errte ainmer LiifeslylE i I 413 I W 4 u 4 c 4 c J4 a j I 35 HE J IJFIiE Management 0 Definition 0 Management is a process by which individuals work with and through other people to accomplish organizational objectives gtVanagement is a dynamic process involving different skills such as decision making problem solving creativity negotiation and interpersonal relations Management as a Process 0 Management is considered a process 0 A process describes a series of actions or events marked by change 0 The word process is used to define a continuous operation in which many things are happening simultaneously 0 Management is an ongoing state of operations Management as a Process 0 Radio TV cable svcs newspapers etc operate 24hrs a day 7 daysweek 365 daysyear 0 Programming content changes daily so does advertising amp news 0 Management in any media environment is not a static concept but a dynamic evolving process production house to do a corporate video 5 min easily 10 000 base rate AC Nilson quotsample sizequot some households key for the total demographic of singapore representative Air time 30s ad gt even for Super Bowl just this is 3 million dollars Biggest ad in Singapore Tiger The Universal Need Management lll Elma f l QEI liZEti l lS Emal if FLare Cm 77 77 7 77 9 7 7 91E 7 77 7 Cm 77 7 7 7 H 7 77g 7 74 H 7H 74 7 7 7 lll H H 7 7 H 7 l ll l H pm 7 777 7 777 77777777 777 77777 7 77 7 777 l i 7 w H M H vilpllllll M MM w a d M el M UL Management AllTyea Urganizatiana 4 la Needed HUM H FM 7l r7 727 7 7 7 H7LMMMWMJ in i i FPrll t 77 JL 7 7777 7 741 7 77 7 7 7 N7 7 77 7 7 7 JL 7 39 7 77 W7 H M H H M MMquot M MMH M M M M M W M MMrw WMWH 777777777777 7777 7 7777777 7777 M ll Uranizati n Levela El n391 Tap Overview of Media in Society The media occupy an important place in society 0 The media provide audiences with a variety of entertainment amp information products 0 The media influence culture and help define social reality a o The media function as an important component of the economic system 12 mew of Media in Society 0 Managers in the media must maintain efficient profitable operations to meet the expectations of owners and stockholders penetrate 0 The media pervade society Consumers have an insatiable appetite for entertainment amp info 0 Studies show that TV viewing radio listening amp internet surfing dominate leisure activity in households 13 Overview of Media in Society average to watch 73 before changing of the first boring channel audience 0 Audiences have many things to choose from so media managers must be willing to respond to the wants and desires of the always fickle audience 0 Media managers have challenging jobs because of the many demands to meet the needs of the marketplace 1 Provide information and entertainment for the audiences 2 Make profits for shareholders and owners 3 Provide audiences for advertisers to access 14 Overview of Media in Society 0 The media manager s job is even more challenging because of constantly changing technology regulatory issues social issues and consumer tastes 15 m oMedia in ocuety exam 0 Media companies engage in 4 types of activities development exhibition production distribution 1 DEVELOPMENT is adopting new technologies and improving the quality of media consumption Eg Advances in mobile content delivery and interactive television Eg Digital vs Analog i l lty tlij ll l seafront x themmparisan HE uttersgreatertlarity n l H lTl 39ll ll lL mum quot4 i EHMNNElLlLlLl lsquzaresl Amalog use 39l lul HEE edy l WMedla in Society 0 Media companies engage in 4 types of activities 2 PRODUCTION consists of both hardware and software Eg Hardware includes TV and radio receivers satellite dishes CD DVD etc Software includes TV and radio programmes sound recording etc 17 w of Media in Society 0 Media companies engage in 4 types of activities 3 DISTRIBUTION getting products to consumers Eg Traditional broadcast networks satellite internet broadband amp handheld wireless devices 18 quot e 1 m of Media In Socety 0 Media companies engage in 4 types of activities 4 EXHIBITION is when the consumer actually uses the product Eg listening to radio watching TV or reading magazine The pervasiveness and portability of electronic media hardware means exhibition can occur anytime anywhere 19 Management today 0 21St Century is an era marked by rapid change convergence industry consolidation new business models and competitive environment 0 A good manager must balance the needs of owners employees and the audiences they serve in a time of unprecedented challenge 20 Management in the Media 0 Managers exist at many different levels within organisations 0 Most organisations support 3 levels of management 0 LowerLevel Managers 0 Middle Level Managers 0 Executive Managers 21 Levels of Management 0 Lowerlevel managers supervise others and monitor individual performance 0 Middle level managers plan and allocate resources and manage performance of smaller groups 0 Executive managers monitor the entire organisation and identify internal and external factors that impact the organisation 22 Levels of Management All managers share certain Skills Functions amp Roles FIGURE 1 Skils Funttins Management Ekiill Fumtima 5quot H lEE Ti 39Li lriiii li Flaririii ig Human Drgamairig Enncep39iual Hamming Finanmal E tr illiitg 3 Marketing Facilitating i mmlll ilt Htl g Heg d ng iFlleE Leaderquot i Hepi entatme Liaiseajri 23 777 Management Skills 0 Management skills refer to the basic competencies needed by managers 0 5 broad areas of skills needed in management 1 2 3 4 5 Technical Human Conceptual Financial Marketing 24 Management Skills 1 Technical skills needed in order for media managers to keep up with technological advancements 2 Human or people skills having strong interpersonal skills and being good at leading and motivating people Most managers identify this as the most important management skill 3 Conceptual or problemsolving skills understanding complexities of internal and external environment and making decisions based on sound judgement 25 Management Skills 4 Financial skills being able to manage budgets meet revenue projections and deal with budgetary issues 5 Marketing skills knowing how to position products or companies effectively and knowing what vehicles to use to create awareness IVIanagers should know the 4 P5 of marketing Price Product Promotion and Place 26 AF39 J Paul Sakuma 27 Management Skills Degree of skill required at different managerial levels varies Eg Lower level more technical skills needed Executives likely to use conceptual and financial skills more regularly Human skills crucial at every level Managers develop skills via continuing education experience and attendance at managerial seminars and FIEUF EE f 39 ii 391 ramming Elullls across 7 WTIH Tr I H n aquot Managerial Levels Eff f i 39 Flfic lfiisal an i If 391 o r CE 1 to a i a quot 39 ill rim HI LE1 y l 1 39 I I ull39ZSIDLE 395 a or it M 411 3 I E 391 H I Human quot E Ill 1quot IRE If iquot 11 ELlFiEl lkfl yiillfia 395 quotH Eif39quotlr lilr il 39 Iii I5 BIB 1 Management Functions 0 Management functions refer to the tasks that managers perform 0 Several studies have attempted to define the functions of managers 0 Barnard 1968 identifies 3 managerial functions 1 Providing a system of organisational communication 2 Procuring proper personnel 3 Formulating and defining the purposes and objectives of the organisation 29 Management Functions 0 Faon 1949 s POC3 model specified the functions of Planning Organising Commanding Coordinating and Controlling 0 Management scholars replaced Commanding and Coordinating with Motivation forming POMC model of management functions 30 Management Functions 0 Planning involves establishing organisational objectives and providing others with resources needed to accomplish their tasks Both managers and employees should share in the creation of the objectives 0 In Planning 3 criteria apply to the creation of objectives 1 they should be written down 2 they should be quantified in some way 3 they need to have a deadline or implementation date 31 Management Functions 0 Organising includes specifying who is responsible for completing organisational objectives 0 Motivating includes getting a high level of performance out of employees This helps organisations accomplish the objectives gt Studies show employees want managers to recognise them for their individual achievements and contribution to the organisation they want opportunities for growth and advancement 32 Management Functions 0 Controlling includes 0 Giving feedback to employees Feedback takes many forms written verbal electronic etc 0 Monitoring the progress toward completion of organisational objectives 0 Making changes as situations demand 33 Management Functions 0 Recent studies have concluded that besides POMC managers also exhibit 3 other important functions Facilitating Communicating Negotiating 34 Management Functions 0 Facilitating includes empowering employees with the resources needed to complete organisational tasks Eg personnel money equipment The facilitator function is most prominent at the executive and middle levels of management 0 Communicating includes keeping employees informed of information needed to complete their jobs Eg formal lines of communication include newsletters memos and performance reviews Informal lines of communication are also important 35 Management Functions 0 Negotiating includes seeking the best possible solution for the organisation 0 Negotiation with employees involve salary and benefit packages contracts for talent request for new personnel 0 Other forms of negotiation may involve owners regulators community leaders business organisations and audience members 36 Management Roles 0 Management roles are those behaviours associated with or expected of managers 0 IVIintzberg 1975 identifies 3 types of roles managers take in their daily environment 1 Interpersonal concerned with leadership 2 Informational addresses communication 3 Decisional involves decisionmaking 37 Management Roles 0 Management roles refer to the different roles managers adopt as they interact with different constituencies such as employees owners consumers and peers 0 Managers wear many hats when performing management tasks 0 3 roles best reflect the modern day manager L Leader 2 Representative 3 Liaison 38 Management Roles 0 Leader involves providing effective leadership for the organisation 0 Being a good leader involves accepting responsibility for the organisation as well as for its employees 0 Essential qualities of strong leaders adapting to change making decisions maintaining open lines of communication 39 m m e nt Roles 0 Representative involves simply being a figurehead in a variety of contexts Eg serving on community boards speaking to high school or college classes committees etc 0 Liaison involves serving as gobetween for the organisation and the parent company 0 The manager must report on the progress and problems of their organisations The managers must also filter information from the parent company back to the employees 40 What management role did James Murdoch assume by resigning J aim Museeh stsz as chairman as hisskin scanal pns iiaeii Miiil lii39 si39i aiiiis as ciiaiii39aai39i i UH Baas is iai39ii i1 aai iaeci39ai a iiiiii39ii iquot ii iiie Eili ii39iEi ii l ii scaai Dan ahhah and Darainic Fin she gu ardiancauic TiLiI esdagi 3e airii E l i i131 ii39 Micle mater mi James iiiurciech is is resign as chief esecuti39u39e anci chairman at EEWB P hetegraah MiguelUillagrani et rlmages THE MEDIA MARKETPLACE MARKETS MEGERS amp A L L I A N C E WEEK 3 BM0620 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRY amp MANAGEMENT Learning Outcomes Product and geographic dimensions that form media markets 4 types of market structures and their characteristics How economic technological regulatory global and social forces are driving change across media industries Learning Outcomes What a strategic alliance is and the types of strategic alliances found in media industries Why there are so many mergers and acquisitions across media industries How strategic alliances and partnerships affect the process of management Introduction Vedia managers must understand basic market economies and the markets in which they compete for audiences amp advertisers Understanding the characteristics of the market helps management develop programming advertising and branding strategies Mergers acquisitions and partnerships affect the structure and management aspects of the media Media Markets Target market and target audiences reflect the goal of reaching specific types of audiences Media outlets try to attract enough of an audience to obtain a dominant share of a particular market Media Markets 0 A market can be defined in several ways 0 Market is defined as a place where consumers and sellers interact with one another to determine the price and quantity of the goods produced DualProduct Markets IVIedia firms function in a dualproduct market That is while media companies produce one product they participate in separate goods and services markets 1 DualProduct Markets In the lst market the good may be a radio format a TV programme or a cable channel Content is targeted to consumers and consumption is measured in different ways 2nol market involves selling of advertising Advertising prices vary according to audience ratings As demand for advertising rises companies can charge higher prices to increase revenues and profits Geographic Markets In addition to operating in a dualproduct market electronic media companies operate in specific areas or geographic markets In US Federal Communications Commission FCC mandates makeup of each geographical market by granting licenses to specific areas markets ranked according to size of population served e ia Markets Major mkts 150 0 Medium mkts 51100 0 Small mkts above 100 10 In Singapore Media Markets IFileSingapnre Planning Reginn5png 11 Geographic Markets Potential audience is limited to geographic boundaries of market Defining a media market involves combining the product geographic aspects of market This process identifies a specific market in which a media firm offers some or all of its products to advertisers or consumers No of sellers in a particular market affected by characteristics of market Referred to as market structure Market Structure 0 Criteria that help identify market structure include Concentration in the market Product Differentiation Barriers to entry Cost structures P P S UNE Vertical integration 1 Concentration in the Market No of producerssellers in a market explains a great deal about degree of concentration in the market IVIarket considered concentrated if revenues are controlled by a limited no of companies 1 Concentration in the Market 0 Usually measured in 2 ways in media industry 1 Calculating share of market using ratings data reached by each competitor Ratings data can provide estimates of degree of buyer concentration in market 2 Calculating of revenues or sales controlled by Top 4 or 8 firms Also known as a concentration ratio 2 Product Differentiation Refers to perceived differences among products To establish differentiation radio stations r I mauve offer unique formats call letters and logos quotr ou Talkin onair personalities and websites P r i W I 39Iri3r THE Hi lE TV stations differentiate their local programming especially in the area of E jffjmimm News Broadcast networks and cable WM services distinguish themselves thru Hutsanimal individual programme schedules 3 Barriers to Entry Obstacles new sellers must overcome before they can enter a market In media barriers often take the form of capital investment Equipment personnel programming etc require huge financial investment Sometimes barriers to entry may involve regulatory policy 4 Cost Structures Expenses needed to create products in market Total costs represent a combination of fixed costs those needed to produce 1 unit of product and variable costs eg labour which depend on quantity produced Economies of scale refers to the decline in average cost that occurs as additional units of a product are created 4 Cost Structures Costs associated with producing a newscast for a TV station costs of staff equipment and other resources By expanding and repurposing the news operation can provide additional newscasts early morning midday late news throughout the day as well as repurpose content across different platforms This creates economies of scale I if V quot m q Hm y lmHM a r 39 Eg jir39ll JUNE E quot e 7 six1W Era 715 1 1 w L IIIJun ill Hail PHquot t 39t quot l n quot TI Tori 19 5 Vertical Integration Vertical integration occurs when a firm controls multiple aspects of the production distribution and exhibition of its products Eg lVIovie produced by Disney film studio may be scheduled on the ABC network or sold as package of films to cable networks Website for the film offers opportunities for merchandise marketing PICTURES Types of Market Structure 4 types of market structure 1 Monopoly Oligopoly lVIonopoIistic competition 99quot Perfect competition Types of Market Structure Can be graphically presented as a continuum Monopoly amp perfect competition at opposite ends and oligopoly and monopolistic competition in the middle Market Structure Cnntinuum Home Total 7 Granite r a w 39 i lei fem Hi i wl l m a r a 1 11 BLI j 39I Hi ni 11 I E Earmiaz m E WE 391 339 Many me Types of Market Structure In a monopoly a single seller of a product exists and dominates the market A true monopoly offers no clear substitute for product Barriers to entry are usually very high in such a structure Eg Starhub used to H w w monopolise Singa pore s ca ble TV in d u st ry u ntil a rrival of er he Singtel s IVIioTV Types of Market Structure An oligopoly market dominated by a few firms 3 or more that hold similar share Firms are interdependent and the actions of leading firm usually affect the others Eg Cinema exhibitors Golden Village Cathay Shaw Z4 Types of Market Structurww 3 Monopolistic Competition lVIany sellers offer similar products that are not perfect substitutes for one another Few barriers to entry each firm tries to differentiate its products to consumer through various methods including advertising promotion location service amp quality Eg Singapore magazine publishers 25 Types of Market Structure 0 Perfect Competition many sellers and a homogeneous product characterise the market No single firm dominates Barriers to entry do not exist and individual companies operates as price takers in that the market establishes the product price 0 Are there perfectly competitive market structure in the media 0 No there are no examples of a perfectly competitive market structure in the media Forces Affecting Markets Several forces have led to a state of chaos across the mass media industries during the 19905 and early into the 21St century The 5 converging areas driving much of the change are 1 Economic conditions Technological changes Regulatory Forces Global Forces Social Forces P P39PUEV 1 Economic Conditions 0 Economic factors that affect the general business cycle 0 As economic conditions fluctuate they impact consumers as well as businesses 0 Eg if retail sales drop significantly businesses may be forced to lower the amount of money spent on advertising 1 Economic Conditions 0 Key economic indicators include the rate of inflation employment trends retail sales changes in interest rates amp tax laws 0 Managers need to monitor the economic conditions of the markets in which they operate and be prepared to adapt to fluctuations in the cycle SPH J ta i roup SPH 0 t cu t A ti 1 0 Ap ril s pert th cementquots ces tseuttin drive t0 so with the eeenemic sio letdown The Business Times Friday 13 March 2009 I Pay cut to redUc stall cost has T Elli SHI I39IliIiHE SINGAPURE Press Hieltliegs SPIli yester day annenneeti staff pay ants and tease tines in pramrelated henuses that are ea eeetetl tel lesser the wag e hit far its ears hustnesses he sheet 2h ear sent The mean the latest eestneuttlng measure in nespense tn the sharp tieterieretinn in haste ness eentlitinnsf said the media greens whieh has alse institutes ether eest euttl g tneaseres hastening a reernitinent freeze end a seenetien in separating expenses We need he bring eur nests teen in the lane til a weaker nelstetisine ntlarltet anal entertain business ensireinneuh 39 saiti eSt39hl ehiiet39 teneentiee anti 1 mantles nay fer 3lltlti39 he eat by 2 1 l per cent The antea at set will depend en sash staff enrrent page petekege higher paid staff taking the haunts This will lead witlii a lti per eent set These earning Zslitlti er less 1will net have an nut in menthly pars by an estiated 0 SPH saitl that the wage reeisiene were eenelntieti alter with the tee uniens representing SPH entpleyees the Singa pese Press latelelings E39nteinyeesquot tJninn an the Singapere l ila tienal Unian sf tents nalistss SFH s subsidiaries will implement their wage sets which will ear ate herding tn their reseeeti39se situatinn Prelitarelateti stall henuses are else set in fella in line with a deeline in newspaper errez tss Here again seninr management will take the largest ireduetien step eeted he aheet 30 per east at their tats anneal retnnneratiem w in renegnitinn nil the seeri ne that the seepingress will he makings Still said it will grant special lease 39te attested lay the pay the nnrnher at itan grantest llJ E39Etll an the parentage at eat eat Fer the rst qijttarter ended Nee hill 2003i SPH39s net ere t fell 343 per sent tn iift ntilliem easing tn weaker advertising i theeme and a slump in hwestrnent earlie liet SPH shares cleared yesterday at 233 MEDIACORP TS TI 7 are of the most of th eoe was that those la ro a39oaatheclck servlces like news or raall take 5 BREAKING NEWS Home TUP ET39EIES SINGAPDEE ESE ASIA ASIA WURLD Horne 2 Breaking Hews 3 Singapore i Story Jan 1 EDD MediaCorp cuts costs Common leaye shorter worllt weellts among steps to ayoid layoffs By Robin Chan 3 Mr IShow pictured underlined yesterday just how serious the situation was 39Going 13 into the new fiscal 11 year we have to go even further in order quot M to keep the company afloat These are unusual times calling for unusual measures39 PHOTO ET MEDIl i giant MediaCorp is instituting a range of oostoutting measures including mandatory days off without pay to combat the slowdown and ayert job losses seven common la e pay over the nest Th is will allow aora to be halted alth l ow not spec Straitstimescom 10 Jan 2009 2 Technological Forces Electronic media industries are technologydriven utilising technology to meet demands of production distribution amp exhibition 1990s Transition from analog to digital encouraged integration amp convergence of PC telephone amp TV into 1 device This integration is referred to as convergence 2 Technological Forces Broadband the term used to indicate the transmission of digital content over highspeed high capacity networks that are seamlessly linked to the internet High Definition TV HDTV ushered in new era of TV production distribution amp exhibition Offers high quality images and interactive experiences With a host of portable media devices consumers are happy to watch video via their cell phone tablets MP3 player NEW CHANNELS oronhne W f 2 Technological Forces Today electronic media companies must think of themselves as multiplatform content providers Usergenerated content offers new alternatives to traditional content delivered by electronic media lVIedia managers must accept that technological change is a way of life and that they must keep their efforts centered on remaining competitive and efficient in operations 3 Regulatory Forces In 2000 the Singapore Government allowed broadcast monopoly lVIediaCorp and print monopoly SPH to cross over into each other s territories lVIediaCorp started TODAY newspaper which has about 700000 readers in Singapore today SPH started lVIediaWorks in 2001 at a cost of 50 million and by 2003 had run up a loss of 402 million In 2004 SPH and lVIediaCorp announced an agreement on merging the TV operations of the 2 companies 4 Global Forces Vedia industries produce goods and services that can be marketed around the globe The growth of trade blocks such as European Union EU NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement and numerous other agreements have opened up new markets for trade and commerce 4 Global Forces Unlike in international markets US markets are almost saturated 99 of all households have a radio and TV receiver 97 of all households have a telephone 70 of all households have a computer 68 of all households subscribe to cable In Singapore 4 Global Forces Regions outside of the US offer great opportunity for business expansion and development A number of media powers are emerging in regions such as North America Viacom TimeWarner Disney Western Europe Bertelsmann Pearson JapanPacific Rim Sony News Corp 5 Social Forces In terms of demography society is changing Population data indicate that American society is growing older as the large baby boom group approaches retirement age The US is experiencing an ethnic change as well 5 Social Forces The Latino population is the fastest growing minority group in the US surging past African Americans Interest and excitement about technology and lower costs have enabled more households to purchase computers and broadband internet access leading to a society that is very connected Individuals are using the internet for email e commerce surfing blogging etc Synergy Creating partnerships among media companies has become a standard practice of doing business These partnerships are designed to create the synergy possible between companies Synergy suggests that two different entities w will operate more efficiently as one business than separately 41 ALLIANCES amp PARTNERSHIP E dahal iai 1 nra Cmaar and NC Carnaaat and NE a a u Ulnraaraal dampadlala brana 3 Brand Harrnangr Cr Brand Niahtmare namaaar ia panda aaa arrnan r lady nan Uniaaraalu Tndgn rinaaa Tara aanan39rrn tranda anara a nrilar nancial ti i r rm aagarratranan ara anarr brand rdan lzrtraa aada Eda rar a n39raaanaarar hrnd hrt Ernaaar la a aatala araaadar Erna tna armanaan anlia afran aaaaairartaa and aalalra idai aar araararnar aanaaa and data Wanr E mmdn ta raaar nan a lariaaaating ntarda anarally anraa a far tnia dalaara naral aairtraa Fanatatian in tna LI 3 daa ta ita aa ar prararnrain an iaania aaaaala rrnaaa Enadtly draw and rnaaa irrarant arana raandla arna rnarad ragatnar an Earnaaar naurna MEI r an n Iaa rna rtl39aar any ara and r and 2 aa rnany Lrarnaaa aapana Lara dradriatrn a traa an Inna rna arnad Tana Wannar and a in aanrura L a a a a r 1 r 1 gt V L 39 r a r V L 1 r39 J 39 J 1 r L L J 444 r a ynurahanaa naat aarnrnant haakrnark 3 print auggaat tania Q racarnrnand 3 E arnail omnrernts Strategic Alliances amp the Media Industries Among media companies is a trend to create strategic alliances Strategic Alliance is defined as an association designed to provide benefits for each of its members Strategic Alliances amp the Media Industries IVIedia organisations benefit from strategic alliances in the following ways 1 Sharing capital and costs Provide access to new markets Increase shareholder value 99quot Reduce risks Strategic Alliances amp the Media Industries Forms of strategic alliances 1 Mergers and acquisitions 2 Joint ventures 3 Formal and informal cooperative ventures Strategic Alliances amp the Media Industries Alliances can be formed within industries intra industry or between industries interindustry In the US Consolidation in the radio industry since 1996 intraindustry Consolidation of AOLTime Warner inter industry Strategic Alliances amp the Media Industries Alliances can be formed within industries intra industry or between industries interindustry In S pore lVIediaCorp and SPH merged their loss making TV and newspaper operations in 2004 SPH gave up lVIediaWorks its TV arm to lVIediaCorp and take 20 stake for 20 million in a new company lVIediaCorp TV Holdings Strategic Alliances and the Media Industries SPH also closed tabloid quotStreatsquot and take a 40 stake in lVIediaCorp Press which published TODAY 49 Strategic Alliance Six broadcasters from Asia formed the Smart Alliance in March 2009 MediaCorp S pore ABSCBN Phi BBTVThaD Inter l Media Corp Viet Media Prima Mas Media Nusantara Citra Indon F K Yr Illr Wafh i 39 tight inuldi ngen as Ill r39l39li m ILam dflllllC signs the IlIIdU 33 2 as v l V V 397 Iii 39 A Smart a lanee de SUE Six llrnatllzasters rnimtttte radian tndnme tn halta linlIiinin saddle and a greasing middle class have Smart Allli anee Tlhe alliance spearheaded bar Medalan aims to mllalauatedn IIII39llme S l and meditating as 39i39l39Equot as tEElttldlnm39 Tll lE members are the F39hiliirl 39 ABE CBMTtnailandfs IEIBTt melIIam a Internaljdn39al Media dta dn that In driesia39s Malia Husanl ra Ilii39lalaars iafs Media P ma and Singapdre s IliiladiaEdrp is tdieamwhatalre thelpee timmxemaths ll liE El l r I l m m ud mean applyithatlt i1 Ililllal39a39glsi39a r sai39dllui tdtll Ratlimanr d1iefatadt eed il eer39aridglrmdnar girigldi reddrat Ili39ladia at thesi gding indud e um riglmgler rating and amines iriglcdntent asa regidnfll39he IsaWiEtstnipwill a39lsn helptaa centent dalmatian an d deter Ime triple by editing and ad39Limmas a grade Mr Lucas Elm Mediatldnpts IIIIEIIIll and d1ai lrrnani f II39IEEllli l39lt 39 steering arrl39niit39tee said Perhapis II39eian market ddlrcdntem r pmgmrnmes arid tn regidrl an39l advertisers as well as regidna39l media agencies and creative agenda The alliance hepes 13d ad39dllmdre 3 neat three LH a H N E L H E W 5 AE IA Wehannelh39lreeusaaeerr e dm 5 Strategic Alliances amp the Media Industries 0 For strategic alliances to succeed several things need to occur 1 The alliance must be in a complementary business 2 The companies must have similar business strategies 3 The companies need clear expectations and agreement about resources 4 The companies need to have compatible management styles Key Categories of Alliances E 1 Alliances to develop and market programming and content Companies are searching for partners to share production and distribution costs Alliances for Newsgathering User generated content has also become an important component of newsgathering Alliances to expand domestic and global markets By expanding markets alliance partners can increase brand loyalty for media products and capture a greater market share Key Categories of Alliances 4 Alliances to develop HD Radio The big challenge for HD radio is getting consumers to buy new receivers and working with automobile manufacturers to get HD radio as an included option in new vehicles 5 Alliances to develop wireless distribution Wifi It is the main driver behind partnerships to develop content eg Apps for handheld digital devices like smart phones and PDAs Key Categories of Alliances 6 Alliances to develop interactive TV Interactive TV will provide user the opportunity to engage in a variety of Webrelated activities eg shopping gaming etc while watching TV With the development of both a domestic and a global system of interactive broadband networks offering multiple distribution systems the potential for mediarelated businesses appears unlimited 54 Mergers and Acquisitions 0 With many of the huge media conglomerates merging concerns have been raised among citizen groups and regulators over such issues as concentration of ownership and the free exchange of ideas 55 Why So Many Mergers 39 Several factors have contributed to the large volume of media mergers and acquisitions since the 19805 Strategic Factors Financial Factors Convergence Valuation Ability to leverage content Tax advantages Barriers to new competitors Surplus of available capital Globalisation 56 Implications for Management The change among the media industry has several implications for the process of management As a result managers in all media industries should have the following traits Managerial knowledge of more than one industry The ability of to effectively in multitask Sensitivity toward balancing the needs of the marketplace and the public Implications for Management 0 Managers of all media will be affected by strategic alliances what is the impact on managers of radio TV and multichannel video systems 0 Radio 0 Television 0 lVIuItichanneI Video Systems cablesatellitetelcos TH E FILM IN Y WEEK 5 BM0620 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA INDUSTRY amp MANAGEMENT ALLTIME MOST EXPENSIVE MOVIES USD 1 Pirates of the Caribbean At World s End 300 million 960m 2 Tangled 260 million 560 million 3 SpiderMan 3 258 million 890 million 4 John Carter 250 million 282 million 5 Harry Potter amp HalfBlood Prince 250 million 933 million 6 Avatar 237 million 27 billion 7 The Dark Knight Rises 230 million 108 billion 8 Superman Returns 232 million 391 million 9 Quantum ofSoace 230 million 576 million 10 Pirates of the Caribbean Chest 225 million 1 billion 11 The Avengers 220 million 1511 billion ALLTIME BIGGEST BOX OFFICE uso Titanic 2185372302 1997 3 Marvel 5 The Avengers 1511757910 2012 4 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows 1328 111219 2011 Part 2 5 Transformers Dark of the Moon 1123746996 2011 6 The Lord of the Rings The Return of the 11199291521 2003 King 7 Skyfall 1108561013 2012 8 The Dark Knight Rises 1081041287 2012 9 Exiles of the Caribbean Dead Man 5 10661791725 2006 10 Toy Story 3 1063171911 2010 history and things won39t be tested Motion on Film Sequential photography lVIarey amp Muybridge 1877 Kinetoscope Thomas Edison 1888 William KL Dickson Perforated film Sprockets First kinetoscope parlor April 14 1894 in NYC Muybridge Sequential Photography Edison and Others Lumiere Brothers France 1895 Thomas Arnat s Vitascope USA Edison s premiere 1896 1 quot quot39e aquot e aquotiiii il 2 ii I Motion Picture Patents Co IVIPPC 1908 I Nickelodeon Arcades George lVI Ii s I A Trip to the Moon 1902 I First quotspecial effects feature I Used trick photography Edison and Others Edwin S Porter I Worked for Edison I The Great Train Robbery 1903 I 12 scenes dissolves action I Birth of classic storytelling Studio amp Spectacle Florence Lawrence Biograph One of the first film studios r I I Florence Lawrence quotThe Biograph Girl I first movie star to get screen credit L Studio System I Early studio method of hiring salaried stars amp production staff under exclusive contract I Promoting popular movie personalities to lure audience I Studios selected promising young actors and glamorise and create personas for them often inventing new names and even new backgrounds Studio amp Spectacle The Birth of a Nation 1915 I First featurelength film big budget spectacular by DW Griffith Noble and George Johnson 1916 I Narrative movies or race films for AfricanAmerican audience Josephine Baker Movies Become Big Business 5 Factors 1 From NY to Hollywood LA Harry Chandler LA Times owner sold land to woo producers from New York 2 Block Booking Theaters required to show package of films instead of single movies 3 United Artists 1919 aibanksPicfordCan and Griffith Douglas Fairbanks and DW Griffith I Independent studio amp distributor run by stars themselves 4 Early Self Regulation Hollywood scandals Roscoe Fatty Arbuckle case 1921 Desmond Taylor lVIurder 1922 Catholic Legion of Decency boycott Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association IVIPPDA William Harrison Hays Selfregulatory Sr Will Hays quotHays Office 1922 Oversaw movie content and stars behaviour MPPDA 1930 Production Code May not lower moral standard of viewers Proper standards of life Respect for law Vurder should not inspire imitation No excessive kissing embracing No shade of obscenity Modest dancing costumes Film displays seal of approval A EDDIE EUEEIR THE All ll dlli Di H Tl H h HD TALKINE his priming I nd I ll Ham quot1 a HM 1 mt Dm llmquot d h39 rag tl j Hm li39ln i iallllilli illillltllli 5 Arrival of Talkies 393 I d n quota The Vitaphone Preludes 1926 I 7 s h o rts wit h so u n d 39 Warner Bros and Western Electric JAzzslNGERquot39 The Jazz Singer 1927 39 AI Jolson 39 First featurelength talkie 39 Synchronized sound recording By 1933 talkies dominate completely w l 3939a mr u gnaw will HR yav uihcur Eat Wren l Rise of the Movie Moguls 19305 Big Five 23 of ticket sales I Warner Brothers I IVIetroGoldwinIVIayer I Paramount I RKO I 20th Century Fox Verticallyintegrated Owned production and distribution w IE P ro d u ct i o n quotst a b e s of st a rs dire ct 0 rs w L a writers and staff u Disney amp Depression 1929 was the great depression he made movies to cheer people up Steamboat Willie 1928 by Walt Disney I Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs 1937 I First fulllength animated feature The Depression I Bingo nights I Double features Labor unions 1937 I Screen Actors Guild I Screen Writer s Guild I Director s Guild The Golden Age Of Mvi l r M G M re ig n s s u p re m e 1 Blockbusters 39 I The Wizard of Oz 19 Musical Gone with the Wind 1939 Magnificent use of color Citizen Kane 1941 Orson Welles Voted the greatest film of all time U013903900gt eui Movies vs Television 19505 TV boom 4000 theaters closed WideScreen amp 3D lVIovies Cinemascope and stereophonic sound Changes in censorship 1952 lst Amendment protection extended to film Sex and violence added Spectaculars The Sound of Music Blockbuster hunt Movie themes changed to deal with topics that could not be handled by TV include sex violence and disturbing social issues eg Otto Preminger s Man with the Golden Arm dealt with drug abuse By 1968 the graphic portrayal of violence and sex in movies led the Motion Picture Association of America to establish a ratings system Although they fought hard to compete with TV movie studios also began to embrace TV a way to make money Movie Ratings IVIPAA Motion Pictures Association of America Vovie Ratings 1966 Designed to prevent censorship in the face of public criticism I G All ages I PG Parental guidance suggested I PG 13 Parents strongly cautioned to give guidance to children under 13 added later I R Restricted those under 17 must be accompanied by parent or guardian I NC17 No one under 17 admitted originally X Movie Studios Make Money From TV In 53 the TV networks switched from live to filmed production and movie studios became more active in producing programming In 55 Hollywood began releasing its own films to TV and by the late 605 the studios were making made forTV movies Today studios produce majority of primetime TV and many studios are owned by same companies that own TV stations w x j to make more money after in the theaters airplanes dvds quotIll I 39J Adapting To Technology Early 19805 movie industry convinced that home videotaping thru use of VCRs would ruin them Motion Picture Association of America fought legal battles to stop sale of home VCRs 1983 Supreme court ruled that video recording for private use was not an infringement of copyright Outcome of the Betamax case was that most families bought VCRs to record programmes but they also used them to play rented or purchased tapes which created a huge profit area for movie studios Adapting To Technology 0 By the time digital video discs DVDs were introduced in 1996 the movie industry saw them as a replacement for tapes and didn t resist as much When DVDs became recordable and people started downloading movies however the industry realised it had a problem Downloading from the Internet made it easy to pirate films and to distribute them illegally via file sharing programs In 2003 the movie industry declared war against file sharers To prevent widespread copying the movie companies decided to Encrypting DVDs so they couldn t be copied Distribute ads to dissuade people from downloading films Bring lawsuits against filesharing services such as Kazaa Hire private detectives to track those who put films online and assisted in crackdown on filesharers including raids on colleges Movie Downloading Lobby foreign govts to enforce int l copyright agreements Develop fingerprinting sys that encoded serial marks on every print of a film allowing enforcement teams to track down the theatres at which copies were made Work on alternate moviesondemand systems that would make it easier to pay for a download than to steal it Strike deals with cable TV and phone companies to download movies on demand rule has in pay local uiee dist39rihter and New Line Cinema 1 DUh39 fer seling pirated denies t The Lerf Rings an ethertitles Ethantin ILeh MEDIA lFiEPDHTEH FTER nearly we gears lecal aided Elise trihuter Alliance En tertainment Sings glare and Hellgwed s New Line Cinema have wen a ceurt case against lecal nidee retailen TS Green int selling take Wis at The Lerd it The Rings The Twe Tewers Dumb and Dumherer and Final Destinatien a statement released he Alliance Entertainment en Thursdaglr evening said that the judgment issued by the High Ceurt en Mandate tennd the Greup and its supplier Aglew Widen liahle fer cepyr39ight infringe client The principal efficers at the TS Green Mr Clement Len his wife Linda Keh and his hrether Tiger Lari tegethm at with the greens sales mau ager Jeseph Tehi were feund perennially liahle fer the fringement in additien te damages ter infringement eif ceegright Justice Tag Yang Kwang awnred punitive damages against the defendants e cause at the agrant nature at the infringement neted the statement Mr Tan Peh Lamr chief es ecutine eiiicer e f alliance Entertainment teld Lille that the punitise damages ameunt te alecut lllllrllhll thilliance had te under take a great deal at investigaa liens and te call an the suppert at New Line the tien Pictures Asseciatien at America as well as its part5 nets in Thailand in erder in grave its easel he said This was because TS Green managed in get the pi rated preducts passed hg the Singahere Beard e f Film Censers which presided the image at legitimach ea plained Mr Tan Elena Cahalani rice president at New Line Pre ductiena said in the Alliance statement This is a streng message In the territerg and the regien as a whale that all therised distrihnters wil Lir sne unantherised and illegal eagleitatien all New Line s pictures Greup else has te pay Alliance the quotrelits received item selling the fake lit39Cli39Jst as well as the legal tests This Respected te reach in escess ref thengh the final ameunt is still being calculati edl said Wang Hang the lawyer representing Alli ance centacted yesterday afterneen TS Green s Mr Teh said he was rushing fer time and ceuld enlI cem rnent en the matter next week Alliance Entertainment is the sale distrihnter ei aidees released by New Line Cine me which includes The Lerd Of The Rings trilegg In lulg Z lldi the TS Green started selling VC Ds at The Lard if The Rings The Twe Tewers and claimed that their gradients were legitimate par allel imparts manufactured en New Lineh Thai licensee Mangesage and hreught inte Singaeere he nglew lsided After Alliance and Line eh tained an injenctien against TS Green and Aglew hides distributing the the TS Green centinued te impart eddies threugh a new supplier Speedy ldidee Disi trihuters Pie This cerngang is net relate ed in Speedy Videe Distribu ters Sdn Ehda a majer Malays sian sided chain Agilew als centinued in hiring in New Line titles lihe Dumh and Dnrnherer and Final Destinatien 2 which re sulted in further injunctiens hreught against the cempany Alliance has alse started ether actiens in cenjnnctien with the Metien Pictures Ase seclatien at America against the TS Greup and hglew laided ier infringement ef ether titles in which Alliance helds eaclusiee rights The decisiens n titles such as Die Anether Dag Daredevil and The Matrix are still pending said Alliance s Tan SATURDAY 145200 39 1 39 werean w ffef f t0 send the re 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quot n i A 1 J l p 39I v 3939 r r 4 V n r n 39 5 c quotVJ1quot quot K 39 1 w w L 39 39 I 1quot I I I u l Adapting To New Media A Movie on Your TV at Home Before You Can Rent It 30 June 08 Sony Pictures hopedfor blockbuster Hancock starring Mr Smith as a bungling superhero hits theatres on Wednesday and will be available after its theatre run but before release on DVD over the Internet directly to viewers TV sets if they own a Sony Bravia TV with Web connection TH APE HERVEMZE Ahab THEM Ti EIERIE iL i Digital Technology In Production Early 1990s studios began to use computers for digital editing and special effects Disney s Toy Story 1995 first movie produced entirely on computers Today digital editing used in all Hollywood movies and many of them would be impossible to make without this technology eg The X Men Ironman 3 The Avengers Digital Technology In Distribution Studios also started digital distribution Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace was first to be digitally distributed to theatres in 1999 Studios can save big money Each film copy costs USS1500 plus shipping to 160000 screens worldwide Studios save billions each year if they no longer have to copy and ship film prints and can instead transmit them as electronic files through highspeed data links back then it was really expensive and when one movie was done the reel had to be moved to the next theatre but the cost to watch was significantly less Digital Technology In Distribution Digitally projected movies easier to use and advantageous for theatre owners In other ways To prepare for a 35mm film at today s multiplex employees must hysicall splice the film to the preview trailers t e night efore the first show By contrast to lorepare a movie for di ital projection an operator on y needs to select the ilm title and the accompanying trailers from a list on the computer and add them to the playlist for as many screens as warranted 39 WlHAii T LOK Pp IN A THEATRE my 1D i to i n e m d iquot Digital Technology In Exhibition U2 in first ever 30 eeneert beamed live to a cinema near you 0 Digital projection can also enable ssss theatres to show live events eg quot concertssporting events making them quotentertainment complexes rather than just movie houses Technically industry has been able to transmit and project movie images digitally for more than a decade The only thing holding back the conversion now is the argument between theatre owners and studios over who will pay for the equipment The Major Studios The Big Six Today Paramount Sony Warner Bros Disney 20th Century Fox and Universal take in 8090 of commercial film revenues Studios differ from studios of 1920519405 Still produce movies but no longer keep everyone under contract for long periods of time More likely to finance and distribute movies for independent producers Peter MorganReutersCorbis US Movie Business Today Geffen Katzenberg and Spielberg of Dreamworks now part of Viacom Major studios produce less than 20 moviesyr for each studio Investment Production Distribution Exhibition handled by many different parties A Most fragmented industry in mass media Horror is a big thing THE INDEPENDENTS CREATIVE FREEDOM Indies Independent films are those not made by theGmajor studios Usually made with lower budgets and rely less on stars and special effects but have more creative freedom than studio films PM ng quotuh a 39 llama quot 39 39 39 i quot 39 Quentin Terantino Disney s lVIiramax studio such as Kill Bill 2003 and Shakespeare in Love 1998 considered independent productions because they maintain the independent character lVIiramax developed before being bought by Disney Making Movie Money US107million is the average film cost 2 of 10 make money 39 Revenue from I Videos amp DVDs Q irni fneyfmm l w I Network amp Pay TV I ylllililllitlllt I Airline base campus W I Soundtrack albums I Books from scripts I Product placement I Video games I Internet downloads when39s the best time to rel singapore holidays school holidays amp CNY US summer blockbusters thanksgiving etc Today US film industry collects more than 80 of world s film revenues although it produces only around 15 of the world s films 39 r f 39 quot u 39 a I in 39n 39 I ha 39 39 V Vquot v 4 v x a gt quotE E h if KL J I 3 a V gr V 39539 r r r d r I v I Ly quot39 39139 quot v 77 l I V 7 AH Brazil China Japan and India Stakes have thriving film industries we movies At 800 films a year India than any produces more movies than other country any other country including even the US US The many professionals who make up the production team help make movie making one of the most expensive and least profitable of all media businesses The People In The Credits The Exec Producer finds financin and puts the package together inclu Ing story script stars and director Line Producers do daytoday work and are in demand if they can complete films on time and within budget Directors provide creative vision Usually involved in prepro pro and postpro phases Writer turns an idea into a script Scripts today are often written by committee One writer spIces up the humour another polishes the romance and another creates Marty Bowen Exec strong female characters Producer Twilight Saga amp Revenge The People In The Credits Studios still rely on big names to guarantee box office success but the star system is now controlled by agents managers and the stars themselves Editor creates the rhythm and pace of a film by choosing shots and placing them in sequence The editor for Francis Ford Coppola s Apocalypse Now 1979 edited 230 hrs of shots down to a finished film that ran 2 hrs 35 mins CinematographerDirector of Photography is in charge of the cameras and works with the director to set up shots The People In The Credits Art Director designs amp oversees set designs wardrobe makeup lighting and everything contributing to that look Continuity Supervisor makes sure that each day s shots match up Key Grip sees that the cameras are set up Gaffer is in charge of the lighting The gaffer s assistant is known as the Best Boy Motion Picture Marketing Windows Dumer Theatrlrl avers Theatricl Hume Madaquot Telerisian rum in US matters Utunlly liegnt several Usually lhree it till l39l39l l39llhli Anywhere lrtlm lhree ma lglll ltl l illWhElE ween tiller damaali39t tlller domestic relate manila lpypmiew in one weekend 15th Ebllfl sererl years syndlctllitml mnnlhusm tiller dumealit I39EIEEE Marketing windows opportunities to sell rent or license a movie to a specific type of purchaser Domestic Theatrical Domestic theatrical is the industry term for the release of movies to US theatres For this marketing window distributors and theatres negotiate release schedules length of run amount of lobby advertising and division of boxoffice receipts The box office split is typically 7030 in the first few weeks of the run with 70 going to distributor and 30 to the theatre owners Overseas Theatrical Box office revenues from Europe Latin America and Asia have become increasineg important Film studios now make more money from movie theatres in other countries than they do from those in the US 1997 was the first time that studios made more money from theatres in other countries than in the US Titanic earned more than 11 billion internationally in 1998 Once a distributor is interested in a film the two parties arrive at a distribution agreement based on one of 2 financial models 1 Le a n Leasing is a process by which a firm can obtain the use of a certain fixed assets 39 g for which it must pay a series of contractual periodic tax deductible payments 2 Profit sharing Movie Distribution When a distributor has leased a movie they will try to determine the for opening the movie There are 5 factors to consider Studio Target Audience big studio names male movies are always a hit more than a million dollars Tom Cruise Will Sta r pOWE r Smith Tom Hanks female Angelina Jolie Buzz P P39WN Season Art theatres no big stars but possible to make a somewhat hit of the movie Bigger the movie the better Art theatres show experimental and foreign films Majority of movies are shown in multiplexes which are theatres with multiple screening rooms Megatheatres are multiplexes with 16 or more screens and accommodations such as highfidelity sound systems stadiumstyle seats and cup holders GV Vivocity local directors usually have a contract with them because the theatre is so big they can have a gala premier Publicity and promotion is another part of the distribution business I Premiere parties I Reviewer screenings I Put stars on talk shows I Produce trailers I Display posters I Tieins with toys clothes music cereals amp video games Home Media DVD versions of movies have become extremely popular They are easy to use and contain a wealth of additional material DVD rental company NetFlix mailorder service allows customers to choose movie titles via Internet and have them delivered by regular mail 2010 watch instantly streaming service Apple iTunes movie rentals since 2008 Home Media Movie studios are also arranging legal downloading services to combat pirating Pirating often puts poorquality copies of movies on the streets before official studio release Because of pirating studios now release their DVDs 3 months after the movie s theatrical release a few years ago 12 months was standard Television TV sales of movies begin with payperview and quoton demand on cable and satellite services Movies sold to TV are edited to remove obscene dialogue and nudity to achieve proper length and to insert spaces for commercials After all original marketing windows are exploited the movie returns to the studio s library and becomes an asset that can generate profits forever Effects Of Movie Viewing similar with movies 1 Distortions of Reality 2 Violence 3 Stereotyping 1 Distortions Of Reality 0 Many critics worry that docu dramas fictional movies that dramatize reallife events distort reality and mislead audiences about historic facts One film JFK 1991 advanced an unproven theory about a conspiracy in the assassination of president JFK 2 Violence The movieviewing experience is an intense one which can lead to imitation especially in young people or troubled people of any age Worrisome when it comes to movie violence which has always been controversial egthe Kill Bill movies 3 Stereotyping Stereotyping of women and minorities has always been a problem in the movies Native Americans Italian Americans Hispanics and Muslim Americans Asians are stereotyped as intellectuals and martial arts experts while businessmen are always crooked and insensitive Movie producers respond that stereotypes are a timehonoured ingredient in story telling THJE FLW OF FIILMS Someone has an idea for a movie They create an outline and use it to promote i nte rest in th e id ea for people to come together A studio or independent investor decides to purchase rights to the film People are brought together to make the film screenwriter producer director cast crew The film is completed and sent to the studio The Flow Of Films The studio makes a licensing agreement with a distribution company The distribution company determines how many copies prints of the film to make The distribution company shows the movie to prospective buyers representing the theatres The buyers negotiate with the distribution company on which movies they wish to lease and the terms of the lease agreement The Flow Of Films 10 The prints are sent to the theatres a few days before the opening day 11 The theatre shows the movie for a specified number of weeks engagement 12 You buy a ticket and watch the movie 13 At the end of the engagement the theatre sends the print back to the distribution company and makes payment on the lease agreement QUESTIONS


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