Popular in Vikings
Popular in History
This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Victoria Lewis on Wednesday November 5, 2014. The Bundle belongs to HSTAM 370 at University of Washington taught by Leiren in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Vikings in History at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/05/14
Expansion Viking Ships gt Tune excavated in 1867 in SE Norway fragmentary original thought to be 70ft long clinkerbuilt gt Gokstad excavated in 1880 SE Norway sleek war ship clinker built 77ft long 16 17ft wide dated to 875CE around the end of the 9th century 16 pair of oars 32 holes oak tent on ship gt one male skeleton approx 60 yrs old gt found inside the tent gt maybe a chieftain mentioned in the sagas gt had all his personal effects with him as well gt Oseberg excavated in 19045 SE Norway likely ceremonial ship dated 834 CE gt carve decorations on it gt keel is only about 6 inches wide some what flattened hull 72ft long 16ft wide 16 pair of oars 32 car holes two female skeletons ages 50 amp 80 older woman had cancer contained numerous household items gt dishes buckets blanket embroidery scissors lamp axes 3 sledges 2 wagons 3 beds 15 horses 4 dogs 1 oxen gt sacrificed expensive item with many things gt very luxurious gt Skuldelev ships 16 found in Denmark s Roskilde Fjord date from middle years of 11th century different types found war ship traders cargo ships really played a role in Viking history Classes of the Rigsthula TH RALL Slaves 0 slavery existed in many societies in the ancient medieval and modern world Viking society was no different slaves were a trading commodity some captured in raids some were native the status of slaves varied but they were social outsiders slaves could be freed through a process of manumission o gulating law stipulates the process if a former slave wishes to conduct business He must provide a freedom feast in which the former master sits in the high seat Food and drive is stipulated For some years unspecified the former slave is thrymsum under obligation generally deferential o slaves are the bottom of the Totem Pole in Viking society they re born into their class made to work 0 could own land o but couldn t participate in political affairs Two laws that date from Viking age Norway 0 Frostating Law law of the Frosta Assembly central and northern Norway o states that a farm with 12 cows and 2 horses could have up to 3 slaves 0 Gulating Law law of the Gula Assembly western Norway o states that slaves have value but can own no property o killing a slave required restitution These laws were incorporated into a national law code when it was codified in 1274 by King Magnus VI Lawmender king of Sweden and Norway In Iceland if a slave is killed a payment of 8 oz of silver must be made 0 first settlers were slaves from Ireland In Sweden slaves could own land and goods and were permitted to do transact business at public markets KARL Farmers The Karlakyn class the first of which was Karl was the middle class of the society described in Rigsthula It is a dominant agricultural class with the names of the children of Karl reflecting aspects of an agricultural society sef sufficient and productive One of the children of Karl is FARMER BondeBondi o Bonde is a term used to describe an independent farmer working his own land An independent farmer who prepares the land for use is a husbandi from which we get our word husband The bonde could be owner of the farm or a renter All had status of freeman The right of ODELUDAL was associated with certain farms Odel land had restrictions which tied it to the family and it was held in generational trust for the family It could not be sold outside the family or in cases where it was family members had the rst right of refusal to buy it back One who rented was called a LEIGLENDING or a LANDBO Not mentioned in Rigsthula but still part of the broad middle class were Traders Merchants Lawmen or Lawspeakers Healers Priests they re practitioners rather than an organized clergymen Warriors and Vikings 0 runes are taught by Odin o how to use themread them I especially important for Healers women are usually healers JARL Aristocracy The JARL class the first of which was Jarl Earl is the upper class of the Viking society of the Rigsthula It begins with the birth of Jarl as a privileged son of Mother and Father He grows up with special training and skills Rig himself returned to mentor Jarl When Jarl had children the youngest of these was Kon Rigsthula describes special skills learned by Jarl and Kon These skill and personal attributes are the markers of chieftains kings and aristocrats and give them distinguished positions In Iceland there were no kings The distinguished men and chieftains were called GODI godi good one GODAR good ones Icelandic Lawspeakers were also considered distinguished men and important political leaders Viking age monarchs include Harald Fairhair late 9th century Norway Olaf Trygvasson late 10th century Norway 0 Christian Olaf Haraldsson early 11th century Later St Olaf Norway 0 Christian Harald Hardrade the Ruthless mid 11th century Norway 0 dies in 1066 0 Christian Harald Bluetooth late 10th century Jelling stone Denmark 0 converted to Christianity 0 made Denmark Christian Svein Forkbeard early 11th century Denmark amp England 0 also a Christian 0 killed his father 0 lead the Danish army against England and conquered it Knud the Great early 11th century Denmark amp England a ruler of the North Atlantic Olof Skotkonung early 11th century Sweden 0 first king of Sweden with evidence that he is actually THE king Guest Lecturer Baldr The Golden Boy of Norse Mythology Second son of Odin gt Thor is the 1st song gt perfect son beautiful gt occupies 10 of mythology Scandinavian History Periodization gt Old Stone Age Paleolithic gt Middle Stone AgeMesolithic gt New Stone AgeNeolithic gt Bronze Age gt Iron Age gt Celtic Iron Age gt Roman Iron Age gt Migration Period gt Vendel Period gt Viking Age gt Medieval gt Early Modern gt Modern Syncresis gt Syncretic relationship between Pagan faith tradition and the new Christianity Oseberg burial ship gt only can be buried in a ship it you re very wealthy Gods of the Hunt animals that represent power then they were worshiped gt Bull Moose gt Astral Bear Gods of Menace gt Loki gt Demonic spirits gt tricksterDemon Loki gt wied Localized Deities gt neck water sprite gt archaeological finds indicate sacrifices in bogs and swamps gt Scandinavian spirits of the household and fate the disir and nornor derive ultimately from ancestor worship gt a bride brought her ancestral spirits with her when she gets married gt saints are localized spirits gt parallel function between deities and saints Shamanism gt religious specialists gt marginalized ritual specialists consulted in a time of need Gods above gt Odin the Shaman gt Odin the Warrior gt Thor gt Loki gt Frey Yggdrasil gt world tree that unites all the worlds gt Astral gods gt Odin Tyr Frey Thor etc gt Vanir vs Aesir gt Norns gt sit at the base of Yggdrasil Baldr gt key gods goddesses events in the story gt Badr s dreams gt Frigg Loki Hod Badr s blind brother gt Hermod and Hel gt Funeral Badr s body burned on pyre gt Ragnarok Part 1 gt Ragnarok Part 2 gt Frigg went around to all the living things and made them swear that it won t harm Baldr gt Frigg thought the mistletoe was too young to make the oath gt Loki is angry that Baldr is getting all this attention gt tricks Frigg into revealing the information of the mistletoe by changing into a handmaiden gt Loki attaches the mistletoe to a spear gives it to the blind brother Baldr dies gt Baldr gets sent down to Hel not the same as hell gt Loki s punishment gt got changed into a salmon gt get s captured chained to a rock gt his wife has a pot catching the poison from the viper gt every time she turns away to empty the pot Loki screams in agony and that s how earthquakes come about gt after a time Baldr and Hod both get to come back gt renewed similar to Jesus Day to day religion practices gt Shaman blessings gt females has bless at home gt burnt offerings gt depends on what you are gt Odin philosopher or something gt Freya farmers Badr s death is supposed to be the end of days but he comes back gt everything is renewed gt Hod and Baldr come back reconciled gt changed the way things were ReligionMythology Continued Vanir Frey also known as Yngvi Frey gt god of fertility gt Skidbladnir ship gt transportation to the next world ship burials gt Gullinborsti boar gt mythical ancestor of the Swedish royal family gt main god of Sweden gt associated with the circle of life birth amp death Freya daughter of Njord sister of Frey gt goddess of fertilityof lovers gt still doesn t have the same important role as Frey does gt blesses lovers gt seen as an object of sexual desire gt Brisingamen shining necklace thought to represent the rising sun Njord gt Snorre says he rules over wind and sea as well as controlling fire Aid to seafarers and fishermen gt associated with earlier fertility deity Nerthus both cult deities which may have been one gt Njord name appears in coastal areas in Norway and Iceland inland areas in Sweden Aesir Odin gt Gungnir Spear gt made for him by dwarves gt Draupnir Ring gt gives him special powers gt Sleipnir Horse gt 8 legged horse gt run on earth and fly in the sky gt Hugin Memory amp Munin Speech Ravens gt known by many names gt god of the underworld war poetry etc gt ultimate hero gt own death was prophesied as well as other thing happening in the world gt still fights against it gt big on gaining information gt can be fickle gt can t trust him gt will trick a soldier so he can have him in his special army gt gave up one of his eyes for knowledge FriggFriggja gt wife and helpmate of Odin gt Friday is named after her gt her and Odin go to every living thing and make them swear that they won t harm Baldur gt didn t get the parasitic plant the mistletoe to get them to promise that it won t harm Baldur gt Loki finds out ThorT or gt Mjolnir Hammer gt known as the protector gt Strengthgiving belt gt girdle of might gt doubles his strength gt Iron Gauntlet gt Two Goats with Chariot gt giant of a god gt described as huge gt extremely sentimental naive warm hearted good intentions easily trickeddeceived gt described as a oaf gt more famousliked than Odin Baldur gt Odin and Frigg s perfect son gt seen kinda as Christ in the Christian view because of his perfection gt ideal for everyone gt the end of the world is heralded by the killing of Baldur gt resurrection gt Odin job is to make sure Baldur isn t killed Tyr gt sword god early warrior god gt found of Tuesday gt equivalent to Mars gt gives up his arm to capture the great wolf that threatens the world Heimdal gt guardian of Rainbow Bridge Bifrost gt gone around the world disguised as Rig created the 3 classes Bragi gt god of poetry Ull gt skillful skater archer god of duels Yggdrasil ReligionMythology Continued Hel gt Hell Midgard gt MiddleEarth gt Where we dwell gt There are lands of dwarves Elves Giants Asgard gt Land of the gods gt farm field closed place Norns gt Guards the well where the tree is nourished Spirits and Helpers gt DwarvesElves gt benevolent spirits closely associated with gods of fertility gt of earth origin gt often dwelled underground gt associated with the dead and cultivation of the soil gt helpers to gods and humans gt made Odin s spear gold etc gt dwarves seen as hostile to the Christians gt they created defenses against them gt built dragons to keep them away gt you might have to bribe them to do things for you but once they do they can do a lot of stuff for you gt Valkyries gt maidens of Odin gt held the power of fate gt led dead warriors to Valhalla gt they don t control fate gt the Norns do gt Disir gt term for female fertility goddesses gt Njord s wife Hel was a Disir gt daughter of a haf god halfgiant gt guardian of the underworld gt Norns gt shaped peope s fates control over destiny gt counseled the gods gt were present when people are born gt they determine the fate of the child born good or bad gt established laws gt Urd Fate Verdandi Being Skuld Necessity gt guards the wells of the tree Yggdrasil gt Volva gt a clairvoyant woman gt Voluspa Vova s prophecy gt foretells future gt soothsayer gt revered counselloradvisor gt advises Odin gives him a prophecy of the future Deities 2 families that make up the gods gt Vanir gt agricultural deities with whom Aesir come into conlfict Some Vanir accepted that Asgard Asgaard where all the gods live gt Main Vanir deities Frey god of fertility but is the dominant god Freya sister of Frey goddess of fertility but doesn t play the same role as Frey Njord gt the Germanic goddess Nerthus femaemother earth goddess etymologically identical to Njord male is mentioned as early as Tacitus 90CE Germania A female in early Germanic belief a male in the Viking age Fertility godgoddess in both instance with cults throughout the Viking world gt Aesir gt most important family of gods Predominantly gods of war and government gt Main Aesir deities Odin TorThor Tyr Heimdal Frigg and Loki half Aesirhalf giant gt Vanir and Aesir had a huge battle gt the ones that survived were welcomed into Asgaard
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