Midterm Lecture Notes
Midterm Lecture Notes BISC 1007
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Lecture 9 How food gets to your derriere Tuesday ctober 6 2 15 Common rxns AB9CD o Reactants to ma left 0 Products to ma right 0 A 39gt B C o Reactant A 0 Product B C AB C o Reactant A B 0 Product C Enzymatic rxns are crucial for digestion bc your system can t break anything down WO enzymeS Substances change during rxns this produces the products We need to speed up rxns irl ain t nobody got time to wait 0 They do this by making speci c proteins to speed up the rate of rxn o in cellular respiration energy is released breaking down C02 amp GLUCOSE allowing us to make ATP Glucose Oxygen gt C02 Water Structure of Enzymes End in quotasequot Need to be in a speci c 3D shape in order to function if the shape is destroyed it s nonfunctional 0 Cooking denatures proteins bc they can t work high temps You have 3 different genes for lactose if your gene is turned off you re intolerant the pocket where the reactant interactSdocks in enzyme 0 Substrate reactants bind to site 0 Products monomers Enzymes building up Anabolic 0 Have smaller components like monosacs Monosaccharides dock into active site of that enzyme lt physically changes shape aka quotinduced t This speeds up rxn by 10005 of timeS Metabolism Anabolic Catabolic Dehydration synthesis take away water Hydrolysis adding water Endergonic store energy Exergonic releases ATP Ex PhotosynthesiS Ex Cellular Respiration C02 gtgtgt Glucose Glucose gtgtgt C02 Polymers W ANABOLISM CATABOLISM Energy W 39 E a ADP 3 E66 ADP 3 Monomers Metabolic Pathway Series of rxns needed to get the end product Along the way there are intermediates 0 You have to go thru B amp C to get to D Certain enzymes work on certain reactants If you don t produce lactase enzyme you can t break down lactose into monomers 0 You39re intolerant So microbes break it down and you get diarrhea gas amp bloating White Chicks style your cells are smart and a lot of them are stationary minimizing distance btw substrate amp enzyme 0 Quicker rxn Nutrition amp Digestion We can t just absorb what s out there we need to digest it From mouth gtgt anus Epithelial cells play a big role in absorption Pepsin stomach o In an acidic environment 0 Unique enzyme bc it can work in a low pH others fall apart denature Digestion Usable nutrients l Absorption transportation Unabsorbablo in bloodstream material Molecules and ions l from nutrients IiIixf 731133 for maintenance quotHIGFQ39JIE and growth Elimination onwvumology 5 gm 271 w Norton a Company HK Carbs Fats Proteins Needs to be broken down Needs to be broken into Needs to be broken down into into monosaccharides monoglycerideSfatty acids Amino Acids Bc cholesterol is a fat it moves freely across the cell membrane LIKE DlSSOLVES LIKE Chemicai Physical 2934 Digestion Absorption Chemical Physical Digestion Absorption Chemicai Physical Month Salivary amylase amp mucus Taste buds Nose lnforms what enzymes to make later on Chocolate taste test if you plug your nose you can t taste it You can smell many more things than you can taste Teeth Tongue Soft amp Hard palate Salivary amylase digests starch If you let crackers sit on your tongue long enough it ll turn sweet NONE Esophagus food mover iducus Peristalsis wavelike contraction of smooth tube moves food in 1direction towards stomach Upper amp Lower sphincter muscles Upper shuts down to let peristalsis happen Lower doesn t always close causing acid re ux Epiglottis right before opening to esophagus Shuts off air pipe respiratory system so food doesn t go down the wrong pipe NONE NONE Stomach iducus HCl acidic conditions denature unfold proteins P Churns the food Made up of folds called quotrugaequot allows stomach to contort bathing it in HCl pepsin Pyloric Sphincter regulates food moving from stomach gt small intestine Digestion Absorption Chemical Physical Digestion Absorption Chemical Physical Digestion Absorption Chemical Proteins 10 happens here Amino acids amp alcohol absorbed here Why you eat more when you re drunk Helps you absorb better and compete with it Small intestine Water amp mucus come in to bathe food W buffer enzymes amp bile Long tube has villi amp micro villi AFolds that help food get absorbed Like peristalsis moves food in tube in 1 direction Proteins Polysaccharides carbs Big fats triglycerides Amino Acids Monosaccharide Fatty acids Cholesterol Minerals amp vitamins lt don t need to be digested Pancreas Produces enzymes the stomach needs to break down large substances Lipases lipid aka fat breakdown Proteases proteins Carbohydrases carbs starch glycogen Don t like acid so it uses a buffer to neutralize pH This lets enzymes function properly Phospholipids gt fatty acids Triglycerides gt fatty acids StarchGlycogen gt glucose Rule of thumb gt singular components LiverGallbladder Liver makes bile fat breakdown into single fats for lipase to take care of Physical Digestion Absorption Chemical Physical Digestion Absorption Bile starts the process pulls apart fatlipase digestSabsorbs what s left Gallbladder stores bile NONE NONE NONE Large intestine bducus Enzymes have already been deposited by pancreas Same structure as small intestine Villi microvilli Longer dynamic but shorter distance Anal sphincter releases everything Mutualistic microbes Break down lactose for ex which gives you gas Help produce monomers to be absorbed Produce vitamins Remaining enzymes from small intestine not much Vitamin production minerals Water reabsorption this is where diarrhea happens if you don t reabsorb 0 Fiber hangs on to fats and slowly releases sugars you ll feel fuller longertm Lecture 8 Fruit juices seem healthy bc they have bright veggies on the bottle Irl they39re excess in DV 750 ADEK are all fat soluble so if you have excess you have too much Vit A in your fat cells not good RUIe 0f thumb eatdrink amounts that are naturally occurring in veggiesfruits Sugar beets are the most common GMO crop 95 They make sugar Runner ups o Soybean 0 Corn 0 Canola o quotAused to feed animals Who makes GMOS 0 Made by Monsanto o Herbicide is used to protect plants 0 Reduces costs for farmers increases production 0 Harmful to us bc runoff affects nearby ecosystems o Increases costs to us consumers 0 Technique to protect plants from insects O quotBtquot protein is a naturally occurring protein that kills bugs 0 GMO bc now the plants kill em by itself quotthe runoff from these big guys pollutes the water and kills oyster population down to l Concerns WE DON39T KNOW definitively Health concerns 0 Correlation btw heart diseasediabetes etc and consumption of GMO products 0 recent V in peanut allergies Farming concerns 0 to insecticides 0 So thei have to develop new crops again and again 0 o Indebted to Monsanto bc of copyrightpatented shit 0 Runoff seeds are spread to them and claim plants 0 They need protective barriers if they39re located near GMO farms GMO uses Arguments 0 We can39t sustain the population with just organic farming o quot but we can39t even feed everyone like this We have enough food but people are still hungry o If we do organic farm and feed cowsanimals their natural grass there39d be more veggies for us humans to eat 0 Yes there39d be less meat around but more veggies Changing the Orgs of Your Food 0 Extracting and insertingmanipulating genes o REASONS TO CHANGE FOOD ORGS 1 Enhance colors W additives Salmon is usually white but that39s unappetizing so they add artificial colorpigment 2 Extend shelf life Preservatives Saves co 3 Supplement avors Add hydrolyzed protein increases umami aka quotmeatinessquot 4 improving texture Saves by using less eX ensive unsaturated fats Use hydrogenated oils the same as hydrolyzed protein American Horror Story Preservatives Gras Generally Recognized As Safe fed overnment classifies preservatives like this 0 Most target cells trying to i 0 When we consume a cell like that for eX fungi is most related to us it can firm our own cells 0 If we can kill mushroom cells we can kill our own cells 0 That39s why it39s so hard to get rid of athlete39s foot fungal warts etc Cholitis o Digestive issues 0 There39s a correlation btw eating preservatives amp cholitis High Fructose Corn Syrup 0 We take naturally occurring carbs in corn break it down convert it from glucose gtgt fructose 0 Instead of having an amount there39s a high amount o quothighquot fructose means the concentration of fructose is high af 0 Fructose is used bc it39s sweeter than glucose 0 New study showed Corn syrup ingestion leads to diabetes 0 You39re SUPPOSED to eat sugar in the levels it39s found in your organism 0 Your body is off whack when you drinkeat consistently high levels of corn syrup o This puts pressure on kidneys heart amp blood stream Organic Natural Relationship btw organism produced Not well regulated except Highly regulated 0 Meat Ecosystem approach 0 Poultry No irradiation irradiation kills 0 quotdon39t add growth hormones antibiotics germs Minimally processed Lecture 7 Vitamins 0 You only need a small amount Transport agents Help cells survive Protection Growth Renewal Help ran Metabolism Breaks down sugar amp fats to produce ATP 0 Vitamins organic molecules are either Water soluble Vitamin C amp B 8 types Fat soluble A de ciency blindness common in underdev countries only vitamin the body makes influenced evolution made up for loss of pigmentations when humans migrated to places W less sun exposure Atradeoff is more prone to skin cancer Wless pigmentation more Vit D If you re darker more protection against cancer but de cient in vD De ciencies have to do with cell maintenancemetabolism 1k Consuming energy drinks with high af levels of vitamins 1000 DV of C puts your kidneys on strain Vitamin supps when you re sick ok Vitamin Be is most common de ciency It s in charge of RBC production Liver detox Maintains neuronsbrain cells 0 Vitamins are antioxidants aka they break down free radicals Free rads happen when your high metabolism creates toxic by products Vitamins are autoimmune superstars This is why EmergenC helps you get over colds MINERALS 0 iron is most common de ciency Help maintain cells Oxygen is needed 0 Minor mins O Sodium Calcium Chlorine Amaintain balance 0 Trace mins lons Help with signals presence of lets muscles contract Needs iron present if it ain t there you re anemic Calcium in our bones you constantly chew up bonereplacing it so Ca needs to be there lodine Controls metabolic ran Controlled by thyroid If it ain t there you get goiter swollen thyroid Our source iodized salt seafood lron Hemoglobin for oxygen transport Anemia is more common in women bc Stress depression fatigue gt mental illness Fluoride Maintains good bacteria decreases bad Prevents tooth decay Keeps your enamel in shape Dw about the minerals table in ppt FOOD PRODUCTION 0 Bio technology Process of taking good genes and placing them into an animalcrop Ausually it s a gene the organism can produce on its own we re just giving it a boost lnsert gene into an organism so they express the gene Lets us cure genetic disease quotGene therapyquot Human insulin can be produced for ppl with diabetes lffy bc its hard to target the right tissue right time Hemoglobin goes in bone marrow if it gets put into the brain we got problems 0 Food supply Bigger Grow faster Higher yield Herbicidepestvirus resistant Sterile males Farmed salmon grows fast af big af Got growth hormone from a diff sh Oysters Grow faster Don t produce gametes so taste better FATS gt Unsaturated o 1 good 0 increases good 0 Decreases bad Saturated o 2 bad 0 increases bad 0 increases good Trans 0 BAD AF 0 increases bad 0 Decreases good Mall are phospholipids hydrophobic Look for quotpartially hydrogenated oilquot on food labels 0 Aka trans fat Cholesterol Different from blood cholesterol Hydrocarbon made up of 4 rings Essential part of your diet 0 Makes up your membrane 0 Produces important signals Sodium An ion essential for cell signaling Cell barrier Helps set up a difference in electricity in outinside of cell 0 This helps homeostasiscell info sending Carbohydrates Every polymer is made up of monomers Carbos made of polysaccarides this is many monosaccarides Hydrophilic Glucose amp fructose are most common Disaccharide 2 monosac s combined 0 Ex glucose fructose sucrose 0 Either removed to make a big sucrose 0 Added to break down sucrose into small parts of glucosefructose Polysaccharide large polymers made of many monosacs Sheet of monosaccs other polymers are branch like Cannot be broken downdigested Vvv good for you Starch Found in plants Stored energy for long term Lecture 6 Aka a bunch of glucose sugar Not usually listed on labels Regulates all nutrients sugar in bloodstream Stores energy for quick release 0 Most prevalent substance on earth bc its hard af to break down Found in plants cell walls Structural Found in fungi invertebrates for structural stuff Shrimp shells have it if you eat it bene ts digestion arch glycogen cclluloao chitn W g o o o o o o 3923 r Js o o o o o o m 13 0 o o o o o a greyg to 000 0g quot O Q Q 0 0 O o o o o o o Carbohydrates cont d whaddotheyd0 Cells 0 Energy production 0 Makes cells stick to each other like honey 0 Allow signals to stick to docking stations Body Eating ber v not 0 Feel satiated longer 0 Helps clean out your colon o Slows down absorption feel full longer PROTEINS whaddotheyd0 For cells o Storing stuff When you re malnourished calorie wise anorexic body taps into muscle atrophy Storage gt energy 4 calg 0 Structure Cytoskeleton scaffolding of cells Muscles have dense cytoskeleton to contract Can change shape so cells take on their shape Cell membrane Channel proteins tunnel thru the membrane Aquaphorine allows water to come inout of the cell Carrier Proteins o Literally move substances from 1 side to the other 0 Glucose needs these to move into cells to storerelease glycogen Transport 0 the medically measured one is not on the food label it s a huge complex of hydrophobic things Don t oat thru bloodstream are in charge of transporting fats HDL healthy High density lipoprotein Store fats in your liver Housekeeper of your fats Cleans up bloodstream of lingering fats if these are too low you weaken your body s ability to clear out fat LDL lousy Low density lipoprotein Delivers fats to cells that need it Can get so high they surpass demand of cells Aif that happens they clump into fat deposits in your bloodstream plaque Trans fats are culprits smh Clogs up arteries Catalysis 0 Breaking things down building them back up 0 Any substance that speeds up a rxn o Enzymes Are catalytic proteins Speed up rxns Defense 0 Antibodies proteins produced in response to a speci c invadersubstance to stop its effect Communication 0 How do you tell your body what s coming inout 0 Taste buds detect 5 substances Bitter Salty Sweet Umami Sour M if it detects sweet pancreas secretes enzymes to break down carbs Buds tell your body what enzyme to make 0 Insulinglycogen tell body when to store sugar v release it o Leptin amp ghrelin tells braindigestive system when to eatnot Gene regulation 0 DNA tells what proteins to make 0 Nutrition can in uence what genes turn onoff in general All are built from monomers called amino acids 0 V different from other macromolecules fats carbs etc cause they have 20 potential ingredients to make hundreds of proteins 0 Hydrophobic aminos These like fat Water opposing makes them suited for hydrophobic fat friends o Hydrophillic aminos These like water Grains tryptophan methionine valine threonin phenylalanine leucine Legumes lsoleucine lsyine Structure 0 3D structure needed to do their job PROTEINS Additional folding I stabilized by longdistance Interactions pulls the secondary structure Into i a compact throo l dlmonslonal shape l l Needs to be folded right to be functional 0 iron 4 protein chains need to be present in minerals o Airon folding way to remember Denaturation o quotPredigesting your foodquot 0 Destroys 3D protein shape aka unfolding o Caused by Low pH Heating up proteins can t work high temps Salt concentration BODY all color on us is caused by proteins 0 Nutrition in uences body colorspigmentation Proteins tell your body what proteins to make 0 Hairskineye color 0 Exposure to UV light produces more skin color gt more pigmentation Nucleic Acids o Combos of these make cells uniquel Make you YOU 0 Only 2 of our DNA is making proteins Everything else helps it turn onoff What you eat in uences this A 0 Your body doesn t produce enzymes until you eat VlTAMlNS in next lecture page Lecture 5 Fats Fatty acid types o Mono amp Polyunsaturated fats are best for you Unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in the straight chain Dynamic and energetic Like a bendable straW Liquid room temp Fish amp veggies 0 Saturated affects level of blood 0 Saturated fatty acids saturate the chain With hydrocarbon so it39s straight 0 Solid room temp 0 Animals sources amp tropical fruits TRANS ARE WORST o Hydrogenation adding hydrogen to cheap unsaturated fats to foods so they last longer 0 Become straight like saturated fats 0 Good fats gone bad 0 There39s a V correlation btW heart disease amp eating trans fat foods 0 There39s been an increase in heart disease since trans fats were around 0 More bad cholesterol 0 Decrease in good cholesterol 0 30 100K deaths ear 0000 0 What does Fat do in our 0 Cells 0 Make up cell membranes amp internal compartments 0 Signals 0 Energy production 0 Body 0 Energy aka heat 0 Cushioning o Insulation maintain body temp When it gets cold out Fats in cells important to membranes 0 Phospholipids are made up of 2 hydrophobic fats bonded to a hydrophilic head Wa phosphate group 0 When it39s eXposed to water phospholipids form a bilayer O Hydrophobic o Keeps things in amp out Triglycerides droplet of 3 fats 3 f atti acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule triglyc o Increases metabolism 0 More bang for your buck you get more out of fats than you do from carbs amp proteins 0 Deposited in the cytoplasm of cells o Lipids have more than 2X the energy of protein or carbs o Tri39s built from saturated fatty acids are 0 solid at room temp 0 aka fats o Tri39s built from unsaturated fatty acids are 0 Liquid room temp 0 aka Oils Fat tissues adipose 0 Brown 0 Heats up body thermoregulation o Lots of mitochondria White Stores amp informs body about when it needs to eatis done SIGNALING Lipolysis O Breakdown of lipids for energy Ketosis 0 When you have issues w the amount of energy molecules in your bloodstream o Lipids are broken down to accommodate for that quot 0 Common in diabetes Cholesterol 0 Sterols are a class of fats that have 4 hydrocarbon rings fused together 0 The ingredients on the 4 rings tell you what their function is o Testosterone estrogen Vitamin D 0 Important part of cell membrane 0 All manufactured from the stuff you eat 0 Cells use cholesterol to make other things 0 Stabilizes hos holipids at varying temps O i holds on to fats keeps them from getting away cooking oil 0 pushes fats apart so they go from liquid gt solid butter 0 Keeps cells from dying 0 Eggs grains are good for you bc they were intended to be off spring 0 They39re full of it proteins Vitamins amp minerals Steroids o Puberty 0 Hair 0 Fertility 0 Muscle mass 0 Abusers beware 0 Guys get boobs o Infertility o Acne 0 Rage 0 Anabolic steroids Sodium o All our cells needs ions to function o Ions atom With a charge Cellular 0 Important in cells bc it establishes a o Barrier gets things in and out o Signaling lets ions in 0 Muscle cells allovv calcium in so you can fleXXcontract o Neurons use this to extend signals Body 0 If you eat too much it39s hard to maintain homeostasis o Leads to o hypertension 0 cardiovascular disease 0 gtgtgtgt Cell death Bigger is Better 0 Dehydration synthesis 0 Removing water to make monomers Which form polymers 0 Monomers 0 Individual macromolecule units 0 Polymers 0 Many monomers make polymers 0 Repeated subunits 0 How are they linked WATER o Hydrolysis o Adding water 0 Breaking bonds in polymers gt to make single monomers 0 We can39t absorb the big things polysaccharide 0 We digest starch gtgt glucose Lecture 4 Why are animals so different 0 No cell wall 0 Has room for new shapessizes Not limited by walls 0 Has 2 major groups 0 Invertebrates O Vertebrates Molluscs o Really beneficial high in B vitamins good fats amp protein Bivalves O 2 shells Gastropods O Snails Cephalapods O Squid O Octopus O V advanced their eyes are structured better than ours Arthropods Bugs 0 Grabs crayfish lobster o Have hard outer shells exoskeleton bc chitin special sugar is a good fiber your body can39t break down Vertebrates Fish 0 Freshwater 39 Bony fish trout catfish o Saltwater 39 Cartilagenous shark ray 39 Bony mackerel salmon tuna o Vvvv good for you 0 High in good fats protein o Watch out for O Overfishing O Farmed fish 39 We get shipments from other countries which could have high levels of toxins Antibiotic use Isn39t as good for you Meat from Land Animals 0 Most meat consumed in 39Murica 0 Poultry 1005 0 Cattle O Swine 0 Sheep 0 Nutrition f aXX 0 High protein 0 High in bad fat 0 Minerals 0 Watch out for O OAFO39s concentrated animal feeding ops aka feedlots Antibiotics amp hormones are used here Animals don t eat their normal diet cows are fed corn to get fatter gi 93 of the be39Ef produced in the nned Stages is 39 i n eat feedlots 3 Nutrition Facts Labels decoded Elements in your bod 0 Oxygen has the most weight bc it makes up water 0 25 elements make you you o 4 most common 0 Oxygen 0 Carbon 0 Hydrogen o Nitrogen Chemical Building Blocks of Life 0 4 major classes of molecules are essential to life Fats Oarbs Proteins Nucleic acids Shape determines function 0 Hydrocarbons 0 Organic molecules have at least one of these bonds 0 Carbon w 4 Oarbons attached to it 0 Hydrophobic 0 Ex Methane o Fats 0 Fatty acids OOOOO Phospholipids 39 Triglycerides 0 Cholesterol 0 Hydrophobic Water hating Why oil amp Vinegar don39t mix Lecture 3 Food organic substances chemoautotrophs photoautotrophs C02 organic substances photo Cells Reproduce DNA Evolve lnout GrOWdevelop Energy environment A all connected by a Universal Common Ancestor A Eukaryotes o Much more compleX be has more energy to do things evolved many mitochondrions 0 Both plants amp animal cells have mitochondrion 0 They get big be they have more energy Protists o Algae 0 Not common in our diets but V important to other organisms O Phytoplankton O Zooplankton Plants 0 We eat things that eat plants 0 Mainly flowering plants make up our food 0 Green ones are photoautotrophs 0 We eat everything from root gtgtgt shoot 0 Root Plant circulatory system How plants get water amp mineralsfor photosynthesis to happen 0 Shoot Stem Leaves Flowers Mostly hermaphrodites don39t need a pollinator 39 Produced to attract pollinators amp seed dispersal animals Male parts quotstamenquot Filament Anther sperm produced here Female parts quotcarpelquot Stigma makes mucus to hold sperm in place 39 Style Ovary can have 1 or many ovules Ovules are location of eggs Fruit of seeds tell you how many ovules it had Simple fruit l flower 1 ovary Accessory fruit apples Dry fruit beans nuts Aggregate fruit l flower many ovaries raspberries Multiple fruit Multiple flowers fuse together Fused flowers pineapple Perform photosynthesis 39 taking light energy gt sugar Chloroplasts are essential in this process Stomata pores open amp close letting carbon dioxide in and oxygen out 39 002 moves to photosynthetic cells so pigments can convert light gt chemical energy 2 STAGES Photo stage When plant converts liht gtgt energy Photosystems in the chloroplasts do thiS Synthesis stage Calvin cycle NADPH ATP THE TWO STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthetic tissues What is light Photons packets of energy amp that move in wavelike motions Part of electromagnetic spectrum Measured in wavelengths Visible light is a v small portion of the spectrum This is what plants use to create organic material for the rest of us 0 000 Short wavelengths Crest Wavekngth Long wavelengths Gamma xtays Ultraviolet infrared Radquot FM 39rv Show AM VJ toys Mquot WJVQ 10 quot 1039 1039 1039 10 loquot 10quot 1 102 10 Wavelength motors 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm Wavolongth nanometers What are pigments 0 Color of an object is determined by the wavelengths it reflects O Absorbs light energy 0 radiates heat light 0 transforms into chemical energy 0 Most of What we see is a combo What do plants need to make food 1 Sunlight free happens during the day 2 Water amp minerals come from the roots 3 Carbon dioxide gentle balance stomata pores need to open to let 002 in 4 Pigments Key to producing sugars Chloroplasts Photosynthesis steps 1 Light reactions Photosystem light gtgtgt electrical gtgtgt chemical energy Antennae CompleXRxn Center Accessory pigments are here Acan39t convert light gt electric energy on their own so they accessorize Bring light energy to the rxn center Chlorophyll a converts the energy into an excited electron electricity 0 Passes it on to the Electron Transport Chain Electron Transport Chain Chain where the electron s energy is harnessed In the end we have a conversion of light gt chemical energy ATP NADPH are productS PROBLEM Lost electron You need to replace the electron that was lost or you ll have nothing left to excite SOLUTION oxygen is produced 0 The system rips an electron from water creating Oxygen as a byproduct o The plant doesn t need O PRODUCTS ATP amp NADPH 0 Both are extremely valuable to US 0 You need ATP every second Key Energy CarrierS ATP amp NADPH carry store amp deliver it 0 Receive 0 Store 0 Deliver Chemical carrier ATP Electron carrier aka taxi cabs for electrons Deliver electricity to energize rxns Ultimately the universe moves towards chaos amp expansion 0 We wanna keep it under control organized 0 We need to input energy to maintain it M 0 Like putting fuel in your car you get what you put into it ATP quotT Pquot means triphosphate It has 3 phosphates and it releases phosphate 0 Stores energy in bonds 0 M phosphate allows energy to be transferred NADPH quotPquot stands for photosynthesis o Delivers electricity energy to the rxn to make sugar NADH amp FADH2 work in cellular respiration 1 Dark Rxns taking an inorganic substance and making it organic aka Calvin cycle 0 it s a cycle bc you start and end at the same spot RuBP 394 step process Carbon xation RuBP enzyme speeds up the rxn allowing C02 to stick onto an existing organic molecule Energize sugar unstable molecule gets energized thru ATP donating a phosphate group NADPH donates electrons Sugar exits Recycle RuBP You end up with a stable sugar The RuBP is recycled to be used again The only relationship not in our biome is COMPETITIVE We have 0 Mutualistic bacteria in our gut o Commensalistic o Pathogensparasites Bread cheeses beer wine Largest organism in the world V strong cells V large organisms o threadlike substances 0 span huge lengths bc they39re thread like Mushrooms spores seeds that pop out of the ground for reproduction 0 Need animals to take them to other places to avoid competition 0 Aseed dispersal Decomposers 0 Break down dead or dying organic matter Aimportant bc lots of nutrients are hidden there fungi recycle that stuff 0 Single or multicellular Chemoheterotrophs like us except they secrete stuff instead of having a digestive tract o Chitin v cool carb We can t break it down so it s a good source of ber Metabolism 0 Can switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration o Undergo anaerobic cellular respiration fermentation Bread amp beer Produce ethanol C02 o Aerobic cellular respiration made possible by mitochondria Current events Half of all adult Americans have Type 2 diabetes Correlation btw antibiotic use amp diabetes A WHAT CAUSES LEAVES TO CHANGE COLORS The pigments to appear different since there is less sunlight What causes leaves to fall 2 All about metabolism amp energy Deciduous trees 0 Changing season temperature cause it to go into hibernation o Shuts down leaf production like animals do to reduce metabolic requirement Lecture 2 Parasitism V common Basically everyone has disease causing pathogens inside them but good bacteria attack them from attacking you Commensalism 1 benefits other is unharmed 0 Ex Whales With barnacles on their underbelly that don39t harm them Mutualism positive both ways In our body 0 Gut inhabitants from mouth gt anus 0 Seed dismrsal we rely on animals to spread seeds so our population is genetically diverse amp Widespread O Pollinator bees pollinate crops to provide us food Microbiome all organisms that live in symbiotic relationships with humanS 0 Changes constantly 0 Think about the organisms you39re feeding every time you eat something It affects them 0 Affects o Digestionabsorption we produce enzymes to digest things we can39t break down on our own 0 immune system o Warns your body When bad things come from the outside o Allergies o Autoimmune diseases 0 General defense I 0 Development autism possibly caused by c section deliveries o Microbes in the anus vaginal delivery are different from the skin39s microbiome in mom39s stomach o StreSSpSyCh issues are linked to microbiome Amphibiosis 2 biomes organisms shift relationship to another organism Switch hitters o Transitions btW your normal type of species species interaction 0 Commensalism gt exploitation o This is because of changes in environment Trophism movement of food from one organism to another 0 Producers make food 0 Consumers eat food FOOD ability to create WHO MAKES FOOD WHO EATS IT Autotrophs Chemo prokaryotes Photo prokaryotes protists plants Heterotrophs Photo prokaryotes Chemo plants fungi protists animals HUMANS CHEMOHETEROTROPHS 0 Can t make own food 0 Consumes org substances Nutritional strategieS Energy source Carbon source Light energy photo Inorganic auto Ex Carbon dioxide Chemical energy chemo Organic hetero o Population change over time 0 Doesn39t work on an individual level 0 Many mechanisms Mutation Gene ow Genetic drift Natural selection 0000 Prokaryotes Single celled Simple structurefunction membrane uid DNA ribosomes o Archaea live in stream environments we don t interact with them that much 0 Bacteria more common to US Extracellular pathogens multiply outside Produce a substance that causes harm imbalance in our normal ora ex streptococcus aka strep throat lntracellular pathogens multiply inside the cell can survive Produces a substance that causes harm Kills the cell causing it to burst Atosis self destruct button for infected cell5 Toxins Endotoxins structural lipopolysaccharides Exotoxins evolved as a defense proteinS A lot of what makes us sick is not what antibiotics can treat Common foodborne pathogens Undercooked meat Unpasteurized milk Un ltered tap water Carnivals not highly regulated food svc Contamination From the kitchen cooks etc Tightly con ned spacesl 0 Factory farms disease spreads among close proximity cows 0 Cruises 0 Hospitals lots of sick ppl in one place 0 Buffets How to prevent iJJness Cooking Salting Pickling Drying Being clean Good bacteria Yogurt eat when you get sick 0 Buy live active cultures type Cheese Pickling Lecture 1 Think of food as an organism and you39ll eat healthierwith more awareness Ecosystems all living and non living factors in one area 0 quotYou39re not alonequot your body is full of living microbesorganisms that are affected when you eat Unique when it comes to nutrition you are quotuniquequot as an ecosystem not just your DNA COMMONALITY ACROSS THE UNIVERSE Abiotic ingredients Chemical stuff I Nonliving things I Elements brought together to make complex Atoms are made of smaller but substances unstable parts Where did life originate O Started small 0 Through different chemical reactions atoms were put together 0 Organic 1 hydrogen atom 2 carbon atoms hydrocarbon H HCH H Biotic ingredients living within organisms Organic molecules Proteins Nucleic acids Fats Proteins Carbohydrates 000000 What organisms need to do 0 Create a barrier Everything on earth that we consider living has a cell membrane Membrane separates it from the outside world 0 Inheritance 39 Nucleic acid DNA is passed downcopied to offspring 0 Make new sex In bio sex exchanging DNA Reproduction gtgtgtgt sexual mixing or asexual cloning 0 Get info 39 Detecting amp responding to environment 39 Getting food avoiding predators etc 0 Power humans rely on chemical energy to maintain cells Some orgs need light energy photoautotrophics 0 Become an adult growth 39 Even if you39re a tiny prokaryotic cell you need to mature Humans start from one cell and mature O Sustain 39 HomEOStaSiS aka keeping your internal environment in check 0 Change evolving over time 39 Because of DNA Population adjusts over time Accidental mutation Natural selection if Know how we got to be so complex the ingredients Prokaryotic Cell 0 Single celled orgs 39 Bacteria microbes etc 0 Have cell membrane wall DNA to make protein Eukaryotic Cells YOU are a YOUkaryotic cell All humans are 0 Complex organization 0 Labor division 0 High energy more efficient at extracting energy so they can be bigger multice ular Mitochondria are energy producers Symbiosis 0 Not always beneficial 0 Interaction btw 2 organisms that Live inonaround one another Competition 0 Negative all around 0 No one benefits 0 Both s ecies are harmed bc they share a niche O gtgtgt both are better off without the other existin ltltlt Niche 0 All the abiOtiC nonliving amp biOtiC living needs of a speciespopulation needed to survive and reproduce FOOD PRODUCTION 0 There39s lots of competition btw species of corn etc so farmers use antibiotics amp pesticides to get higher yield sell more produce 0 Farmers use antibiotics to Keep cows healthy they39re in close living proximity so if one gets sick it39s game over for the majority T Antibiotics fatten you up US obesity rates amp antibiotic dosages support this
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