Unit 3 Notes
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Unit 3 Sociology 030915 Threats to Democracy The Economy the social institution responsible for organizing the production distribution and consumption of goods and services c 2 economic models capitalism and socialism Four factors that made the economy a distinct social institution Agriculturaltechnology Job specialization Permanent settlements Trade Capitalism an economic system where the natural resources and the means of producing goods and services is privately owned Three distinct features Private ownership of property Key concept of capitalism Pursuit of personal pro t Simply a quotmatter of doing businessquot Competition and consumer sovereignty The quotinvisible handquot is at work so leave the market alone Socialism an economic system where the natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned Three distinct features Collective ownership of property Limits the right to private property Pursuit of collective goals for society Pursuit of pro ts stand at odds depending on what society needs Government control of the economy Centrally controlled economy Consumers should not drive economy Capitalism vs Socialism Capitalism Economic productivity GDP is 1350000 Economic quality more income disparity Overall wellbeing a higher quality of life but greater disparities Personal freedoms are the heart of a capitalistic system need creative forces Socialism Economic productivity GDP is 500000 Economic quality less income disparity Overall wellbeing lower standards of living but less disparity Personal freedoms stress is placed upon freedom from basic needs Mixed Economies economic system that combines capitalism and socialism Welfare capitalism an economic and political system that combines a mostly marketbased economy with extensive social welfare programs State Capitalism an economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government Capitalist nations regulate economic relations to protect consumers With severe economic downturn starting in late 2008 US government took more active role Government officials decided that some companies were quottoo big to failquot Most people willing to accept actions to minimize negative impacts of economic downturn n their lives Politics and Government Politics the social institution that distributes power sets a society s agenda and makes decisions Power the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others Force In uence Authority Government a formal organization that directs the political life of a society Authority Power People Perceive As Legitimate Not Coercive Traditional power legitimized through respect for long established cultural patterns Rationallegal power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations Charismatic power legitimized through extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience Routinization of charisma the transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority 031115 Evolution of Political Systems 0 Hunting and Gathering Like family specialized roles Agrarian Societies Sma elite gaining power some tribes that were better at farming had greater wealth as a result you have a small elite who tends to govern these societies 0 Political States Restricted governing Modern NationStates Modern technology brought about largerscale political systems referred to as nationstates Monarchy Absolute monarchy Ruers monopolizing power based on divine right using religion as a tool to claim that their god has decided to put them in power Modern example Saudi Arabia 0 Constitutional Monarchies Modernday monarchies More gurehead than ruler Poitica principles rule Eected officials actually rule Modern Examples Great Britain The Netherlands Sweden Fascism pronounced fashisim o Nationalist can be racist ethnocentric AntiCommunistAntiSocialist Authoritarian opposite of democratic Eg political government controls lran elections Eg Saudi Arabia A political system that denies popular participation in government Rejects equality o Expansionistlmperialism Positive view on use of violence Mass militarization of society 0 Stress on Masculinity o AntiIntellectual Indoctrination eg book burning Democracy 0 Type of political system that gives power to the people as a whole 0 Representative democracy Puts authority in the hands of elected leaders Probem 13 million workers in federal bureaucracies are never elected The US is not truly democratic Extensive use of unelected bureaucratic officials Probem rich people have more political power The rich can input more in the political system than the working class Democracy Index Indicators Electoral process Functioning of government US democracy has been adversely affected by a deepening of the polarization of the political scene and political brinkmanship Political participation 575 of eligible voters participated in 2012 364 of eligible voters participated in 2014 lowest since WWII Political culture Civil liberties eg freedom of speech freedom of religion right to judicial process Majority rule must be combined with guarantees of individual human rights and the rights of minorities The Power of Money Lobbying the efforts of special interest groups and their representatives to in uence gov t officials More than 12000 lobbyists work to in uence the Fed Gov t Special Interest Groups Poitica alliance of people interested in some economic or social issue NRA national ri e association AARP AA retirement P ACLU American Civil Liberties Union Political Action Committees PACs Organizations formed by special interest groups ndependent of political parties To pursue political aims by raising and spending money In 2000 more than 90 of people who had more money for campaigns won 31315 The Democratic Ideal Democracies rely upon the participation of fully informed individuals in selecting leaders Fully informed publics rely on 1 free and independent press 2 academic community engaged in unfettered research 3 open and critical discussions of all issues 4 ability of the public to openly and freely discuss issues and challenge leadership Becoming More Democratic from an article called quotWhat Me Votequot this guy says we can do this stuff to become more democratic U39lbUUNH parliamentary systems election days as holidays mandatory voting law voter registration single federal voting law Becoming more democratic quotWhat Me votequot Freeman 2003 Parliamentary system Election days as holidays Puerto rico Mandatory voting by law Voter registration Single federal voting law Campaign Reform Act 2002 AKA McCainFeingold bill Limited individual gifts to 2000 each to political candidates in any primary or general election Individuals can give no more than 95000 in total gifts A ceiling of 37500 political parties 75000 to all political parties PACs can give no more than 5000 to a candidate and 15000 to any one political party with no overall limit Citizens United v Federal Election Commission 2010 Gov t cannot impose limits on nancial contributions Allowed for Super PACs organizations that raise money on behalf of candidates Power in the United States Who Rules Functionalist Puraist perspective Con ict Power elite perspective Business dominance perspective Structuraist perspective Robert Dahl Pluralism The US is a democratic nation Power is egually distributed No one group is politically dominant Severa Veto groups that compete to win support The rise of a multitude of veto groups has neutralized the historical power of wealth The federal government acts neutral Acts as a mediator which sooths con ict in the best interests of all C Wright Mills The Power Elite 1 The US is not a democracy Corporate Rich Direct participation in government Campaign Contributions Military Leaders Poitica and economic preeminence started during WWII Executive Branch Reign over an immense bureaucratic network Presidential office and cabinet agencies have progressively expanded in size and importance The Power Elite No segment of the elite dominate Frequent interchange of personnel between the elite segments Top corporate executives tapped for key appointments l the executive branch Retiring generals often enter key offices in business and industry The ease of movement is a visible indication of the closeness of the power elite Eroding Public Involvement The power elite manipulates members of US society through careful orchestration of the mass media the major means by which people nd out what is going on Serious political discussion and controversy is minimized by Seective censorship of information Limiting the realm of national debate Emphasizing entertainment over messages that inform The Business Dominance Perspective Emphasizes the powerwielding capabilities of the wealthy and their representatives 0 Social upper class rules 0 Despite a ruling class the US is still democratic o Clevages within the ruling class 0 Attend the same private schools Eite universities Social clubs and resorts Parties and balls 32 315 The Mass Media Impersonal Communications aimed at a vast audience Televisions in the untied states 0 98 of households have at least one Q 66 of households subscribe to cable Television 0 Hours of viewing television 0 Average household 7 hours per day 0 Almost half of their free time 0 Children average 5 12 hours per day Television movies video games News 0 Journalism 0 The business or practice of producing and disseminating information about contemporary affairs of general public interest and importance 0 The function of journalism is communication 0 News is the product of the journalistic activity of publicizing 0 News is produced by a set of organizations we call quot the pressquot or quot The news mediaquot Media 0 Traditional News Media 0 Newspapers new magazines networks televisions and radio news programs 0 News Hole 0 The amount of space that is available for a new story relative to other demands for the same space 0 Competition for shrinking news spaces pressures journalists to simplify and sensationalize to ensure the story gets printed 0 Social Media 0 The use of webbased technologies and mobile applications for personal interactions 0 Including use of web 20 platforms that allow for creating and sharing user generated content What you know depends on what you watch 0 Such as Fox 0 NPR News create questions Nationwide Survey Media Practice Frames 0 Patterns of interpretation that people use to organize their understanding of reality 0 Media Frames 0 The central organizing themes that connect different semantic elements of a news story Headlines quotes leads visual representations and narrative structure into a coherent whole to suggest what is at issue 0 Gatekeeping Q The role of editors and media manager in deciding to cover or not cover certain news stories Newsworthiness Q The ability of news stories to attract readers or viewers Q Prominence timeliness proximity impact magnitude con ict oddity and emotional impact Claims making and agendas Trying to draw public attention to a social issue requires agenda access 0 In other words getting claims onto various agendas 0 News media getting CNN coverage 0 Political Congressional hearing Media Bias 0 News is not a mirror of reality o It is a representation of the world and all representations are selective Journalist editors and media executives make decisions about what to present as news and how to present it 0 Ex Executives choose whether to publish a letter from a terrorist or to conceal information that might bear on national security 0 The process of selecting what the reader involves not just objective facts but subjective judgments personal values and prejudices The very purpose of the opinion columnist or the editorial page is to interpret analyze and persuade 32 515 Social factors impacting frame access 0 Media selection bias selective reporting of eventsframes Cultura resonances Corporate hegemony Reying on authority as sources Focusing events Cultural Resonances Cultural resonances Gameson and Modigliani 1989 aka narrative delity Snow and Benford 1988 Cutura ideology Famiiar cutura themes Ex Economic progress in the US democracy is best In order to gain prominence in the media sphere an issue has to be cast in terms which resonate with existing and widely held cutura concepts Discussion of issues by the mass media are in uenced by shared cutura preoccupations and problem de nitions often t with cultural concerns Ex Anthropocentricism The belief that nature exists solely for the bene t of humans Corporate Hegemony Ross 0 Corporate Hegemony Many news companies driven by pro t Reiant upon advertisers and consumers Newspapers make the lions share of their income typically around 80not from subscriptions but from advertising revenue Pressure form advertisers is a major source of potential constraint on news judgement In 2001 survey of 118 television news directors 53 acknowledged that advertisers had pressured them to run positive stories or to kill or spike negative ones Seection of news does not threaten corporate interests man 2002 If a newspaper is owned by the same conglomerate that owns a lm production company can you trust that newspaper s lm reviews of its parent company productions Newspapers generay rate quantitatively by of stars Findings Consider who the lm critics are working for In 1983 90 of US media was owned by 50 companies In 2012 90 05 US media is controlled by 6 media giants Comcast newscorp Disney Viacom time warner and CBS Relying on authority as news sources Much of the quotpower of the pressquot is exercised not by news institutions themselves but by the sources that feed them information quotNews represents who are the authorized knowers and what are their authorized versions of realityquot Leon Sigal Most of these authorized knowers are government of cials scientists scholars Stephen Hess found in a study of Washington correspondents that reporters use no documents apart from press realeases in the preparation of 34 of their stories World Press Freedom Index 2015 Reporters without borders ranks the US at 49th 2014 was marked by judicial harassment of New York Times reporterjames Risen in connection with the trial ofjeffrey Sterling a former CIA officer charged under the Espionage Act with giving him classi ed information US journalists are still not protected by a federal shield law that would guarantee their right not to name their sources or reveal other con dential information about their work At least 15 journalists were arrested during clashes between police and demonstrators protesting against Michael Brown s fatal shooting by a police of ce in Ferguson Missouri Focusing Events An incident that quotdraws attention to some conditions more than to others kingdom 1984 206quot Also known as quottriggering eventsquot and quotinformation shocksquot Provide a window of opportunity for social movements Ex Fukushima nuclear disaster 32 715 Advertising Pressure 0 A 2007 Pew Research Center survey showed concerns about advertisers pressures 46 of local journalists thought that advertising concerns in uenced news organizations decisions about what stories to cover or emphasize quota great dealquot or quotfair amountquot TV reporters perceptions of advertiser pressures had the greatest in uence on news content and coverage decisions Colistra 2014 Effects of Media Exposure on Violence 0 Survey of 5147 fth graders and their parents in 3 US metropolitan areas 0 Examine associations between children s exposure to violence in television lm video games and music Childreported media violence exposure was associated with physical aggression 0 There was a signi cant positive interaction between media time and media violence for video games and music But not for television Comparing Media Systems 0 Analysis of the media systems of 18 western democracies the US Canada and most of Western Europe Geographically coherent areas 0 Identi cation of three basic models of political communication based on four dimensions Development of media markets Poitica parallelism Development of journalistic professionalism Degree and nature of state intervention NB Heterogeneity Heterogeneity means differences between all models Comparing Media Systems 1 Polarized Pluralist Model 0 Mediterranean area of Southern Europe 0 Low levels of newspaper circulation and journalistic professionalization 0 High levels of political parallelism and state intervention Weaker development of commercial media 2 Democratic Corporatist Model 0 Central and Northern Europe 0 High levels of all four dimensions 0 Historical coexistence of commercial mediamedia tied to social and political groups 3 Liberal Model 0 North Atlantic Region and UK US Canada UK 0 Medium levels of newspaper circulation Commercial newspapers dominate Strong role of the market 0 Strong professionalization Low levels of parallelism except UK and state intervention Media in Liberal Democracies Media are primarily private businesses Primacy of press freedom 0 Regulation by legal system Media in welfare state democracies Media are social institutions 0 State is responsible Collective goals pluralism democracy racial harmony national culture and language Regulated by government Theones Propaganda Model 0 Hypodermiclndoctrination model The media inject ideas into a passive and defenseless public ex nazi o Criticism Historian George Moss writes that public opinion during Vietnam in uenced television coverage of the war more than television in uenced public opinion TwoStep Flow Katz s and Lazarsfeld The idea that quotopinion leadersquot mediate decisively between mass communicators and audiences Criticism Neglects the role of media in shaping the agenda and framing events Gitlin 1978 Uses and Grati cations On the contrary people aren t passive consumers but are active seekers of media 0 We often pick where we get our news based on politicalcultural beliefs 0 News media provide information TV programs provide entertainment 0 Four primary needs for participating in groups within Facebook Socializing Entertainment Self status seeking And information 33015 and 040115 War An organized armed con ict between nations or organized groups The US has participated in more than 200 wars peacekeeping missions and other assorted armed con ict owNI I Department of quot Defensequot DOD The federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military Causes of war Perceived Threats Cultural and Religious differences Political Objectives Moral Objectives Wealth power and Global standing Social Problems Absence of Alternatives Prior to WWII Did not routinely maintain large numbers of uniformed personnel During WW1 resources were mobilized as needed War industries were largely converted back to peacetime operations The Rise of the War Machine At the end of WWII the war machine was not wholly dismantled Fear that demobilization and industrial conversion would lead to another depression Corporations and generals worked to protect weapons equipment and supply contracts The Communist Threat The cold war Economic and political struggle between the west and the soviet union US elites saw the Soviet Union as constituting a political and military threat Spread of society domination Eastern Europe as evidencefall of China in 1949 Socialism as a threat to capitalist interests Cold War Containment Foreign aid Limited Warfare Korean War Vietnam War Counterinsurgency warfare 1953 ClA organized overthrow of Iranian Government Guatemala Indonega Bay of pigs Cuba Chile First strike Nuclear deterrent strategically positioned to contain the USSR The Military Industrial complex Costs of war O O O 0 Economic Human Costs Deaths Wounded Homeless Psychological issues PTSD Economic Costs of Militarism US defense budget was 649 Billion in 2014 2066 per citizen Billions more not counted Operations of secret intelligence agencies Missile Development Nuclear weapons manufacturing Wars destroy infrastructure Airports Homesect US has spend 66 Billion on rebuilding Iraq US has spent 100 Billion on rebuilding Afghanistan Iraq War has cost the US 17 Trillion War in Afghanistan has cost the US 1 Trillion Civilian Casualties Iraq War 136663 154606 documented civilian deaths from violence War in Afghanistan At least 21000 Afghan Civilians killed The wounded 32226 Americans wounded in Iraq 52000 Americans wounded in Afghanistan 250000 Iraqi injuries Since 2009 29971 civilians injured in Afghanistan Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Results from trauma or stress in battle Nightmares difficulty sleeping and concentrating ashbacks jumpiness and hyper alertness guilt of surviving and feeling of detachment from people 11 of veterans of war in Afghanistan 20 of Iraq war veterans Homeless Veterans Mostly males 8 are females About 12 of the adult homeless population are veterans Almost 50000 veterans are homeless on any given nights 51 of individuals homeless veterans have disabilities 50 have serious mental illness 70have substance abuse problems The Military Industrial Complex Tight association and job movement among the military defense industries and the federal government O O O 0 President Dwight Eisenhower saw the MIC as a threat to democracy The US is the largest arms exporter Consists of several components Uniformed military Aerospace defense industry Civilian national security managers The us congress The Uniformed Military Air Force Army Navy and Marine Corps are under the DOD Compete for new responsibilities and resources Brief Congress and request funds for budgets The Aerospace Defense Industry 25000 to 30000 primary contractors 50000 subcontractors Pentagon Capitalism The special relationship between the department and its contractors Contracts do not require competition Demand is guaranteed assured pro ts In 2002 the DOD awarders 1708 Billion in prime contracts Over 1072 Billion 628 went to 100 US corporations and their subsidiaries The Community of Interest The military and defense industry often circulate personnel Executives from the aerospace defense industry often move into important positions in the DOD Military officers often retire and move into positions in the industry Con ict of interest 40315 Operation III Wind 0 Three year investigation by the FBI 19861988 0 Defense contractors bribed top DOD Civilian staff members to steer prime defense contracts their way 9 government officials convicted 42 private consultants and corporate executives 7 corporations were convicted National Security Managers 0 White house executives in the DOD and other agencies Dep Of state and CIA 70 of 91 individuals who held key posts between 19401967 were from big business or high nance 0 Yet business interest are not always the sole consideration in the process of formulating policy The Militarized Congress Lone authority with power to appropriate funds for US military Billions of dollars are given every year Most legislatures approve most of funds requested Many uniformed in the face of military authorities Some own stock in aerospacedefense rms DOD money is often money for statedistrict bases procurement contracts and employment for constituents The Post Cold War Era Collapse of Soviet Union led to military cuts Rogue nations like Iraq Iran and North Korea were positioned as threats Nuclear proliferation Spread of nuclear weapons to additional nations Only the US Russia UK France China lsreal India Pakistan and North Korea have nukes 17270 nuclear weapons worldwide 4400 are operational Most are thousands of times more powerful than the ones dropped in Japan just a few of these nuclear bombs dropped at one time might trigger a nuclear winter Terrorism 911 positioned lslamist terrorism as the new threat Terrorism Acts of violence used as a strategy to gain political objectives Aways includes violence against civilian populations for political ends lncude bombings hijackings and assassinations See violence as a legitimate response to injustice Focuses world attention on their issues and demands 28 terrorist organizations operate from 18 nations In 2013 there were more than 9700 terrorist attacks worldwide killing 17891 16 were American civilians Caused injury to more than 32000 people Half of all attacks took place in Iraq Pakistan State sponsored terrorism When a government provides money weapons and training to terrorists who engage in violence Ex Taliban supporting Al Qaeda ran Cuba Sudan and Syria have sponsored terrorism One ma s terrorist is another mans freedom ghter Blowback The violent unintended consequences of a covert operation that are suffered by the civilian population of the aggressor government Blowback Al Qaeda In 1979 Soviets invaded Afghanistan Saudis and other Arab states funded the Afghan mujahedeen US contributed military support By 1982 the jihad was receiving 600 million in US aid per year During the early years Osama bin Laden raised funds for the mujahedeen cause Why They Hate Us Bin Laden turned against the US when King Fahd called in international troops to be based in Saudi Arabia after Iraq s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 Veteran jihadists rst fought the US in Somalia in 1992 1998 created the International lslamic Front against Jews and Crusaders Support for Israel over Palestinians and other Arabs Since it began in 1962 American military aid to Israel has amounted to nearly 100 billion For the past decades the United States has been regularly transferring aid of about 3 billion annually Terrorism in the US KKK lynchings of more than 5000 black men Industrial Workers of the World IWW Fuerzas Armadas de Liberacion Nacional 197419805 World Trade Center Bombing 1993 Oklahoma City Bombing 1995 911 attacks 2001
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