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Review Paper 1 and Complete Outline

by: Jacob Decker

Review Paper 1 and Complete Outline NSC 495

Marketplace > Michigan State University > NSC 495 > Review Paper 1 and Complete Outline
Jacob Decker
GPA 3.71
Capstone in Human Biology (W)
R. Snider

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This is my completed review paper (4 pages long) with the completed outline for reference.
Capstone in Human Biology (W)
R. Snider
75 ?




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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Jacob Decker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to NSC 495 at Michigan State University taught by R. Snider in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views.

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Date Created: 10/11/15
William Decker Section 3 Comorbidity of COPD and Tuberculosis Introduction 0 Tuberculosis O Mycobacterium tuberculosis attack site symptoms 0 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD 0 Chronic in ammatory lung disease causation 0 This paper Will discuss What factors play an important role in the relationship between Tuberculosis COPD and Vitamin D Deficiency VDD m 0 Statistical analysis exemplifying the cases of COPD and Tuberculosis in patients With a history of VDD 0 Prenatal factors 0 COPD l Tobacco Smoking socioeconomic states toxic air molecules 0 Tuberculosis 39 Socioeconomic status 0 VDD 39 Genes 39 Sunlight 0 Demographic information of those developing COPD andor Tuberculosis 0 Africa 0 Sweden 0 Mortality riskdata analysis of those Who have COPD andor Tuberculosis 0 Combined With other illnesses comorbidity O Concern With comorbidity among those illnesses Conclusion 0 How each condition and its data correspond to the others 0 Other plausible comorbidities With stated conditions 0 Cardiovascularcerebrovascular disease 0 Lund cancer 0 Diabetes 0 Treatmentsprevention William Decker Section 3 Primgrv Sources Divo M Cote C Torres J Casanova C Marin J PintoPlata V Zulueta J Cabrera C Zagaceta J Hunninghake G Celli B et al Comorbidities and Risk of Mortality in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease httpWWWncbinlmnihgovproxy1 clmsuedupubmed26374280 Inghammar M Ekbom A Engstrom G Ljungberg B Romanus V Lofdahl CG et al 2010 COPD and the Risk of Tuberculosis A PopulationB ased Cohort Study PLoS ONE 54 e10138 httpjournalsplosorgplosonearticleid101371journalpone0010138 Tibebeselassie S Nolle N Lambert C Nohr D Biesalski H et al Vitamin D deficiencies among Tuberculosis patients in Africa A systemic reVieW Nutrition 3110 12041212 httpWWWsciencedirectcomproxy1clmsuedusciencearticlepiiS089990071500218 William Decker Section 3 Comorbidities of COPD and Tuberculosis Introduction Respiratory health has been in the spotlight regarding the ways multiple respiratory diseases can be dangerously associated It is not uncommon for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD to possess other medical conditions termed comorbidities COPD is a progressive disease that makes it difficult to breath efficiently and can be a result of two things environmental factors and the patient s genetic inheritance ie polygenic in ammatory vulnerability Tuberculosis TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which usually attacks the lungs but can also attack the kidney brain or spine The symptoms of TB include a severe cough chest pain fatigue fever and no appetite This paper will discuss what factors play an important role in the relationship between tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease m When observing the cases of COPD and TB there are many different prenatal factors that can play an important role in the development of each condition Tobacco smoking genetic inheritance socioeconomic status and even other respiratory diseases can be associated with TB and COPD There have been multiple studies performed to explain the relationship between COPD and TB as well as the related prenatal factors contributing to these respiratory diseases Inghammer provides statistical evidence in his study on a Swedish hospital inpatient registrar n115867 that COPD can greatly increase one s chance of being diagnosed with TB In this populationbased study comprised of 115000 COPD patients we show that individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis have a threefold increase of developing active TB compared William Decker Section 3 to the general population mainly due to an excess risk of pulmonary TB Anghammer et al 2010 More importantly they found that patients with COPD have double the chance of death within one year after being diagnosed with TB In Brunet s article 2010 he explains Current estimates of tobacco smoking rates are 49 for men and 8 for women in low and middleincome countries and 37 for men and 21 for women in highincome countries Tobacco smoking rates are at an all time high and this issue is of great concern for tobacco smokers are effectively increasing their chances of contracting TB by nearly 2fold To be brief smoking tobacco affects the mucosal surface defenses cilia agella circulating immune cells and local immune cells neutrophils and macrophages Brunet et al 2010 Vitamin D deficiency is another interesting factor that relates to both COPD and TB Increased catabolism by glucocorticoids lower storage capacity in muscles or fat reduced food intake reduced capacity for vitamin D synthesis in aging skin impaired activation because of renal dysfunction and reduced sun exposure and outdoor activity in COPD patients may all contribute to a vitamin D deficiency J anssens 2009 It is interesting to note that COPD may in effect cause a reduced vitamin D level because this deficiency has also been found to be in relation with tuberculosis In Tibebeselassie s systemic review on vitamin D deficiencies among TB patients in Africa reports showed that 963 of patients with TB had vitamin D insufficiency and 889 of patients with TB had VDD The definition of serum vitamin D status was severe deficient and insufficient when the concentration of 25hydroxyvitamin OHD was 25 50 and S75 nmolL respectively We can also analyze the role that demographics possibly play in the development of TB from Tibebeselassie s systemic review The experiment William Decker Section 3 was performed in Africa where the population has a known shortage of food Malnutrition is an obvious cause of vitamin D deficiency as we can observe from the patients in the study Comorbidity of other diseases with TB and COPD can also have an extreme effect on a person s overall health as well as society Brunet goes on in his article to say that even without the high rates of tobacco smoking in COPDT B patients malnutrition overcrowding and indoor biomass fuel usage and HIV are driving the TB epidemic The multitude of infections associated with HIV infection particularly TB and pneumonia are likely to be exacerbated by smoking especially if the accelerated form of COPD further impairs pulmonary immunity to infection Brunet 2010 In addition to HIV we are all faced with the looming possibility H5N1 avian In uenza and H1N1 swine In uenza outbreak The risk of contracting these respiratory diseases is dramatically increased in cases of TB and COPD for one disease can dramatically affect one s immune system and lower the person s ability to fight infectious bacteria Brunet 2010 TrezgmentPrevention Treatments for COPD include bronchodilators which relaxes the muscles around your airways to allow for easier breathing pulmonary rehabilitation oxygen therapy pneumococcal vaccine lung size reduction surgery and lung transplant Prevention of COPD is explanatory stay away from toxic molecules in the air fumes dust secondhand smoke and quitting smoking tobacco For treatment of a latent tuberculosis infection usually only one TB drug is required Active tuberculosis however will require multiple TB drugs at once especially if it is a drug resistant strain The TB drugs for treatment include Isoniazid Rifampin Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide If you have TB stay home in a wellventilated room Tuberculosis is very William Decker Section 3 contagious and you do not want to risk infecting the public resulting in an outbreak To avoid contracting TB you can wear a mask over your mouth and nose wash your hands frequently and get the Bacille CalmetteGuerin BCG vaccine Conclusion It is more than evident that the two respiratory diseases chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tuberculosis can be medically related Whether smoking tobacco a vitamin D deficiency socioeconomic status demographics or the comorbidity of another infection it is evident that these respiratory diseases converge together with TB and COPD to form an issue we should all be concerned with There have been other plausible comorbidities mentioned in the referenced articles that may contribute to the diagnosis of COPDT B Although there was no statistical evidence or primary research to support it a few authors mentioned the possibility of cardiovascularcerebrovascular disease lung cancer and diabetes also being related to COPD and TB The respiratory system is undoubtedly one of the most important bodily functions for humans and it is for this reason that we should be more concerned with the comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tuberculosis There are numerous different factors relating these two respiratory diseases and the combination of these can be extremely lethal Although there is a vaccine and drug treatment for tuberculosis there is no cure for COPD other than slowing the progression of the disease Society as a whole should emphasize the importance of respiratory health and the prevention of those diseases as well as encourage future research for possible treatments or cures William Decker Section 3 References Brunet L van ZylSmit et al The Convergence of Global Smoking COPD Tuberculosis HIV and Respiratory Infection Epidemics 2010 10 1016j idC 2010 04012 Divo M Cote C Torres J Casanova C Marin J PintoPlata V Zulueta J Cabrera C Zagaceta J Hunninghake G Celli B et al Comorbidities and Risk of Mortality in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease httpWWWncbinlmnihgovproxy1 clmsuedupubmed26374280 Inghammar M Ekbom A Engstrom G Ljungberg B Romanus V Lofdahl CG et al 2010 COPD and the Risk of Tuberculosis A PopulationB ased Cohort Study PLoS ONE 54 e10138 httpjournalsplosorgplosonearticleid101371journalpone0010138 Tibebeselassie S Nolle N Lambert C Nohr D Biesalski H et al Vitamin D deficiencies among Tuberculosis patients in Africa A systemic review Nutrition 3110 12041212 httpWWWsciencedirectcomproxy1clmsuedusciencearticlepiiS089990071500218 X Wim J anssens An Lehouck Claudia Carremans et a1 quotVitamin D Beyond Bones in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseasequot American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 179 No 8 2009 pp 630636 DOI 101164rccm2008101576PP William Decker Section 3


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