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Date Created: 10/11/15
IAH 202 Day 2 Notes Guns germs and steel 0 What historical question does Jared Diamond set out to answer What is the root of all power How Pizarro defeated the Incas Basic routes of power shift towards the Europeans especially starting around 1500 Why do some civilizations strive while some plunder What does he conclude Geography favors some civilizations and the fertile crescent which allowed some people to not spend their whole lives farming This way cities could develop What evidence does he present Horses and all of the domestic animals are from Eurasia lnca was not as developed as the Spaniards they haven t even developed a form of writing by the 1500 s In your opinion is his argument persuasive Why or why not Yes I do because he provides supportive evidence What were a couple of the major transformations in human society he identi es Animal domestication Buildup of immunities to diseases The Incas had never seen people on horses What are some criticisms of his argument If he is saying it s all geography then are you not including the fact that Atahualpa decided to not arm all of his men to battle the Spaniards Does he think cultural differences are the root cause of inequality IAH 202 Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections 0 Portuguese Exploration 0 Originally for shing 0 Land hunger 0 Acquisition of land to plant sugarcane The lure of trade 0 Maritime routes to Asia 0 Silk roads more dangerous 0 Asian spices 0 African gold ivory slaves o Missionary Efforts o Franciscans and Dominicans 0 Violent efforts with crusades 0 Main religion in Europe at this time was Catholicism The technology of exploration 0 Navigational instruments Magnetic compass Used square sails combined with triangular sails European ships were able to go out further into the ocean 0 Knowledge of winds and currents Portuguese breakthroughs 0 Prince henry of Portugalwest coast of Africa 0 1488 bartolomeu dias rounds cape of good hope at the southern tip of Africa Ends up turning around because of bad storms o Vasco da gama reaches india by this route 1498 He said he wanted Christians and spices when questioned upon arrival Took about ten months to make this voyage Christopher Columbus 0 Believed earth was smaller Thought that earth was 17k nautical miles but its circumference is actually 25k 0 Fernando and Isabel of spain underwrite voyage 0 Bahamas cuba and Hispaniola Hemispheric links 0 Columbus tries three times never reaches asia 0 But by early 16th century several powers follow Circumnavigation of the globe o Ferdinand Magellan s eet He was actually killed in a global dispute 0 Spanish support to circumnavigate globe in 15191522 0 Portuguese establishment of tradingpost empires 0 Portuguese rst to set up trading posts 0 Not to conquer territories rather to charge duties English and Dutch Trading Posts 0 Rival parallel trading networks 0 English concentrate on Indian trade India will become a direct colony of the english 0 Dutch in cape town southern paci c Modern day Indonesia Exploration of the paci c 0 Spanish build phillippinesmexico trade route Phillipines were named after phillip the second of spain 0 English and Russians look for northwest passage to asia The trading companies 0 Advantage of dutch and English 0 Privately owned ships with government support Empowered with right to engage in trade build posts even make war They will both eventually result in take over Indonesia English founded in 1600 Dutch founded in 1602 o Experienced immediate nancial success European conquests in southeast asia 0 Spanish conquer phillipines name the king phillip II Manila becomes major port city Dutch concentrate on spice trade in indonesia No central government before the Spanish came Policies in the phillipines were focused on trade and the conversion to Christianity The Columbian exchange 0 Global diffusion Plants and crops Animals Human populations Disease pathogens 0 These have devastating consequences for the indigenous populations Epidemic diseases and population decline 0 Smallpox This is the main killer o No prior exposure to these diseases in western hemisphere or oceania Food crops and animals 0 Columbian exchange increases overall food supply 0 Introduction of European animals to Americans 0 COO 0000 Horses cattle pigs chickens 0 Introduction of American foods to Europe asia Africa 0 Human population movements 0 Enslaved Africans 0 European pioneers To nd new land New Worlds The Americas 0 Colliding worlds 0 Spanish mariners meet indigenous TainosArawaks Lived in small villages 0 Columbus uses Hispaniola Haiti and the Dominican Republic as base for trading with Tainos 0 Original plan was to build forts and trading posts Disappointed that Tainos had no spices and silk Recruit locals to mine gold instead Encomienda forced labor This system gave the Spanish the right to make the indigenous work for them There s not a lot of gold so there was a shift to mining for silver and agriculture 0 From mining to plantation Agriculture 0 Smallpox epidemics begin in 1518 Tainos society disappeared in the middle of the 16th century 0 Limited gold production causes new interest in exploiting Caribbean for sugarcane production Massive deaths through smallpox epidemic which in turn brings in a large number of African slaves to replace workers different labor source Conquest of Mexico 0 Spanish conquerors conquistadores explore other territories Cortez bene ted from making alliances with the indigenous population 0 Hernan Cortes and about 450 men bring down Aztec empire in Mexico 15191521 0 Cortez forms a new colony named New Spain Conquest of Peru 0 Francisco Pizarro and 600 men bring down Inca empire in Peru 15321533 Took the capital by 1533 0 Role of smallpox is also important 0 Spanish colonial administration 0 Not result of imperial policy but inspired greater efforts to expand Spanish empire 0 Spanish administration based in New Spain Mexico and New Castile Peru extend to Florida and Buenos Aires By 1570 it had established formal rule under the Spanish crown 0 They moved the capital of New Castile to the coast 0 o The courts conducted a review of their performance at the end of their term 0 Mining in the Spanish Empire O 0000 0 Hunt for gold and silver Gold not extensive Silver relatively plentiful Fifth reserved for crown quinto hugely pro table North of Mexico and the highlands of the Andes mountains is where a lot of silver is Each native village was forced to send 17 of their male population to work for 4 month They had to work all week long high death rates Merchants from Europe used silver to trade for silk and other resources 0 The Hacienda 0000 O 0 Large estates Encomienda system of utilizing native labor force Rampant abuses Gradually replaces by debt patronage Peasants repay loans with cheap labor Landowners coud advance but there was this constant system ofdebt People would ee as much as possible Women driven to prostitution Spanish priests would seduce the wives of native men 0 Portuguese Brazil 0 O 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divided entire nonchristian world between Spain and Portugal At the time it wasn t known that there was a part of south America that extended out farther west Portugal claims brazil Litte interest at rst but increases as other imperial powers take noUce Exploited for sugarcane production Spanish empire focused on silver mining Portugal focused on sugarcane production Portuguese would rely on imported African Labor Largescale importation of slaves beings in 15805 0 510 dying annually because of harsh conditions Continual importation of slaves Natives would debate on Portuguese forces Disease and Portuguese forces would eventually wipe them out Settler colonies in north America 0 O O 0 Spanish towns forts missions on east coast of north America some on west coast Dislodged in 17th century by French English and Dutch mariners Permanent colonies in north America Tried to produce valuables such as fur and lumber Relied heavily on the consent from Europe Colonial government 0 French and English private merchants invest heavily in expansion of colonies Greater levels of selfgovernment than Spanish and Portuguese colonies Directly ruled by the ViceRoy Private investors played much greater of a role in these northern settlements When they tried to rebel they were ultimately subject to royal authority Relations with indigenous peoples O 0 North American peoples loosely organized migratory Some practiced agriculture but most relied on hunting European colonists stake out forested land clear it for agriculture Increasing number of Europeans arriving seeking land They would start to stake out these farms and claim them which brought con ict with the native people Con ict with indigenous peoples O Colonists displace indigenous peoples trespass on hunting grounds English settlers negotiate treaties poorly understood by natives Don t understand the idea of private property Military con ict frequent natives also devastated by epidemic disease Between 16001800 about 1 million European settlers arrived in America Fur tradingcash crop development 0 Indigenous peoples trade pelts for wool blankets iron pots rearms alcohol Hides mainly went to Europe European settlercultivators also displacing natives from traditional lands Crops Tobacco o Brought to Europe from America 0 Rice 0 Cotton Indentured labor and slavery Expected to serve for 4 to 7 years Mainly criminals and jobless Europeans but eventually replaced by African slaves 0 Export of tobacco from Virginia increases dramatically Missionary activity in other areas Missionary Activity in the Americas 0 Franciscan Dominican and Jesuit missionaries from 16th century 0 Taught Christian doctrine literacy o Often accumulated cultural knowledge to provide context for effective mission work 0 French and English Missions 0 Less effective than Spanish missions Spaniards ruled native populations more directly Migration patterns of north American natives 15th 16th century S America 0 PortugueseSpanish Competition 0 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas Divided whole nonChristian world between Spanish and Portuguese Jesuit Missions in S America 0 1609 FirstJesuit Missions built 0 1629 Guarani ed from slave traders into the interior 0 1641 Guarani militia defeated Portuguese troops o 1750 Treaty of Madrid The Mission 0 1754 Armies attacked the missions o 1756 Guarani defeated Temporary end of the Jesuit Order in some areas 0 1759 Expelled from Portugal and Brazil 0 176264 Expelled fromdissolved in France 0 1767 Expelled from Spain and its holding in the Americas 0 1773 Pope dissolved Jesuit Order 0 1814 Restored Notes on Silence bv Shusaku Endo 0 Translator s Preface O Shusaku endo has been called the Japanese graham greene I Catholic novelist I Books are problematic and controversial I Writing is deeply psychological I He depicts the anguish of faith and the mercy of god 0 Christianity was brought to japan by the basque francis Xavier in 1549 0 Japan is a mud swamp that may have just absorbed Christianity but did it really 0 Prologue 0 Christovao Ferreia had apostatized 0 On the 67 of October seventy priests sailed into exile O 37 refused to leave and remained in hiding O Tortured with boiling water 0 Ferreia had been captured and Valignano didn t want the missionaries to travel to japan in such horrible conditions Chum O The letter of Sebastian Rodrigues 0 Arrived at Goa the previous year on October 9th and is now May 1st and they reached Macao 0 Japan has cut of all commercial relationship since the 1636 government 0 There is now a real terror for the Christians a person named Inoue I The sad fact is that he used to be a Christian he was even baptized O Valignano finally gave consent for them to go to Japan on their secret mission I Chum 0 Chapter 3 0 June marks the beginning of the rainy season it can rain continuously for more than a month 0 Chapter 4 0 He was captured and Kichijiro was the one that betrayed him Notes on quotthe Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discoveryquot Traveled to the Indies in 33 days and took possession for their highnesses by proclamation and display of the royal standard without opposition First island named San Salvador Second island named santa maria de concepcion Third island names Fernandina Fourth island named Isabella Fifth island named juana Hispaniola is a marvel 0 Very timid people when he contacted them 0 Very giving Took possession of a large town and named it city of navidad William Decker Paper 1 IAH 202 91713 There are many things that could be said about the Spanish and Portuguese in the past specifically from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century The expansion of these two historical countries in this time period greatly involves Asia and the Americas When someone is asked What is driving the Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts in Asia and the Americas there are numerous responses Aspiration to spread Christianity inquisitiveness or eagerness for adventure could be the answer for many but it is very evident that the greed of the Spanish and Portuguese was the most in uential reason for their monarchical endeavors in the Americas and Asia Curiosity is a part of human nature experienced by everyone Some may say this was a critical factor that led these imperial efforts to the Americas and Asia A source that sends a sense of curiosity is Michel de Montaigne s Of Cannibals Montaigne focuses his attention on the people of the New World In fact Montaigne says These nations then seem to me to be so far barbarous as having received but very little form and fashion from art and human invention 1 One can gather that Montaigne is intrigued by how undeveloped the native society is compared to the European technology and societies Christopher Columbus writes In all the islands I observed little difference in the appearance of the people or in their habits and 1 Of Cannibals Michel de Montaigne httpwwwvictorianweborgcoursesnon ctionmontaignecannibalshtm language except that they understood each other which is remarkable 2 This attitude of curiosity may be found numerous times in Columbus letter to Luis De Sant Angel and in many sources writing about Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts A majority of Columbus letter contains information about what he discovered on his voyage whether about tall mountains and palm trees incredibly fast canoes that hold seventy to eighty men or ferocious people who eat human esh However Columbus mentions that In Hispaniola in the most convenient place most accessible for the gold mines and all commerce with the mainland on this side or with that of the great Khan on the other with which there would be a great trade and profit I have taken possession of a large town which I have named the City of Navidad 3 This passage alone shows that he is writing to the Spanish royalty to what he has taken possession of in the Indies he is bragging about his conquers There is an unavoidable sense of greed in Columbus s writing which one cannot deny He does not only talk about the land and how it fascinates him in every way but he also writes about how he has taken control of land and takes advantage of the native people One can clearly gather when analyzing Columbus s primary source that his imperial forces in the Indies were driven by greed Bartoleme de Las Casas sends a sense of curiosity in his writing of the Indies in 1542 Bartoleme s writing does not show as much interest in the terrain because it had been nearly fifty years after Columbus and his men discovered the land Instead some might notice the focused interest he has in the people of the Indies They are also poor people for they not only possess 2 The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery httpwwwushistorvorodocumentscoumbushtm 3 The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery httpwwwushistoryorgdocumentscoumbushtm little but have no desire to possess worldly goods For this reason they are not arrogant embittered or greedy 4 Bartoleme s description the natives have no wish to obtain valuables is identical to Columbus mentioning that his men were trading the native people leather straps and broken pieces of equipment for voluminous amounts of gold5 Again greed is an undeniable motivating force for the empire s efforts when Bartoleme s writing is fully understood Bartoleme s writing Brief Account of the Devastation 0f the Indies explains more of how these Spanish conquistadors acted greedy Mainly Bartoleme writes about how the Indies and Cuba were almost depopulated of native people He writes It should be kept in mind that their insatiable greed and ambition the greatest ever seen in the world is the cause of their villainies 6 Also mentioned is the motivating force for murdering these people to acquire gold and become rich Other conclusions as to the motivating forces behind the Spanish and Portuguese imperial forces may be an eagerness to explore The Spanish conquest of Mexico is a relevant example of an adventure Hernan Cortez a Spanish conquistador and his men explored other territories in the Americas and made alliances with the indigenous population that benefited him7 Colonial administration of Spain was not due to imperial policy it was a driving force and motive for 4 Bartoleme de Las Casas Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies 1542 httpwwwswarthmoreeduSocScibdorsey141docs02Iashtml 5 The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery httpwwwushistoryorgdocumentscoumbushtm 6 Bartoleme de Las Casas Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies 1542 httpwwwswarthmoreeduSocScibdorseyl4ldocs02Iashtm 7 New Worlds The Americas 952013 efforts of expanding the Spanish empire Cortez discovered the Aztec empire in 1519 while exploring Mexico but did not have adventure on his mind It took Cortez less than two years to bring down this empire with about four hundred and fifty men that the Aztecs had no defense against8 Another Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro quickly took control of Peru in 1532 Pizarro and six hundred men brought the Inca Empire in twelve months and not long after that took the capital The Incas were intimidated by Pizarro s men on their horses wielding guns for they had never seen these animals or weapons9 Not only did the Spanish Forces make it to the Americas Portugal made it and claimed Brazil There was little interest in Brazil at first but as other imperial powers started to notice the interest increased Not only did these European colonies stay in the southern hemisphere they traveled to and produced colonies in North America On the east coast of North America lied missions forts and Spanish cities As time progressed there were an increasing number of these European colonists coming to North America to claim new land10 This may seem to one as only a desire to explore lands but it is undeniable that the greed of Spanish and Portugal efforts was an underlying factor for traveling to and claiming these new lands For if these empires were traveling to the Americas only to explore then Cortez would not have wiped out the Aztec empire and nor would Pizarro have killed off the Incan empire These actions were motivated by the greed to conquer new land One cannot overlook the role that religion played in these imperial efforts by the Spanish and Portuguese In Japan there was a great controversy over the role of Christianity The novel 8 New Worlds The Americas 952013 9 Guns Germs and Steel 10 New Worlds The Americas 952013 Silence is a fictional text written about a Jesuit from Portugal Sebastian Rodrigues who travels to Japan to find the answer of his idol and lost father Ferreira has apostatized During this time Japan experienced religious discrimination against Christianity 1 see them without a single priest or brother to encourage and console gradually losing hope and wandering bewildered in the darkness 11 From reading this novel one can see that these imperial forces have a desire to spread the religion of Christianity Shusaku Endo author of Silence mentions how a stranded Spanish ship boasted about the greatness of their empire was somewhat due to the missionaries because they carved a path for the king12 Although Japan had a rough history regarding Christianity China s experience with Christianity was not a blood bath Matteo Ricci traveled to China in 1601 to bring back the dwindling missionary activity Although Ricci failed at converting Ming Emperor Wanli Christianity practice was still permitted13 Sending missionaries to other countries was also an indirect way to assert imperialism in the sixteenth seventeenth and eighteenth century This wasn t only a desire to save souls it was also yet another greedy act committed by imperial efforts An individual cannot ignore that by Spain and Portugal sending missionaries to other countries they weren t only trying to spread their religion they were asserting their imperial efforts with a middleman Although a film and may be biased The Mission can also provide input in regards to the greediness efforts of Portugal In 1750 the Treaty of Madrid declared that Spain would give up land to Portugal to settle land disputes Slavery existing in Portugal but not Spain the Guarani 11 Silence 31 12 Silence xi 13 Tradition and Change in East Asia 91013 native peoples occupying this land in question would inevitably be enslaved No sooner than the Cardinal chose to give the Guarani s Portuguese forces were taking over the land by capturing or murdering natives that attempted to fight back In a broader scheme of things an individual will see that this is a gluttonous act by Portugal only to claim territory and slaves14 People may argue that curiosity desire for adventure or eagerness to spread religion is the propelling forces behind the Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts in the sixteenth seventeenth and eighteenth centuries None of these arguments are necessarily incorrect either There is a lot of evidence that supports these arguments However one can gather with deep analysis of the author s intent from primary sources current documentaries professors and even students that greed was the greatest motivating force driving these efforts Sources like Columbus letter about his discovery Bartolome s article of the Indies and Michel de Montaigne s text produce an unavoidable sense of greed that these conquistadors had while travelling to the Americas and Asia 14 The Mission William Decker Paper 1 IAH 202 91713 There are many things that could be said about the Spanish and Portuguese in the past specifically from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth century The expansion of these two historically interesting countries in this time period greatly involves Asia and the Americas When someone is asked What is driving the Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts in Asia and the Americas there is numeral possibilities of conclusions in response Aspiration to spread Christianity inquisitiveness or eagerness for adventure could be the answer for numerous people but one must see that any significant person or establishment did not deny that greed was simply the greatest propelling force behind Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts in the Americas and Asia In all the islands I observed little difference in the appearance of the people or in their habits and language except that they understood each other which is remarkable 1 Curiosity is a part of human nature that everyone has experienced Some may argue that this was a critical factor that led these imperial efforts to the Americas and Asia A primary source that sends a sense of curiosity is Michel de Montaigne s Of Cannibals Montaigne focuses his attention strictly on the people of the New World One can clearly gather that Montaigne is intrigued by how undeveloped the native society is In fact Montaigne says These nations then seem to me to be so far barbarous as having received but very little form and fashion from art and human 1 The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery httpwwwushistoryorgdocumentscoumbushtm invention 2 This attitude of curiosity may be found numerous times in Columbus letter to Luis De Sant Angel and in many other primary sources writing about Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts A majority of Columbus letter contains information about what he has discovered on his voyage so far whether it is about the tall mountains and palm trees the canoes that hold seventy to eighty men and go incredibly fast or the ferocious people whom he had been told eat human esh Bartoleme de Las Casas also sends a sense of curiosity in his writing of the Indies in 1542 Bartoleme s writing doesn t show as much interest in the terrain because it had been nearly fifty years after Columbus and his men discovered the land Instead some might notice the focused interest he has in the people of the Indies Columbus description of the people coincides with Bartoleme s They are also poor people for they not only possess little but have no desire to possess worldly goods For this reason they are not arrogant embittered or greedy 3 Bartoleme s description the natives have no wish to obtain valuables is very identical to Columbus mentioning that his men were trading the native people leather straps and broken pieces of equipment for voluminous amounts of gold4 Greed however cannot be unnoticeable when Columbus and the imperial efforts of Spain are taking advantage of the natives in this way Other conclusions as to what exactly were the motivating forces behind the Spanish and Portuguese imperial forces may be an eagerness to explore an adventure The Spanish conquest 2 Of Cannibals Michel de Montaigne httpwwwvictorianweborgcoursesnon ctionmontaignecannibalshtm 3 Bartoleme de Las Casas Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies 1542 httnwwwswarthmoreeduSocScibdorsev141docs02Iashtml 4 The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery httpwwwushistoryorgdocumentscoumbushtm of Mexico is a relevant example of an adventure Heman Cortes a Spanish conquistador and his men explored other territories in the Americas and made many alliances with the indigenous population that benefited him5 Colonial administration of Spain was not due to imperial policy however it was a driving force and motive for efforts of expanding the Spanish empire Cortez discovered the Aztec empire in 1519 while exploring Mexico but didn t only have adventure in his mind It took Cortez less than two years to bring down this massive empire with only about four hundred and fifty men that the Aztecs had no hope against6 Another Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro quickly took control of Peru in 1532 Pizarro and about six hundred men brought the Inca Empire in about twelve months and not long after that took the capital The Incas were intimidated by Pizarro s eet of men on their horses wielding guns for they had never seen these animals or weapons7 Not only did the Spanish Forces make it to the Americas Portugal made it and claimed Brazil There was little interest in Brazil at first but as other imperial powers started to notice Brazil the interest raised Not only did these European colonies stay in the southern hemisphere they traveled to and produced colonies in North America On the east coast of North America lied missions forts and also Spanish cities As time progressed there were an exponentially increasing number of these European colonists coming to North America to discover new land to claim8 5 New Worlds The Americas 952013 6 New Worlds The Americas 952013 7 Guns Germs and Steel 8 New Worlds The Americas 952013 One can not overlook the role that religion played in these imperial efforts by the Spanish and Portuguese In Japan specifically there was a great controversy over the role of Christianity The novel Silence is a fictional text written about a Jesuit from Portugal Sebastiao Rodrigues which travels to Japan to find an answer as to if his idol and past father Ferreira has apostatized During this time however Japan is experiencing religious discrimination against Christianity Not only does Father Rodrigues travel to Japan in search of his lost Father but he also is accompanied by another priest in which they both are the only priests in the country They both remain in hiding first together but eventually split up performing mass and listening to other Japanese Christian s confessions Never have I felt so deeply how meaningful is the life of a priest These Japanese Christians are like a ship lost in a storm without a chart I see them without a single priest or brother to encourage and console gradually losing hope and wandering bewildered in the darkness 9 From reading this novel one can see that these imperial forces also have a desire to spread the religion of Christianity Shusaku Endo author of Silence mentions how a stranded Spanish ship boasted about the greatness of their empire was somewhat due to the missionaries because they carved a path for the king10 Sending missionaries to other countries was almost an indirect way to assert imperialism in the sixteenth seventeenth and eighteenth century Although Japan had a rough history in regards to Christianity China s experience with this religion was not such a blood bath Matteo Ricci traveled to China in 1601 to bring back missionary activity that had been dwindling away Although Ricci failed at converting Ming Emperor Wanli the practice of Christianity was still permitted When the pope 9 Silence 31 10 Silence xi hears rumors that the Jesuits are integrating Christianity with Chinese traditions he orders the missionaries to host services agreeing with European standards After the declination of the Ming Empire and rise of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi is not in agreement with the European standards and bans the preaching of Christianity in China11 One must acknowledge when referring to the sixteenth seventeenth and eighteenth century imperial efforts by the Portuguese and Spanish that no individuals or establishments of any importance rejects the proposition that greed was merely the most important motivational force One can clearly gather from the primary sources of Columbus Letter and Bartoleme s writing that these imperial forces in the Indies were driven by greed In fact Columbus mentions that In Hispaniola in the most convenient place most accessible for the gold mines and all commerce with the mainland on this side or with that of the great Khan on the other with which there would be a great trade and profit I have taken possession of a large town which I have named the City of Navidad 12 This passage from Columbus shows that he is writing to the Spanish royalty in regards to what he has taken possession of in the Indies he is simply bragging about his conquers Bartoleme s writing Brief Account of the Devastation 0f the Indies explains more in detail of how these Spanish conquistadors acted greedy Mainly Bartoleme writes about how the Indies and Cuba were almost completely depopulated of native people He even writes It should be kept in mind that their insatiable greed and ambition the greatest ever seen in the 11 Tradition and Change in East Asia 91013 12 The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery httpwwwushistoryorgdocumentscoumbushtm world is the cause of their villainies 13 He also mentions that their motivating force for murdering these people is to acquire gold and become unbelievably rich Although a film and may be biased The Mission can also provide input in regards to the greediness of Portugal In 1750 the Treaty of Madrid declared that Spain would give up land to Portugal to settle land disputes Slavery existing in Portugal but not Spain the Guarani native peoples occupying this land in question would inevitably be enslaved No sooner than the Cardinal chose to give the Guarani s Portuguese forces were taking over the land by capturing or murdering any native that attempted to fight back In a broader scheme of things an individual will with no doubt see that this is a gluttonous act by Portugal only to quickly claim territory and slaves14 Many people may argue that curiosity desire for adventure or eagerness to spread religion may be the propelling forces behind the Spanish and Portuguese imperial efforts in the sixteenth seventeenth and eighteenth centuries None of these arguments are necessarily incorrect either There is a lot of evidence that supports the three arguments However one can gather from current documentaries professors and even students that greed was simply the greatest motivating force that drove these efforts Primary sources like Columbus letter about his discovery Bartolome s article of the Indies and Michel de Montaigne s text produce an unavoidable sense of greed that these conquistadors had while travelling to the Americas and Asia l3 Bartoleme de Las Casas Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies 1542 httpwwwswarthmoreeduSocScibdorseyl4ldocs02Ia5htm 14 The Mission Transformation of Europe 0 Protestant Reformation 0 Martin Luther attacks Roman Catholic church practices 1517 Indulgences Preferential pardons for charitable donors 0 Writes NinetyFive Thesis rapidly reproduced with new printing technology 0 Excommunicated by Pop Leo X in 1521 0 15205 to 15305 dissent spreads throughout Germany and Switzerland Demands for Reform 0 God s justice does not depend on quotgood worksquot and religious ceremonies o Humans are saved by grace alone quotjustification by faith alonequot God is the only one who can save someone it wasn t up to the church 0 Piety and charity as visible signs of the faithful Being charitable and generous were signs 0 Luther s expanded critique Translations of Bible into vernacular Dissolution of Monasteries and convents End of priestly authority especially the pope 0 Return to biblical text for authority 0 They should read the Bible themselves in their own language 0 Trend aware from Church doctrine in favor of rational thought and scienti c analysis 0 Center if Enlightenment France philosophes o Foundanns 18th century phenomenon Basic characteristics 0 The power of human reason Selfcon dence quotDare to knowquot Kant Reason needed autonomy and freedom 0 Voltaire 16941778 quotEnlightenedquot despotism Monarchs need enlightened bureaucracies Should share power Attacks church for intolerance 0 Denis Diderot 17131784 Diderot and the Encyclopedia Vast summary of human knowledge 0 Scienti c analysis applied to human reason happiness and progress 0 Montesquieu 16891755 Desire to limit royal power Balance of power Aristocrats nobility should share power with monarchic Internationalization of Enlightenment Themes 0 Humanitarianism and toleration against torture 0 Beccaria 17381794 On Crimes and Punishments 1764 General Themes resin and human dignity Attacked the view that punishment represented society39s vengeance O on the criminal Legitimate rationale for punishment was to maintain social order prevent crimes Opposed torture and the death penalty 0 JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778 Radical new vision Social contract 1762 Liberty and equality Problem of a government which will defend and protect each member Solution of the general will 0 Emile 1762 Story if a boy educated in the quotschool of nature Children should not be forced to reason early in life Aim was moral autonomy and good citizenship Women useful as mothers and wives only quotNaturalquot is better more simple uncorrupted 0 Mary Wollstonecraft 17591797 Rousseau s sharpest critic A vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 Women had the same inmate capacity for reason and selfgovernment Virtue the same thing for men and women Relations between the sexes ought to be based on equality 0 Theory of Progress Assumption that Enlightenment thought would ultimately lead to human harmony and material wealth Decline in authority of traditional organized religion It39s not like they were all atheists but they encouraged people to think for themselves instead of living by the church rule Ti Noel William Decker lAH 202 10813 Ti Noel one of the main characters is a Negro slave on a plantation in Haiti that experienced the uprising against the rich plantation owners He had been sent to Cuba 74 gained his freedom and sailed back to Haiti only to be enslaved once again 101 A while after escaping to the original plantation Ti Noel saw enslaved Negros working the land of the Plaine du Nord and began to lose hope for Negro freedom 171 M Lemormand de Mazy M Lenormand de Mezy is a rich white plantation owner in Haiti that owned Ti Noel and Macandal After his wife was poisoned 29 and mistress whom he had just married was raped and killed during the uprising 69 Lenormand de Mezy and the Negros left for Cuba 74 After losing a lot of money by bringing home Negresses and gambling away his slaves like Ti Noel died of poverty 102 Cap Francais Cap Francais also refered to as the Cap is a city in Haiti where all the plantation owners would travel to for the bookstore and the barber shop 4 Many events also occurred in the Cap This is where Macandal was attempted to be executed 45 and where the slaves were being executed after their uprising 71 Toussaint Toussaint was the cabinetmaker of Lenormand de Mezy who carved the Three Wise Men in wood that were never set up because the whites of the eyes a scary impression 39 Dessalines JeanJacques Dessalines was the founders of the country and the leader during the war of independence in Haiti xi All the French Negroes including Ti Noel knew that Dessalines s war was very gruesome and terrifying but in the end rewarded Negroes with freedom 103 Sans Souci Sans Souci was the favorite residence of King Henri Christophe 109 Built in Milot this is where Ti Noel is forced into slavery once again 110 Pauline Bonaparte Pauline Bonaparte was the wife of General Leclerc who was sailing to Haiti to repress the slave uprising 88 She was very promiscuous and teased Soliman the slave that cared for her beauty After her husband died she went mad and traveled back to Paris with his body 95 Le Clerc Leclerc was the husband of Pauline Bonaparte and the General of the Army that was sent to Haiti from France to repress the slave uprising 88 Leclerc died from yellow fever despite attempts of Voodoo from Pauline 95 Macandal is a slave on the plantation of Lenormand de Mezy Once Macandal has his left arm amputated because it was crushed between cane rollers 15 he starts traveling to the mountains to discover new plants and fungi 18 Then Macandal doesn t come back to the plantation ever again but Lenormand doesn t care too much because a one armed slave isn t much help 19 As time goes on he starts to poison the cattle and then the white people with his potions 30 Four years goes by when Macandal shows up to a Negroe meeting the white people capture him 42 Although all the slaves were rounded up to watch Macandal executed he escaped the bonds holding him together with voodoo 45 He is then thrust into the fire but all the slaves laughed at the guards because the whites had been outwitted 46 Macandal never physically returns in the book but slaves like Ti Noel tell his kids about Macandal waiting for his return Macandal serves more as an inspiration for slaves in the rest of the book Ti Noel ends up morphing into different animals after seeing the order of slaves coming back and he finally sees why Macandal disguised himself for years Macandal wanted to disguise himself to serve men 178 Bouckman is the slave who organized the meeting for Negros in Bois Caiman He proceeded to tell all the other slaves that something happened in France because some gentlemen of extreme power had declared that Negroes should be given their freedom 60 He then stated that the signal for the insurrection would be given eight days after the meeting 62 Bouckman had been killed with many other slaves during the uprising He was beheaded on the same site Macandal had been thrown into the fire 70 The slaves all believed that Macandal was watching over the plantation morphing into any type of animal he wanted 36 It was also known that the Negroes were snakeworshippers learning from the witch doctors 72 The Spanish churches had signs similar to the altars of Damballah Ti Noel noticed which is the Snake god 80 In France the revolution had produced the Declaration of Human Rights which states that all no matter the race men shall be equal under the law and free When Bouckman is explaining to the other slaves in their meeting in Bois Caiman he states that something has happened in France and some powerful gentlemen declared that Negroes should have their freedom 60 The French revolution as you can see was almost the catalyst for the Haitian revolution The slaves of Haiti heard about Negroes being given freedom and they surely knew the rich plantation owners wouldn t give it to them so they decided to cause an uprising The government of Henri Christophe is very similar to the pre revolutionary government of France The rich landowners would enslave all the Negroes no matter what the age sex or even if they re pregnant 116 Henri unlike the prerevolutionary French government was very careful to not kill his slaves because he didn t want to lose money As long as he had female slaves they would replace themselves 117 Henri Christophe was also a Negroe enslaver unlike the prerevolutionary French slave owners who were inevitably white I don t believe the end of the book has achieved equality or liberty Once Ti Noel comes back to Haiti from Cuba he is a free man after he escapes the guards of Christophe I would say liberty may have been achieved but no sooner does he live happy on the Plaine du Norde he experiences mulattoes moving there with enslaved Negroes 170 Equality definitely hasn t been achieved since Henri Christophe a fellow Negroe was enslaving other Negroes 109 Ti Noel Concludes that a man never knows for whom he suffers and hops 178 People are always seeking happiness far beyond reachable There is no grandeur to be won in the Kingdom of Heaven existence is infinite and no possibility of sacrifice all is rest and joy 179 I believe that Carpentier portrays the revolution in this way because of how it came to an end The revolution definitely started but it was never exactly completed Nor did the revolution fail it just didn t have the drive to complete itself in Haiti The uprisings and freedom of Negroes is obviously a sign of revolution I think Carpentier was trying to say that the revolution was almost to the point of inevitable completion but the Negroes didn t act as much as they should have to keep it going Napoleonic France Napoleonic Code 1804 a Uniformity b Property rights c Patriarchal authority d Equality before law in criminal matters Educational system a Established lycees high schools to train civil servants b Military and technical school under state control c National University to supervise system Concludes agreement with pope a France retains church lands but pays salaries to clergy b Freedom of religion also for Protestants and Jews c This was about ending the con iction between France and the church i Under the agreement that France would retain the land that they seized but they would pay the clergy salaries Bonaparte a Tight control on newspapers use of secret police b Declares himself emperor 1804 i Emperor Napoleon l Napoleon s Empire a Failure of Continental System i Blockade of British goods 1806 1 He still viewed Britain as a threat to French superiority 2 The idea was to try to economically paralyze Britain a This doesn t really work out very well lots of smuggling b Difficult Peninsular Wars c Conquers Spain Italian areas Netherlands i Spain 1807 1 Aimed at the conquest of Portugal 2 Ended up being very bloody and difficult wars 3 Napoleon installs his brother on the Spanish throne d Forces Austria and Prussia into alliances i Not speci cally incorporating them into the empire e Disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 Moscow res set by Russians and defeated by Russian weather i They realized that they had no supplies ii Died from cold frostbite starvation disease h g Enormous number of troop deaths in retreat h British Austrian Prussian and Russian armies force Napoleon to abdicate 1814 i Exiled to Island of Elba escapes to take power again for 100 days 1815 ii Defeated once again by British at Waterloo exiled to St Helena dies 1821 Notes on Peter The Great Film Clothing Clothing that covered all the way down Women were wearing long dresses of the noble class Cut off beards and put on a beard tax every time he entered a town They had to dress in a certain way He built a navy Russia never had a navy He wanted access to the black sea Expanded the empire Changed the calendar from the birth of christ Education for military technology Trading with the west Founded a new Capitol St Petersburg great cost to the lives of the workers that built it Simpli ed the russian alphabet Successor He married a peasant Catherine the rst Imm North American War of Independence The Mercantilist System a Government regulated economic activity Navigation Acts of 1651 a Ship foods through England b Allow England to collect revenue Consolidating the Empire a 17405 regulations to reinforce Navigation Acts Taxing the Colonies a 17605 b British want funds to reduce their war debt c Viewing colonists as subordinates d Trying to force the Americans to follow the Navigation Acts 177475 Continental Congresses Revolution Common Sense Thomas Paine a Criticized hereditary rule monarchical government b Membership in British Empire more burdensome than bene cial to colonies c He offered the arguments that catalyzed the movement d Becomes one of the most successful pamphlets 1776 a The Declaration of Independence i Altered the meaning of American liberty b Natural rights i All men are created equally unalienable rights 9 John Locke and compact theory 10 11 1 America under The Confederation Weaknesses Shay s Rebellion a Debtridden farmers b Trying to prevent the seizing of their farms a Revolutions and National States in Latin America Latin American Society in 1800 a 30000 peninsulars colonial officials from Iberian peninsula b 35 million creoles born in the Americas of Spanish of Portuguese descent i Privileged class but grievances 1 They didn t want to be ruled by the peninsulars 18101825 movement for creoledominated republics gtUU WNH JUN c 10 million others i African slaves mixedrace populations ol Napoleon s invasion of Spain and Portugal 1807 weakens royal authority in colonies Mexican Independence Priest Miguel de Hidalgo 17531811 leads revolt a Led mixed race peoples b Hidalgo captured and executed but rebellion continues i Based on Creole dominance Creole general Augustin de lturbide 17831824 declares independence in 1821 a Spanish crown was unable to prevent anarchy b Installs self as emperor deposed in 1823 republic established Spanish South America Simon Bolivar leads independence movement a Inspired enlightenment ideals Rebels against Spanish rule in 1811 forced into hiding Forms alliances with many creole leaders Spanish rule destroyed in South America by 1825 Gran Columbia Bolivar hoped to form USstye federation Venezuela Columbia and Ecuador form Gran Colombia Disintegrates by 1830 a Bolivar goes into selfimposed exile Brazilian Independence Napoleon s invasion sends Portuguese royal court to exile in Rio deJaneWo 1821 king returns to Portugal son Pedro left behind as regent Pedro negotiates with creoles declares independence of Brazil after the king leaves a Becomes Emperor Pedro l r 18221844 Social structure remains largely intact a Very unequal Political reordering after Napoleonic Wars WNH JUN Congress of Vienna 1815 Established a balance of power Russian monarchy Death of Alexander I a1825 Decembrists revolt New tsar Nicholas l suppressed this reform movement a Philosophy stressing quotfaith hierarchy and obediencequot b Secret police were used to suppress any ideas about constitutional monarchy Scienti c Revolution Ptolemaic view of the universe Reliance on 2nd century Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemy Motionless earth inside concentric circular spheres Christians understand heaven as last sphere Difficulty reconciling model with observed planetary movement Copernicus put forward this theory of a sun centered universe Copernican quotRevolutionquot 1543 Nicholas Copernicus of Poland breaks theory Earth movednot the center of the planetary system Earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun heliocentricity Notion of moving earth challenges christian doctrine Galileo Galilei 15641642 Built his own telescope in 1610 Observed the features of the moon moons of Jupiter sun spots Challenge to heavenly perfection Found mountains and plains of an earthlike landscape Con ict with the church A dominican monk denounced Galileo39s idea as a dangerous deviation 1614 1616 the Inquisition declares heretical the proposition that the earth moves Forced to publicly recant his view Forced in house arrest for the rest of his life Isaac Newton 16431727 Optics Used prisms to demonstrate that light was composed of differentcolored rays Showed that white light was different colors of waves Gravity and laws of gravitation All bodies on earth obeyed the same basic laws Pquot 900 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The French Revolution Film Versailles a Big palace built by Louie XIV National Assembly a Third Estate b Everybody except clergy and nobility Marie Antoinette a Ends up being beheaded King Louis XVI Enlightenment Robespierre 3 classes3 estates American Revolution Necker a Finance Minister b The people liked him c Tennis Court Oath a People go up to the general but are locked out quotWe are the people and we won t stop meeting until we have a constitutionquot BasUHe Declaration of the Rights of Man Marat Puts out a call to have all revolutionary prisoners slaughtered Duke of Brunswick Danton Minister ofJustice Public of Safety Committee Then says the violence should end Robespierre then makes Danton a victim of the terrors September Massacres goom 17 What were the origins of the French Revolution 18 What were some of the signi cant events of 1789 19 What did the revolutionaries desire in the rst phase of the revolution 20 How did the rst phase of the revolution come to an end 21 Why did the revolutionaries sponsor Terror in the second phase of the revolution a They wanted to strike fear in to their enemies but end up striking fear into everybody b Put forth by the radical revolutionaries i Terror is a necessary part of achieving power c The French Revolution 1 Phases of the Revolution a Moderate b Radical c Reactionary 2 The Estates a Clergy b Nobility c Third Estate consisted of approximately 97 of the population 3 Background a Weakness of the Monarchy i Louis XIV is anxious to serve as an enlightenment monarch but Marie Antoinette is criticized b Financial Crisis i Inefficient tax system ii Varied from region to region iii France is still trying to pay off debt from the seven years war c Food Crisis i Population is skyrocketing and there is a bad harvest ii Hardship for peasantry for urban workers iii 1789 80 of the income of the poor was used solely on purchasing bread 4 First Phase 17891791 a The Beginning i 1788 Estates Generalannouncement b 1789 i May Opening of Estates General 1 Advisory Body 2 Should estates vote by state or by individuals 3 Insist that the third estate have as many delegates as the other two combined ii June 17 Third Estate adopts title of National Assembly iii June 20 Tennis Court Oath iv July 14 Storming of the Bastille 1 Symbols of the peoples role in revolutionary change v Immediate effects 1 Late July Great Fear in countryside C 1791 August abolition of feudalism and privileges and Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen a Tying of the peasants to the landlord estates Early October Women s march on Versailles a To demand that the king and queen return to Paris November Church property in nationalized a Takes power away from the church b It can fund the revolution Constitution formalized end of royal absolutism Formal abolition of hereditary legal privileges Jews and Protestants granted full civil rights and toleration Marriage as civil contract and right to divorce 1 One of the rights women gain for a certain time Monarchs flights to Varennes Austria 1 They are considered treasoners 5 Second Phase 17921794 a The French Republic 17921794 Counter Revolution and war The flight of many nobles War with Austria and Prussia Civil War Nobles organize some peasants in defense of King and Church Escalation of violence August 10 Palace of Tuilleries invaded and 600 guards killed Monarchy suspended and imprisoned 39 September Massacres of 1200 prisoners suspected if plotting against regime 1 Enemies of the revolution September 22 monarchy formally abolished France declared a republic c National Convention and domestic reforms Abolition of slavery in French colonies Repeal of primogeniture Confiscation of property of enemies iv Set maximum prices for grain 1 In order to control the skyrocketing prices v Revolutionary calendar 1 Dating the calendar from 1792 d The Reign of Terror 17931794 I ii iii iv v Special procedures to deal with domestic enemies Committee of Public Safety Main figure on Committee was Robespierre lntense persecutions between October 1793 and June 1794 By August 1794 thousands executed hundreds of thousands imprisoned e Victims of the Terror i i iii iv v Substantial numbers of clergy and nobility Majority artisans and peasants January 1793 Execution of Louis XVI October 1793 Execution of Marie Antoinette Feminist Olympe de Gouges f Fall of Robespierre June 1794 Terror reaches climax Robespierre arrested and guillotined on July 28 1794 6 Third Phase 17951799 a The Directory 17951799 I ii iii iv v 1795 Constitution 5 man Directorate Two legislative Houses to propose and vote on all legislation Relaxing price controls caused soaring prices By 1798 massive inflation and worthless money Overthrow of Directory Begin of Napoleon s reign The Hatian Revolution 0 Bouckman 0 French Revolution 0 Toussaint L Ouverture o Enlightenment JeanJacques Dessalines Napoleon 1795 constitution 5 man directorate two legislative houses to p propose and vote on all legislation relaxing Pryce control caused b soaring prices by 1798 massive inflation and worthless money over throw off directory begin of Napoleon reign NP P PWNT the Haitian revolution 8 Boukmanpriest united slaves and major rule in slave rebellion beheaded 9 Toussaint L39Ouventurebeheadedhighly educated born slave leader of revolution obtained freedom getting rid of slavery all together does use different European powers against each other proclaims governor for life slavery will never be reintroduced arrested by French under Napoleon Dies in ajail in France 10JeanJacques Dessalinesproclaims independence for Haiti treaty very harshly 11French revolutionrelation to Haitian revolution ideas of spreading freedom asks democracy giving power to this estate distribution on slaves or numbers noon slaves open slave revolt slave population 12enlightenment 13Napoleonreinstitute slavery in nearby colonies results in violence bench are driven out 14 15The Haitian revolution 16 17 prerevolutionary activities 18 Macandal and poisoning 175758 19 from Africa 20 escaped from plantation 21 poison weapon against plantation owners 22 23 Revolution in Haiti 24 only successful slave revolt to new state 25island of Hispaniola 26Spanish colony Santo Domingo in east now Dominican republic 27 French colony of Saint Domingue in west now Haiti 28rich Caribbean colony 29sugar coffee cotton 30 31 Society in Saint Domingue 321790 3340000 white French settlers 34dominated social structure 3530000 gen de couler free people of color freed slaves 36holders of small plots 37500000 slaves of African decent 38high mortality rate many flee to mountains 39the revolt 40inspired by american and French revolution 41 1789white settlers demand self rule but no equality for gens de couler 42 1 791 civil eat breaks out 43slaves revolt under Voudou priest named Boukman 44French British and Spanish forced attempt in intervene 45 46 Toussaint L39Ouvertu re 17441803 47 descendants of slaves freed in 1776 48 build army eventually dominates 49Saint Domingue 501801 promulgates constitution granting quality but still add French colony 51 1802 arrested by Napoleon39s forces ended up dying on jail 52 53Jean Jacques Dessalines emperor Haiti 54French trips driven out 1804 Haiti declares independence under Jean Jacques Desdalines 55 declares himself emporer 56 assassinated in 1806 57 58civil warHaiti divided 1806 59Henri Christophe 60retreats to north 61 declared himself king Henriking l 1811121 62continues system of forced labor on plantation 63used European models 64 sans souci palace 65 commits suicide 66 Petion39s republic of Haiti 18061818 67Alexandre Petion 68used no force labor 69broke up large plantations into subsistence farms 70damaged methods of subsistence farming used economic woe 71 72 Napoleon Bonaparte 73 general military set strategist 74joins directory 1799 then over throws it 75 76 77 consolidates authority 78 new constitution 79universal male suffrage but indirect voting 80named self consul for life in 1802 81 reorganization of the state 82 careers open to talent 83 generally fair system if taxation 84halted inflation 85centrally appointed officials l in local areas 86 The Kingdom of This World Notes 1 Introduction a b c h January of 2004 was Haiti s twohundredyear anniversary of its independence from France Pro and antigovernment demonstrators clashed Chimeras i Mobs of angry young men ii Battled one another to assure that the then president JeanBertrand Aristide would either remain in office or not ill Chimeras loved president iv Cannibals hated president Toussaint L Ouverture i One of the principal leaders of the first successful slave uprising in history ii Uttered when he was forced to board a ship headed for a prison in France 1 In overthrowing me you have cut only the truck of the tree of liberty It will spring again from the roots for they are numerous and deep One might see Ti Noel as a standin for Carpentier Haitians cite their founders of their country i Toussaint L Ouverture ii Henri Christophe iii JeanJacques Dessalines Part One The Wax Heads a M Lenormand de Mezy i Slave Master of Ti Noel ii Squire Ti Noel i Gift of judging horse flesh Went to barbershop i Barbershop owner subscribes to Leyden Gazette 1 For the enlightenment of his educated customers Bookseller hung on a wire the latest prints received from Pairs i At least four of them displayed the face of the King of France ii Noel noticed a copper engraving with a kind of French admiral being received by a Negro frame by feather fans and seated upon a throne iii The bookseller told him it was the king of his country Noel had been instructed by Macandal VI V f Lenormand bought a calf s head in the tripeshop on his way out of the barbershop i Gave it to the slave Noel g La Courageuse of His Majesty s fleet had been sighted returning from the lie de la Tortue h Lenormand was a petty officer in the past The Amputation a Macandal was a prisoner before he was sold to the slave traders of sierra Leone b Cap Francais was a trumpery thing compared with the cities of guinea c In the city of Whidah the Cobra Worshipped the mystical representation of the eternal wheel d Macandals got his arm crushed in the rollers i Master called for the whetstone to sharpen the machete to be used in the amputation of his arm What the Hand Found a Macandal was put in charge of pasturizing the cattle b Fungi interested Macandal the most c On the pretext of bathing the horses To noeal would leave the plantation and join Macandal to the edge of the valley d Macandal ran away i Lenormand sent out a search for him ii Will be tortured if caught The Reckoning a Ti Noel was distressed by Macandal running away b Macandal is a Mandingue c The old woman of the mountain brought Noel a message from Macandal d Went to a cave i Found a bunch of things there like prescriptions e Cows were now getting sick bile dripping from muzzles De Profundis a The poison crawled across the Plaine du Nord invading pastures and stables b It was Macandal that was poisoning the whites in order to make a great empire of free Negroes in Santo Domingo The Metamorphoses a All the slaves were waiting for Macandal to make the notion to start the uprising i They waited four years Human Guise a Macandal had appeared at a different plantation where Noel was at b The whites were getting out guns and knives and hoping to capture Macandal VIII The Great Flight a Macandal had kept his word remaining in the Kingdom of This World b Noel took one of the kitchen wenches to one of the mangers of the stables to have sex three times Part Two I The Daughter of Minos and Pasphae a Lenormand s second wife died b During the years the city had made remarkable progress c Henry Christophe was is the master chef at the Auberge de la Couronne d In twenty years Noel had fathered twelve children by one of the cooks e The actress was faded by malaria i Was a bitch and drank a lot ii Made a captive audience watch her perform the roles she never was allowed to interpret f The negroes made assumptions that she was probably in the colony to get away from the police of Paris i They were either thrashed or had their heads chopped off for this II The Solemn Pact a Bouckman is Jamaican i Talks in the woods while it is raining b Something happened in France i A very powerful man had declared that the Negroes should be given their freedom Ill The Call of the Conch Shells a In may the Constituent Assembly a mob of liberalist full of theories from the Encyclopedie had voted to give the Negroes sons of the manumitted slaves political rights b Plantation owners threatened civil war c Slaves began rebelling i Killed bookkeeper first d Noel drank a lot of wine and went to the house i Always dreamed of raping Mlle Floridor Part Three Everywhere one came upon royal crowns of gold some of them so heavy that it was an effort to pick them up Karl Ritter a witness of the sack of Sans Souci l The Portents a Ti Noeal had been won by a Santiago plantationowner in a card game bet with Lenormand i Cuban owner b Noel saved up his Christmas money to get on a boat c First went to the banks of the Artibonite ll Sans Souci a Noel passed the cave where Macandal had brewed his poisons b Went towards the old plantation of Lenormand de Mezy c Nothing much was really left of the house d Accustomed to the simple Spanish colonial uniforms Ti Noel suddenly discovered with amazement the pomp of Napoleonic fashion e This was a world of negroes Noel realized that he was at Sans Souci the favorite residence of King Henri Christophe g He was herded iinto a barrack the guards thought that he was one of the prisoners i Then he was handed a brick Ill The Sacrifice of the Bulls a Noel was forced to do labor and build a Citadel for Henri Christophe b Everyday in the middle of the parade square several bulls had their throats cut so that their blood could be added to the mortar to make the fortress impregnable IV The lmmured a Discipline was relaxed a little when the work on the Citadel was drawing to a close b Noel managed to slip away one morning without turning his head back to the fortress c Wanted to set himself up on the former lands of Lenormand d Hands and knees were bruised by the blows it had received along the trails of Le Bonnet de l Eveque e At the corner of the Archbishop s palace was a hole that always had horrifying sounds coming out of it i Like crying and whining and moaning ii It was Corneille Breille the Duke of Anse confessor of Henri Christophe iii He was condemned to die there for the crime of having wanted to go to France knowing all the secrets of the King h f V a b VI Ultima a e f Strait l a b V 0 all the secrets of the Citadel whose red towers had already been struck by lightning several times iv Rumored he said that people should jump at the name of the King of France He got drunk and went home while saying a lot of insults about Henri Christophe Chronicle of August 15 Queen MarieLouise did not understand the Latin intoned by Juan de Dios Gonzalez She found a mysterious harmony among the smell of incense the fragrance of the orange trees in the nearby patio Henri Christophe could not attend the liturgy because of anxiety Henri Christophe feels like he is surrounded by a hostile atmosphere in the church of Limonade Corneille Breille stood up out of the crowd and started talking lowdly i He is the supposedly immured archbishop Lots of things came crashing down and the king had to be carried out in the arms of his officers i King was pissed threatened death if a rooster so much as crowed Ratio Regum The guards were not playing the prescribed call and not with drumsticks but with hands against the leather i They were playing the mandoucouman Hen the guards broke ranks and started crossing the esplanade in complete disorder The officers were running with drawn swords The five negroes stayed loyal to the king of Haiti The burning of his plantations had begun of his diares of his canefields The king committed suicide s the Gate The African pages took the monarch in a meshlike hammock The princesses Athenais and Amethyste were following behind the pages in either different shoes or no shoes The queen also followed behind them Soliman who had once been Pauline Bonaparte s masseur had brought up the rear with a gun and a machete They got to the Citadel and then sunk the king into the fresh mortar to make him sink and then harden becoming a part of the structure Part Four The Night of the Statues a Princesses are now in Europe b Africa and the Atlantic World African States 15001650 a Map Kingdom of Kongo a Relations with Portuguese beginning 1483 i Trade networks multiply b King Nzinga Mbemba Afonso I r 15061542 converts to Christianity i The convert provided a useful link with Portuguese Slave Raiding in Kongo a Initial Portuguese attempts at slave raiding b Progress to trading weapons for slaves provided by African traders i Make alliances with local authorities by trading weapons for slaves c Kongo kings appeal without success to slow slave trade d Relations deteriorate Portuguese attack Kongo and decapitate king in 1665 i Defeated the Kongo army Foundations of the Slave Trade a African slavery dates to antiquity wasn t new i War captives criminals people expelled from clans ii Once they were enslaved they had no personal rights b Distinct from Asian and European slavery i No private property therefore wealth de ned by human labor potential not land 1African law didn t recognize private property 2Think about this when reading Things Fall Apart ii Slaves often assimilated into owner s clan East Coast Slave Trade a Dramatic expansion b New slaves acquired by raiding villages selling on Swahili coast i Transporting across Sahara Desert or on ships ii 10 million Africans leave home land for east coast slave trade c Arab traders depend on African infrastructure to maintain supply d European demand on west coast causes demand to rise again Early Atlantic Slave Trade a Portuguese raid west African coast in 1441 take twelve men b Meet with stiff resistance c Start to exchange primarily weapons for slaves d By 1520 couple of decades after nding the new worlds Europeans about 2000 slaves taken per year to work in sugarcane plantations in the Americas Triangular Trade a European manufactured goods especially rearms sent to Africa 10 11 12 b African slaves purchased and sent to Americas c Cash crops purchased in Americas and returned to Europe Destinations of African Slaves a 50 Caribbean b 33 Brazil c 12 Central South America d 5 North America Middle Passage a Capturetransportation of slaves to African coastal entrepots i Holding areas on African coasts b Terrible treatment i Many died before even leaving Africa c Many deaths in holding camps and in port on slave ships d Crossing of Atlantic under horri c conditions e Total slave traffic 15th to 18th centuries 12 million f Approximately 4 million killed or died before arrival i Mortality eventually declined to about 5 Social Effects of Slave Trade in Africa a Total African population expands due to importation of American crops b Yet millions of captured Africans removed from society depleting regional populations Distorted sex ratios result i About 23 of African slaves were men ii Reproduction of slaves were limited iii In Africa great plantations of female slaves iv European owners preferred males to work plantations Had regional leaders ghting over control of slave trade pro ts African Diaspora a Most slaves in tropical and subtropical regions b First plantation established in Hispaniola Haiti and the Dominican Republic 1516 c Later plantations in Mexico Brazil Caribbean and Americas d Sugar is major cash crop i Later tobacco rice cotton coffee Plantations heavily dependent of slave labor Racial divisions of labor Regional Differences a Caribbean and South America African population unable to maintain numbers through natural means i Malaria and yellow fever ii Brutal working conditions sanitation nutrition iii Gender imbalance b Constant importation of slaves c North America less disease more normal sex ratio i Slave families encouraged as prices rise in 18th century c d e f 13 Abolition of Slavery a Economic costs of slavery increase i Military expenses to prevent rebellions ii 18th century price of sugar falls price of slaves rise iii Wage labor becomes more efficient iv Wageearners can spend income on manufactured goods 14 Change and trade in Africa a Increased domestic and world trade led to new state building b Abolition of the slave trade declines by 1850 1867 last voyage c British navy enforces the end of this system of trade d Ownership of slaves is still legal 15 End of the Institution of Slavery a Haiti slavery ends with revolution b Mexico slavery abolished 1829 i Partially to stop US development of slavebased cotton industries in Mexico c 1833 Britain abolishes slavery offers compensation to former owners d Other states follow but offer freedom without equality i Property requirements literacy tests etc Block voting 16 New trade with Africa a West Africans began to export palm oil peanuts and vegetable oils b Some states decline or end c Within Africa more slaves used for eldwork 17 Colonial Reordering in Asia a English East India Company monopoly i 1765 proclamation from the Mughal emperor allowing the company to collect text revenue b Used Hindi kings and Muslim princes in its administrative structure c Maintained a large standing army onethird of them native recruits sepoys d Britain tied to change Indian culture to value British goods culture most e Reformers began to call for changes in Hindu and Muslim society f Viewed Indians as backward g Rebellion of 1857 in India i Background ii Treaty violations and annexations iii Rebellion and atrocities iv Rebellion brutally crushed by 1858 v Mughal dynasty ends becomes crown colony European Origins of the Great Depression 0 AustriaGermany borrow money from US to pay war debts to France and England 0 France England pay debts owed to US for WWI 0 System Dependent on ow of cash from US 0 Investors begin to pull out in 1928 The Bolshevik Revolution 0 OctoberNovember 1917 0 Led by Vladimir Lenin 0 Civil War between reds and whites o Lenin dies in 1924 War Communism 19181922 0 Rapid collectivization o Con scations o Massively unpopular Lenin backtracks in 1921 New Economic Policy NEP 0 Partial Privatization of the economy 0 Promotion of agriculture 0 Promotion of industry Joseph Stalin 18791953 0 Leads Soviet Union by 1928 o Nom de guerre man of steel Industrialization o Socialism in one country 0 5 year plans for industrialization of heavy industry at expense of consumer goods 0 Fear of impending war with imperialists Collectivization o Kulaks and speculationdeportation and property con scann 0 Local Communist Party and police of cials force peasants to join collective farms 0 Peasants resistance largescale rebeions and slaughter livestock o The famine 19321933 Terror 0 The Great Terror 19371938 1 million dead 15 million to the Gulag Elimination of Stalin s enemies real or imagined Purged the old Bolsheviks Staged show trias Target alcoholics and prostitutes Target pimps FLN has ordered their execution First you have them targeting people in their community Then you have them targeting people outside their community 42 attacks per day They start bombing civilian places like the bars and airports Where there is a large number of civilians They have a pyramid structure they only know the person that recruited them and the two people that they recruit This is why the colonel has such a hard time targeting them He says it s like a tapeworms have to destroy the head to completely stop it growing Children are serving as messengers Barbed wire checkpoints Women would take bombs in their and they were able to get out because they would dress up to look profrench The guards would usually search the men but not really the women because they aren t supposed to touch the women Cold War Concentrating on Europe Origins of Cold War 0 Battle of theories for capitalists and communists 0 Russian communist revolution 0 Intervention by countries that oppose communist revolution would rather keep Russia a capitalist country 0 Russian Revolution and intervention by which countries 0 US and Britain Situation in Russia after revolution 0 Massive Famine in population 0 Trying to consolidate their power US attitude toward quotforeign entanglementsquot 0 Try to stay out of foreign entanglements 0 Source of the European depression dependent on the US cash ow Wall Street Crash 0 Start of the great depression 0 Immediate consequences in Europe as well Recognition of Soviet Union 0 In 1933 by FDR US as a legitimate country Socialism in one country 0 Moscow trials 0 Stalin cleaning house 0 Stalin is eliminating any real or perceived enemies 0 They re presented with their confession that they re forced to sign Spanish Civil War 0 Essentially have attempt by Franco to intervene Hitler s policies Neville Chamberlain Munich conference NaziSoviet Pact o Nonaggression pact with the idea that the western powers weren t going to go to war as long as Hitler was only going east 0 Hitler ends up breaking the pact Why does Hitler invade Soviet Union 0 A racial component an idea that the Slavs were inferior Stalin s view of what Soviet Union wanted after WWII o Soviet Union wanted a buffer zone 0 Governments that were friendly to the Soviet Union 0 They beat Hitler Stalingrad 0 Was attacked very bad 0 Month long battle Katyn o Germans wanted to split up the pact and they dug up Polish of cers that the Soviet Union supposedly killed Percentages agreement 0 Between Russia and Britain 0 Basically western allies against soviet in uence Potsdam conference Truman s concerns 0 One of the major concerns is about Japan 0 Decolonization o Nationalist Struggles in Vietnam 0 OO O O 0 000000 Indochina Vietnam Laos Cambodia a colony of France since late 18005 Occupied by Japanese during WWII After French attempt to reestablish control Vietnamese guerilla war against the French under Viet Minh communist army under leadership of Ho Chi Minh French pressed on for total victory French establish a base at Dien Bien Phu fell in May 1954 The Geneva Accords Indochina divided No h Communist Use Ho Chi Minh trail through Laos South Ngo Dinh Diem Authoritarian ideas Catholic in majority Buddhist area Second Indochina War 19641975 Vietnam War 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 19651968 systematic bombing 1965 start with ground troops Escalation from 19651967 more ground troops Johnson does not seek renomination Nixon and Vietnam 1969 Nixon Doctrine 0 Vietnam 1970 Troops in Camobia US withdrawal 1973 Paris Peace Accords War Powers Act 1973 1975 0 Final offensice from North Vietnam uni ed under communist rule 0 Also Communists cam to power in Laos Pathet Lao and Cambodia Khmer Rouge Indian National Congress founded 1885 to promote self rule Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims British encouraged development of Muslim League 1906 to blunt Congress o Mohandas Gandhi Passive Resistance NonViolence Civil disobedience and boycott of British Institutions Division between Hindus Muslims Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muslim League Jawaharlal Nehru Congress Party 1947 partition Estimated at least 1 million killed 12 million refugees 0 Cold War arena lndia moves toward nonalignment position quotThird pathquot 0 Palestine Palestine governed by Great Britain between the wars Balfour Declaration 1917 British support forJewish homeland Holocaust intensi ed support forJewish State Creation of the State of Israel 0 Jewish Arab pressure drives British to hand Palestine over to United Nations for a resolution 0 May 1948 Jews declared independence of state of Israel 0 Arab states invaded lsrael successfully defended itself 0 Palestine divided between Israel and Jordan 1949 Egypt and Arab Nationalism o Gamal Abdel Nasser Egypt 19181970 took leadership position in Arab world 0 Suez crisis 1956 Nasser nationalized Suez Canal British French and Israeli forces seized canal Canal returned to Egyptian control in response to US and USSR protests OOOO Ghana 0 Kwame Nkrumah Led mass action against British colonial rule Supported panAfrican unity o Nationalists imprisoned 0 Independence in 1957 rst in subSaharan Africa Kenya 0 Kikruyu ethnic group begins attacks on British and quotcollaborationistquot Africans 1947 o 1952 state of emergency declared o Mau Mau Rebellion O O Overwhelming British military response 100 Europeans vs at least 12000 Africans killed Bloody but negotiated withdrawal independence by 1963 o Jomo Kenyatta South Africa 0 OO Apartheid Established by white South African Afrikaner National Party Division of South Africa s peoples by race African National Congress Led by Nelson Mandela Brutally repressed by government forces Dismantling of Apartheid President F W de Klerk elected 1989 began to end apartheid Release of Nelson Mandela from prison 1990 Negotiation of end of white minority rule 1994 elections brought ANC to power William Decker IAH 202 102613 On October 26th 2013 there was a roundtable pedagogy session held in the International Center on MSU s campus There were three speakers during this presentation that each gave their own presentation This roundtable session compromised of a discussion of pedagogy of the country of Africa in which the three speakers discussed how exactly they taught their courses and the approach they took The rst woman explained how she nds that fact that her life embodies Africa and one aspectual component of the Diaspora a dialectical process and a sensible combination and good t She made a point that cooperative learning researchers and practitioners have shown that positive peer relationships are one was in which students are actually engaged in critical reading thinking and writing She believes that real learning takes place by active and cooperative learning whether it is by round table discussion having students create charts and blogs or have them play with the material after class She describes interdisciplinary as creating a counterhegemonic space for a much needed discourse in classroom contexts She advises you to recognize a strong sturdy bridge called quotmy backquot The academy is not just about you and epistemology for many is protest Dr Rita Kiki Edozie then spoke about the challenges that they face including selecting course content that represents all Africana regions of the world and from a range of disciplines and selecting key themes that constitute a disciplinary study for Africana studies Her presentation showed that the goal is to present students with knowledge about Africana worlds through multiple disciplinary sources and integrate sourced knowledge to discern new knowledge s about the multifaceted lived experiences of Africana people communities nations and regions She then stated that they are a discipline here at MSUAAAS they confer the degree in African American and African studies equal to the degree in History Politics and English Dr Edozie then described themselves as an interdisciplinary discipline as woman studies cultural studies American studies and English studies and it constitutes a strategic way of selfappearances Some of the core themes that she listed are TransAtlantic studies and migration African Diaspora Studies Politics and African nationalism Economic inequality poverty urban studies and development and alternative gender and sexuality The next speaker was a man from Italy that opened his presentation as quotI am attempting to bridge the divide between the local and the globalquot He continued to explain that he is trying to get his students to connect theory to practice while doing weekly summaries and analytical reports to provide the knowledge of the complex origins of Africa This speaker gave a plentiful amount of advice for the audience quotIt is important for historians to draw from a variety of sources and also get out on the field He also said that it is important to listen to your students and learn from your colleagues even if they aren t studying Africa Don t be afraid to take risks and make mistakes for he believes that research informs teaching and vice versa 0 Foundations of Empire 0 Modern imperialism frequently informal Domination of trade and investment Exploit and in uence affairs of Motives of Imperialism 0 Economic sources of raw materials 0 Political strategic control of important sites on sea lanes harbors 0 Cultural motive quotcivilizing missionquot Civilize these backwards people Social Darwinist theory 0 Technology and Empire 0 Transportation steamships railroads 0 Military increasingly more powerful weapons including machine guns by the 1880s 0 Communications telegraphs and cables Ottoman Empire 0 Peak of military expansion in the late 17th century 0 Lost various territories in 19th century 0 Massive corruption misuse of tax revenues 0 Imports of cheap manufactured goods places stress on local artisans urban riots result 0 Exportdependent economy increasingly relied on foreign loans Forced to accept foreign administration of debts o Capitulations agreements that exempted Europeans from Ottoman Empire 0 China 0 Since 1759 European commercial presence limited to port of GuangzhouCanton 0 British East India Company heavily involved in opium trade Opium grown in India sold in China for silver Silver used to buy other Chinese products Illegal but poor enforcement Increasing trade and social ills evident by late 1830 s Chinese move to enforce ban British agents engage in military retaliation Opium Wars 18391842 British naval forces easily defeat Chinese Unequal Treaties 0 China forced into a series of disadvantageous treaties 0 Hong Kong ceded to British in Treaty on Nanjing 1842 ports opened to British traders o Extraterritorial status to British subjects 0 Later other countries conclude similar treaties Spheres of In uence o Qing dynasty loses in uence in southeast Asia losing tributary states to Europeans and Japanese Vietnam France 1886 Burma Great Britain 1885 Korea Taiwan Japan 1895 o Boxer Rebellion Antiforeign militia units 1899 ght to rid China of quotforeign devilsquot Misled to believe European weapons would not harm them Crushed by coalition of European forces 0 China forced to accept stationing of foreign troops Scramble for Africa 0 1875 Europeans have limited presence in Africa Portuguese Angola and Mozambique French northern Algeria Cluster of settler colonies of British and Dutch migrants 0 18751900 European powers partition colonize most of con nent Exploration of African resources Nationalist rivalries among European powers 0 Moves that triggered the Scramble 0 Increase public interest newspapers 0 Leopold ll s intentions 0 Result of the Berlin Conference 0000 1 Chapter 1 a b C Called him Minke i Doesn t want to say real name Wrote notes during a period of mourning i She left him Thirteen years later went and studies the short notes 2 Chapter 2 a b treeawe 939993T U35 Age of a corn plant young Director of class says the given knowledge is very general compared to European Netherlands Indies AJavanese Interested in printing Island is Java Didn t know what electricity was He was in Surabaya Loved the beloved of the gods a beautiful maiden She was 18 i They were both born in 1880 ii August 31 They were in opposite sides of the world Teacher was Magda Peters Teacher forbade them to believe in astrology Doesn t believe in astrology Put trust in scienti c understanding and in reason HBS is the prestigious Dutchlanguage senior high school She became the queen i Her Majesty Wilhelmina Jean was a Frenchman and had only one leg William Jacob Decker IAH 202 1 12113 M Cowley From the nineteenth century up until 1914 Europe went through an age of industrialization and imperialism Worse working conditions for the laboring class more unsanitary environments transitions to a new economy and a benefitting upper class is only a summary of the events experienced by the multiple types of individuals involved For the many people involved there were an abundance of costs and benefits resulting from this world progression The industrialization of Europe not only brought factories trains automobiles and steam engines but also brought new classes some unexpected costs and demographic transition1 There was the creation of the middle class capitalists otherwise known as the factory owners and bourgeoisie and the urban wageworkers who were known as the proletariat Of course the factory owners benefitted in the sense of mass production but the proletariat whose working conditions greatly declined was not the only cost of making an industrial society There was also a decline in birth rates which some say is due to various methods in trying to control birth rates and the cost of living was exponentially increased2 This Earth of Mankind is a novel of a man named Minke a native of the island Java and his efforts to overcome the struggle of European colonization and inequality of the Javanese people and people of European descent When Minke falls in love with Annelies an Indo girl born of a Dutch man and his Indonesian concubine Nyai 1 The Making of Industrial Society 101713 2 The Making of Industrial Society 101713 Ontosoroh and moves in to her house3 After Tuan Mellema Annelies s father was found murdered his concubinerun company Boerderij Buitenzorg was ruled by European court to fall in the hands of his legitimate European child Maurits Mellema Annelies was also forced by the white court to sail to the Netherlands to stay with Maurits4 because she was still under age and she was not recognized illegitimate as Nyai Ontosoroh s child for Herman Mellema and his concubine were never married This family catastrophe exemplifies how the natives and mixedblood of the Java Island suffered under the European colonization The pureblood Europeans had more rights than the mixedblood Indonesians and the Indonesians had more rights over the natives Nyai Ontosoroh ran the business by herself and once the Dutch Herman Mellema passed away the European courts did not even recognize her efforts in maintaining the company The courts stripped her of the property and even sent her daughter away Minke who graduated from HBS and was more educated than most Europeans also was not recognized by the courts simply because he was a native5 In his attempts to fight the courts and the views of people writing in newspapers he was using his educated literature to argue After all of Minke s efforts to save the company for Nyai and prevent Annelies from being sent away the European courts ruled against his wishes The cost of this native Nyai greatly benefitted a European as in most cases Maurits Mellema received all the property of the business from the court when his father died not a single acre was given to anybody with a trace of native blood 3 Pramoedya Ananta Toer 63 4 Pramoedya Ananta Toer 352 5 Pramoedya Ananta Toer 342 The tragedy in the novel Things Fall Apart also exemplifies the costs of the colonized countries by Europeans Okonkwo is the wealthy and wellrespected man of the Umuofia clan When Okonkwo s gun spontaneously explodes at a friend s funeral killing a sixteenyearold child he is forced to leave and stay at the native village of his mother6 While in Mbanta six missionaries show up to tell all the natives that all their gods are fake and only pieces of wood They explain their religion and how there is only one God some but not many convert and join these missionaries The white Europeans then throw the leaders in jail and once they are out the clansmen of Umuofia call a meeting to discuss these missionaries During this meeting five messengers order them to refrain from acting and Okonkwo kills one of them because he was trembling with hate 7 When none of the members of his clan follow his lead to attack these court messengers Okonkwo hangs himself behind his compound The reason Okonkwo hung himself is because he did not want to see his clan surrender to the white missionaries without putting up a fight This example of European colonization cost not only the life of Okonkwo but also the unity of Umuofia and all the other clans in lower Niger European industrialization also brought a lot of problems In Chadwick s Report on Sanitary Conditions discussed are the problems that industrialization has produced and the means of correcting them the various forms of epidemic endemic and other disease caused or aggravated or propagated chie y amongst the laboring classes by atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances by damp and filth and close and overcrowded dwellings prevail amongst the population in 6 Chinua Achebe 124 7 Chinua Achebe 204 every part of the kingdom 8 These problems the laboring class is experiencing is due to poor drainage cleansing and ventilation according to Chadwick The bringing about of factories in Europe has caused a lot of deaths and diseases due to the overcrowding of people and unsanitary conditions of the employees In fact Chadwick states that of the 43000 cases of widowhood and 112000 cases of destitute orphanage a big percentage of these deaths were due to the unsanitary conditions9 These crowded conditions he mentions also damage the morals of the population which in turn leads to a less healthy population that could lead to a more uneducated society A thirtysevenyearold woman named Betty Harris was a victim of the European industrialization in England Working from six in the morning to six at night in a coal mine getting an hour dinner of bread and butter at noon and receiving no drink was a few of the terrible work conditions she put up with10 Women and young girls to say the least did not benefit during the era of industrialization the chain passing high up between the legs of two of these girls had worn large holes in their trousers and any sight more disgustingly indecent or revolting can scarcely be imagined than these girls at workno brothel can beat it 11 European industrialization definitely brought upon a severe degree of worse working conditions upon women Never before were women on their hands and knees soaked with water all day and almost if not completely naked 8 Chadwick s Report on Sanitary Conditions Edwin Chadwick httpwwwvictorianweborghistorychadwickZhtml 9 Chadwick s Report on Sanitary Conditions Edwin Chadwick httpwwwvictorianweborghistorychadwickZhtml 10 Women Miners in the English Coa Pits Modern History Sou rcebook httpwwwfordhameduhalsamod1842womenminersasp 11 Women Miners in the English Coa Pits Modern History Sou rcebook httpwwwfordhameduhalsamod1842womenminersasp Women and girls as young as the age of six were forced to work in coal pits smaller than 2 feet tall while getting caked with black dust12 Jules Ferry who is in support of French colonial expansion links all economic ideas the most farreaching ideas of civilization and ideas of a political and patriotic sort to colonial expansion His argument for each of these three sets of ideas brings about great benefits from colonial expansion and industrialization He argues that major industries need more outlets for exports because other countries like Germany and the US are setting up trade barriers13 This idea of Ferry brings about more connections and access to other economies of the world greatly benefitting France He also argues that they need to fulfill their duty as men of a higher race for European nations acquit themselves with generosity with grandeur and with sincerity of this superior civilizing duty14 He even mentions a policy of withdrawal or abstention is simply the high road to decadence In our time nations are great only through the activity they deploy 3 15 This is like of a driving force for European colonization because his ideas of a political and patriotic sort include having places of supply shelter and ports for defense and provisioning In Karl Marx s The Communist Manifesto he views communism as a working class movement There is the proletariat and the bourgeoisie The proletariat is classified 12 Women Miners in the English Coal Pits Modern History Sou rcebook httpwwwfordhameduhalsamod1842womenminersasp 13 On French Colonial Expansion Jules Ferry httpwwwfordhameduhasalmodl1884ferryasp 14 On French Colonial Expansion Jules Ferry httpwwwfordhameduhasalmodl1884ferryasp 15 On French Colonial Expansion Jules Ferry httpwwwfordhameduhasalmodl1884ferryasp as the modern working class while the society of the bourgeoisie came from the ashes of the feudal society and established different types of struggle new classes and new conditions of oppression16 He sees in his society an increase in capitalism and a class struggle while pointing out that the capitalists have the upper hand over the lower class His idea about work is that the workers are being alienated from the things that they create and this process makes everybody work more robotically which in turn can make life sadder17 Marx mentions in his work that he does not understand why the proletariat is complaining because they do not have property to begin with but this industrial and socio revolution takes not just physical property away from the proletariat but also the sense of satisfaction and motivation of creating what they desire to sell18 From 1800 up until about 1914 there was an era of industrialization and imperialism in Europe There was a change to more unsanitary conditions due to industrialization tragedies of natives due to imperialism like in the two novels discussed and the birth of a new bourgeoisie class One could say that the lower class and natives benefitted in a way but the upper and middle class of Europe were the true victors of this time 16 Manifesto of the Communist Party Karl Marx and Frederick Engels httpwwwanueduaupolscimarxclassicsmanifestohtm 17 Manifesto of the Communist Party Karl Marx and Frederick Engels httpwwwanueduaupolscimarxclassicsmanifestohtm 18 Manifesto of the Communist Party Karl Marx and Frederick Engels httpwwwanueduaupolscimarxclassicsmanifestohtm William Decker IAH 202 1 1 10 1 3 In the era of industrialization and imperialism there were many benefits and costs for a variety of people There are many different parties involved and that are affected by this industrialization and imperialism between 1800 and 1914 There are more costs to the middle and lower class workers as to the benefits that the upper classes come into Of course these benefits come at the cost of the lower classes and their quality of life and most importantly their working and home conditions In Chadwick s Report on Sanitary Conditions Chadwick mentions how the laboring classes had horrible conditions in the work force and this was drastically effecting the population 13 years below the natural probabilities of life as shown by the experience of the whole population of Sweden 1This goes to show that the diseases that were spreading through England were severely declining the population rates These atmospheric impurities were caused by rotten vegetables and animals and moist and dirty overcrowded housing However Chadwick goes on to propose ways to stops the disease and filth by the use of proper ventilation better drainage and cleansing and most importantly the improvement of the supplies of water2 Obviously the industrialization in England brought about many costs for the laboring class in this instance Many children 1 Edwin Chadwick quotChadwick s Report on Sanitary Conditionsquothttpwwwvictorianweborghistorychadwick2html 2 Edwin Chadwick quotChadwick s Report on Sanitary Conditionsquothttowwwvictorianwebordhistorvchadwick2html were orphaned and people were dying of disease left and right because of the unsanitary conditions that the factories brought along Another primary source would be Women Miners in the English Coal Pits This article also shows how the industrial era brought upon a lot of hardships for the laboring class during this time She was half sitting half lying at her work and said she found it tired her very much and of course she didn t like it The place where she was at work was not 2 feet high Further on were men lying on their sides and getting No less than six girls out of eighteen men and children are employed in this pit 3 Girls are emphasized in this article because they are being forced to do physical labor which is not normal to most people The article then goes on to describe in detail the life of two different women miners Betty Harris who is 37 at the time explains her life as a miner She earns 7s a week but sometimes not so much and works from 6 in the morning until 6 at night She is able to eat dinner for about an hour at noon which is only bread and butter without a drink She is forced to wear a belt around her waist with a chain passing between her legs while working on her hands and feet The clothes of Betty Harris are usually wet throughout the whole day and her cousin is able to look after her children during the day4 This article does not explain any of the benefits of the industrialization of Europe between 1800 and 1914 It mainly focused on the costs of this era It exemplified how the working conditions of the women in Europe dramatically declined Before this era they 3 quotWomen Miners in the English Coal Pitsquot httpwwwfordhameduhalsamod1842womenminersasp 4 quotWomen Miners in the English Coal Pitsquot httowwwfordhameduhalsamod1842womenminersaso were not working on their hands and knees in the coal mines and definitely not almost naked In Jules Ferry s primary source On French Colonial Expansion he goes into detail about economics the most farreaching ideas of civilization and ideas of a political and patriotic sort His argument for the economic ideas goes along the lines of competition The law of supply and demand freedom of trade the effects of speculation all radiate in a circle that reaches to the ends of earth He also talks about the need for more outlets for exports major industries are lacking more and more outlets and neighbors are setting up trade barriers5 Ferry also explains that European nations acquit themselves with generosity with grandeur and with sincerity of this superior civilizing duty In other words they need to fulfill their duty as men of a higher race In the political sense these Europeans need to have places of supply shelter ports for defense and provisioning along with a policy of withdrawal or abstention is simply the highroad to decadence in his mind6 In other words he thinks that they need to be more active in the world to be great For Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto there was a lot about the benefits of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie Communism in Karl Marx s view was a working class movement in Europe The proletariat is the modern working class while the bourgeoisie is a society that sprouted from the ruins of a feudal society 5 Jules Ferry quotOn French Colonial Expansionquot httpwwwfordhameduhasamod1884ferryasp 6 Jules Ferry quotOn French Colonial Expansionquot httowwwfordhameduhasamod1884ferrvaso and established new classes new conditions of oppression and new forms of struggle in place of the old ones7 This means of production that he talks about is actually the machines in the factories Marx also talks about getting rid of the inheritance tax because the proletariat doesn t really have private property and he doesn t understand why people are even complaining because the proletariat doesn t even have property to begin with Also pointed out in this primary source is the fact that your class identity should be more important to you than your national identity Marx s idea about work is that you are being alienated from the things that you are creating this process kind of makes everybody more robotic kind of making life more sad8 This shows the benefits of the bourgeoisie in the way that the private property would be eliminated and the working class would be joined as one in society It also shows that this industrialization of Europe costs the proletariat or the working class their rights and forces them to become a more robotic type of society They don t work for their own good or even work doing what they like to do Instead they are forced to go to factories and spend their days along with everyone else making money for the bourgeoisie There are many costs and benefits of the various parties involved in the industrialization and imperialism of Europe between 1800 and 1914 In evaluating the many primary and secondary sources provided one can gather that the upper class of this time was benefiting because of the movement of the working class and manufacturing of 7 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels quotManifesto of the Communist Partyquot httpwwwanueduaupolscimarxclassicsmanifestohtm 8 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels quotManifesto of the Communist Partyquot httowwwanueduauDolscimarxclassicsmanifestohtm bulk goods The middle and lower classes were obviously being affected by this time in a negative way too Since the upper class was benefiting the lower classes and groups of people were forced to have worse working conditions and more crowded and filthy9 liVing conditions 0 Chadwick O O Laboring classes 43000 cases of widowhood and 112000 cases of destitute orphanage relieved from the poor s rates in England and Wales alone 13 years below the natural probabilities of life as shown by the experience of the whole population of Sweden Costs That the various forms of epidemic endemic and other disease caused or aggravated or propagated chie y amongst the laboring classes by atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances by damp and lth and close and overcrowded dwellings prevail amogst the population in ever part of the kingdom The high prosperity in respect to employment and wages and various and abundant food have afforded to the laboring classes no exemptions from attacks of epidemic disease which have been as frequent and as fatal in periods of commercial and manufacturing prosperity as in any others That these habits lead to the abandonment of all the conveniences and decencies of life and especially lead to the overcrowding of their homes which is destructive to the morality as well as the health of large classes of both sexes 0 Then Chadwick goes on to say how these conditions can be improved 0 Women Miners in the English Coal Pits O O In England exclusive of Wales Females of all ages from girls of six years old to women of twentyone these females themselves quite naked down to the waist Roundtable Pedagogy Session Teaching philosophy and methods Howl became interested in African and Diaspora Studies 0 My life embodies Africa and one aspectual component of the Diaspora Unlike DuBois claim of two warring bodies one African and on American I nd it a dialectical process a sensible combination and a good t 0 Active Cooperative Learning 0 Alexander Astin completed a study of students at 159 baccalaureate granting institutions land found strong support for the nding that one of the crucial factors in the educational development of the undergraduate is the degree to which the student Not only are students active but there is a cooperation where they can work together 0 Cooperative learning researchers and practitioners have shown that positive peer relationships are Students are actually engaged in critical reading thinking and writing 0 Active and cooperative learning is one war that real learning takes place Some approaches 0 Round table discussion discussion with equal participation Brainstorming collaborative problem solving 0 Student created charts blogs etc vehicle for understanding concepts 0 quotIt s a learning process to where they can go on to higher tasksquot 0 After lecture had them play around with the content role plays talk show it was up to them with how they want to present the information to their peers They were able to use any kind of cameras and upload to youtube to present to the class 0 Why interdisciplinary Because our lives and research cross disciplines which brings depth and richness to the teaching creating a counterhegemonic space for a much needed discourse in classroom contexts Because we are telling our stories which require for example knowing history sociology women s studies linguistics The migration of unprecedented numbers of African academics to American universities This is tied to the overall increased migrations from Africa and other regions with large African diaspora populations such as the Caribbean and South Americaquot 0 Our challenges Selecting course materialscontent that was representative of all Africana regions of the world Selecting course materialscontent from a range of disciplines and teaching from multiple disciplinary sources ldenti ying and selecting key representative themes that constitute formulae a disciplinary study for Africana Studies 0 How did we address these chllenges Geographic Scope 0 Local contexts comparisons and global intersections 0 Selecting materials from three tracks in as much a balanced war as possible THREE TRACKS African American Studies African Studies and African diaspora Studies 0 Topic Readings Eg Race uses DuBois Fanon and Diop 0 Our main book readings Illustrated Diasporic subjectsthemes 0 Barack Obama s Dreams from My Father lnter AND MultiDisciplinary The goal is to 0 Present students with knowledge about Africana Worls through multiple disciplinary sources 0 To integrate multiplysourced knowledge to discern new knowledge s about the multifaceted lived experiences of Africana people communities nations regions Are we a discipline 0 At MSUAAAS we are we confer the degree in African American and African studies equal to the degree in History Politics Englsh Drift Toward War 0 Culmination of competing nationalisms Especially in southeastern Europe 0 Rivalry among empires 0 ln exible diplomatic alliances involving major countriesempires in Europe ln exible Diplomatic Alliances o Agreements of mutual defense 0 Chain reaction for global war 0 Triple AllianceCentral Powers Germany and AustriaHungary 1879 joined by ltalians 1882 0 Triple EntenteAllies Russia France Britain War Plans 0 German Schlieffen plan Fear of encirclement France to be defeated swiftly then attention turned to Russia 0 Conditional on mobilization of enemy forces Immediate Origins of World War 0 june 28 1914assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand 18631914 0 Sarajevo BosniaHerzegovina Occupied by AustroHungarian empire 1878 annexed 1908 Ferdinand in favor of greater Serbian autonomy Outcome of the Assassination 0 First con ict of global proportions o Conservative estimates of 15 million dead 5million non combatants 20 million injured 0 End of empires rise of new countries 0 Massive global economic dislocations 0 End of Europe s domination of globe Alliances tipped the scales towards war 0 Austria s demands Germany s quotBlank Checkquot Russian mobilization triggered the Schlieffen plan WWI began August 1 1914 Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers ltaly does not officially join until 1915 and then on side of Allis Russia France Britain War of Attrition 0 West three years of stalemate Trenches from English channel to Switzerland 0000 0 East more movement treaty of BrestLitovsk in March 1918 places much in Central Powers control but territory lost with defeat in November 1918 New Military Technology 0 Barbed wire 0 Gas First used by German troops 1915 Tanks toward end of war Airplanes primarily for reconnaissance Submarines 0 Continued importance of machine guns Brutality of New Warfare 0 Unprecedented casualties o Verdun 1916 0 At the Somme British gain few thousand yards Total War The Home Front 0 Implications of modern industrial war concept of a quothome frontquot 0 Government takes command of economies 0 Women in the workforce 0 Some bombing of civilian areas but not nearly on the scale of what happens in WWII o Propaganda campaigns Global involvement Importance of troops from colonies Russian Revolution Nicholas II and Alexandra RaspuUn Situation in Russia during WWI Vladimir Lenin Lenin s slogan February Revolution 0 October Revolution Situation in Russia on eve of WWI 0 Least developed of four great powers 0 Only halfway through a rearmament program 0 Strongly polarized Failings and Costs of War 0 Some initial victories but at cost of officer corps in 1914 0 Supply crisis and more losses in 1915 o The tsar ees to the front in 1915 o A growing collapse on the home front in 1916 Discrediting of the Romanov Dynasty 0 Siberian monk Rasputin and his in uence 0 Tsar Nicholas quot ight to the frontquot 1915 o Alexandra and Rasputin in charge 000 000000 o Rasputin s assassination Dec 1916 Collapse of the Russian Empire 0 Russia February Revolution 1917 Provisional government Germany smuggles Lenin into Russia October Communist Revolution Treaty of BrestLitovsk with Germans to end Russian involvement in WWI US Enters the War 0 US and the war economy Sale of goods to the allies Debts to American banks German blockade of British overseas trade Submarine patrols Sinking of Lusitania 7 May 1915 US declares war April 1917 after German submarine warfare resumed Defeat of the Central Powers 0 Fall of 1918 exhaustion of Central Powers troops 0 Bulgaria Ottomans AustroHungarians Germans surrender o Armistice 11 November 1918 Paris Peace Conference 0 Dominated by France Great Britain and the United States No central Powers representation A dictated peace 0 Woodrow Wilson s Fourteen Points 0 Peace treaties harsh on Central Powers 0 Versailles Treatyheavy reparations and quotwar guiltquot clause 0000 0000 The Growth of European Fascism Originates with Benito Mussolini Fascism Common elements 0 Primacy of state over individual Hostility to Communism Chauvinistic Militaristic Opposite of communism quotWanting to gain more territoryquot 0 First Fascist movement rose up in Italy Fascism in Italy 0 PostWWI Italian Government Public disappointed with weak territorial gains Economic and social turmoil o Mussolini former newspaper editor electoral successes in 1921 0 March on Rome October 1922 King Emmanuel III offers him prime ministership o 1926 seizes power as II Duce quotthe leaderquot Weimar Germany 0 November 9 1918 Revolution Bloodless overthrow of the imperial government Social Democratic Party SPD announced a new German republic The Kaiser abdicated Adolf Hitler 18891945 and the Nazi Party 0 1921 becomes chairman of the National Socialist German Worker s Party Nazis o Attempts to overthrow government in 1923 o Capitalizes on public discontent with postwar era and Weimar Republic War guilt clause Reparation payments Inability of major parties to come to consensus AntiSemitism Consolidation of Power 0 Nazis become single largest party in parliament 1930 1932 o Hitler appointed chancellor Suppresses opposition Makes the Nazis the sole legal party Purges judiciary civil service of perceived enemies o The Racial State OOOOO Theories of racial superiority racial purity Policies of eugenics Compulsory sterilization o Abortions illegal for healthy Germans mandatory for quothereditary illquot and racial aliensquot o Euthanasia programpeople with physical or mental handicaps Precursors to massacres ofJews gypsies o AntiSemitism 1935 Nuremburg laws de neJew on racial basis Prohibits marriages between Jews and nonJews Removal ofJews from civil service schools Liquidation ofJewishowned businesses or purchase by nonJews The Making of Industrial Society Energy coal and steam replace wind water human and animal labor a Steam engine Organization factories over cottage industries Rural agriculture decline urban manufacturing increases Transportation trains and automobiles replace animals and watercraft a Then begin luxury transportation for upper classes Economic revolution it changed the way the people lived I Creation of New Classes a Industrial middle classcapitalists i Factory owners b Urban wageworkersproletariat i Those who worked for a wage 1 Worked long hours in very harsh conditions 2 Lived in urban slums c Shift in political power i From aristocrats to industrial middle class of capitalists d Inspiration for new political ideologies especially in Marxism i Marxism places found in many areas of the world in the 20th century ll Unexpected Costs a Beginning of an environmental catastrophe i Human domination over natural resources ii Unforeseen toxins occupational hazards 1 Mainly in textile industry iii Wasn t seen as a bad thing for everybody iv Entrepreneurs and politicians celebrate the toxins b Social ills i Landless proletariat wage workers ii Migrating work forces massive urbanization the creation of urban cities without adequate infrastructure lll Beginning a Great Britain 17805 i Won t move to continent a few decades later ii British agriculture had been transformed to enclosure new techniques to larger privately owned land 1 Forces small land owners off their land 2 Parliament encouraged enclosure b Followed agricultural revolution i Food surplus ii Disposable income iii Population increase 1 Market 2 Labor supply IV British Advantages a Strong banking tradition i Encouragement of the pursuit of wealth ii Banks would encourage loans b Natural resources i Coal and iron ore c Ease of transportation i Size of country ii River and canal system d Exports to imperial colonies i Especially machine textiles ii To get raw materials from the colonies e Population density was tied to where the natural resources were located V CottonProducing Technology a Flying shuttle doubled weaving output b Spinning jenny i Increased supply of yarn c Power loom d Social protest i Luddites smashed machine ii Reformers and novelists publicized deplorable conditions and advocated reforms e Emigration i Part of it had to do with the potato blight 1 Traveled to united states and Australia Vl New Sources of Power a Steam engine i James Watt 17361819 ii Coal red iii Transformed the locomotive Vll Rail Transport a 1804 rst steampowered locomotive 5 mph b In 1830 got up to 16 mph i Carry 70 passengers and 10 tons Vlll Factory System a Machines too largeexpensive for home use b Large buildings could house specialized laborers c Urbanization guarantees supply of cheap unskilled labor XI XII XIII XIV d quotIn the factory there is great working conditions and you don t even have to pay for the place you work in but get paidquot e quotThe more things advance in machinery is putting people out of work employing woman and children putting men out of work This is also leaving children too young to work left unattendedquot Poor Working Conditions a Dramatic shift from rural work rhythms b 6 days a week 14 hours a day c Immediate supervision punishments i Given rules when came to work if lost you had to pay for a new set 1 Had wages docked for just about anything Industrial Europe CA 1850 a Continent had fewer resources in general i Especially coal Big Business a Large factories require startup capital b Corporations formed to share risk maximize pro ts i Corporate law that you have a number of share holders that put in the corporation then in theory the only thing you could lose is the money you put in the corporation c Britain and France lay foundations for modern corporation 18505 to 18605 i Up until 1850 it was Britain that dominated this process ii quotSecond industrial revolutionquot 1 Cheaper and better clothes 2 Telephone in 1876 Fruits of Industrialization a Technological innovation i Led to various discoveries that would change the way people would communicate and travel b Cheap manufactured goods c Travel and transportation Demographic Transition a Decline in birth rates i Some say due to various methods in trying to control birth rates b Costs of living increase in industrial societies c Urbanization proceeds dramatically Development of Slums a Wealthy classes move out to suburbs b Industrial slum areas in city centers XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI c Open gutters as sewage systems i Cholera and typhus d London i Can still see the west end being where the wealthier people moved ii Classes living in the same buildings 1 Rich lived in lower oors 2 Poor being on top Child Labor a Easily exploited b Advantages of size i Push and pull coal out of tunnels in coal mines ii In textile industry for going under the machines to pick up the bits of cotton c Cotton industry 1838 29 of workforce d Factory Act of 1833 9 years minimum working age Socialist and Communist Challenges a Opposed competition of market system b Attempted to create small model communities c Inspiration for larger social units Charles Fourier and Utopian Socialism a Envisioned communes where work enjoyable b Systems of production and distribution without merchants Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels a Two major classes i Capitalists who control means of production ii Proletariat wageworkers who sell labor b Exploitative nature of capitalists in favor of a quotdictatorship of the proletariatquot Social Reform and Trade Unions a Socialism had major impact on 19th century reformers i Reduced property requirements for male suffrage ii Addressed issued of medical insurance unemployment compensation retirement bene ts b Trade unions form for collective bargaining i Strikes to address workers concerns Global Rami cations of Industrialization a Global division of labor b Uneven economic development c Developing export dependencies of Latin America sub Saharan Africa south and southeast Asia Industrialization in Russia a Slower starts on industrial process b Massive railroad construction i TransSiberian railroad c But massive industrial discontent i Peasants uprooted from rural lifestyle to work for low wages long hours XXII Russian Empire in Decline a Russia a massive multicultural empire b Romanov tsars rule autocratic empire c Powerful class of nobles exempt from taxation and military duty d Exploitative serfdom Discussion Questions for Things Fall Apart 1 Do you think Achebe intended for Okonkwo to be an ideal member of his society Compare Okonkwo to his father Unoka What was Okonkwo s relationship with his father How does Okonkwo describe his father a Yes I do think he intended Okonkwo to be an ideal member because even though he was such a hero and warrior idol it didn t matter when his gun was accidently set off and killed another clan member He was forced to follow traditions and ee his clan which then the other clan members came and burnt his compound and killed his animals Okonkwo did not like his father at all His father was a very lazy and unsuccessful man He never tried to grow his crops well and was in a lot of debt to a lot of people He never even repayed his debt to the people he owed before he died Unlike Unoka Okonkwo was a very successful and respected man because ever since a young age he was determined to be a very well respected man and worked very hard for what he had He hated his father and didn t like being associated with him Okonkwo was embarrassed that Unoka was his father and didn t want to be anything like him when he grew older 2 Who was lkemefuma How did he come to live with Okonkwo s family What happened to him and why What was Obierka s reaction What was Nwoye s reaction U39Ilgt a b lkemefuma was a boy that was forced to come live in Ufuoma because a man from his village had killed a man from Okonkwo s villages s daughter He wasforced to live with Okonkwo for three years but then the village oracle decided to kill him Okonkwo didn t have to go but ended up killing lkemefuma probably to make it seem that he wasn t soft Nwoye burst into tears which his father beat him for He sat in his mother s hut the whole day with tears in his eyes Give examples of gender roles and parentchild relationships What contributions for example do the women make to lbo culture How were marriages arranged etc Give examples of lbo religious beliefs and rituals What was the lbo perception of the white man prior to the encounter What are some of the things in the novel that show the British establishing trading posts along the Niger before entering inland 7 6 What happens at Ezeudu39s funeral What does Okonkwo do after the funeral What happens to Okonkwo39s home and possessions and why 8 What happened with the Abame village39s rst encounter with the white man and the iron horse 9 Mr Brown and Reverend Smith had two very different ideas about how to run religious events 10 How did Mr Brown run things give an example or two Why did things start to quotfall apartquot What did Rev Smith advocatedo and how did it differ from Mr Brown 11 9 The District Commissioner tricked the leaders of Umuo a to come quottalkquot and instead arrested them How did this scene cause a further division between the lbo people and the British Who do you think was ignorant of whom and what caused this ignorance 12 What was Nwoye39s relationship with Okonkwo What happened to Nwoye in Part II a He was very fond of Nwoye because he knew how to do everything manly Nwoye ended up betraying his family and becoming a Christian 13 What did Okonkwo do at the end of the book Why a He killed himself because he felt like the whole village was acting like women and he didn t want to live in that kind of society anymore UNIT 3 Empire Capitalism and War Industrial Society 0 From Paper There was the creation of the middle class capitalists otherwise known as the factory owners and bourgeoisie There was also the creation of the proletariat the urban wageworkers Not only did the working conditions of the proletariat decline there was also a decline in birth rates and the cost of living was exponentially increased Chadwick 0 From Paper These unsanitary conditions are due to poor drainage cleaning and ventilation These crowded conditions also damage the morals of the population which in turn leads to a less healthy population that could lead to a less educated society Women Miners 0 From Paper Betty Harris was a victim of the European industrialization in England 0 Worked 6 AM to 6 PM getting an hour dinner of break and butter without drink was a few of the terrible work conditions she put up with Never before were women on their hands and knees soaked with water all day and almost if not completely naked Women and girls as young as the age of six were forced to work in coal pits smaller than 2 feet tall while getting caked with black dust Africa and the Atlantic World 0 O O 0000 Slave raiding in Kongo Portuguese African law didn t recognize private property distinct from Asian and European slavery 10 million Africans leave home land for east coast slave trade Portuguese exchange weapons for slaves 4 million killed or died before arrival Distorted sex ratios Slave families encouraged The New ImperialismBuilding of Global Empires 0 Scramble for Africa 0 Jules Ferry 1875 Europeans have limited presence in Africa 18751900 European powers partition colonize most of the continent increased public interest newspapers Result of the Berlin Conference 0 From Paper He argues that major industries need more outlets for exports because other countries like Germany and the US are setting up trade barriers This idea of Ferry brings about more connections and access to other economies of the world greatly bene tting France Also argues that they need to ful ll their duty as men of a higher race for European nations acquit themselves with generosity with grandeur and with sincerity of this superior civilizing duty This is like a driving force for European colonization because his ideas of a political and patriotic sort include having places of supply shelter and ports for defense and provisioning World War lRussian Revolution lnterwar Years 0 Austria and Germany borrow money from US to pay France and England France and England pay debts owed to US for WWI 0 Karl Marx 0 From Paper Views communism as a working class movement Proletariat is classi ed as the modern working class The society of the bourgeoisie came from the ashes of the feudal society and established different types of struggle new classes and new conditions of oppression Points out that the capitalists have the upper hand over the lower class Says that the workers are being alienated from the things that they create and this process makes everybody work more robotically which in turn can make life sadder Marx mentions that he doesn t understand why the proletariat is complaining because they do not have property to begin with but this industrial and socio revolution takes not just physical property away from the proletariat but also the sense of satisfaction and motivation of creating what they desire to sell Benito Mussolini o Fascism rejects paci sm because quotWar alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts a stamp of nobility upon the people who have courage to meet itquot o Fascism rejects Marxism because he says quotMarxian Socialism is the materialist conception of history of human civilization can be explained simply through the con ict of interests among various social groups and by the change and development in the means and instruments of productionquot 0 Fascism rejects democracy because it says that the majority cannot direct the human society it affirms the inequality of mankind 0 Role of collectivism versus individualism under Fascism Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute in comparison with which all individuals or groups are relative only to be conceived of in their relation to the State The Fascist State organizes the nation but leaves a sufficient margin of liberty to the individual the latter is deprived of all useless and possibly harmful freedom but retains what is essential the deciding power in this question cannot be the individual but the state alone 0 Concluding paragraph from paper 0 From 1800 up until about 1914 there was an era of industrialization and imperialism in Europe There was a change to more unsanitary conditions due to industrialization tragedies of natives due to imperialism and the birth of a new bourgeoisie class One could say that the lower class and natives bene tted in a war but the upper and middle class of Europe were the true victors of this time Cold War Continued 0 Formation of a Bipolar World 0 Soviets argues they had a legitimate claim to Eastern Europe 0 The quotpeople s republicsquot Sympathetic to Moscow Communist party took hold of key positions of power by 1948 o Winston Churchill s quotIron Curtainquot speech Fulton Missouri 1946 o Stalin s reply 0 Poland 0 1944 creation of Lublin government Communist dominated 0 History of con ict between Russians and Poles 0 January 1947 rigged elections 0 By December 1948 oneparty state Czechoslovakia 0 Initially friendly to Moscow because of Western powers abandonment of them in Munich o Stalin left Czechs alone under Fall of 1947 o Communists engineered coup in Prague in February 1948 Yugoslavia o Communists came to power by own efforts underJosip Broz Tito 0 Initially friendly to USSR and modeled 1946 Constitution on USSR s as well as pursuing violence in arresting and executing opponents 0 But Tito s Power threatened Stalin 0 Break in relations 1948 US response to Soviet expansion 0 George Kennan and containment o The Truman Doctrine 1947 Military assistance to anticommunists in Greece Tied the contest for political power to economics 0 German Question 0 Division of postwar Germany especially Berlin Western powers merged occupation zones Soviets feared economic consequences of merger Soviet blockade of Berlin 0 Berlin Airlift o 11 months of air shipments to Berlin beginning June 1948 0 Cold War did not go quothotquot 0 Soviets lifted blockade in summer 1949 0 East Berlin capital of quotGerman Democratic Republicquot o Bonn capital of quotFederal Republic of Germanyquot Marshall Plan 1948 0 13 billion of aid for industrial development in Europe over four years 0 Building block of future European economic unity o Offered to countries with communist governments but not accepted Arms Race 0 Soviets tested an atom bomb in 1949 o By 1953 Both US and USSR test hydrogen bomb 1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima explosion Mutually assured destruction MAD Mutual Defense Pacts 0 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO 1949 0 Warsaw Treaty Organization Warsaw Pact 1955 Space Race 0 October 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik l November 1957 Sputnik II and Laika o Embarrassed US fears of being behind Soviets in science and mathematics 0 January 1958 Americans launch small satellite into orbit 0 Foundation of NASA 1958 Khrushchev and quotthe thawquot 0 Death of Stalin March 1953 o Nikita Khrushchev in power by 1956 0 Secret Speech 1956 Denounced Stalinist excesses 19561959 Camps released thousands of prisoners Repression in Eastern Europe 0 Poland 1956 Demands for more economic independence Government responded military repression and promises of liberation Wladyslaw Gomulka pledged Poland s loyalty to the Warsaw Pact Hungary 1956 o lmre Nagy nationalist and communist Much broader anticommunist struggle Attempted to leave Warsaw Pact Soviet troops entered Budapest on November 4 1956 Hungarian citizens resorted to street ghting O 0000 o Soviets installed Janos Kadar Construction of the Berlin Wall 1961 0 19491961 35 million East Germans ed to West Germany 0 Especially younger highly skilled workers 0 August 1961 construction of wall separating East and West 0 Symbol of the Cold War 0 Prague Spring 1968 0 Alexander Dubcek quotSocialism with a human facequot Encouraged debate within the party artistic freedom and less censorship o Leonid Brezhnev Soviets sent tanks into Prague in August 1968 o Brezhnev doctrine right to invade any socialist country threatened by elements quothostile to socialismquot o Solidarity movement in Poland 1980 0 Workers movement 0 Independent trade union 0 Strikes and demonstrations 0 General Jaruzelski declares martial law 1981 o Leaders arrested union outlawed End of the Cold War 0 President Ronald Reagan in office 19811989 Promoted massive military spending beyond Soviet economy to keep up 0 Soviet leader Mikhail S Gorbachev in office 19851991 implemented reforms Economic perestroika restructuring Social glasnostquotopennessquot Repudiation of Brezhnev doctrine o The Wall Comes Down 1989 o Revolutions in Eastern and Central Europe 0 Solidarity movement opposed Polish Communist Party rule forced multiparty elections 1989 0 Hungary Miklos Nemeth led 19881990 New reform government Barbed wire border with Austria taken down East Germans allowed to cross border 0 Multiparty free elections in 1990 0 East Germany Economic degradation lllegal emigration to West Demonstrations GDR 40th ann Celebration quotGorby Gorbyquot Decision to open the Berlin Wall Nov 89 East and West Germany reunite 1990 0 Also fall of Communist governments in Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Romania in late 1989 Collapse of the Soviet Union 0 Baltic republics seceded 0 August 1991 attempted coup 0 Twelve more republics follow 0 Soviet Union effectiver ceased to exist on December 8 1991 Formation of CIS Russia Belarus Ukraine 0 Gorbachev resigned on December 25 1991 New Europe and Globalization New Europe Eastern Europe in 19905 0 Eastern European countries hoped for Economic prosperity and political pluralism 0 Reality was Uncertainty after German uni cation in late 1990 Free market brought in ation unemployment and protest Ethnic minorities waged campaigns for autonomous rights Ethnic and religious con ict Yugoslavia o Federalist structure began to unravel after Tito s death 1980 o Uneven economic growth Croatia and Slovenia most prosperous Serbia BosniaHerzegovina and Kosovo lag behind o Slobodan Milosevic 19412006 Serb nationalist o Wars of secession ethnic cleansing genocide After the fall of the Soviet Union to 2000 0 Food shortages falling value of the ruble 0 Free enterprise brought crime corruption the black market and a lower standard of living Migration Patterns 0 Rural areas depopulating to urban regions Creation of slums Immigration for economic reasons Refugees eeing war poverty Guests workers Former colonies to colonial center 0 Former Soviet bloc to Western Europe European Union 0 27 member states 0 Fortress Europe 0 Turkeythe eternal candidate OOOOO 1 William Decker IAH 202 12313 White Teeth Assignment Samad is convinced that his great grandfather Mangal Pande is a hero in the sense that he fired the first bullet to begin the uprising in India against the English Samad was referred to a book by his nephew Ranju which contained information about Pande This book claimed His selfsacrifice gave the siren to the nation to take up arms against an alien ruler culminating in a massuprising with no parallel in world history 259 Samad is in a constant fight to save Mangal Pande s reputation against other legends 250 This is why Samad gets angry when Archie speaks his opinion on Pande Archie argues with Samad that the truth about Pande is the complete opposite Archie claims that Pande was drunk and causing a lot of excitement in the crowd of Sepoys Pande shot his musket at his lieutenant missing him and then slashing him on the shoulder with his sword After a failed attempt at suicide he was found guilty on trial and hung 255 It all started when Clara met Ryan Topps and they started dealing with each other 37 After Clara was held back from class and missed a meeting with Ryan she went home to find that her mother Hortense Bowden had invited him in 40 Clara began to change and over ensuing months Clara s mind changed Clara s clothes changed Clara s walk changed Clara s soul changed 37 Hortense then successfully converted Ryan to a Jehovah s Witness Clara hated to see Ryan Topps change so much from the boy he used to be for he started ignoring her and dressing different 41 Clara didn t see anything left for her after her mother and Ryan became close friends trying to save Clara What now for Clara Ryan would find another fad Darcus need only turn to the other channel for Hortense another date would of course materialize along with more lea ets even more faith But Clara was not like Hortense 45 Samad thought of himself as a war hero because he was the blood of Mangal Pande I should be soaring with the Royal Airborne Force shelling from on high I am an officer Not some mullah some sepoy wearing out my chappals in hard service 87 However he was prevented from becoming an officer because a gun went off while in a trench and shot him through the wrist crippling his hand and placing him in the unfeted bridgelaying division 89 Archie first saw Samad before they were assigned to each other in a war tank in Russia Archie could not stop staring at Samad 83 A week went by in the tank with Archie still gazing when Samad asked My friend what is it you find so darned mysterious about me that it has you in such constant revelries 84 After the tank broke down they wandered into the Bulgarian village only to figure out that World War II had already ended two weeks before 105 Archie and Samad became true friends when Samad told Archie the centuryold story about his greatgrandfather who meant so much to Samad 98 It shows that the white English people and the Indian people are attracted to each other in some cases even though it might be weird in their cultures When Samad is being somewhat interrogated by Shiva to get Samad to say what s bothering him Samad admits that he is obsessed with Poppy BurtJ ones 144 When Samad says that Poppy is an English woman Shiva replies that the relationship will never work because there was Too much bloody history 146 The Harvest Festival plays a very important role in the Iqbal family it in a way stimulates the events that decide Magid and Millat s fates Samad is a parent govemor and during a school governors meeting he puts forth his thirteenth motion This motion was to drop the Harvest Festival because it is not a Christian Festival and it would allow students more time to celebrate other religious holidays 129 After the meeting Poppy BurtJ ones told Samad that she agreed that the Harvest Festival was ridiculous 132 This is when Samad first meets Poppy and becomes obsessed with her and later on has an affair with her When he meets with Poppy on a park bench Magid and Millat see him with another woman 182 Then Samad claims that he sees his two sons every time he is with Poppy Samad sees rebellion in the two boys and doesn t want them to be corrupt when they grow up 190 Mickey then suggest that Samad send them back to India to have em learn about their fucking culture have em grow up with some fucking principles 191 When Magid is showing Mr J P Hamilton the food they have Mr Hamilton says that he cannot eat any of it because he neglected to brush his teeth in the army and he now has false teeth 171 He asks Magid Millat and Irie how many times a day they brush their teeth and Millat is the only one to tell the truth that he does once a day Mr Hamilton then implies that having rotten teeth might be wiser in some cases because when I was in the Congo the only way I could identify the nigger was by the whiteness of his teeth 171 He says that this is the reason they died and he survived Meanwhile Irie started to cry and said that she wanted to go home because he was explaining in detail how the boys guts were on his shoes during the war When Millat spoke up to say that his dad was in the war fighting for England Mr Hamilton shuts him down Mr Hamilton assures them that there were no Pakistanis in the war for he wouldn t have been able to eat the rich food Pakistanis eat 172 After Mr Hamilton calls Millat and Magid liars and that their teeth will rot Millat kicks the teatray over and the three children leave 173 Samad didn t want his two boys to grow up to be corrupt like him He wanted to send them back to India to learn principles and about their culture Roots were what saved the ropes one throws out to rescue drowning men to Save Their Souls And the further Samad himself oated out to sea pulled down to the depths by a siren names Poppy BurtJ ones the more determined he became to create for his boys roots on shore deep roots that no storm or gale could displace 193 Unfortunately Samad could only afford to send one of the two boys This destroyed the unity of the Iqbal family To begin it made Alsana despise Samad and never directly speaking to him 213 The kidnapping also made the twins Magid and Millat grow up in different environments resulting in two completely different people Millat joined the violent group KEVIN and Magid became educated and interested in science According to Samad Millat s father the trouble with Millat was he is the second son late like a bus late like cheap postage the slowcoach the catchup kid losing that first race down the birth canal and now simply a follower by genetic predisposition by the intricate design of Allah the loser of two vital minutes that he would never make up not in those allseeing parabolic mirrors not in those glassy globes of the godhead not in his father s eyes 217 KEVIN is an acronym for the Keepers of the Eternal and Victorious Islamic Nation This is a group that Millat joins and Samad is not proud of 352 9 I do believe that there is still a force of hate against the British people from the immigrants from former British colonies Alsana gets furious that Millat is spending so much time with the Chalfens she says The English are the only people who want to teach you and steal from you at the same time 356 Mickey the butcher also shows a sense of anger towards the white British men Men are always coming in to his shop at least once a week to beat him up and steal his money The nal straw was when they set his shop on re after tying him up and throwing him down stairs One thing was certain to Mickey all the men that abused him were white quotHe wanted a little payback For Himselfquot 473 10 From the moment she met Millat Mrs Chalfen was very intrigued by him She wanted to bring the best out of Millat Mrs Chalfen wanted to convert Millat into quotChalfenism beliefquot Mrs Chalfen and Joshua try to convince Millat that the Chalfens bring out the best in people Mrs Chalfen said that she wanted the headmaster to allow her to mentor him because the Chalfens quotKnow how to bring the right things out of peoplequot 326 11 This seems to me as more of a cultural clash to me Alsana discusses how she wakes up in a puddle of sweat because she is scared that her son Millat will marry someone who isn t from Bengali and that her grandchildren will do the same so that their culture will be practically nothing to her family by the time she has greatgrandchildren Samad states that he can see rebellion in his sons and that they aren t close enough with god 12 Mostly the prejudice comes from the English people criticizing the Indians When Millat tries to buy a ticket to Bedford the ticket master calls him a quotPakiquot 452 Black women s salons are also a type of prejudice because the women are paying more to look good like the English women 278 There s also an instance when Mickey is beat up at his shop by the white men and they steal his money 253 This mainly against groups of different ethnicity in London from the whites to anyone of color I believe that all this prejudice still arises from the frustrations of British colonialism 13 This means that after Sir Edmund s experiment failed the jamaicans began to blend in with the English The jamaicans even started to put on shows in the British Empire Exhibition almost showing how archaic they used to be This quote shows that they became so English in their own minds that they weren t disappointed to show the true English the old jamaican ways 307 The history of the children s school Glenard Oak was very interesting After Sir Edmund Flecker Glenard became rich from his tobacco farms he wanted to give back to people for a feeling of goodwill He wanted to give back to quotThe ones he could see from his window Out there in the field 252 Sir Edmund was touched by the jamaican s devotion to Christianity but saw that they lacked education 252 He built a small annex church and sent Jamaicans to North London to see what worship was like 14 Millat and Magid are similar in looks for they are twins and they both have different views from their father Magid decides to become more educated after being sent to Bangladesh by his father He also believes and works on the mouse project along with Mr Chalfen Millat however wants to be a gangster after watching Goodefellas and talking to his friend about joining KEVIN 268473 Millat s group is out to stop Magid and the mouse project because he doesn t think that it is right 464 15 Dr Sick was actually names Dr MarcPierre Perret He was a scientist for the Nazis during the war 106 After winning all sorts of things while gambling Samad decides to trade all of it back to the Russians in exchange for the doctor 118 Samad then convinces Archie to kill the doctor but when Archie and the doctor walk away Archie gets convinced by Dr Sick to not kill him 121 535 The doctor is at the presentation of the mouse project by the scientists when Archie steps in front of Millat s gun to protect the doctor Samad sees the doctor and says quotYou two faced buggering bastard trickster misa mata bhainchute shora baicha syutmorani haram jaddaquot 533 White Teeth Assignment Assignment Provide short essay answers to each questionseries of questions based upon YOUR careful reading of the novel Cite to page numbers for support using parentheticals example 16 DO NOT USE ANY OUTSIDE SOURCES Submit only the answers to the questions do not include the questions themselves to the Turnitin dropbox on the date due BEFORE class meets and bring a paper copy to class to turn in 1 What significance does Samad39s great grandfather play in history and in Samad39s life 2 Describe what happened to Clara to drive her away from her old life family religion etc and into Archie39s 3 How did Samad view himself and his place in life What does he tell Archie early on in their friendship and how do the two of them meet 4 Samad39s affair with PoppyBurtJ ones certainly shows us something of his character but what does it show us about the culture clash in England Hint Shiva made his own judgment on the situation What was it 5 What significance did the harvest festival have in the lives of the Iqbal family members 6 One small side story in the reading was the story of the children39s visit to Mr Hamilton What happened during this visit Relate it to the various themes of the book 7 Why did Samad quotkidnapquot his son What effects did this have on the Iqbal family 8 What was quotthe trouble with Millatquot What was KEVIN 9 Do you think all of these immigrants from countries that were once British colonies still have some anger or frustration against the British people Does any character such as Samad Alsana or anyone else show this How does colonization continue to play a role in their lives 10 What was Mrs Chalfen trying to accomplish in her mentorship of Millat 11 Is the clash between the three generations Samad and Archie Alsana and Clara Irie and the twins more of a culture clash or more of a generational clash 12 What different types of prejudice can you identify in the book What does it arise from Is it against individuals or groups 13 Interpret this quote quotthey were more English now more English than the English by virtue of their disappointmentsquot 255 What do you think about the history of the children39s school 14 What do Millat and Magid want out of life How are they similar and how are they different 15 Who is Dr Sick and what role does he play in the novel UNIT 4 The New Globalization 0 World War II Decolonization 0 Vietnam Colony of France since late 18005 Occupied by Japanese during WWII The Geneva Accords Indochina divided North Communist South 0 Authoritarian Nixon Doctrine in 1969 US withdrawal in 1973 Paris Peace Accords British encouraged development of Muslim League 1906 to blunt Congress Indian National Congress Mohandas Gandhi Passive resistance Muhammad Ali 0 Muslim League 0 Creation of State of Israel Jewish and Arab pressure drives British to hand Palestine over to United Nations for a resolution 0 Ghana Independence in 1957 rst in subSaharan Africa 0 Kenya Kikruyu ethnic group begins attacks on British and quotcollaborationistquot Africans 1947 0 South Africa After Nelson Mandela was released from prison the 1994 elections brought the African National Congress 0 Battle of Algiers o How does the violence escalate in the movie Who do the Algerians initially target Within their community Toward the French settlers o What are French and Algerian tactics in this battle The FLN successfully applied hitandrun tactics in accordance with guerilla warfare theory Whilst some of this was aimed at military targets a signi cant amount was invested in a terror campaign against those in any way deemed to be supporting or encouraging French authority 0 Why did France ght so hard to hold onto their colonies in Vietnam and Algeria In Vietnam the US pressured France to defeat the communists before leaving the colony which France obviously failed Algeria had a strong sentimental signi cance as it was the rst French colony of the second empire Target alcoholics and prostitutes and pimps 0 First you have them targeting people in their community then people outside their community 0 They start bombing civilian places like the bars and airports where there is a large number of civilians 0 They have a pyramid structure they only know the person that recruited them and the two people they recruited 0 Children are serving as messengers 0 Women would take bombs through the barbed wire checkpoints because they dressed up so they look pro French 0 Wiki Algerian War 19541962 Against the French Government in North Africa French army paratroopers to hunt the National Liberation Front FLN O o Chris s notes FLN tries to start resistance July 2ncl 1962 Algeria was born Algeria wants independence French coming off defeat in Vietnam Uses torture to bring down FLN Cold War 0 Origins Intervention by countries that oppose communist rrevolution would rather keep Russia a capitalist country 0 US and Britain intervention on Russian revolution 0 US attitude for foreign entanglements was to stay out which is the source of the European dppression they were dependent on the US cash ow 0 Wall Street Crash Immediate consequences in Europe as well 0 FDR recognizes Soviet Union as a legitimate country 0 Moscow Trials O O Stalin is eliminating any real or perceived enemies NaziSoviet Pact Nonaggression pact with the idea that the western powers weren t going to go to war as long as Hitler was only going east Hitler breaks the pact Hitler invades the Soviet Union because it was a racial component an idea that the Slavs were inferior Stalin wanted a buffer zone after WWII Stalingrad Month long battle between the Nazi party and its allies against the Soviet Union Katyn Germans wanted to split up the pact and they dug up Polish officers that the Soviet Union supposedly killed Percentages Agreement Between Russia and Britain Basically Western allies against soviet in uence Potsdam conference Truman s concerns Soviet argues they had a legitimate claim to Eastern Europe Poland 1944 communist dominated 1948 oneparty state Czechoslovakia lnitially friendly to Moscow because of Western powers abandonment of them in Munich Stalin left Czechs alone under Fall of 1947 Yugoslavia Communists came to power underJosip Tito Modeled 1946 constitution on USSR s as well as pursuing violence in arresting and executing opponents Tito s power threatened Stalin Break in relations in 1948 US response to Soviet expansion Truman Doctrine 1947 0 Military assistance in Greece Postwar Germany divided berlin Soviet blockade of berlin feared economic consequences of western powers merging Marshall Plan 13 billion of aid for industrial development OO 0 building block of future European economic unity offered to communist governments Arms race Soviets and US test hydrogen bomb NATO 1949 Space race Khrushchev and the thaw Denounced Stalinist excesses Hungary Attempted to leave warsaw pact Soviet troops entered 1956 Berlin wall 1961 35 million East germans ed to west Germany symbol of the cold war Prague Spring 1968 Dubcek Encouraged debate within the party less censorship Brezhnev Soviets sent tanks into Prague 1968 Brezhnev doctrine right to invade any socialist country threatened by elements quothostile to socialismquot End of cold war Reagan promoted massive military spending soviet economy couldn t keep up Gorbachev implemented economic restructuring social openness Wall comes down 1989 East and West Germany reunite in 1990 Fall of Communist governments in Bulgaria Czechoslovakia and Romani in late 1989 Soviet Union effectively ceased to exist on December 8 1991 Formation of CIS Winston Churchill O O 0 quotIron Curtainquot Separated communism The Soviet Union from the western part of the Union Churchill thinks that the Soviet Union doesn t want to go to war again but they still want to spread their in uence Says that English speaking countries need to take a stand against Soviet expansionism Joseph Stalin O Compares Churchill to Hitler because Hitler began to set war loose by announcing his racial theory declaring that only people speaking the German language represent a fully valuable nation He gives credit to the Soviet union for the defeat of Germany because he says that the Soviet Union lost more men than Britain and the United States together He says that the in uence of the Communists grew because during the hard years of the master of fascism in Europe Communists slowed themselves to be reliable daring and selfsacri cing ghters against fascist regimes for the liberty of people 0 The New Europe and New Globalization 0 0 Eastern Europe in 19905 Eastern European countries hoped for Economic prosperity and political pluralism Reality was 0 Free market brought in ation unemployment and protest 0 Ethnic and religious con ict Yugoslavia Federalist structure began after Tito s death in 1980 Uneven economic growth Wars of secession ethnic cleansing genocide After the fall of the Soviet Union to 2000 there were food shortages free enterprise brought crime corruption black market lower standard of living Migration patterns Rural to urban Slums Immigration for economic reasons Former Soviet bloc to Western Europe European Union 27 member states Turkey the eternal candidate 0 Journey of Hope 0 O O O Haydar In Turkey Trying to get to Switzerland because it provides a chance for a better life Train ship car truck foot toward Switzerland Take on boy of many children
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