ESRMNotes2.pdf ESRM 101
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This 43 page Bundle was uploaded by Rebecca Corsino on Thursday November 6, 2014. The Bundle belongs to ESRM 101 at University of Washington taught by Kristiina Vogt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in College of the Environment at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/06/14
Symbolism in Trees O4O22013 Reverence cultural traditions past societies have that they past down the rules of how society functions trees important Venerating them as sacred because Beauty and immensity Survive longer then human life span Mythologicalreligious symbolism Value something you re not going to get rid of it Forests are not part of one culture but many cultures all over the world India only place you can find water sometimes are trees in ancient burial sites Why do humans value treesforests and have a psychological link to them Trees go through cycles like humans and live longer Lasts several generations of people Enlightenmentknowledge from trees Societies always dependent on forests Potentially 700 years Native Americans talk to grandparentsancestors carried knowledge through generations to determine age Tree rings count the rings to tell the age Symbolism White for youth Red for middle years Black for the wisdom of old age and death When a child is born they plant a tree If the tree is sick ask the kid It the kid is sick take them to the tree for healing When you are born you are linked to a tree You can not get married until the tree fruits Die the spirit goes into the tree to help protect rest of community Rationale linking a persons life to a tree Drought do to the growth of a tree Means you can t support a family with food and etc Trees relate to level of life Symbolism Druids oak tree was important Ancienct Egyptians sycamore tree Mistletoelove Badur god of peace beauty tranquility Death by mistletoe Snorra edda in 1220 CE in Iceland this was a teach yourself book to write poems but had a prologue describing the creation of the world and the pagen gods who ruled there Ash tree used tree stems to make man and women Tree of LIFE ash tree Had 4 deer run on branches eat its buds4 winds Wise eagle flapping causes winds Serpent lurks and gnaws at roots and protects tree Squirrel runs up and down tree exchanges insults or messages between the wise eagle and the serpent 3 roots of ash tree gods realm kingdom of the frost giants realm of the dead odin hung himself from the tree of life for 9days to gain runes of knowledge the world tree yggdrasil Half man half horse Silva forests trees of a certain area Silvican of or pertaining to forests forestry Many products that have high economy value in global markets Forestwater Good hiding places during civil conflicts if not want to live in society has survival resources at no cost Medieval times people were afraid of the forests yet revered them Getting rid was very important when you had something else coming in such as trees Get rid of symbols of old religion for new religion Lose the oak trees History of Fear and Exploitation of the Forests O4O22013 Fear of Forests Why History of Fear and Exploitation of the Forests 04022013 Symptoms are similar to asthmapanic attack Fairy tales from children Little red riding hood Hansel and Gretel is a tale of separation anxiety an essential fear in children WENDGO comes from the native American Algonquian language meaning evil spirit Do you think that being afraid of the forest is relevant for indigenous communities no they are not afraid EITHER No impact on forests since people avoid going into forests Total destruction of forests ie get rid of them Historical forest over exploitation societal collapse SUMARIA Human food security lost Over exploitation of forests and environmental degradation 0 13 recorded epic recounting a mythological story recorded over 4000 years ago on 11 clay tablets and was entitled the epic of Gilgamesh History of Fear and Exploitation of the Forests 04022013 describes over exploitation of the cedar forests in present day mesopotamia after killing the demon they cut down the trees and floated them back to the great city of uruk founded the great city of UR at the peak of the bronze age Producing bronze dramatically increased the need for wood to fuel the foundry furnaces Used the Euphrates and Tigris rivers to float logs Human civilization ended when over exploitation of the forest caused for poor soil and crops collapse j Over exploitation of forests and environmental degradation Human food security lost Societal collapse one of several explanations is over exploitation of forests 2 to deforestation caused by building of large statues for religious purposes Easter island has not supported native species since 1962 Wood used to build Massive sleds to hold the statues Wooden skids looked like giant ladder laird from quarry to the site Fibrous tree bark used to make ropes pulled by 50500 people Wood also used for a lot of other things To cremate the dead Everyday life activities Build boats to go fishing and make the fishing hooks No environmental degradation History of Fear and Exploitation of the Forests 04022013 No human food security loss Mainly controlled and used by rulers for hunting or private reserves During this period forests had little economic value and were given away by noblemen especially to the church Roman Catholic church in particular the Benedictine order have an important role to play in deforestation and at the same time developing good forest stewardship practices in Europe Pray and Work It is the way that new monasteries budded off that is interesting to why European forests began to be cut down As monasteries grew the monks felt crowded and would leave in groups of 12 to the forests New groups would clear it and build new huts and new people would move into the area to the huge monasteries The monks tamed the forest landscape Coppicing Pollarding Used this method to regrow the tree to keep on cutting it due to its sprouting Result Stimulated European industrialization and dominance of global trade routes and resource supplies European countries became political powers and conquered other countries using timber resources Europe Over Exploitation History 04022013 Competition to control resources Power and Dominance Collapse for some Meanwhile in Europe Major periods of colonization to north and south America countries Main reason for exploitation of forests in other countries was due to marine time building such as ships and manufacturing weapons Colonization and consumption of someone else s resources They invented and designed an ocean traveling ship called the caravel Advancements in navigation Portuguese s were the first to navigate using latitudes Originally got wood from Madeira Madeira was discovered by Portuguese Considered the first dfiscovery of the exploratory period initiated by henry the navigator of Portugal E Converted madeira into a vineyard after deforestation Becomes important in the US because US didn t have win and vineyards became dependent Drank madeira wine while signing declaration Industrialization was fueled by forest materials Locally available supplies of wood Insufficient to industrialize England became one of the most powerful Henry VII and Henry VIII Europe Over Exploitation History 04022013 British navy depended on the hanseatic league for planking masts to build ships But they couldn t control these supplies and had to compete with other European countries I married Catherine because Arthur died but she never bore him a sun how wives started from this He had a full treasury and he made lots of enemies so he decreed England would have an arms industry and a first class navy To build a ship was 2 into shapes to provide specific ship parts the Mary Rose warship from 1600s that could shoot broadside Need more wood conquest of foreign lands for their wood the use of wood to maintain their status to industrialize Shipworms would grab onto the ship and destroy them eating the wood British 0 was continued in the American colony American colonists did not like the policy and ignored it species resistant to fungi insects and shipworms it s a tree native to india and Burma British desperately wished to gorw it and manage it In their favor teak grew in forests of the british empire in the In North America Progress forests had no value for someone who wanted to farm the lands and farming was a civilized activity to pursue Fears these lands were scary places that needed to be tamed and where wild animals would see humans as a food source needed to be killed Woman has technology and is leading people west Being followed by the railroad and new things towards the forests Europe Over Exploitation History 04022013 Forests are dark with native americans and wildlife not civilized Light is the new European influences and technology civilized Spirit of the frontier Progress The logical outcome for the fight for survival resulted in progress PRACTICING AGRICULTURE BEING CIVILIZED Evolving Story O4O22013 Long term history of societal protection of some resources Mismanagement and corruption in resource consumption Environmental values rising Mauryan Empire Inda Ashoka developed a policy of protecting natural resources First ruler in history to advocate conservation measures for wildlife Pliny the Elder Roman emperor Hadrian of the roman empire worried about dwindling timber supply of the Lebanese and ammanus He declared a portion of the area as a timber reserve Traditional sacred Groves Place where village deity resides and protects community also has survival resources that community controls protects its uses Temple Groves Created around a temple and conserved Groves around burial or cremation grounds India has about 13270 sacred groves Ayyanar temple on the way to Pondicherry Materials collected or protected in groves Non timber products grazing honey beeswax Hunting grounds Normans England 1079 china Persia Romania 1457 Conservation of soil and water japan 1500 s Switzerland and Austria 1800 s Communities would protect the forests and groves Regulated by cultural taboos and constraints passed down through oral history Evolving Story O4O22013 13 of the worlds largest cities rely on protected watersheds for their water supply Parts of west Africa the only forest remaining is in protected areas Parks were designed as public space using public lands held in trust be a government Parks were designed for public recreation or as wilderness areas It did not protect locally consumed resources by local communities Indigenous peoples were dispossessed Un environmenta and corrupt benefits of public laws and rule To control new conquered lands US government gave federal or public domain Land given away in place of money Privatization minimize government control of citizens How the land was disposed off is what stimulated the development of conservation values Emily Dickinson nature poetry Hudson River school Painting Thomas Cole 18011848 Mismanagement of forests caused public outcry and call for change because Corruption and misallocation Give aways to railroads Lands not given away according to best use Deforestation Railroads sold land to timber barons Evolving Story 04022013 Timber barons had a cut and run policy Fires Drought Sparks from train engines Slash waste from timber harvest created additional fuel Us National Park Lack of public support First reservation of wild lands to be visited for recreation purposes only Park system only happened because two men managed to us congress to visit these lands with lavish outingspicnics Stephan Mather congress charmer Horace Albright the administrator Establishing Yellowstone national park was a war on native Americans Established on federal government set aside land public domain lands Native Americans were relocated who had used the park area going back more then 11000 years HOWEVER the us conservation movement and sustainable forest management practices did not arise from the park concept In 1907 Pinchot was appointed by teddy Roosevelt as chief of conservation movement There is the inherent right of Latin American people to enter and hold government land or neighboring land If the land is held long enough title is given to the holder I The moors of northern Africa invaded the Iberian peninsula in 710 Moors came in and took over have war with Spain Conclusion after 800yrrs or 30 generations Spain and Portugal became nations of fighters best and most brutal fighters the world had ever known Evolving Story pt 2 04022013 Shift from forest ownershipcontrol by ruling classgovernments to pricate owners Evolving Story pt 2 04022013 Democratization of forest uses originated in industrialized countries but only during the last 20 years Forests highly coupled to environmentalconservation value conflicts Industrialized consumers attempting to impose their values and regulate resource policies in supplier countries using global markets after failed trade embargoes Certificationempowered rural communities who were able to link to international organizations and pass the government filter of information but not more revenues Active participation of public in policy and management decisions regarding forests and ecosystems services derived from forests oxygen water wildlife forests ecosystems services do not have to only provide human benefits with some exceptions forests mostly owned by ruling classes governments barons Ruling classes set aside forests as their own private and exclusive hunting preserves Reasons to hunt social interactions amp war training skills Local peasants were kept out of forests Nobel woman would go hunting cudgets clubs were used for clubbing small game in particular by women Done for recreation didn t need the meat Forests exist in France today due to the sun king Plant a lot of trees to help support ports thanks to Jean Baptiste Colbert ruling on waters and forests Hunting Evolving Story pt 2 04022013 Collective use of forest to provide material for building warships Had their own big oak trees within their country boarders Today oak constructs lots of wine barrels j Destroy someone else s forests because of not wanting them to increase their military capacity Democratization of forests uses in the US Suggested environmental problems due to Overconsumption of resources by society Unlimited industrial growth lnequity in distribution and consumption of resources Development orientatedmake money professional foresters focus on timber only iron triangle forest services congress industry Organized environmental movements New environmental laws Increased participation by public in policymaking Biologists ecologists hydrologists archeologists and sociologists joined foresters in managing public lands Voluntary third party assessment that forests materials were collected sustainably Evolving Story pt 2 04022013 A stamp that would allow a buyer to know when and type of sustainable practices used to produce products This was a market based solution where the buyer can buy using their values Industrialized countries develop the assessment tools and determine what criteria to use benefits the most Starbucks hire 3 party organizations to certify that coffee growers satisfy environmental principles Supports more diverse biodiversity acts as wildlife grows Starbucks preferred supplier status ultimately hinges on growing Arabica beans and no blemishes on beans Carrot and stick approach of industrialized countries work A competitive advantage as the bloc pushes for tighter regulation of timber imports Has not worked well since people are not willing to pay more for forest and no forest products Certification has empowered local communities who now have a voice with international organizations resulting in empowering these communities but not more market share Indonesia is a oil exporting country and is supplying their own needs Empowerment of local communities Local people forged ilinks to be together with their local land and product Data becomes important today Knowing the fact is powerful Recognized by public as well or sustainably managed forest But not more money Continuing Threads HDI O4O22013 Societies want to make better choices More sustainable environment Human Development Index important to know High HDI increases human ability to adapt to change Sustainability means not reducing our choices to adapt to change or disturbances More forest higher HDI Norway 137 forest whereas Hong Kong is 21 with 17 forest Russia 65 49 Brazil 73 614 o due to intense heatcold Lots of forest in medium HDI High HDI have lower forest cover than Medium HDI Medium HDI have the highest forest cover and also the highest amount of 2 2 remaining Low HDI have similar forest cover to high HDI but are losing their forests rapidly in the last decade 3 myths high population densities equate to unsustainable choices countries ranked highly developed are making more environmental choices people living in rural areas are not sustainable because they consume local resources especially from forests no relationship between HDI and population density at high or low population desities India vs Japan vs Netherlands Sweden vs Sudan vs Finland Competing choicces Electricity and jobs Endangered species Continuing Threads HDI 04022013 Rural community lifestyles Economy in 2009 Economic tailspin of one of western Europe s worst which began with a banking crisis that started in 2008 E Bandage to control a symptom and not treat the disease lndustrializehigh HDI country 21 rural 1520 food 8085 Energy Low HDI country 60 rural 2065 food nonelittle for energy High HDI countries do not value labor or rural jobs The less labor in agriculture and forestry or the more labor in service industries the higher the HDI rank Z Consuming more or less then a comparable group living under a similar environment Story of Finland Chine and Russia Finland wanted more forests and protected areas Russian wanted to sell timber due to having so much China became number one exporter of wood products Russia forest area was decreasing at a rate of 3 annually Forest biodiversity decreasing in Scandinavian countries Past Present Future O4O22013 Sustainability from past civilization Collapse after you over consume local resources Get your resources somewhere else Gilgamesh kind of sumer Cut down cedar forests and over exploited the cedar Remember exploitation by colonialism How do you know what to focus on to make sustainable choices Makes a complex web that increases efficiency sn t all related to one factor but many different factors If at any point the web is broken the spider fixes it Societies and environments are dynamic so a decision today may not be relevant tomorrow It matters where you live if you want to be sustainable When a problem is complex and there are too many competing uses it is difficult to make choices and society generally does not make the difficult choices it becomes an economic decision Most people do not want to make bad choices but what may be a bad choice for one person may not be bad for someone else b Two villages on opposite sides of major amazon tributary negotiated to sel timber to international buyer Question should both villages sell their trees Forest 2 had rich soil as compared to forest 1 poor nutrients Food Production Past Present Future O4O22013 People live along riparian zones because the most productives oils found here Depended on river flooding to deposit sediments and restore soil nutrients on land Non riparian areas means low soil nutrients Shifting agriculture Contains poisonous cyanide compounds so needs careful preparation before eating it tapioca is manioc Lush highly productive forests Forests soils virgin not impacted by human activity High plant diversity is natural no indigenous peoples influences Forests fragile highly susceptible to degradation with any human use No fires in wet tropical forests Conflicts in conservationsustainable development Conflicts in Paraguay Belize and Chile Mennonites produce much of the food and therefore have high political power Jaguar conservation and preservation of Maya ruins indigenous communities at risk Beni biaosphere reserve bring money to establish and maintain reserve in 1987 Bolivia debt in international arena bought by conservation groups or other organizations so Bolivian government had control Local communities not involved in setting boundaries or determining what area off limits March for dignity and territory 1990 did not get back land Present O4O22013 Present O4O22013 Europe was the ideal place to live The great warming climate change and the rise and fall of civilizations Pristine forest teemed with people Europe flourished but maya collapsed No social and environmental resilience Over exploitation of resources locally and people consuming resources beyond the landscape capacity to deliver them Climate change resulted in drought Also it is the soils fault you know the dirt we walk on since some soils have poor nutrients Globe land area statistics Forests woodands 30 Ice rock desert 32 Pastures 23 Agriculture 10 Built land 2 The US you have less difficulty making sustainable choices because you have very productive lands j Stage is soil think of the land as a stage and the stage surfaces varies the soil factor determines what you can do on the stage or how much resources will be available or what land use is possible Soil and climates constrain whether or not our choices are sustainable Areas of high human population densities Present O4O22013 green areas where forest is for agriculture 82 disturbed because it s the best location for human survival soil nutrient rich for agriculture 25 human disturbed low number of food options in wet tropics even though high biodiversity humans not survive grazing in forests Shifting Agriculture Because land low productivity and not produce a lot of food 912quoto disturbed by humans not suitable for humans have to migrate be nomadic not enough food or water take food source with you on the hoof as travel few local options 12 disturbed by humans biological desert 5 human disturbed animals migrate to survive as have humans Present O4O22013 lt1 human disturbed difficult to grow agricultural crops since so cold and frozen ground need to eat animals 3 human disturbed most animals hibernate or migrate in past human habitation similar to animals that don t migrate underground covered with organic materials layers of ice called permafrost controls these ecosystems anytime it s a harsh environment humans follow the animals and migrate I try to eat kelp and other plants Reindeer most balanced source of food for survival that allowed the tundra to become inhabited by people Animals eating soil to solve sodium problem Only happens when sodium levels low in soil and therefore in plants being eaten Past societies have mainly lived in temperate broadleaf forests Easier to be environmentally and socially resilient in temperate regio Ecological Constraints in Tropics O4O22013 Air temperature gt24 C gt75 F Hotspots of biodiversity hotspots of microbial biodiversity Botos pink dolphin No land tenure rights for indigenous communities or ownership of their lands Lost rights with arrival of European colonialists Plants have evolved Thorns or chemical warfare you do not grab a plant when you start falling down a slippery slope Comocadia toxic defensive chemicals Conditions ideal for carriers of human diseases Mosquito breeding in flower parts malaria incidence high In heliconia plant Curare Leaf paralyzes animals In amazon gt80quoto people live along the river and grow their food crops in these areas Dynamic landscapes are always changing Ground is 2430 feets underwater Soils Unseen on Earth O4O22013 Agriculture The more food produced per land area the less forested land we need to clear for agriculture Used core agricultural techniques cultivation of land mono cropping organized irrigation and use of specialized labor force Population able to settle in one place Greater population density Territorial expansion j Salt affected soils are the 2 largest cause of soil degradation after erosion Decades of droughts decreased the flooding of the Nile and contributed to famine Unmanaged soils provide nutrients to plants in amounts related to the soils nutrient supply capacity Agriculture farm Key is Petroleum Fuel for the equipment Fertilizer natural gas as a hydrogen source for haber bosch fertilizer creation process Natural gas used since cheapest currently available source of hydrogen Industrial agriculture led manufacture of synthetic fertilizers nitrogen phosphorus and potassium NPK identified as critical factors in plant growth Monocultures and chemical fertilizers and pesticides petroleum based Organic Matter Holds soil particles together to reist erosion Erosion affects muddiness of water which then could affect fish and other aquatic organisms Soils Unseen on Earth O4O22013 Relies on crop rotation green manure compost and biological pest control Generally increases soil organic matter Soil Type River Deposits rich young soil Gardening soi prairie soil Biosphere 2 Too much organic matter in the soil can be unhealthy for humans living in a air tight environment How can you make a soil a pound of dirt some bugs and microbes etc a soil is alive tropical forests are generally acidic Decomposition of OM creates organic and carbonic acids in soil decreasing the ph of the soil However too much OM was added to the biosphere Microbes released too much CO2 and consumed too much 02 Forest and Society Case Studies 04022013 Why community forests Deforestation Conservation Poverty 1 High deforestation 25years to lose all forests 39 a year High poverty populated by 67 Million Get their fodder from forests to feed for livestock 1 thing from forests is fuel wood for heating and cooking grass and animal fodder pine resin to burn for light Success on stopping deforestation rates fallen to 7 today remember was 39 a year Evidence is thickly forested slopes today that were mostly barren and brown trees years ago Lack of equity who can usecollect forest materials Though women are the ones that did all the work Forest gazing is an important source of income Burning forest understory at peak of dry season helps to stimulate grass growth before monsoon rains The violent destruction of inca society came at the hands of the Spanish Inca trail significant portion of Peruvian government money comes from tourism visiting machu picchu Social contracts for fuel wood Women girls spend so much time collecting wood less able to attend school and participate in income generating activities In other areas no longer feasible to gather wood and families can spend up to 25 of their income to purchase fuel wood Dead Wood only collected pollarding practiced Cultural Resources amp Tribal Management O4O22013 Humans are an integral and natural part of the north American landscape Until recently nature was deemed to be unending and bountiful Western ethos of taming the wild Management through Native Stimulate plant frowth for edible foods Forest mosaic was not independent of human interaction Facilitate travel Remove dense brush Create fuel char Garbage disposal Even though they were regarded as huntergatherers they had extensive husbandry practices to encourage growth of valuable resources Western World amp Native American Business Models O4O22013 Relationship between natural and human systems Environment not merely a factor of production but contains the economy Environment source of all materials humans use and sink into which all wastes go Western world economic model playing out Lets look at what drives and determines who are the consumers and producers of timber Hardwood lumber consumption Was japan but replaced by china in the mid 90 s GDP drives the wood product markets when lots of money lots of wood products bought It is totally supplydemand economics that drives consumption Z Many colonies formed by European colonialists principally as business ventures Engand s success at colonizing in large part due to use of charter companies groups of stockholders who sought personal economic gain In 230 years us grew to huge integrated industrialized economy that makes up nearly a quarter of the world economy Due to abundant resources timber coal iron oil Euro American conquering of America Economic development flourished based on collecting abundant resources that belong to native Americans Native American s had well developed trading routes and sophisticated economies before the arrival of Europeans Make decisions for long term consider life and livelihood of 7quot generations beyond individuals making decisions Business activities occur within boundaries of tribal lands they will live with the decisions they make on a daily basis Conserving way of life and the environment for the future is more important then having financial gain now Sovereignty control to make their own decisions Cultural issues with core beliefs Latex Food Medicine Forests O4O22013 NTFP Any material or product that grows in the forest that is not timber or a whole tree and has historically been locally consumed Latexes in bark Defensive against predatory insects Rubber production more than 90 rubber produced from Brazilian or para rubber tree chewing gum electrical insulating compounds 2 is chewing gum White latex coming from the trees It is the sap of a tree Criss cross cuts in the tree in which sap flows out 2 Plants produce and similar to latex except only found in conifers Heals trees when they are wounded Defensive against predatory insects Ingredient in varnishes shellac lacquers Source of incense as copal frankincense myrrh Some of the toxic substances produced by a plant in its bark are also those with medicinal qualities Curare for hunting blowgun Quinine from the genus cinchona in the coffee family Years only cure for malaria Oil from carapa quianensis seeds acts as an insect repellent Used in various rituals Contains tryptamines related to LSD Excitability twitching of facial muscles nausea hallucinations followed by deep and disturbed sleep Defensive against predatory insects Powerful hallucinogens in people Virola Sebifera bark rich in tannins and hallucinogenic compounds Latex Food Medicine Forests O4O22013 Cinnamon spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus cinnamomum Native to south east asia Coppicing trees for cinnamon Camphor native to japan china Taiwan and N Vietnam Great insecticide Spice in foods Pain reliever Z Process of transforming animal hides into leather by using plant extracts from different plant parts of different plant species Wattle oak eucalyptus birch willow pine quebracho Cambium bark of the cork oak tree Protect the trees from hot desert winds that are common in the Mediterranean Peeled away from the tree truck every 9 10years Romans insulated house with cork houses stoppers for bottles large buoys Gaskets for engines Cigarette tips j Uganda bark cloth typically comes from fig trees stripped once a year and then the bark re grows Birch bark canoes Squirrels voles and porcupines may chew off bark for food or medication Sapsuckers drill holes in thin barked trees such as birch to drink tree sap and eat the insects attracted to the ooze Used as emergency food in Finland during famine during and after the civil war in 1918 soft sheets of inner bark were dried and then heater for bark bread rye bread 1 Coffee beans Cocoa pod Tropics Acai Protein wonder and keeps a family in the amazon alive Fruit of a palm tree Latex Food Medicine Forests O4O22013 Small Mammals PNW Forests O4O22013 Mammals in Washington 86 of 109 terrestrial species use forests 79 use forests 21 do not use forest habitat predators amp large mammals 20 shrews moles amp bats 30 rodents 50 they use every stratum of the forest lnsectivores shrews and moles least known of our mammalian fauna townsend mole and coast mole fee exclusively on soil invertebrates segregate by elevation and habitat coast mole most common in forests The rodents More rodents worldwide than other mammalian groups 48 of Washington s terrestrial mammals are rodents chipmunks feed on variety of plant material especially fruits and seeds four species of squirrels in Washington red and Douglas squirrels are tree seed specialists western gray squirrel is threatened species flying squirrel is a fungus specialist gophers feed on vegetation and open canopy forests mice are the next common to the shrews generalist feeders focused on seeds nine vole species most numerous in pre canopy stages to construct burrow systems Rat inhabits cliffs rock outcrops and old buildings Small Mammals amp Forest succession 15 25years for new trees to grow to pre canopy before canopy the species tend to eat it after canopy new creatures will take home if you want to maintain a successful ecosystem you need everything from old trees to new growth Logs as a habitat for small mammals Small Mammals PNW Forests O4O22013 Protection from physical environment From predators Food sources Lookout structures Display structures Travel routes Larger logs last longer and provide more habitat Benefits from stumps and logs We are not replacing these elements Bats 15 species4 desert species11 forest dwelling all pnw bats echolocate Anabat SD1 amp 2 detectors Grassforb foraging ltgt old growthroosting Dense areas no room for bats to eat High tree density 30 40yrs after harvest No sunlight no growth which means no food for species Exfoliation bark of old trees provides roosts unlike young trees Large old trees a source for snags Roosts often are on southern exposures and on forest edges Forest of young trees means no bats Large snags Provide thermal choices for bats Cavities provide space for maternity company Provide for replacement of critical habitat eements retain some trees across forest harvest and schedule creation of large snags and downed logs Maintain a mix of early and late successional stages to provide for pre and post canopy species Strives for forest patches of 2025 acres or larger to provide interior forest conditions Thin dense young stands to increase production of vegetation at ground level Increase local diversity of Bat Populations Maintain large live trees and snags on uplands 17acres not just within riparian zones As with small mammals thin dense young forests an exonomic challenge Allow occasional beaver activity to produce ponded water and complex riparian zones Small Mammals PNW Forests O4O22013 Substitute forest mosaic for old forest Harvest patches might substitute for foraging gaps in old forests but quality roosts must be maintained nearby Europeans Came looking for beaver pelts but led to damns and water drought draining high quality habitats for animals Let beavers do their thing and Waters will be fine and animals Coqui Puerto Rico Hawaii O4O22013 Coqui Native frog to Puerto Rico has keystone status The stage or forest where the coqui lives How their mating habits contribute to forest resiliency Tabonuco forest Turpentine trees In the bark there is a material high in turpentine that is flammable Sap cused medicinally by early settlers for making candles and incense Sap used by Amerindian tribes to coat torches and start fires caulking materials for boats Post 1900 I So sugar cane fields abandoned forests started to come back 1900gt90 deforested 1936 40 deforested forests remaining surrounded by human land uses natural disturbances impact covers and eliminates all human land use impacts Plants adapted to get rid of excess water Aerenchyma modified roots to get oxygen to roots under anaerobic conditions Animals adapted to high water Less water coquis smaller and less able to attract mates Exotic invasive plants without aerenchyma not survive in these environments with high rainfall A Once 20yrs Huricane hugo 1989 6hurricanes in 10years Appears totally devastated but ecosystems adapted to this It doesn t hurt that they have a resident frog that makes these forests resilient Coqui Eleutherodactylus or just kookee Puerto Rico folk tales If leave Puerto rico will never sing again Most abundant and widespread from gt20000 ha Nocturnally active feed calling and mating at night Coqui Puerto Rico Hawaii O4O22013 Diurnal retreats hides in forest leaf litter during day and shuttle to elevated perches at night 18 days to get a female to respond Role in the food web Sit and wait predator Mostly consume insects on foliage Consumes tremendous amount of insects 114000 a night No predator appears to limit population No animal eats coqui Lots of new homeshabitats produced with debris Eats a lot of insects which eat plant leaves When calling for mates deposits a lot of very high quality and readily available nutrients that trees need to grow especially after a hurricane Urinate while calling for mates Coquis increase nutrient availability through urination deposition of excrements How plants keep from being eaten when lots of insects Plants have evolved to adapt to light from the lunar cycle with lots of complex carbon compounds in leaves less valuable plants for insects to eat New moon don t have the chemicals less complex carbon compounds in leaves dark nights Many harvesters of natural resources in tropics believe critical to harvest during the full moon because materials harvested at this phase are perceived to be more durable or nutritious Lunar based harvesting rice in Indonesia certain wet woods in Puerto rico palm fronds for roofing thatch in the American tropics I Introduced with ornamental plants Introduced to control insect problems Coquis are presently consuming mostly leaf litter non native invertebrates They preferred prey items Loud 90 100dBA interfere with quality of life Pest alert stop the spread of Caribbean frogs Coqui Puerto Rico Hawaii 04022013 A letter to the horticulture industry Control Methods Heat being used to kill coqui frog Lime ok d for use against coqui frogs Coqui Love hurricanes Hates droughts War amp Forests O4O22013 Paul Collier articulated 2 Conflict trap natural resource trap land locked with bad neighbors and bad governance in a small country Capturing people but can t just collect what s in the landscape so napoleon a candy maker solved his probemfood An army travels on its stomach steal food in areas moving through Scurvy and hunger had disabled more of napoleons soldiers than combat itself Nicholas Appert candy maker chef brewer pickle maker and vintnerhad an idea to pack food in bottles like wine to preserve it through sterilization How do you break a bottle open when in a war zone How about the weight of the bottles How much can you carry So we figured out the food situation but are forests safe havens for war soliders Forests comprise largest area where humans can survive Hard to get basic human needs People dependent on collecting resources from forests to survive Developing countries more people live in rural than urban areas Timber has high economic value in global markets Few food options so eat forest biodiversity Woodfirewood Have trees have water Democratic Republic of Congo Human density 49 personkmquot2 383 live in rural areas 2 Human density 2933 peoplekmquot2 Has 124 land in forests 939 live in rural areas This increase in population density bad when subsistence survival dominates Fled Rwanda to DRC Which country can use its forests as a safety valve during civil conflict Rwanda has no forests which means DRC can be safety but has higher deforestation rates People Surviving in forests mainly subsistence survivors under normal situations or no conflict times War amp Forests O4O22013 Food Production and food security gone Lack food security Farmers unable to grow crops Greater dependence on wildlife Sustainable hunting fishing practices Hunting primary protein source for survival Over hunting not sustainable Poor nutrition Contact with disease vectorsinsects for malaria Disease carriers eaten as food sourceebola virus Why do these chemical persist in the environment Many chemical derived from complex polyphenolics Long persistence in environment because of chemical composition resistant to microbial breakdown Lignin Makes plants woody Very resistant to decay Complex enzymes needed to break down Removed from wood to make paper Results chemical defoliant use Toxic chemical residues in soil plants humans Contaminated food production systems Increased killing of animals Forests amp Human Health 04022013 d
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