Complete Bundle of All Classwork
Complete Bundle of All Classwork IAH 211C
Popular in Area Studies and Multicultural Civilizations: The Americas (D)
Popular in Global Studies
This 33 page Bundle was uploaded by Jacob Decker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to IAH 211C at Michigan State University taught by g. chambers jr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Area Studies and Multicultural Civilizations: The Americas (D) in Global Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
I chose to base my Digital Media Project on the Cuban Revolution I also chose to present my project in the Prezi form because I have never tried to use this interface and I thought it was a perfect opportunity to get accustomed to it The Cuban Revolution is very interesting to me because of how Fidel Raul and Che all organized the takeover of a whole country by themselves and whatever followers they gained in their journey The story behind Fidel Castro is very interesting to me also This is an inspirational story about a man who had tried to accuse the Batista government in Cuba of corruption and tyranny but obviously the powerhungry courts had rejected his claims Fidel knew that he was out of options and the only way to make a difference was to organize an armed revolution to overthrow the Batista Government Another interesting twist to the story is that his brother Raul had joined him in organizing this uprising even though they were both imprisoned after their rst attack on the Mancada Barracks Fortunately the Batista government was forced to let these two revolutionary leaders free and they both travel to Mexico in order to be trained by another military leader also gaining the support of the worldknown face of Che Guevara Everyone has seen shirts with Che s face on them Then once they arrive in Cuba by yacht Batista s army had killed three quarters of the initial amount of men and the others including all three revolutionary leaders had to nd each other in the mountains with the help of local peasants Then with the help of another revolutionary group even anticommunist they had won a key victory in the Battle of Yaguajay I also nd it very interesting that as soon as Fidel had heard that Batista was leaving the city of Santiago he started organizing a take over of the city The military commander of Santiago de Cuba had even ordered his soldiers to not attack Fidel s men when they entered the city and Fidel had taken over the city without a single drop of blood shed The morning after the take over of Santiago Fidel immediately put his rst presidential choice Manueal Lleo in of ce Pancho Villa was a historic gure that was portrayed in many ways throughout history even when he was still alive During the peak of Villa s military career is when he reached out to American lm producers to sell them rights to lm his revolution Sadly the original lm has been lost so many of us base our idea of Pancho Villa on the 2003 HBO premier of quotAnd Starring Pancho Villa as Himselfquot This movie is not even a true account of what actually happened in history For example the lm contract that Villa signed did not contain anything about Villa engaging in his battles in the best light possible for the cameras This lm is a perfect example of how we let these representations and images construct a faux mass communication reality The New York Times newspaper was also an example of media that transformed the way that Villa was represented At rst the newspaper portrayed Villa as a hero and in good standing However when Villa attacked Columbus New Mexico the New York Times changed their mind and portrayed Villa as a savage In fact when Villa was assassinated the New York Times referred to him as a quotruthless bandit with a record of violence that made him dangerousquot The New York Times did not want to include that at one time they had portrayed this man as a hero It is essential however to be able to see beyond these stereotypes and ideas that have been presented to us Using our media literacy it is possible for us to break down the messages ideas and stereotypes that we come into contact with 0 Characters 0 Cesar Chavez o Reies Lopez Tijerina 0 Robert Francis Kennedy 0 Sheriff 0 District Attorney 0 In 1965 Chavez and the NFWA ititiated a California grape workers strike 0 The grape strike became a cause celebre among liberals gaining national support for the farmworkers and their cause 0 The campaign ended with a bargaining agreement between the owners and the workers 0 In 1966 the NFWA merged with the AFL CIO to form the United Farm Workers 0 Tijerina raids the court house while armed to nd the district attorney that had him arrested violent June 6 1967 o Tijerina was elected in 1968 to lead the Chicano contingent in the Poor People s Campaign Then MLK the organizer of the campaign was assassinated but they continued the campaign Before the march a group of native americans were detained outside of DC so Tijerina set up a protest in front of the US Supreme Court Building where they were brutalized by police Tijerina was nally called to court again for the Courthouse raid where he was sentenced to two years He wouldn t eat the food he was given because of suspicion that there was a plot to kill him He was moved to a mental hospital and then discharged in 1971 0 Plot 0 Chaves is a nonviolence activist which in the end worked out for him because he met RFK who ended up supporting his boycotting campaign and in the end led to the MexicanAmerican farm workers victory and acquisition of union contracts that immediately raised wages and established a hiring hall In 1965 Chavez and the NFWA initiated a California grape workers strike The grape strike became a cause celebre among liberals gaining national support for the farmworkers and their cause The campaign ended with a bargaining agreement between the owners and the workers In 1966 the NFWA merged with the AFL CIO to form the United Farm Workers 0 On the other hand Tijerina was a physically violent activist Police refused to investigate white boys riding their horses over the top of the Bravos shelters an obvious sign of resentment After a march July 4 to Santa Fe in which they were taunted and shot at by white people his written demand to the Governor to look further into their land grant problems had failed to shed light on their cause Tijerino and his Bravos desided to take physical action by taking control of Echo Amphitheatre Turned themselves in after 5 days Released on bond he calls a meeting where a district attorney orders police to arrest them but he escapes Tijerina raids the court house while armed to nd the district attorney that had him arrested violent June 6 1967 Tijerina was elected in 1968 to lead the Chicano contingent in the Poor People s Campaign Then MLK the organizer of the campaign was assassinated but they continued the campaign Before the march a group of native americans were detained outside of DC so Tijerina set up a protest in front of the US Supreme Court Building where they were brutalized by police Tijerina was nally called to court again for the Courthouse raid where he was sentenced to two years He wouldn t eat the food he was given because of suspicion that there was a plot to kill him He was moved to a mental hospital and then discharged in 1971 CHARACTERS CESAR CHAVEZ REIES TIJERINA ROBERT FRANCIS KENNEDY MARTIN LUTHER KING JUNIOR DISTRICT ATI39OURNEY SHERIFF GOVERNOR BRAVOS JUDGE FOREST RANGERS REPORTER ACT X PROLOGUE William Decker IAH 211C 41414 K Byron A gavel strikes a sounding block three times as the drop rises Re vealed is a courtroom with a SHERIFF sitting in a witness box KENNEDY pacing back in fourth in front of the witness box and CESAR CHAVEZ sitting in a chair paying close attention to the other two l DELANO The scene is a public hearing in regards to the problems between the striking grape pickers of CHA VEZ s organization the United Farm Workers and the law enforcement Before this this UF W started a boycott for all Americans against tabe grapes in hopes for changes in workers rights KENNEDY Very obvious signs of getting upset Would you be so kind asto explain why you arrested multiple strikers for me SHERIFF Well the very people that were detained looked as if they were more than ready to break some sort of law or two KENNEDY Almost shouting at this point Ah I see May suggest that during our CHAVEZ Unwed KENNEDY like this CHAVEZ break that not only you SHERIFF but the DISTRICT ATTORNEY read the Constitution of the very country that this incident took place It s very obvious that the SHERIFF and DIS TRIC TAlTORNE Y were both extremey taken back by what KENNEDY said The hearing ended with the detained strikers being released from custody and with this CHAVEZ is happier than ever I cannot express how grateful I am for your support of the Farm Workers and what you have accomplished today No need You workers have the every right to form a union why wouldn t I want to protect this right Okay I understand that However what made you so supportive of the KENNEDY cause anyways Obviously I m not trying to be offensive when I say this but you re not even Mexican and you aren t trying to tell the organization what s good for us It surprised me when you ask us questions like quotWhat s the best way I can helpquot or quotIs there anything you wantquot I just feel as though every part of me believes in what the United Farm Workers are trying to change Yes I m not a Mexican nor a farm laborer but is there a problem with me trying to help You are also very inspiration to me also CHAVEZ I see courage as a very important quality in a person and I nd an abundance of it in you Also I can t be any more supportive of your opposition to violence There is no reason for this organization to be committing violent acts in its ght forjustice and I respect that you don t It is obvious that CHAVEZ and KENNEDY instanty form a natural bond as the two start walking away arms around each other and laughing The curtains slowy fall and lights dim behind the new friends 2 COURTHOUSE RAID As the drop 50 My rises we see leERlNA and his BRA V05 standing in front of a man sitting at a desk with the label quotGo vernor of New Mexico The governor is reading a demand written by leERlNA that asks for him to look further into the state 5 land grant issues GOVERNOR Annoyed Listen I know that you re concerned about the land grants and all of the workers rights but this isn t my jurisdiction You will have to talk to someone with more knowledge and authority than me I can t just exchange US soil so freely TIJERINA Angry see governor Well thank you for your time but I guess we will need to search for another solution to the workers land issues Farewell TIJERINA and the BRAVOS walk away from the governor and the lights focus on their conversation TIJERINA Talking to the BRAVOS as if he didn t want anyone else to hear Alright that s it The grape eld owners aren t going to do anything for Mexican laborers and now we know that the officials aren t willing to support the workers rights movement They leave me no choice but to get physical The BRAVOS turn to each other in shock as the stage goes dark and mysterious music is playing quiety BRA V0 When the lights turn back on we see leERNA and the BRAVOS approaching two men in uniform Hey pretty boys What are you guys all dressed up for and why are you here in our country Ranger Confused Huh We re forest rangers of the Echo Amphitheatre what do you mean our country TIJERINA Well you see we decided to take back what s rightfully ours This land was part of the SAN Joaquin del Rio de Chama land grant so we ve decided to take control now so this is OUR country Oh and hey boys Wouldn t these two rangers be trespassing then BRAVO Yeah I believe they would Get em We see leERNA and the BRAVOS start abusing the park rangers after arresting them As the drop falls we see the abusive group walk across stage where the Governor is again sitting at his desk The governor s face goes white as he is lled with fear and the audience is given the assumption that TlERINA and his boys assault him 3 BENEFITS OF SACRIFICE AND COURAGE As the drop 50 My rises the stage is split up into to scenes 0n the left with all of his supporters and a banner hung high reading quotUnion Contracts Immediatey Raise Wages and Reform Mexican Workers Rights REPORTER Speaking into a recorder CHAVEZ you have been extremely effective CHAVEZ over the past years by gaining international recognition and supporters What was your strategy Well I would say that the number one thing was to avoid confrontation I do not believe in violence and I think that was key in my success Supporters start cheering and clapping The lights then focus on the right side of the stage Where leERNA is standing in a courthouse The judge strikes her gavel three times JUDGE TIJERINA Mr TIJERINA as a result of your role in raiding the courthouse and multiple different counts of assaults I hereby sentence you to two years in federal prison Talking to the reporter who asked if he had any comments I understand why I was given this sentence I approached my effort to change the rights of Mexican workers completely wrong My friend another leader for change went about it the right way His name is CESAR CHAVEZ a paci st that avoided confrontation and was completely nonviolent In the end he won because CHAVEZ had led his organization to victory with changes in workers rights Unfortunately I never succeeded in making a change and now I will be put in prison for my violent acts CITATIONS Latino USA A Cartoon History page 121 amp 122 Only the bottom panel on page 122 Direct vs Indirect Poems of Criticism William Decker IAH 211C Dr Kristine Byron The poems quotTo Rooseveltquot by Rub n Dario and quotThe United Fruit Coquot by Pablo Neruda are related in the sense that they both are referring to the major in uence that North America has over Latin America However the focuses of the two poems are slightly different Dario s poem focuses more on foreshadowing the relationship between Latin America and the United States by creating stereotypes using allegory but on the other hand Neruda focuses on the multinational companies who exploit Latin American countries while disregarding the damage they have left behind Dario did not hesitate to begin insulting Roosevelt He begins his poem by calling Roosevelt a 39Hunter and then proceeds to compare him to Nimrod and George Washington because he is quotprimitive and modern simple and complexquot He then states that the United States will inevitably invade Latin America who unlike the United States still speaks Spanish and is of Christian beliefs Dario also says in his poem that the United States opposes Tolstoy who is a Russian writer of nonviolence beliefs While labeling the United States as an Alexander Nebuchadnezzar a combination of a great imperialist military commander and an exterminator ofJerusalem he also calls the United States a 39Professor of Energy which is almost a compliment of how technologically advanced the US is Dario then makes a remark on how much power the United States has over Latin America by writing quotWhenever it trembles a profound shudder runs down the enormous backbone of the Andesquot Towards the end of the poem it seems as if Dario is trying to compete Latin America with the United States because he begins to explain how just like the United States quotour own America which has had poets since the ancient times of Nexahualcoyotl which preserved the footprints of the great Bacchus and learned the Panic alphabet oncequot He then refers to the United States as men with quotSaxon eyes and barbarous soulsquot while calling Latin America the daughter of the sun Dario ends the poem with a warning to Roosevelt that in order to control Latin America he must become a feared hunter and an expert ri eman Dario s last line of the poem says that although the United States is very powerful and feared they are missing one thing God In quotThe United Fruit Coquot Pablo Neruda puts forth his disapproval of a company that represented the use of the United States imperialist policies to exploit Latin America Neruda begins his poem with quotthe Jehovah parceled out the earth to Coca Cola lnc Anaconda Ford Motorsquot This is a sarcastic piece by Neruda suggesting that it was God who distributed earth s land to these multinational companies Neruda then uses les as a metaphor for the quotbloodthirsty and quotwell trained in tyrannyquot dictators of Latin America Then he writes how all the resources from these Latin American countries are taken on to the companies ships when they land quotthe treasure of our submerged territories ow as though on plates into the shipsquot While the companies are bene tting from the exports Neruda mentions that there are dying Indians and tons of waste back in the exhausted lands of Latin America The poem ends with quota body rolls a thing that has no name a fallen cipher a cluster of the dead fruit thrown down on the dumpquot which can be interpreted as how these dictators have no concern of human life or how they have completely destroyed the land solely for their own bene t After reading and analyzing quotTo Rooseveltquot and quotThe United Fruit Coquot one can see that both Dario and Neruda are both focusing on the imperialism and exploitation of North America on Latin America They both agree that the United States is very powerful and has so much control over South America but the authors take completely different routes on how they express their disapproval of United States domination Dario de nitely takes more of a direct way of expressing his anger with not only Roosevelt but also all of the United States Dario insults the United States and Roosevelt numerous times while trying to make Latin America s image better Neruda on the other hand doesn t directly assert his disapproval of the exploitation of Latin America Instead he uses sarcasm and irony to tell how the United Fruit Company used the United States imperialist policies to exploit Latin American countries Neruda also produces an image of a LatinAmerican wasteland caused by exploitation of a multinational company but Dario does not because he is too focused on creating stereotypes using allegory to foreshadow Latin America and United States relationship Testimony as a political document can be lled with selfinterests and corruption as in this book We know that the civil war is between the military and the guerrillas but it engulfs entire villages in its pathway to destruction When we think of testimony as a political document in this book we can see that greed and fear is the root of all problems The army of cers are well aware that they will bene t if they can terminate the Indians who are told that they must exterminate their own people in order to stop the guerrillas from continuing the revolution All of this wouldn t happen however if it wasn t for the terror that the Army puts on the villagers In the book Manuel is beaten horribly until he nally accuses Montejo of being a guerrilla A little bit later on page 46 Montejo asks another villager that he considers a friend if he will talk to the headman and say that Montejo has not done any subversive activities and he is only a schoolteacher Unfortunately the friend replies with quotI am afraidquot This is a perfect example of the fear of the military the villagers have for they would rather somebody else be falsely accused arrested and executed than themselves When somebody gives a testimony by stating facts or telling incidents in which this book s case is usually false there is nothing that person can do to protect themselves It is one person s word against another s and the military is going to execute anyone accused of being subversive So why not accuse your neighbor that you ve had a grudge on for never mowing his lawn before he accuses you and then you get executed VICTOR MONTEJO S TESTIMONY DEATH OF A GUATEMALAN VILLAGE 39 Testimony tells the story of a tragic day in the life of Tzalala a small highlands village in Guatemala where Victor Montejo was a schoolteacher in the late 1970s and early 80s In brief the story is On Friday the 9th of September members of the Tzalala civil patrol mistake a platoon of regular army soldiers for guerrillas One of the civil patrol the only one with a firearm fires on the platoon and misses while the others stand ready with sticks and stones to defend the village against guerrilla invaders A gun battle ensues in which a couple of soldiers are wounded most likely from friendly fire When the battle ends the soldiers round up the civil patrol return them to the village and accuse them of being guerrillas Six patrol members are executed by the army but not before one implicates the schoolteacher in guerrilla activity Although he protests his innocence throughout this day the teacher is interrogated threatened and finally made to march back to his home village where the army headquarters also is After a night of cold and fear he is released upon his promise to report any unusual activities to the authorities The teacher returns to his family and on Monday returns to Tzalala to resume his teaching responsibilities This simple story powerfully and artfully told a kind of firsthand exposure to terror the arbitrary yet systematic nature of human rights abuses It places those abuses in a human and historical context and invites us to ask questions about why such events occur who is responsible and what happens to people who experience them Stimulate curiosity and challenge unexamined assumptions about the region and its peoples in this case Guatemala by thinking about 1 questions of human rights 2 the role of the military in politics 3 the modernization of traditional cultures 4 the internationalization of national con icts 5 whatever else might come up in our discussions Testimony as the Story of Highlands Indigenous Culture Undergoing Change Several questions guide the students to the ethnographic information embedded in Montejo s text What do we learn about the people and village of Tzalala What kinds of work do they do What do they value How do they relate to the rest of Guatemala We learn in the Prelude p 11 that the community is poor and remote There is no electricity or running water the villagers live in thatched huts and narrow twisting roads that cross streams and deep gullies as they climb high into the craggy uplands limit access to the wider world Men and women work their milpas comfields following the way of life of their earliest ancestors except that they also migrate to the coast each year in search of work on plantations the way of life of their more recent ancestors Desperately poor the villagers cling to their land and their small treasures When the soldiers loot the houses of the village a woman laments the loss of the silver earrings 39 These notes are excerpted from an essay by Elizabeth Mahan her husband had given her as a wedding present and of some colored ribbons I had labored many hours to weave p 33 More devastating is losing a son to the Army s wrath Refusing to leave her wounded dying son even though this endangers her infant daughter a mother cries No my son I don t want to leave you I want to stay here and die with you because you are my only male child p30 Most villagers lack even a sixthgrade education as the demands of subsistence call them to work while still children Boys labor with the men in the elds and girls tend animals weave and prepare food alongside their mothers and with their mothers help in the elds These activities reinforce deep community and communal ties and thus allow the village a measure of selfsuf ciency as long as the outside world does not intrude Distrust of outsiders shapes the lives of the villagers so when the Army demands that they turn in the guerrillas supposedly living among them a relative newcomer becomes the sacri cial victim Not even ten years of teaching the village s children are enough to enclose the schoolteacher within the community When he is accused on the basis of hearsay evidence of being a guerrilla and led away with a rope around his neck the villagers watch fearfully but passively Their intentions toward me at that moment I could not tell Montejo confesses p 46 Distrust may underlie Tzalala s relationship with the outside world the nation of Guatemala but it does not keep that world at bay Language helps keep the barrier in place the men generally speak some Spanish but the women do not but the modern world nds it way into the village through radios and tape recorders items the looting soldiers avidly seize Politicians for national of ce also visit the village during election campaigns making empty promises about roads and other services The schoolteacher too links the village to the nation through the teaching of Guatemalan history albeit a corrected version that minimizes condescension toward the Maya peoples Testimony as a Political Document Guatemalan civil war which embroiled the country and especially its indigenous citizens in turmoil for more than thirty years What does the civil war mean to the villagers Who is ghting whom Why Is this just a Guatemalan fight Why are the soldiers so brutal Why does Montejo call the Army s tactics institutional terror The civil war means little to the villagers in political terms though they and others like them are its primary victims For Tzalala the war means fear and coercion Anyone can be arrested for any or no reason perhaps because a neighbor decides to avenge an old grudge when the Army enters the town Having been forced to form a civil patrol the better to defend themselves against subversion p 13 the villagers are also coerced into participating in the Army s rampage forced to execute to club to death two of their neighbors alledged guerrillas lest they too be condemned as subversives Like the schoolteacher after he is taken prisoner the village lives at the whim of the military But what is the civil war about Who is fighting whom The villagers are told by the Army of cers that it is a war against communist subversion and that not to take sides with the military is to ally themselves with the guerrillas The Army and the guerrillas may be ghting but the villages apparently remain uninvolved only going through the motions of forming a civil patrol while trying to stay out of the way of those guerrillas who do pass through the village and of the soldiers who stalk them A cruel irony of the war is that it pits the indigenous population against itself continuing the conquest that began ve hundred years earlier The villagers and the soldiers who brutalize them but not the officers who lead the troops are virtually indistinguishable indigenous at most only marginally integrated into the mainstream ladino culture of Guatemala more comfortable speaking their native Mayan languages than Spanish The brutality of the civil war is apalling The spoils of looting are part of the soldiers pay they enter Tzalala with rucksacks prepared to take whatever they can find and burning down houses as if for spite It is the soldiers willingness to kill their apparent pleasure in killing people like themselves and their families that shocks the most however How can they do this Montejo asks and he answers they are coerced forced to join the Army and brainwashed into rejecting their cultural roots and brutalizing their own people The officers tell us we Indians must do away with our own people because the Indians are enabling the guerrillas to carry out the revolution p 68 they brainwash and indoctinate us in such a way that we could torture our own parents if we were ordered to p 86 What motivates the officers who train and lead the soldiers into such brutality The army off1cers know they will rise in rank in accordance with the number of unfortunates they execute It is a sort of rivalry encouraged among these officers who behave with such cruelty and savagery and destroy entire Indian communities without remorse p 39 The war is not just a Guatemalan f1ght however Montejo makes sure we know that it is also the fruit of the Cold War machinations of the United States Anticommunist litanies ring false when spoken by young men who grew up in villages with communal lands and mores and the soldiers carry Galil ri es of Israeli manufacture p 19 Discovering why and how Israeli ri es became the weapon of choice for the Guatemalan army in the early 1980s exposes the international dimensions of local struggles their transformation into proxy wars of the United States and the Soviet Union The national and international dimensions converge to create a state of institutional terror for the indigenous communities of Guatemala Wearing a particular item of clothing rubber boots for example can land a villager on a blacklist of suspected subversives Trying to remain outside the struggle between the guerrillas and the army can be evidence of complicity with the guerrillas Failing to execute the duties of the civil patrols to say nothing of mistaking an army platoon for guerrillas can bring the army s wrath down upon an entire village No one is safe If villagers condemn outsiders first they soon turn on their neighbors Fear devours the community as surely as the the army s fires and guns devastate it Testimony as a work of literature Testimony is a masterfully told story set within almost classical unities It takes place during a twentyfour hour period with Montejo announcing the passage of each agonizing hour Adding to the aesthetic coherence of the story is Guatemalan Independence Day which frames the village s and Montejo s ordeal On Friday September 9 the teacher begins to prepare his students to celebrate this patriotic holiday When he returns to the village the following Monday he and they take up where they they left off the previous Friday on Thursday September 15 they celebrate the anniversary of the National Indepdendence p 107 The irony is inescapable The whole world has changed a community has been shattered Montejo is now a marked man the absence of freedom of independence is the underlying reality of everyone s life but the outward forms of normality remain political intensity and tragedy In what may be an anticlimax to our discussion of the politics and human pathos of the story Think about how it conveys meaning to us to think of it not as a report about the atrocities of civil war but as work of literature constructed to elicit a particular response and understanding of the speci c tragedy of the Guatemalan war and of the larger question of human brutality Become sensitive to language to Montejo s carefully chosen words that transform a seemingly simple story into a repository of ethnographic and political information that demands their outrage Our discussion of Testimony might close with another question intended to help us pull the threads of this discussion together What does Montejo mean by death of a Guatemalan village How did the village die or what died and what remains IAH 211Pr0f K Byron The Gringo en Ma analand A Musical DeeDee Halleck USA 1995 61 minutes This film is a montage of scenes from travelogues dramatic films industrial films newsreels military footage geography textbook illustrations and political cartoons Together they explore the stereotyped image of Latin America in popular US media during the 20th century The analysis of feature films is an essential component of Visual Anthropology and DeeDee Halleck s remarkable compilation of Latin America the Hollywood version provides a crash course in visual ideology and racial stereotyping While the US Marines engaged in more than twenty invasions of the Americas the silver screen waged its own battles for public approval over the last one hundred years Halleck s massive archival research has brought together a century of cinematic gringos all driven to tame the lands of trouble and promise The work moves viewers from shock and laughter to an intellectual appreciation of the eerie almost statistical regularity of Hollywood s dominant propaganda themes httponlinesfsuedubiellaHalleckhtm Questions for discusion and re ection What is the function of cinema according to Wil Hays What differences are there between entertainment and propaganda in your opinion 0 A thousand hands would like to burden pictures with propaganda 0 Sti ing and artificial domination 0 Propaganda is in the direction of trying to in uence a group of people in some type of way when entertainment is not necessarily trying to persuade people to think a certain type of way Summarize the narrative that Halleck identifies in US cinema 10 How are North Americans represented Men Women Give specific examples How are Latin Americans represented Men Women Again give specific examples What are some of the problems we might identify in the film stories from Hollywood 01 0 2 They listen to propaganda and become unrest and revolutionary 03 Compare the fictional films with the nonfictional ones In other words what relationship is there between the representations of Latin America that come out of Hollywood and those that come out of Washington DC How are the following represented or defined The past Nature Danger Technology Cooperation What do they symbolize Can we say anything about what types of films appear most often in Gringo Why do you think Halleck entitled the film as she did Why make it a musical Who are the good partners we see at the end of the 11 12 documentary How many famous actorspoliticians can you identify in the movie Compare the representations of the US and Latin America in Halleck s film with those in the political caricatures from US newspapers and the True Story of Uncle Sam AH 211 Prof K Byron The Gringo en Ma analand A Musical DeeDee Halleck USA 1995 61 minutes This lm is a montage of scenes from travelogues dramatic films industrial films newsreels military footage geography textbook illustrations and political cartoons Together they explore the stereotyped image of Latin America in popular US media during the 20th century The analysis of feature films is an essential component of Visual Anthropology and DeeDee Halleck s remarkable compilation of Latin America the Hollywood version provides a crash course in visual ideology and racial stereotyping While the US Marines engaged in more than twenty invasions of the Americas the silver screen waged its own battles for public approval over the last one hundred years Halleck s massive archival research has brought together a century of cinematic gringos all driven to tame the lands of trouble and promise The work moves viewers from shock and laughter to an intellectual appreciation of the eerie almost statistical regularity of Hollywood s dominant propaganda themes httponlinesfsuedubiellaHalleckhtm Questions for discusion and re ection 1 What is the function of cinema according to Wil Hays What differences are there between entertainment and propaganda in your opinion 2 Summarize the narrative that Halleck identifies in US cinema 3 How are North Americans represented Men Women Give specific examples 4 How are Latin Americans represented Men Women Again give specific examples 5 What are some of the problems we might identify in the film stories from Hollywood 6 Compare the fictional films with the nonfictional ones In other words what relationship is there between the representations of Latin America that come out of Hollywood and those that come out of Washington DC 7 How are the following represented or defined The past Nature Danger Technology Cooperation What do they symbolize 8 Can we say anything about what types of films appear most often in Gringo 9 Why do you think Halleck entitled the film as she did Why make it a musical 10 Who are the good partners we see at the end of the documentary 11 How many famous actorspoliticians can you identify in the movie 12 Compare the representations of the US and Latin America in Halleck s film with those in the political caricatures from US newspapers and the True Story of Uncle Sam Reminders 0 Review basic political geography countries location major cities Utilize resources in Burns and on web 0 Today 0 Before 1898 lecture 0 Discussion of quotOur Americaquot and quotTo Rooseveltquot o Handoutsrequired readings for rest of week quotations ca rtoonsca ricatures o Nineteenth Century Political Developments in Latin America 0 1800 Spanish empire extends from Northern California to Tierra del Fuego o 1825 Only Cuba and Puerto Rico maintain links to Spain 0 Second half of 18th century War between Britain and Spain Economic questions market control contraband Development of criollo identity Early rebellions Franciso de Miranda in Venezuela Manuel Belgrano in Argentina 0 18101825 Age of Revolution Factors contributing to the Wars of Independence Creole class discontent with Spanish restrictions on its political and economic activity In uence of French and English liberal doctrines Political theories of the Enlightenment Rousseau Voltaire Montesquieu Powerful example of American and French Revolutions Foreign interest in liquidation of Spanish Empire especially Britain and later the USA First colony to gain independence 1804 Toussaint L Ouverture exslave became leader of slave revolt Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaimed leaderJan 1 1804 Henri Christophe Napoleon s invasion of Spain 1808 Wars of Independence o Miguel Hidalgo Mexico 1810 Independence and social reform abolishes slavery establishes a government and begins to redistribute land to the Indians Executed in July 1811 0 Simon Bolivar Venezuela quotEl Liberadorquot Campaigns starting in 1816 0 Jose de San Martin Argentina Led campaigns in Argentina and Chile PostIndependence problems 0 Civil wars many factions quotPolitical cacophonyquot 0 Race and class systems still in place power in hands of criollo elite Most quotregular peoplequot indifferent or passive about independence Monarchy or republic Slavery questions Economic questions Example Bolivar s dream of a great United States of Spanish America versus San Martin s ideal a monarchy New Republics broke unity with the colonial world 0 But political unity disintegrated quickly Great Colombia became Venezuela and Colombia Kingdom of Guatemala became the various Central American republics Authoritarian tradition from the conquest In Spain the power from God Rise of the Cuadillo military chieftain or strongman especially from 1820518505 quotSupercaudillosquot dictators Juan Manuel Rosas Argentina Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna Mexico 0 Jose Paez Venezuela 0 Political Instability 0 Endless battles between liberals and conservatives Liberals usually were Anticlerical and federalist o Conservatives Prochurch and supported centralized systems of government 0 During the nineteenth century Colombia had 8 national civil wars and 14 regional civil wars 0 Major Events 0 Haitian Revolution 1804 o Wars of Independence O 0000 0 Mexican American War Annexation of Texas by USA in 1845 US invades Mexico in 1846 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico forced to cede nearly half of its national territory Brazil Monarchy from 18221889 Emperors Dom Pedro l and Dom Pedro ll Jamaica Rebellion 1865 Ten Year War in Cuba 186878 Yara 1868 Carlos Manuel de Cespedes frees his slaves and leads an uprising of all races and classes against the Spanish Jose Marti 18531895 intellectual poet and nationalist Grito de Lares 1868 Puerto Rico s shout for independence Calls international attention to plight of Puerto Rico Spanish American War 1898 Cuban and Puerto Rican independence declared but US gets involved in war against Spain Treaty of Paris 0 US annexation of Puerto Rico and Philippines 0 US in uence in quotfreequot Cuba US military governments established in PR and Cuba in 1899 o Other Con icts French invade Mexico Archduke Maxmilian of Austria installed as emperor in 1864 Benito Juarez leads the resistance and expels the French War of the Triple Alliance 18651870 Argentina Brazil and Uruguay vs Paraguay War of the Paci c 18791884 Chile vs Peru and Bolivia 0 Growing US interest in the region 0 O O O War with Mexico in 1840s 1848 President Polk offers to purchase Cuba from Spain 1868 President Ulysses S Grant attempts to annex Dominican Republic 1869 Grant announces intention to build Panama Canal later by Teddy Roosevelt 0 US military intervention in many Latin American nations including Cuba Haiti Nicaragua 19121933 etc 0 Overview of quotNuestra Americaquot 0 O O O Marti calls for people to step forward with their ideas Expresses desire for people in America to be united to make America strong Uses quotOur Americaquot to refer to Latin America Situates his essay within a historical context with mention of the Aztecs the Inca Simon BolivarLatin American liberator and gures from Mexico39s War of Independence Recognizes role of Catholic Church rosary as our guide in identity Re ects on the Peasantassociates him with Nature an individual who will resist tyranny and outside ideas Criticizes the dandyone who is Europeanized English breeches Parisian vest etc Likewise he critiques the general scholar and judgefigures of authority who are in uenced by ideas from the US and from Europe French revolution Makes note of the Giant of the North 0 Themes in Jose Marti s quotNuestra Americaquot 0 CO 00000 0 Create do not imitate Be careful of learned authorities Establish a government that is unique and appropriate to the Americas Work toward a common good Diversity is a positive aspect of American culture We should look after our past our family our roots Sees the colonial inheritance as corrupt and defunct Favors the local Take notice of your neighbors don t be provincial Ruben Dario quotTo Rooseveltquot O O 0 Written after US invasion of Panama annexed territory for CanaD Changed from his earlier poetry usually not a political poet Roosevelt corollary to Monroe Doctrine Recent events 1898 war Platt Amendment etc 1800 0 Spanish empire extends from Northern California to Tierra delFuego 1825 0 Only Cuba and Puerto Rico maintain links to Spain 0 Creole person of European decent born in the Americas 18101825 0 In uence of French and English liberal doctrines 0 Haiti is rst country to gain independence in 1804 Miguel Hidalgo Mexico 1810 0 Independence and social reform abolishes slavery establishes a government and begins to redistribute land to the Indians Postindependence problems 0 Race and class systems still in place power still in hands of criollo elite 0 Most regular people are indifferent or passive about independence Rise of Caudillo 0 Military chieftain or strongman especially from 18205 to 18505 Endless battles between liberals and conservatives Major events 0 Haitian Revolution 0 Wars of Independence 18101825 0 Mexican American War 18461848 Annexation of Texas by USA in 1845 US invades Mexico in 1846 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico forced to cede nearly half of its national territory 0 Brazil Monarchy from 19221889 Emperors Dom Pedro I and Dom Pedro II 0 Jamaica Rebellion 1865 English was the power Ten Year War in Cuba 186878 0 Spanish American War 1898 Cuban and Puerto Rican Independence declared but US gets involved in war against Spain Took place in Cuba Treaty of Paris 0 US annexation of Puerto Rico and Philippines 0 0 US in uence in quotfreequot Cuba US military governments established in PR and Cuba in 1899 0 Overview of quotNuestra Americaquot 0 Re ects on the Peasant associates him with Nature an individual who will resist tyranny and outside ideas 0 Criticizes the dandy one who is Europeanized Likewise he critiques the general scholar and judge gures of authority who are in uenced by ideas from the US and from Europe French revolution 0 Makes note of the Giant of the North The US January 23 2014 William Decker 1151 Michigan Ave Hanover Ml 49241 Dear Professor Byron My name is William Jacob Decker and I m a sophomore here at Michigan State University I grew up in a small village about an hour south of East Lansing called Hanover My major is human biology and I plan to further my education after my undergraduate years by going to medical school I plan on going to Italy for the rst half of this summer and then England for the latter half to study abroad and have the experience of traveling to another continent The reason I chose this course is because I have had previous classes that focus on the study of the Americas and speci cally Latin America I chose it not only because I have experience in this subject but I also want to expand my knowledge of it The two classes that l have background in are quotEurope and the Worldquot and quotTime Space amp Change in Human Societyquot in which both had a great focus on Latin America I agree to a certain extent with Jose Marti s quotOur Americaquot I agree that his idea of a suitable government is one that can take its resources and local needs and balance them accordingly I also agree with Marti that new governments shouldn t always look to Europe and the United States for ideas and idols because that new government should keep its history local conditions and realities in mind However I do not agree with Marti s statement quotImported ideas and institutions with scant relationship to local realities have retarded the development of logical and useful governmentsquot lf Cuba had never been colonized and exposed to the systems of civilization and government then would it still be a barbaric country with no efficient systems Would Cuba not be as modern and be far behind the world s most advanced societies at that time I think that when Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba in 1492 he opened the doors for that country to unlimited possibilities When I read Ruben Dario s quotOde to Rooseveltquot I completely disagreed I could understand his argument if perhaps president Roosevelt ordered the United States to invade and takeover a country in South America However that was not the case Roosevelt s intentions were to create a pathway in Panama for ships to go between the Atlantic and Paci c Ocean This allowed ships for international trade to cut their traveling time by a great amount by avoiding the Cape Horn route I believe that Dario is acting irrational in this text because he implies that the United States is an almighty country that every other country is afraid of because of their power Was Dario offended about this intervention in South America because he is from Nicaragua I also don t understand his references to God He says quotAnd although you have everything you are lacking one thing Godquot What is he trying to say here The United States is not void of Christianity so was Dario implying that God did not agree with the United States intervention in Panama Sincerely William Decker 0 Jose Marti Our America Founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in 1892 to struggle for independence from Spain Lived in exile in the United States quotin the belly of the beastquot is how he puts it Warned Cubans not to emulate foreign solutions to their problems but to look to their own creativity 0 Killed ghting for Cuban independence in 1895 1 quotTo govern well requires an understanding and appreciation of local realitiesquot 2 quotGood government is nothing more and nothing less than a balance of local needs and resourcesquot 3 quotNo struggle exists between civilization and barbarism but rather between false erudition and natural knowledgequot 4 quotNatural people are good they respect and reward wisdom as long as it is not used to degrade humiliate or belittle themquot quotIn a new nation to govern is to createquot quotHow can our universities prepare men to govern when not one of them teaches anything either about the art of government or the local conditions The young emerge from our universities indoctrinated with Yankee or French ideas aspiring to govern a people they do not understandquot 7 quotWho are we where have we been which direction should we go It is essential to ask such basic questions in our search for truthquot 8 Imported ideas and institutions with scant relationship to local realities have retarded the development of logical and useful governmentsquot 9 quotOur genius will be in the ability to combine headband and cap to amalgamate the cultures of the European Indian and AfroAmerican and to ensure that all who fought for liberty mu enjoy itquot 10 quotOur styles may all still originate in France but our thought is becoming more Americanquot 11 quotIn those nations with large lndian populations the presidents are learning to speak Indian languagesquot 12 quotThe hopes of Our America lie in the originality of the new generationquot o If he is saying that quotOur Americaquot should be more original and not use the ideas and concepts of European countries wouldn t quotOur Americaquot have developed slower and become civilized at a later date Ruben Dario Ode to Roosevelt 0 Father of modernism O N 39 Lived most of his life in Europe When Theodore Roosevelt ordered the United States intervention in Panama in 1903 he wrote this poem in protest Hunter quotYou are the United States future invader of our na39ive Americaquot quotprays to Christ and still speaks Spanishquot quotYou are an AlexanderNebuchadnezzarquot quotWhenever it trembles a profound shudder runs down the enormous backbone of the Andesquot quotAnd it is the daughter of the Sun Be careful Long live Spanish Americaquot quotAnd though you have everything you are lacking one thing Godquot Cartucho 0 19161920 Chihuahua Villista view of Revolution 0 How would you describe the narrator quotSeen through a young girls eyesquot 0 What does her writing describe Is this like other war texts you may know 0 How is Pancho Villa characterized in this text Marti 0 Leader of the Cuban revolution 0 Who valued cultural independence and political independence 0 After being banished from Cuba in 1879 for Spanish sentiment 0 While in New York City he wrote things which praise the US for its solidarity and independence 0 However he feared annexation of Cuba by the US The Metaphors of the Tiger and the Octopus o The Tiger a looming predator o Symbolizes imperialist Spain Ruben Dario quotTo Rooseveltquot 0 Written after US invasion of Panama 0 Change from his earlier poetry 0 Roosevelt corollary to Monroe Doctrine 0 Recent events 1898 war Platt Amendment etc Mexican Revolution 0 19101920 Major Figures from the Mexican Revolution Por rio Diaz Francisco Madero Emiliano Zapata Francisco quotPanchoquot Villa Alvaro Obregon o Venustiano Carranza The Major Muralists 0 Diego Rivera 0 David Alfaro Siqueiros 0 Jose Clemente Orozco OOOOO I believe that And Starring Pancho Villa as Himsefsuggests that the revolution taking place in Mexico isn t very relevant or important to the people of the United States at that time The HBO lm itself and the quot lm within a lmquot both portray Pancho Villa as a revolutionary hero and people watching the lm take his side naturally I also think that this lm suggests that the audience constructs reality We saw that the rst lm they produced was not very popular but the second more narrative lm was a huge success in theatres We also saw the scene where Via becomes angry about the script because it is too dramatic and he doesn t think that it correctly portrays who he is I think that this movie opens our eyes to see how cinema can twist things and manipulate the truth to make lms more appealing to the audience You can see this as the audience of the lm love the second movie but in reality he was a coldhearted murderer The director knew this when Villa shot the Mexican widow execution style with his pistol after a victorious battle Cinema can make us see everything in a completely different way usually to draw our attention and make a lm more appealing Not to say Pancho Villa was not a here because he was in the eyes of many in Mexico that sided with the revolution and desired political and social change However the producers in this lm had to make Villa s character more dramatic and the lm as a whole more narrative to satisfy the audience of the United States
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