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ISS 220 William Decker 111212 During the rule of Por rio Diaz 18761911 many Yankees traveled to Mexico in search of economic opportunities What these technologically advanced industrial cultured foreigners found was a metaphorically backwards society The Mexicans had a very different reaction to the technology than the foreigners predicted In this essay I will proceed to argue that the difficulties the foreigners experience and the reactions of the Mexican workers were not a result of the Yankees superior complex and in exibility it was a result of the workers being stubborn and lazy but also selfsufficient Traveling to rural Mexico during this time period was almost like stepping in a time machine and adventuring back a couple hundred years for a person from the United States or Great Britain These Mexicans were almost stuck in an age where progress seemed not only unlikely but impossible They still used the same tools and routines as their ancient ancestors In fact on foreigner said quotClinging yet with Indian pertinacity to ancient customs following even in dress traditions two or three hundred years oldquot Beezley 68 There are many things about the Mexican countryside that one would view as prehistoric but housing is a category that we all can relate to Put together by sunbaked straw and mud blocks atroofed buildings were the favored style of the day Without ooring packed earth mixed with ashes served as the customary carpet Only the doorway provided ventilation to these oneroom coupes because they were constructed without windows Beezley 69 ISS 220 William Decker 111212 The foreigners viewed this as a perfect opportunity to introduce the natives of Mexico to their own tools and techniques that were back at home the status quo The Yankees did not know however that they were in for a rude awakening for thinking the Mexicans would easily accept these innovations in to their culture To help explain this rejection we have to examine the almost heartbreaking sympathetic history of the Mexican countryside s people It was almost as if the society as a whole was depressed and it gave up on the effort to change Not many people wanted to combine the hardship of poverty with the stress of making an attempt to change their way of life The ones who were too vein for this life avoided it by eeing to towns or the United States or working on the railroads The lethargic citizens who decided to keep residency in the countryside learned to cope with the poverty that inevitably came with There is an upside to this tear lled story though and that is the stability of rural Mexico This can be viewed as a costandbenefits system The countryside had an amazing reputation of being able to recover from the strikes of both instant cataclysm and fortune bonus That backbone of the countryside was to be another downfall from another point of view It prevented the process and improvement of daily life conditions The morbid process of population rate in the countryside was one that could inform us more of the changeresistant way of life As a spike in food production became evident population would grow until starvation struck and cut the population level back down to a restored balance ISS 220 William Decker 111212 Do not be mislead there is a reason for the telling you of the history of rural Mexico The past is what shapes the natives opinions on foreign in uence and progress There is another attribute that characterizes these souls and this is their daybyday perspective on life With this antagonizing society rural Mexicans still somehow found joy and peace in their culture The society very loyally relied on traditions with very odd interpretations of both time and work I believe I can speak for all of us when I say that nobody wants to work right Not according to the people of rural Mexico from 1876 to 1911 Beezley These gohappy people did not acknowledge the difference between labor and leisure lt s understandable though right In a life surrounded by poverty one has to work to live so why not have fun or nd another meaning of work other than just quotlaborquot That s exactly what these poor countryside men and women did A sense of accomplishment pleasure and unitization were all derived from work Even the activities that one would consider to be recreational had other meanings than quothaving funquot for society Fiestas for example were more obligations to the citizens rather than optional This obligation to perform the celebrations would in the end constitute work for the people because if they were to not celebrate there were high degrees of repercussion in line for the villagers The bottom line is they made pleasure from required work With this being said they surely didn t rush to get anything done because who wants to be done doing something fun Currency was also ISS 220 William Decker 111212 irrelevant to these workers The explanation for this ignorance is the fact that they knew that any excess product they produced would be con scated by local elites To foreigners time was almost an exact de nition of money but it was almost as if these nouns were a different language in the Mexican countryside s dictionary Mexicans are also very opposed to taking risks Risk wasn t just putting one undependent crop under contemplation it would also question the survival for the entire family Obviously no goodhearted individual would contemplate their family s survival for anything Now we can put everything together to understand my argument You will now understand howl argue that it is the fact Mexicans are lethargic and unwilling to change that results to the Yankees production suffering I beg you to see that this argument is far more complex than the adjectives of lethargic and unwilling though Another way to look at it could be that the Mexican s methods and routines seemed to work better for them One American Henry Harper traveled to the Huasteca region in 1896 for agricultural success He believed that he could reap substantial bene ts with the help of American energy and technology He decided to use a modern at the time steel plow to plant only one eld of corn Opposed to the tradition wooden plow and digging sticks the villagers watched this foreign technology do its work without saying a word almost as if they didn t want to admit that the steel plow did a better and more ef cient job than their own Very delighted with his blossoming eld of corn heavywinded ISS 220 William Decker 111212 storms would soon change his mood The quotgreat and ef cientquot steel plow ended up carving so deep in the earth s crust that the soil around the crops was loose allowing heavy winds to turn his corn eld upsidedown Harper then resigned his in uence of any technology to his property I assume out of humiliation Beezley 84 My point of Harper s story is an example that the rural Mexican peoples methods and routines seemed to work out better for themselves Other than the steel plow there are many other displays that aren t directly related to agriculture like adobes clothing and cuisine I will not go in detail about these though Thomas Rees a manager of the Illinois State Register and intelligent agriculturalist even commented that the steel plow s blades would be ruined by the stone lled Mexican soil while the onehanded wooden plow would just the obstacles out of the way Beezley 86 When ef ciencyenhancing machinery was introduced to the Mexicans it may be useless in the long run Why you ask Well these workers unfortunately still resorted to rawhide for almost everything They also may not use these machines as intended either To transport heavy material the natives used rawhide connected by two poles with two people escorting it When the wheelbarrow was introduced one Yankee reported to have seen a Mexican carry the brick lled wheelbarrow on his head instead of pushing it Beezley 74 This limits the native blacksmiths to the knowledge of only repairing rawhiderelated tools When a castiron machine for example needs to be repaired it s thrown aside because the blacksmith isn t modern enough to ISS 220 William Decker 111212 know how to do the mending Although I am putting a spotlight on agriculture almost every division had experienced the failure to implement technological scienti c and industrial transformation Kirkwood 115 l have explained that the dif culties of Yankees and the reaction of the Mexican workers to new technologies and methods of production are a result of the Mexican workers being lazy stubborn and selfsuf cient l have proved that these laborers have a unique apprehension of time and money producing their lazy impression Showing how their culture is incredibly stable and the rejection of implemented technologies supports my stubborn label of rejecting foreign in uence Also analyzing how their methods tend to be more effective than the Yankees con rms the identi cation of these Mexican workers being selfsuf cient You see this agronomic failure is to have Mexico at fault The foreign entrepreneurs who adventured to Mexico in the Por rio Diaz dictatorship were not informed of the history and mentality of this perplexed country Works Cited 1 Beezley William H judas at the jockey Club and Other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico Lincoln University of Nebraska 1987 Print ISS 220 William Decker 111212 Kirkwood Burton The History ofMeXico 2nd ed Westport CT Greenwood 2000P nt ISS 220 Final Exam Questions Here are the study questions for your nal exam Four of them will appear on you nal exam and you will have to write an essay in response to one of them The format will be the same as your midterm You will also have to identify ve terms from a list of ten Remember to support points that you make with evidence drawn from a variety of sources lecture readings lm discussion etc 1 Drawing examples from two Latin American nations compare and contrast the ideologies science policies attitudes and government of oligarchic regimes and compare them to populist ones How did new ideas about race gender and national identity tie into this important transition In your view did new ideas and policies ameliorate the living standards and prejudice experienced by Indigenous groups Blacks other minorities and women or did they merely mask continuing discrimination and exploitation with nationalist rhetoric Come up with a working de nition of quotrevolutionquot in your own words related to our class discussion of the topic Now take this de nition and compare the Mexican and Cuban Revolutions Why did these seminal upheavals occur in these two countries and not the majority of Latin American nations in the twentieth century Which in your view was more revolutionary Provide evidence to justify your argument Evaluate the heritage of direct and indirect United States involvement in the internal affairs of at least two Latin American nations in the twentieth century More speci cally how did shifts in the United States39 foreign policy in the 19605 in uence the development of Latin American nationalism In your opinion what was the most important factor that contributed to the development of authoritarian bureaucratic regimes in many Latin American nations in the 19605 and 1970s After World War I Latin America experienced an explosion of cultural creativity in music art literature dance architecture and ritual festivity Many artists avowedly believed that their work was a search for their nation39s quottruequot identity Drawing examples from at least two nations compare how these intellectuals and artists rede ned national identity What subjects motifs symbols and rhythms did they choose in their quest for an original national identity What were the political implications of their quest Compare the current economic policies ideologies politics foreign relations and nationalism in the era of redemocratization and neoliberalism to those of the oligarchic period in Latin America Considering the decline of the oligarchic regimes in the rst half of the twentieth century what are some of the potential dangers of neoliberal policies and politics in Latin America In your view what is the future of nationalism as a powerful force in Latin America for the twenty rst century MIDTERM QUESTIONS The questions below are designed to make you think These are sophisticated and broad questions that I ask you to grapple with This is intended to be a challenge not a cake walk but at the same time I do not want you to panic Your instructors and I will help you to approach these questions as the midterm draws near You need to select two questions and then prepare an outline for your inclass essay You will not be allowed to consult your outline during the exam so you will need to commit your outline to memory The key is preparation Once you select two questions you need to go back to your notes and readings to structure an outline around four or ve major points that address the question With an introduction and conclusion paragraph your essay should have six to seven developed paragraphs possibly more if you are ambitious The essays body paragraphs should correspond to the four or ve major points you seek to make to address the question A 40 essay will be one that makes accurate generalizations and then supports them with speci c examples drawn from a variety of sources readings lecture lm viewing and discussion In my rst lecture about modern versus traditional societies I highlighted the different predominant ideas that undergirded understandings of politics economics social hierarchies knowledge and so forth On a smaller scale I have been doing the same in lecture in reference to eras of Latin American history To help bring this out and to help you prepare your outlines I have attached some bullet points to help distinguish between caudillos roughly 18305 to 18505 and the liberal state builders roughly 18605 through the turn of the century Remember that neither Brazil nor Cuba had a period when caudillos predominated so in these cases there are a number of exceptions particularly in regard to economic policies In many other regards however many of the characteristics outlined in the bullet points below pertain to these same periods in the histories of Brazil and Cuba You will also be required to identify ve events personalities or terms from a list of twelve and brie y explain when and where they were important and why they are signi cant 25 of your exam grade 1 The predominance of hacienda estancia or plantation systems of agricultural production had an important impact on the politics the ethnic and racial composition foreign relations and the economic policies of Latin American nations from 18305 to the 18505 Compare the history of two nations dominated by different systems of agricultural production and analyze how these differing systems helped or hindered the process of nationbuilding Given the two cases you examine which economic system seemed best suited to early state building Explain why Do not try to narrate the history of independence and its aftermath in the two nations you select but make broad assertions about how political economic and other factors interacted backed up with speci c examples In short a thematic rather than a chronological approach is best suited to this question 2 In the late 18005 Latin American political elites in uenced by classical liberalism struggled to unify and modernize their nations measuring their progress against Northern European and North American standards Draw examples from the history of at least two nations to respond to the following questions How do we explain the rise of more highly centralized states in much of Spanish America beginning in the 18605 What policies practices ideologies and political styles did they embrace that distinguished them from their caudillo predecessors In you view who was more nationalistic caudillos or liberal state builders 3 What is patriarchy Draw examples from readings lectures and lm to illuminate how patriarchy is linked to ideas of order honor status and nation in Latin America in the decades following Independence What expectations does patriarchy place on women and men from prominent families How are patriarchal strategies linked to statebuilding and economic strategies in postIndependence Latin American nations through the mid nineteenth century How do new ideas of romantic love that emerge with the rise of nation states challenge ideas of patriarch privilege Do not make shallow stereotypes of men and women in Latin America that do not capture complexities of gender and power relationships Like you historical actors in Latin America often consciously or unconsciously decided not to conform to societal expectations and pressures Some nonconformists were tolerated but others were made examples of to defend ideals of the good public order which was based on metaphors of an imagined natural family organization 4 If the ability to imagine one s self as a member of a leveled and homogenous society is important for nationalism to take strong hold among a citizenry what were the obstacles that often made such imaginings difficult in Latin America in the late 18005 More speci cally how did new scienti c theories of race in uence the attitudes and practices of liberal state builders Draw speci c examples from at least two Latin American nations to illuminate how ideas of status shaped politics economics and culture in the last three decades of the 18005 How did political and economic elites view the popular majority of their national populations Why do you think these views came to the fore under liberal state builders rather than under caudilos 5 Why did Spanish America break up into so many different nations after Independence while Portuguese America remained united a in a single nation with a vast territory What factors gave shape to the borders of the new Spanish American nation states In your view what factor was most important in explaining why Brazil remained a single nation despite regional revolts that threatened national unity Caudillos roughly 18305 to 18505 verse Liberal State Builders roughly 18605 through turn of the century Local investment Foreign Capital Patria Chica National Government Local militias National armed forces Traditional Production New Technology Restricted Religious freedom Religious Freedom Military leaders Civilian leaders Authoritarian Democratic in theory Oligarchy in practice Populist Elitist Charisma personalistBureaucracy Education low priority high priority Nativism immigrant friendly Protectionist Free trade Xenophobia cosmopolitanism Traditional ideas of racial hierarchy mitigated by nativism Social Darwinism Pragmatic PhilosophyPositivism Models and aesthetics Iberian and local culture Northern European nations and the US When observing the twentieth century events the revolutions of Cuba and Mexico are nothing to be disregarded A revolution is a process in which the six basic elements of a society undergo a substantial change and these include territory economy and polity Cuba and Mexico were the only nations in Latin America that experienced revolutions and this is because they were the most involved with the United States in the twentieth century Of these two Cuba was more revolutionary in my opinion because of how much its relations to the United States changed At the turn of the twentieth century much of the land of Mexico was owned by the state Still in effect Mexico s constitution of 1917 called for a massive redistribution of land bringing an end to the predominance of large haciendas In fact 75 million acres were distributed to almost 13 of the landless peasants Lecture notes In the dawn of 1959 US companies owned a large section of Cuba To put it in perspective about 40 sugar lands almost all cattle ranches and practically all of the oil industry Lecture notes By the second half of 1960 the revolutionary government of Cuba nationalized a mass amount of US owned land and redistributed it to collective farms Chasteen The territorial change between Cuba and Mexico during revolution was much different for Mexico s land was owned by Mexicans before and after but Cuba s land was largely owned by the United States before but then expropriated to be in the hands of Cuba s own revolutionary government An international dispute occurred in 1938 in Mexico involving Mexican workers and British and US oil companies The result was the nationalization of the oil industry giving rise to the stateowned oil company PEMEX This was called for in the 1917 Constitution This became known as Mexico s declaration of economic independence Chasteen Article 27 of the constitution established labor laws also ending patronage in Mexico Chasteen and Lecture notes As for Cuba export dependency completely changed In 1959 the US supplied 23 of Cuba s imports Lecture notes The US declared an economic embargo on Cuba in 1960 which resulted in Cuba owning 85 of the industrial production by 1961 External trade was then directed to distant countries like Soviet Russia Soviet Russia trades farm equipment and other industrial goods in exchange for Cuba s sugar The economic shift of Cuba was more revolutionary than Mexico in my opinion This is because Cuba went from being so dependent on the sugar quota of the US to selling sugar to Soviet Russia instead while Mexico became economically independent The constitutionalists of Mexico created a oneparty political system A revolutionary party for seven decades it was first called National then Mexican and lastly Institutional Chasteen Mexico s revolution also produced the rule where the executive part of the constitution cannot be reelected While wealthy landowners and industrialists still in uenced politics the Mexican economic elite were no longer the political elite Lecture notes Like Mexico Cuba also produces a oneparty political system during its revolution The government went from the being controlled by Batista to Castro both being personalist dictatorships By the 1970s however Cubans were allowed to vote for their leaders but the only option was the communist party The fear of US intervention becomes a reason for the revolutionary government to rationalize censorship and suppress political freedoms of the regime s internal critics Cuban politics in my opinion was more revolutionary because the right to vote is a big step to a democracy even if the only option was the communist party Compared to Mexico Cuba became stricter because of the censoring and political freedom suppression Maj or transformations like these did not happen in other Latin American nations This is because both Mexico and Cuba were the most involved and in uenced by the US Southern Mexico was least affected by the revolution and the least integrated with the US Both being more centralized than other nations nearby Cuba and Mexico were in no danger of communism in the eyes of the US For Cuba the Platt Amendment of 1901 allowed US to intervene in Cuba US s threat of the sugar quota also prevents Cuba from pursuing populist policy In Mexico the US looked at Carranza for a leader to do business with and Henry Wilson plots against the revolutionaries Huerta s resignation was also a result of US pressure ISS 220 Final Exam Questions Here are the study questions for your nal exam Four of them will appear on you nal exam and you will have to write an essay in response to one of them The format will be the same as your midterm You will also have to identify ve terms from a list of ten Remember to support points that you make with evidence drawn from a variety of sources lecture readings lm discussion etc The questions below are designed to make you think These are sophisticated and broad questions that I ask you to grapple with This is intended to be a challenge not a cake walk but at the same time I do not want you to panic Your instructors and I will help you to approach these questions as the midterm draws near You need to select two questions and then prepare an outline for your inclass essay You will not be allowed to consult your outline during the exam so you will need to commit your outline to memory The key is preparation Once you select two questions you need to go back to your notes and readings to structure an outline around four or ve major points that address the question With an introduction and conclusion paragraph your essay should have six to seven developed paragraphs possibly more if you are ambitious The essays body paragraphs should correspond to the four or ve major points you seek to make to address the question A 40 essay will be one that makes accurate generalizations and then supports them with speci c examples drawn from a variety of sources readings lecture lm viewing and discussion 1 Come up with a working de nition of quotrevolutionquot in your own words related to our class discussion of the topic Now take this de nition and compare the Mexican and Cuban Revolutions Why did these seminal upheavals occur in these two countries and not the majority of Latin American nations in the twentieth century Which in your view was more revolutionary Provide evidence to justify your argument 2 Evaluate the heritage of direct and indirect United States involvement in the internal affairs of at least two Latin American nations in the twentieth century More speci cally how did shifts in the United States foreign policy in the 19605 in uence the development of Latin American nationalism In your opinion what was the most important factor that contributed to the development of authoritarianbureaucratic regimes in many Latin American nations in the 19605 and 1970s Compare the current economic policies ideologies politics foreign relations and nationalism in the era of redemocratization and neoliberalism to those of the oligarchic period in Latin America Considering the decline of the oligarchic regimes in the rst half of the twentieth century what are some of the potential dangers of neoliberal policies and politics in Latin America In your view what is the future of nationalism as a powerful force in Latin America for the twenty rst century W 0 Introduction 0 What exactly is a revolution I would say it is a process in which the six basic elements of a society undergo a substantial change These include polity economy territory technology defense and diplomacy and religion world view ideology o In my essay I will proceed to split the discussion up by these six aspects 0 Mexico and Cuba were more involved with the US resulting in only them having a revolution 0 Cuba is more revolutionary in my opinion because of how much its relations to the US changed 0 Disregarding the scale of change both countries underwent massive revolutions that almost completely everything about society 0 Comparing Territory Comparing Economy 0 Mexico At turn of 20th centuryUS citizens and corporations owned about 27 land Obregon did not separate the economy from foreign capitalists allowing free trade with some restrictions Cardenas uni ed support of capitalists to build large farms to feed populationejidos caused urban food crisis 0 Made Mexico a mixed economy between agrarian socialism and industrial capitalism by 1940 PEMEXstate owned oil company Nationalization of oil industry in 1938 seen as an assertive of Mexican national sovereignty over a key resource End of patronage Labor rights established Expansion of state ownership of the economy in key sectors 0 Comparing Polity Mexico 0 Comparing technology a 0 Why not other Latin American nations Mexico and Cuba were most involved and in uenced by the US US was very involved in cuba s policies 0 Us always had a grip on cuba because they would threaten the sugar quota o Prevents cuba from pursuing populist policy 0 Always tried to prevent revolution and communism Recognized batista only because he was in favor for us foreign policies US also was very involved in mexico s policies 0 US looks at Carranza for a leader to do business with 0 US pressures huerta to resign 0 Wilson orders marines to occupy Veracruz Herny Wilson plots against revolutionaries 0 Thought revolution threatened us intervention 0 Who was more revolutionary Cuba had more drastic changes than mexico US companies owned a lot of cuba before revolution 1959 land law 0 Mexico had massive redistribution of land Cuba switched the dependency of its economy from the us to soviet union 0 Mexico had only internal changes 0 Labor rights established Both have an emergence of a onepartby political system 0 Cuba was a communist party though 0 Mexico and Cuba 0 Mexico Henry Lane Wilson was claimed to have assisted in president Madero39s assassination thought revolution threatened us intervention Franciso Madero39s campaign 1910 0 Take Ciudad JuarezMay 1911 0 Appointed himself president Zapata Considered Madero a traitor Plan de Ayala1911 Plan orozquista March 1912 0 States that orozco is rebelling against madero39s government Embassy pact 1913 o Huerta plotted with henry Wilson for the exile of madero and huerto s takeover of the presidency o Madero was assassinated huerta assumes presidency Larranza Zapata and villa ally to ght huerta o Huerta militarizes mexico 0 US occupation of vera cruz 1914 0 Wilson orders marines to occupy vera cruz o Huerta is forced to resign from us pressure 0 Us looks at carranza Aguascalientes convention o Generals from the different armies discuss govt o Carranza will not recognize emerged document because it39s too liberal Battle of Celaya 1915 o Villa s forces were badly defeated by Carranza never able to recover 0 With help of us guns and barbed wire Carranza will assassinate Zapata o Seen as next leader of Mexico 0 lnfuriates villa so he raids us as revenge o Pershing enters Mexico to chase villa Mexicans upset w us because of armies and land grabbing 0 Cuba 0 Introduction Question 5 0 While comparing Latin America in the oligarchic period to Latin America in the era of neoliberalism there were some minor transitions in economic policies politics and foreign relations Many countries end up rejecting the neoliberal model and embraced a national vision Nationalism in my view has a very successful future in Latin America for the twenty rst century 0 Comparing economic policies Classical Liberalism Free trade comparative advantage Laissez Faire 0 Promotion of agro amp mineral export economies BrazH o Stockpiled coffee to prevent overproduction System failed State should have limited role in economy BrazH 0 Republicans quotopened brazil for businessquot and stepped out of the way 0 Structure let each state keep its own export o revenues Reduced role of state intervention in markets but not completely Favor international investment Reductions in tariff barriers brought lower prices and greater variety of imports Attracted new transnational corporations 0 Maquiladora Pg 322 In ation control Reduced government spending Chile 0 Success story but distribution of wealth remained among the most unequal in Latin America 0 Comparing Politics RepubHcs Electoral process is often exclusionary and corrupt exception Argentina after 1912 Saenz Pena Law Controlled by the powerful and wealthy mean of mostly European descent Electorally highly inclusionary and open 0 very transparent and fair electoral process 0 in many cases superior to US39s fractured electoral system 0 Comparing foreign relations Foreign policy seeks to engage and diversify access to world markets and create new alliances Potential dangers of neoliberal policies and politics in Latin America 0 Neoliberalism replayed patterns of prenationalist liberal era Mexican neoliberalism PRI began to rehabilitate Diaz in Mexican textbooks 0 Social consequences of neoliberal reforms Dismantling of bureaucracies left many without employment 0 Human activities have depleted the Amazon 0 Providing water and electricity to poorest areas was not pro table o Zapatistas Rebelled when NAFTA was signed Believed it would increase gap between rich and poor 0 Variation in the inequality and poverty While the majority of the population within these countries suffered from poverty the upper classes received the bene ts Portes and Roberts 0 Future of nationalism for the twenty rst century 0 Many countries reject neoliberal model Embraced nationalist visions of antiimperialism and active government Didn t reject free market capitalism but sought to lessen its impact within their borders By 2010 many countries elect presidents with a nationalist bent o Mexicos neoliberal president carlos Salinas Universal disgrace for the corruption of his administration 9495worst economic crisis to hit mexico in decades Urban delinquency was at a high prompting mass protests o I believe many countries will resort to nationalism because of the dangers they see and how the neoliberal presidents are doing most of the countries bad 0 Conclusion While comparing Latin American in the oligarchic period to Latin America in the era of neoliberalism there were some minor transitions in economic policies politics and foreign relations but they were similar in many ways also Many countries ended up rejecting the neoliberal model and embraced a national vision Nationalism in my view has a very successful future in Latin America for the twenty rst century While based off of classical liberalism the oligarchic rule has similar characteristics of the economic policies of the neoliberal rule In the oligicarchic era of Mexico there was nationalization of foreign industries which in turn give the rise to PEMEX and Telecom Neoliberal Mexico39s economy wanted to reduce the role of state intervention so they began to sell privatized or state run companies in 1982 88 Carlos Slim buys the telecommunications company and becomes the richest man in the world which shows the uneven distribution of wealth The politics of the oligarchic rule can be contrasted to the politics of the neoliberalism era The Brazilian Republic for example was controlled by the wealthy men of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais Each landowning oligarchy managed local elections as they please and they corruptly traded the presidency back and forth Brazil was very inclusionary and open in the political sector by the time they elected the neoliberal president Cardoso I believe that nationalism will be a very successful force in Latin America in the twenty rst century We can already see how nationalism is making a comeback while the neoliberal model is becoming the past Carlos Salinas Mexico39s neoliberal president quickly accomplished a bad reputation for massive corruption in his administration and seeing the worst economic crisis in Mexico in decades Brazil offered an example of nationalism at its nest Lula was nominated president of Brazil in 2002 entering a nation with enormous debt obligations He also provided income for families that keep their children in school which reduced poverty and the pushed the economy forward Terms Mendellaly Theory 0 Once you39re born quotdice have been thrownquot Lemarkian o Says environmental continues to in uence our biology and those genes can be passed on o Gives rise to more centralized govt FINAL QUESTION 5 OUTLINE INTRO I The regimes of oligarchic rule from the early 18005 comparatively contrast with that of Neoliberalism or the redemocratization of the 20th century to present but also have similar attributes a Of those attributes included views on racial democracy Neoliberalism is largely the return to many practices of old liberals a acted unfavorably to nationalism which is characterized by internal diversity and a sense of equality amongst all races and classes b That included the welfare of the common poorer class Neoliberalism was mostly a failure in Latin America towards the end of the 20th century a Example Mexico b Began to experience economic decline c including in ation and wide scale unemployment As neoliberalism declined nationalism replaced it especially in the countries of Mexico and Cuba a once again focusing on the betterment of all people poor and rich In my opinion nationalism will dominate as a powerful in uence in government and society in the future because of it s positive history in these two Latin American countries BODY PARAGRAPH 1 Ideologies Oligarchic rule of the 19th century greatly contrasted to the rule of current neoliberalism in views on ideology Oligarchic ideology in Cuba cultural and aesthetic model are based on northern European and north American also believe in social Darwinism a Ex eugenics government can improve national race Neoliberal in Cuba cosmopolitan aesthetics shaped by local and global traditions begin accepting racial diversity a Acceptance of African heritage b Revolutionary leader Fidel Castro sees racism as consequence of capitalism BODY PARAGRAPH 3 economic policies However considering oligarchic rule is similarly based off of classical liberalism the characteristics of oligarchic and neoliberal rule share attributes such as economic policies Oligarchic economy in Mexico nationalization of industries a PEMEX b Telecom lll Neoliberal economy in Mexico believed in reducing role of state intervention in markets but not so much to eliminate the role a begin selling privatized or state run companies 198288 very unpopular because those revenues are lost b Carlos Slim bought telecommunications company richest man in world revenue could ve been put towards Mexican economy BODY PARAGRAPH 4 Nationalism l Nationalism ll clari ed in John Chasteen s quotBorn In Blood and Firequot as internal diversity and race mixing was not favored by neoliberal ideals lll Oligarchic regimes believed in producing a more white race a quotwhitening theoryquot IV Neoliberalism favored upper classes and cared less about distributed wealth and racial democracy a Because foreign lenders believed in freer markets as a solution in insolvency And these foreign lenders typically insisted on tightening social budgets which greatly affected the lower class V Neoliberalism had antinationalist ideals in the way that the poorer class did not bene t from neoliberal reforms a There was collapse of local industry due to neglected interest from neoliberal leaders and therefore largescale unemployment BODY PARAGRAPH 5 I At the turn of the 21st century because Neoliberalism decline nationalism will regain and hold in uential power in the future of government ll Corrupt neoliberal presidents were being discovered a 199495 worst economic crisis hit Mexico in decades b urban delinquency was at a high led to mass protests lll Successful terms of nationalistic elected presidents will set precedent for future nationalism ideals a Ex Luis lgnacio da Silva or quotLulaquot in Brazil i Had quotzero hungerquot initiative to eliminate hunger in Brazil ii quotFamily Scholarshipquot provided income support to families if they kept their children in school reduced poverty b Hugo Chavez of Venezuela i Supported poor in exchange for political support bene tted poor c Evo Morales of Bolivia i Oversaw new constitution that signi cantly improved lives of indigenous IV Nationalism is most popular among the people because it appeals to ALL classes and has a quality of cohesion that bonds a nation CONCLUSION IV Although oligarchic and neoliberal regimes differed in there periods of rule they also had very similar attributes Of these were views on nationalism which were mostly antagonistic Ultimately these regimes proved un t for dominating power as seen through the deterioration of the economies they existed in such as Mexico and Cuba With their decline came a rise in nationalism which will attest to be a cohesive force between nations and is likely to prevail in future governing
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