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Concrete History 0 First used by ancient romans o Hardened underwater as well as in the air 0 Stronger when hardened underwater than in the air 0 Use of volcanic ashsands mixed with lime 1824 aspdin patented Portland cement named after English portland limestone 18505 reinforced concrete late 19005 applied to building construction 0 19205 prestessed concrete Concrete 0 Rock like material 0 Ingredients 0 Portland cement 0 Course aggregate 0 Fine aggregate 0 Water 0 Admixture optional 6 air 11 Portland Think of it as a recipe Poropotions of ingredients affects 0 Strength 0 Plasticity o Workability 0 Resistance Plastic Material 0 No inherent shape of its own Transofrmative amterial Transforms from a liquid to a hardened shape setting 0 Chemical reaction hydration between Portland an dwater Temperature dependent 0 Range 5090 degrees 0 Affects range and period of curing Perforamnce issues 0 Re ects sounds o Durable o Requires control joints 0 lnsure precise recipe 0 Portland cement 0 Site cast concrete 0 Concrete block 0 Precast concrete products 0 Mortar Aggregates 0 Approx 34 the volume 0 Must be clean Lecture 2 Soil Is a thin layer of materials on earth39s surface in which plants have their roots It is made up of o Weathered rocks 0 Minerals 0 Decayed or decomposed plants 0 Animal matter Soils can take 10000 years or more to form Horizon A o The upper layer of soil nearest the surface Horizon B 0 Little to no organic litter is present but contains a high concentration of leached soluble chemicals from orizon A Horizon C o Consists of mostly weatherized and shattered rock Horizon D o Bedrock Sothpes 0 Sand 0 Clay 0 Silt Loam o A soil consisting of the three able Sand o If the water is clear and the soil has settled to the bottom you have predominantly sand soil Earth structure 0 Pese 0 Earth blocks 0 Sandbag 0 Extended earth tubes 0 Earth loaves Cob Earth Structures 0 Pros Natural reproof material Regulates humidity between 4045 relative humidity Absorption of gases and odors lndoor climate regulates temperature though thermal mass Acoustic properties Local material Simulative properties bers mixed in or use of cavity wall Embodied energy is low 2 compared to concrete construction Structural limitations compressive strength is low Buildings have thicker walls Labor intensive to construct Cleanliness factor exposed earth structure 0 Soil for Pise o 12 clay is best but this will range depending on climate and location 0 Earth mixture can contain up to 30 clay but will be harder to form 0 If less than 12 clay ne wilt can be added 0 Three purposes 0 To bind the earth particles together strongly Lime Portland cement pozzolana cement and natural bers Necessary for buildings over 2 stories 0 To reduce water penetration Lime Portland pozzolana and water glass In areas where driven rain is prevalent May also use whey casein bull39sblood molasses or bitumen 0 To avoid shrinkage Natural bers Stabilizing aggregate and additives 0 Lime and cement Lime a stabilizer for argillaceous earth The lime reacts with the clay as binder Added to the mix is a proportion of 614 Portland Cement is a stabilizer for earth rich in sand 0 Natural bers Chopped straw Shuttering the formwork surrounding he rammed earth mix Concrete Part 2 0 Concrete formwork Temporary structure Shapes and supports wet concrete Negative of the nal concrete shape Must be designed to support Concrete and reinforcing Constru ction loading wo excess de ection easily stripped once concrete is cured O O O O Wood Metal Plastic berglass Cardboard 0 Horizontal panel systems Bene ts Lightweight Increase speed of construction Simplicity of assembly Minimal crane use Manually assembled Engineered for precise adjustment 0 Jump Form Typical uses Shear walls 0 Core walls 0 Lift shafts Stair shafts Bridge pylons Normal jumpclimbing form 0 Guided climbing jump form Selfclimbing jump form Bene ts 0 Speed of construction 0 Small but skilled workforce Independently supported 0 Reduced crane time o Slip Form Similar in nature and application to jump form The formwork continuously rises at a rate of about 300 mm per hour Bene ts 0 Does not require a crane Can achieve high production rates 0 Availability on different platforms 0 Small but highly skilled workforce More economical in buildings over 7 stories Platforms Upper storage and distribution area 0 Middle main working platform 0 Lower access for concrete nish 0 System column formwork Available in steel aluminum and even cardboard Variety of internal face surfaces Adjustable Bene ts 0 Increased speed and ef ciency Assembled and erected more easily precision adjustments of formwork Robust metal assemblies 0 Modular 0 Table form ying form Large preassembled formwork and ase work unit often forming a complete bay of suspended oor lab Bene ts Fast construction for large oor layouts Reduced long term workforce requirement Can be precisely adjusted Repetititve in nature ln ll areas and decking joints 0 Verticle panel systems Crane lifted panel systems are commonly used on building sites for form vertical elemetns and ususaly consists of a steel fram with plywood steel or a composite facing material Bene ts 0 Modular in nature 0 Assembly times and labor are considerably reduced 0 Concrete reinforcing Concrete useful tensil strength Reinforcing steel tensile strength 0 Similar coef cient of thermal expansion Chemicalcompatibility Adhesion of concrete to steel Theory of steel location 0 Place reinforcing steel where the concrete is the tension Reinforcing steel 0 Size 0 Eleven standard diameters ASTM American society for Testing and Materials 0 Reinforcing steel manufacturing Hot rolled Rolling a matal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls 0 Rolling is classi ed according to the temperature of the metal rolled If the temperature of the metal is above the recrystallization temperature then the process is termed as hot rolling If the temperature of the metal is be ow its recrystallization temperature the process is tremed as cold rolling Ductility A solid material s ability ot deform under tensile stress this is often characterized by the materials 0 Reinforcing installation Hoist bundles to o Prestressing Pretensioning Prior to concrete placement 0 Generally performed at a plant Post tensioning cables positioned prior to concrete placement Stressed after concrete placement Generally performed at the joints BHcks tHstory 0 De nition Masonry includes all bricks stone blocks earthen materials as well as cementious that are laid Primarily respect compressive forces Heavy or high weight to strength ratio 0 Mortar Combination of cementitious materials lime or masonry cement aggregate sand and water Material that both bines and separates two masonry units Placed in joints between masonry units Seals the space between units Creates aesthetic aspects of shadows and color effects Compensates for dimensional differences Comprises 20 of the wall surface 0 Grout Maerials used to ll voids between reinforced and unreinforced surfaces 0 Properties Mortar and grout exist under two states 0 Plastic state Hardened state Properties whil in each state affect wall39s strength durability and water tightness 0 Plastic state properties Workability Water retension H Ual mn Howa ersuc on A force that causes a uid or solid to be drawn into an interior space or to adhere to a surface because of the difference Work ability of mortar role of lime Uniform cohesive and consistent Attributes Spreads easily on brick Holds weight of brick MakesathUnenteasy Clings to vertical surfaces Easily extrudes from joints without dropping or smearing 0 Water retention Role fo lime improves elasticity of mortar lnsure that mortar retains moisture level Properties Bond strength exural tensile strength is a property of the masonry wall Durability Compressive strength Volume change Appearance Bond strength affected by Porosity of masonry unit Air temperature and humidity level 0 High temperature can cause mortar to dryt o quickly high humidity can slow down curing process Workmanship Amount of water Type of cementitious material Whether air entrained Durability Problems 0 Spall surface of mortar or masonry falls off 0 Ef orescence sat crystaizing in the interior can cause structural damage 0 Staining occurs during the building process or by lime leaching out of fresh mortar Appearance 0 Mortar coor Maintain uniformity Affected by Atmosphereic conditions 0 Moisture conten masonry Admixture Types of mortar 0 Sand lime mortar Modulaa Earthworks Stone You can ask me to dig in the earth Do I have to take a knife and plunge it into my mother s breast You say that I must dig and take away the stones Do l have to remove her esh to reach down to her bones Sioux Indian Rock Classi cation Sedimentary o Are formed by deposition of either clastic sediments organic matter or chemical precipices evaporates followed by compaction of the particulate matter and cementation during Sand stone not as strong as granite and cannot be polished Limestone largest rock category used in the building industry Igneous o Are formed when molten magma cools and are divided into two main categories plutonic rock and volcanic o Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystalizes slowly withing the earth39s crust 0 Granite Considered the most hardwearing natural stone used in the building industry and it can be used almost without restriction Strong frost resistant Largely resistant to weathering Available in a wide range of colors Metamorphic o Are formed by subjecting any rock type to different temperature and pressure conditions than those in which the original rock was formed 0 Slate very densely structured absorbs little moisture splits well and is used as thin slabs usually dark grey and black The Quarry Crema Martil Cato Quarry Alcante Spain 0 The largest quarry in the world 0 The marble extracted by Levantina is internationally recognized as the best cream marble Stone Extraction Levering 0 Expanding open fractures by inserting levers crowbars or stones 0 Simplest way Splitting 0 Creating fractures preferable planar by stokes sledge hammer wedging heating or blasting with explosives o Generating new fractures inserting wedges prefabricated holes or by heat detonating explosives in drill holes Best on hard siliceous ChanneHng 0 Making channels in the rock by carving with hammer and chisel pickaxe or stone tools heating with re Shaping Chiseling 0 Once extracted and shaped stone blacks travel to their nal destination Polishing o Gently wide surface friction to smooth the surface of the stone until its shiny and perfectly smooth surface treatments tOOIS The Crandall a wrought iron bar attened at one end with a slot 38 in wide and 3 inches long In which ten double headed onto made of quarter inch square steel around nine inches longa re fastened by means of a key It is used to nish the surface of sandstone after it has been worked with the tooth axe or chisel The patenet hammer made fo several blades of steel gournd to an endge and held together with bolts is is used for nishing grante Surface treatemtns Rock faced or pitch faced work Crandalled work Broached work Bush hammered work Pointed work Patent hammered nish Illustrated tooled work Vermiculated work Droved work Rustication o Ashlar a nely dressed masonry either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the masonry built of such stone Finest stone masonry unit 0 Precisely cut quoton all faces adjacent to those of other stonesquot ashlar is capable of very thin joints between blocks Tooled to smoothly polished Types of stone 0 Field stone 0 Rough obtained from riverbeds and rock elds Rubble stone 0 Irregular quarried fragments with one good face Dimension stone 0 Quarried an cut to a rectangular form Wood Why wood 0 Renewable Flexible Beautiful Biodegradable or combustible at the end of its life Need less energy processing compared to other alternative products 0 Solid timber systems and the future of wood products in the construction industry 0 Solid Timber Systems 0 Mechanically laminated systems Nailed stacked plank o Bonded laminated systems Glue laminated GluLam Cross Laminated Timber CLT o Interlocking laminated systems ICLT Interlocking Cross Laminated Timber no adhesive or mechanical fasteners Considerations and Major Drivers Construction schedule and timeline Cost of land Cost of materials Financial proforma and payback Sustainability and carbon sequestering Integrated project delivery Connections and detailing Seismic and loading 0 Building codes 0 What do we bring to the table 0 Material expertise Manufacturing expertise Designcreative expertise Material testing experience Product supply chain expertise Managementadministrative expertise Environmental expertise 00000000 000000 SQ Werkmg the Wood wmkmg the wood 61 ork to balance the tension in your back muscles This will allow you to work longer more comfortably and with more control The chisel should be held gently just below the crown and the hammer should be held lightly near the end of the handle in striking apply the force while watching both the blade edge and the crown Strike the end of the chisel with the head of the hammer flat so that force is applied in a straight line When swinging the hammer up make sure that no one is nearby Below are listed the essentials of chiseling nate your position frequently while you w MHECWDN OFFORCE F Figure 519 Direction of hammer blow if ls fit 3911 I I l J l n F Irv I H quotII 39 1 quotHrquot n 1 q39 r Mal Hill I a m1 list i m m39 m h FM wmh Figure 516 Chiseling posture t 1 Mr V irt 1 When striking parallel to the wood grain there will be a tendency for splitting to ope r 39 it along the fibers For this reason the chase should not be struck hard see Figure 517 f EMS lli ll 39I I II all I r k I 223 i 39 I a gure 520 snif ng parallel Figure 521 Striking perpendicular li tot e grain to the grain it Figure 517 Striking parallel to the wood grain 2 When striking across the grain strike hard see Figure 518 e 523 This is due to the 39 Chisel inside 39 39 the line leaving a rim II IIII39II ll39lquot s backwards as shown in Figur he chisel s tront pt when finish chiseling a hole t o be chiseled out s struck it move ithe blade Exoe ge oi the hole t 5 When the chisel i wedge shape of the back 0 face should be pieced near the ed Leave rim at id but chisel ends flush to Pound in the cut lines the chisel Repeat the procedure HECTIDN IN WHICH CHlSEL rviovss Cut lines Push down on the handle Remove wood to desired Figure 523 Chisel movement when Figure 522 Chiseling around a knot o the drawn line leaving a thin iine on the I I and fit quot 39 M a Push torward if and raise blade Strike down on the chisel to remove remainder pleted right up t should be cum s for clean up 6 Chiseling small adiustment wood Those allows Chiseiing procedures thin chisel as shew 1 Wood fibers are severed just inside the cut line using the usunomi in Figure 524 1 p the sides to the not strike the chiseirr39 H Clean u cut lines ot Figure 524 At the e ocedures 2 through 8 Figure 5249 2 Next repeat pr ce as shown in e remaining pie remove th e on the prec leaving the cut lin emove einc nt oi outline to r mbled hole out squarely e as to the amou m39oers are asse 3 Using the usunomr carve the n Figure 5248 Take special car ct the tit oi the connection when the me e 524 Chiseling a mortise shown i will atie Figur Working the Wood 65 To measure the depth of a hole that has been chiseled insert a chisel or small stick per pendiculariy into the hole Locate the top of the hole on the stick with the fingers and re move the stick from the hole Then measure the depth with a ruler When chiseling a hole rightthrough a board roughly chisel to about half the depth than chisel from the other side When the hole has been made a square or a similar tool is used to check the verticality and smoothness of the cut surface as shown in Figure 525 Then the hole is squared and smoothed to finish it 54 Working the Wood LAYOUT TOP AND BOTTOM Alternative mortisng technique A B are STOP CUTS across end grain iust inside layoutt16quot 1X8quot deep 0 D are score lines along grain direction 1 TOP A B V ALL STOPCUTS made to control and limit wood removal to mortise layout 2 f i 39l 7 A SHALLOW Va r53124ss TOP x Stancutsatcenterofmortiselayouttakingoutachip Figure 525 Checking Squareness of a hole 13 moving from center cut alternating sides till hole is 12 depth from top surface 2 39 31 80mm Another practical method for making holes is to use a brace or gimlet as shown in Figure 525 By roughly boring a hole of the required size and depth with a brace or gimlet and BOTTOM then squaring and finishing it with a chisel a hole can be made quite easily m i W Turn piece over and repeat same procedure arx 39 hole isthrough from bottom to top in center of media 4 f k at quotr i If TOP I I quotIf l I i TOP s39uarnos l 39 i 39 39 Finer HALF nEMovED NOT SQUARE Start at tip towardscenter of mortise and ANGLE OUT To angle until top edge is flush and surface isfj39ahg BOTTOM EDGE towards bottom Turn board over and repeat 39 5i 1 procedure J I V Lows THlS endure x i At this point top and bottom of mortise should to fay out line with any bulge only at center395 3 this inside face from top to bottom so thisis GROSS SECTION up all surfaces to be flush to layout39lin39es procedure is similar to digging a hole vii Start digging in the middle and worktoedg hole not from outside in to middle in case mortise is not square through board this technique is more reliable and consistent method to produce accurate and efficient mortising AII monising should be done with angled side of chisel against shoulder to be out Flat side chisel with39h39oilf is used for paring and clean up only Figure 526 Boring holes to ease chiseling EARTHWORKS STONE MATERIALS ARC2723 is a 1qu lt u A af nqu E i Herzog amp de Meuron Dominus Winery Napa CA 39 39 I if o g I 39 1 a n a 1 l lquot 39 13 I Jli i C 3v IaLII 1H F v 1 A 395 4439 a I it39 e I 39logr 50411 l recycled concrete rubble are wire cages lled wi th crushed rocks or You ask me to dig in the earth Do have to take a knife and plunge it into my Mother s breast You say that must dig and take away the stones Do have to remove her esh to reach o o wn to her bones Sioux Indian ROCK CLASSIFICATION IGENEOIJS fEASALT quotfr 9 w H IEHEEUS Themam39armhm hequot I313quot i Efrain regdensinmwl iwsm T39Wrewgrmmhsmi n 5T EEEWEEeEIEHEUUSJQ n r 39 j 5 mumsmm 39 39 1 Film t ma aiii paw He 39 1 55 NEUEa aiemmm39aun E A J 3 iausritlwekur n f I A ah i HEEHI III 255 123395 r j atrial13 min mamEin a quot I h I 139 r 39 quotnli HE USrmLus wlwtanhebtmmtg al yh 7 v F T 39C A A 7 EmimyHmnnd I 7 7 HaTi39na 39f 7 I V In I r Ui iu m I A v v gt 1 I I r P7 39 FEEEIIELHEIIEICE J r 1 mmmmmrcp whim mlmmm MIquot r 7 39 CV x r CaridEPEFEEF EI39 39si ina E iHEHT icT V r E39J39IEIgjfdi il39ia intjll urn EE JE39F39EE IIIETM39I EWHI mm rmmesanwawam SED I MENTA RY MEIAMORPch 39 l v l I IFSEQEIEIIEHEW39 sawrm HEITEQPHEELIRE III Emim c I w 7 I 39 I y m 39w r m zigianw sum 39 ENSTUNE gigzgif gga IMHHBLE METAHDIIFHICFEI E3 7 23 a ne grained Basalt rock of ma c composition orthoclase plagioclase and quartz ROCK CLASSIFICATION IGNEOUS Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma cools and are divided into two main categories plutonic rock and volcanic Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the earth s crust example granite Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmenta ejecta examples pumice and basalt iii 7 i i V A i 4 m u A in i39 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Black and white granite GRANITE Considered the most hardwearing natural stone used in the building industry and it can be used almost without restrictions It is Strong frost resistant Largely resistant to weathering Available in a wide range of colors Limestone a sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbonate minerals ROCK CLASSIFICATION SEDIMENTARY Sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of either clastic sediments organic matter or chemical precipitates evaporites followed by compaction of the particulate matter and cementation during diagenesis Sedimentary rocks form at or near the earth39s surface Mud rocks comprise 65 mudstone shale and siltstone sandstones 20 to 25 and carbonate rocks 10 to 15 limestone and dolostone Fahtepur Sikri Jama Majid Red Sandstone r t l H I r uni 51 V I l 39 39 39 r 14L j 7 ii El 39 1 2 v39 r quotquotr 39l I 5 5quot V L m I L t i y F I k i l l r V an l m 7 a 39 Hr quot IFA I i ill739 Getty Center Museum Los Angeles Limestone ii SAN DSTONE Is not as strong as granite and cannot be polished It can absorb a great deal of water so has only limited frostresistance and is susceptible to airborne pollution It is considered very easy to work Sandstone often has a slightly banded open texture and is available in many colors LIMESTONE Is the largest rock category used in the building industry Its composition makes is susceptible to chemical processes Limestone occurs in pastel shades often contains fossils and some of its varieties can be polished Many types of limestone including marble are transparent when cut very thin ROCK CLASSIFICATION METAMORPHIC Metamorphic rocks are formed by Fi39ng any rock type including a sly formed metamorphic rock to nt temperature and pressure ons than those in which the I rock was formed quotquotemperatures and pressures are 1igher than those at the earth39s I a and must be suf ciently high so as to change the original minerals into other mineral types or else into other forms of the same minerals eg by Recrystallization Slate a low grade metamorphic frock formed from shale or silts J quot Finio s Carraige House Slate SLATECLAY SHALE Is very densely structured absorbs little moisture splits well and is used as thin slabs usually dark grey and black Even though is barely resists abrasion it can also be used as a oor covering The material responds to surface damage by splitting off individual layers of the material are worn away and so remains homogeneous THE QUARRY Crema Mar l Coto Quarry Alicante Spain The largest quarry in the world The marble extracted by Levantina is internationally recognized as the best cream marble http5WWIvy0utube comwa tch vDy8jlt00aEeA A Levering B Splitting C channeHng STONE EXTRACTIENased on three fundamental principles LEVERING expanding open fractures by inserting levers crowbars or stones SPLITTING creating fractures preferable planar by strokes ie sledge hammer wedging heating or blasting with explosives CHANNELING carving making channels in the rock by carving with hammer and chisel pickaxe or stone tools heating with re sawing or drilling Prfrrcfprfes qfexrmcrfon and assocforedpmcessr feafirms Principle Process Tools Toolmarks Levering extraction on fractures Crack expansion Logs Crossbars Stones liardly39any Splitting Percussion Stone harmrnerspounders Clhisell Pick Sledge hammer Percussion rnarks plurnose marks on cracks Wedging Simple iron wedges Plugs and feather wedges Wooden wedges Wedlge marks of we rious slhapes Heating Fire Surface parallel flaking Blasting Ml Explosives Chalnnellinlg r Carving quot Clhisell Pick Stone tools Straight parallel Curved parallel Pointed grooves Sawing Blade Wire Sawn surface straight grooves Sawn surface carved grooves Drilling mainly rnodern lieating mainly modern Fire Wedging techniques The two on the left side quotplug and featherquot are put in premade drill holes and are a modern technique Opening natural fractures and isolating blocks by inserting stones A The blocks are then further split in several steps B and C Aswan Egypt LEVERING Levering may be described as the simplest way of extraction involving the expansion of natural cracks or other planes of weakness such as bedding planes using various tools L 7 in gum Percussion marks made by chisel for splitting a sandstone block Roman Period Egypt SPLITTING Splitting may be de ned as the act of generating new fractures for extracting rock This may be done by percussion stroke inserting wedges of some kind in prefabricated holes or by heat In a modern context splitting is mainly done by detonating explosives in drillholes Although splitting techniques may be applied on most rock types it is working best on hard siliceous quartzrich stone Partly because they in general display the most brittle behavior but also because it is a well documented fact and experience among quarrymen that siliceous rocks granite in particular have well de ned preferred splitting directions de ned by microfractures in qua z Splitting by heating is caused by a combination of thermal expansion properties and brittle behavior It works best on quartzrich rocks due to the well known but poorly understood change of mechanical properties of quartz when heated gr de3939j 91 aquot are 7 2 39 39 7quot 39 a w Wedge line in a Roman granite quarry Egypt lg j w 397 V I in A u 7 ll 5 quot quot7quot l39 inIs quot JLI quotn u39 i Channel in granite quarrywEgypt made by stone hammers possibly combined with heating 39 i3 53 lock made by bronze chisel and premade holes for inserting wooden levers or wedges along the base Giza Egypt CHANNELING Channels in the rock are made by removing the rock mass by chiselling picking sawing or heating In most soft stone quarries from the Bronze Age onwards channeling is the most important extraction method In most cases channeling is combined with other methods Channels are made perpendicular to the natural layering of the rocks and when the block is free on four sides it is split with wedges quottrench and wedgequot method or leverscrowbars inserted in chiseled grooves quotMinoan techniquequot or by inserting wooden wedges in the channels themselves creating shear stress along the block s bases extracted e quarry StO n e ll ltO E blocks handle As 5 workers They also quot pidly rcular saws tone prior to duce the sized blocks Herexcess oor SHAPING SHAPING naslcr lo 5th and htde umber cal Equally sitEd hloc 39 39 I l t v I ti I h LI 7 crttamntks Crema Mar l Cota Quarry Iicante Spairl CHISELING Once extracted and shaped stone blocks typically travel to their nal destination When removed from the conditions of the quarry most stone blocks quickly harden making traditional cutting extremely dif cult Occasionally quarry workers will further break the block down to t within a certain parameter so as to ful ll the purchaser39s desire Other times the purchaser must break the block down himself This cutting and shaping process called chiseing requires specialized hand tools that more accurately chip away at pieces of the rock on the outside due to its excessive hardness POLISHING In some cases stone extracted from a quarry serves a functional as well as aesthetic purpose The nal cutting technique polishing uses gently wide surfaced friction to smooth the surface 0 the stone until it is shiny and perfectly smooth As with chiseling polishing can only be done when the stone hardens after being exposed to air Polishing requires specialized tools such as rock blankets SURFACE TREATMENTS TOOLS The crandall a consists of a wrought iron bar attened at one end with a slot 38 in wide and 3 in long in which ten doubleheaded points made of 14quot square steel about 9 in long are fastened by means of a key It is used to nish the surface of sandstone after it has been worked with the toothaxe or chisel The patent hammer b made of several thin blades of steel ground to an edge and held together with bolts is used for nishing granite or hard limestone The bush hammer c from 4 to 8 in long and 2 to 4 in square has its ends cut in pyramidal points This hammer is used for nishing limestone and sandstone after the surface has been made nearly even fillingquot i fi luwrlftif th Hish wq H L uh 3 1 3quot magnum I 39L 39n 1 r kf V i Cu 1 H A 71 1 gt L vnm 1 MITRE quota Iu 1 i fag r jy im l inhl Ain i q 7 l ll illa39wiiaitllelliP Ill Il Taaguq39 397 Hf 39 f 7 JPE lyrgt39 H I I Filimfhrqj w I 3 n F j quot fi IIElq 3 71 titfr I 39 ffquot f quot s quot l a my a 3 Er 1 5 quot LI Il 5 SURFACE TREATMENTS At d Is shown the appearance of rock facedor pitchfaced work The face of the stone IS left rough JUSt as Itlcomes from the quarry and the edges are pItched off to aine Rockfaced nish is cheaper than any other kind as but little work IS required At e are shown two kinds of crandalled work that on the left shows the appearance when the lines run all one way while that on the right shows the lines crossing This nish is very effective for the red Potsdam and Longmeadow sandstones At f is shown broached work in which continuous grooves are formed over the surface At g is shown bushhammered work which leaves the surface full of points This nish is very attractive on bluestone limestone and sandstones but should not be used on softer kinds At h is shown pointed work that on the left half of the stone being roughpointed while the right half nepointed In the roughpointed work the point is used at intervals of one inch over the stone while in the nepointed the point is used at every half inch of the surface S U RFACE TREATM ENTS At i is shown the patenthammered nish generally used on granite bluestone and limestone The stone is rst dressed to a fairly smooth surface with the point and then nished with the patent hammer At j is illustrated tooled work For this nish a chisel from 3 to 4 12 in wide is used and the lines are continued across the width of the stone to the draft lines At k is shown vermicutated work so called from the wormeaten appearance Stones so cut are used in quoins and base courses This dressing is very effective but expensive At l is shown droved work similar to tooled work except that the lines are broken owing to the smaller size of the chisel used It is less expensive than tooled work When a smooth nish is desired the surface of the stone is rubbed This is best done before the stone becomes seasoned Palazzo Medici Florence Italy SURFACE TREATMENTS Rustication Ashlar is nely dressed cut worked masonry either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the masonry built of such stone Ashlar is the nest stone masonry unit generally cuboid or less frequently trapezoidal Precisely cut quoton all faces adjacent to those of other stonesquot ashlar is capable of very thin joints between blocks and the visible face of the stone may feature a variety of decorative treatments from quarry faced to tooled to smoothly polished TYPES OF STONE No standard stone size FIELDSTONE Rough obtained from riverbeds and rock elds RUBBLE STONE Irregular quarried fragments with one good face DIMENSION STONE T r13959America FirstCreditUnici 5E 139 Audiobxocksiferngirl gr 3i um Tj W X 11quot Q umwvilitkrtorn Jquotno toosquotci39t39iot Iquot3939ifquot3quotoici natem 39 Audra Ginesg Pinter iCloucl a ALittleAutl EACFaI39JJ D 9 Running Log forRu AR BookFintler US ii Nenmrerack iCleutl Shopping Cart C a n g u I a r imY IOUJ39 39lihe Tour 7 H quot Explore Upload Find slmtos seatla orgmum 1 Signm Equare Ile Emalll u i 7 Medlle U4U TI39ILIWISI39IHH i in Looking forthe HTML code and photo le Iinlt Check out this FAQ ELFsiting for itrlimpicm r 39 ail Cliff Dwellings Mesa Verde National Park CO Sandstone i a 41 L Iaii Fountains Abbey Ripon Yorkshire England Sandstone Georgia State Capitol Atlanta GA Mississippian Limestone ButtsMehre Heritage Hall University of Georgia Athens GA Red Granite Recreation Hall Arco ID Basa Limestone Tennessee State Supreme Court Nashville N m image 1 39 The Coal Palace Ottumwa IA 39 11 a Thermal Baths Vals Switzerland Valser Quartzite a Spain Granite xuom 52 mEEoBU vgtm5cmgt S55 25 IJIJ Musical Studi es Cent e Santi ago de Compostela S d m U U E c U C5 Q C E 2 E 3 G U 3 E u 39C O 4 2 I O Q C E Z o o D E U m u 9 i 5 Q Q 3 Ct cu C o 4 U
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