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ARC 2313- Architecture History 1

by: Andrea Jankowski

ARC 2313- Architecture History 1

Marketplace > DCH Regional Medical Center > > ARC 2313 Architecture History 1
Andrea Jankowski


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Notes, readings, and lectures for Architecture History I
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This 39 page Bundle was uploaded by Andrea Jankowski on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
EARTHWORKS STONE MATERIALS ARC2723 is a 1qu lt u A af nqu E i Herzog amp de Meuron Dominus Winery Napa CA 39 39 I if o g I 39 1 a n a 1 l lquot 39 13 I Jli i C 3v IaLII 1H F v 1 A 395 4439 a I it39 e I 39logr 50411 l recycled concrete rubble are wire cages lled wi th crushed rocks or You ask me to dig in the earth Do have to take a knife and plunge it into my Mother s breast You say that must dig and take away the stones Do have to remove her esh to reach o o wn to her bones Sioux Indian ROCK CLASSIFICATION IGENEOIJS fEASALT quotfr 9 w H IEHEEUS Themam39armhm hequot I313quot i Efrain regdensinmwl iwsm T39Wrewgrmmhsmi n 5T EEEWEEeEIEHEUUSJQ n r 39 j 5 mumsmm 39 39 1 Film t ma aiii paw He 39 1 55 NEUEa aiemmm39aun E A J 3 iausritlwekur n f I A ah i HEEHI III 255 123395 r j atrial13 min mamEin a quot I h I 139 r 39 quotnli HE USrmLus wlwtanhebtmmtg al yh 7 v F T 39C A A 7 EmimyHmnnd I 7 7 HaTi39na 39f 7 I V In I r Ui iu m I A v v gt 1 I I r P7 39 FEEEIIELHEIIEICE J r 1 mmmmmrcp whim mlmmm MIquot r 7 39 CV x r CaridEPEFEEF EI39 39si ina E iHEHT icT V r E39J39IEIgjfdi il39ia intjll urn EE JE39F39EE IIIETM39I EWHI mm rmmesanwawam SED I MENTA RY MEIAMORPch 39 l v l I IFSEQEIEIIEHEW39 sawrm HEITEQPHEELIRE III Emim c I w 7 I 39 I y m 39w r m zigianw sum 39 ENSTUNE gigzgif gga IMHHBLE METAHDIIFHICFEI E3 7 23 a ne grained Basalt rock of ma c composition orthoclase plagioclase and quartz ROCK CLASSIFICATION IGNEOUS Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma cools and are divided into two main categories plutonic rock and volcanic Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the earth s crust example granite Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmenta ejecta examples pumice and basalt iii 7 i i V A i 4 m u A in i39 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Black and white granite GRANITE Considered the most hardwearing natural stone used in the building industry and it can be used almost without restrictions It is Strong frost resistant Largely resistant to weathering Available in a wide range of colors Limestone a sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbonate minerals ROCK CLASSIFICATION SEDIMENTARY Sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of either clastic sediments organic matter or chemical precipitates evaporites followed by compaction of the particulate matter and cementation during diagenesis Sedimentary rocks form at or near the earth39s surface Mud rocks comprise 65 mudstone shale and siltstone sandstones 20 to 25 and carbonate rocks 10 to 15 limestone and dolostone Fahtepur Sikri Jama Majid Red Sandstone r t l H I r uni 51 V I l 39 39 39 r 14L j 7 ii El 39 1 2 v39 r quotquotr 39l I 5 5quot V L m I L t i y F I k i l l r V an l m 7 a 39 Hr quot IFA I i ill739 Getty Center Museum Los Angeles Limestone ii SAN DSTONE Is not as strong as granite and cannot be polished It can absorb a great deal of water so has only limited frostresistance and is susceptible to airborne pollution It is considered very easy to work Sandstone often has a slightly banded open texture and is available in many colors LIMESTONE Is the largest rock category used in the building industry Its composition makes is susceptible to chemical processes Limestone occurs in pastel shades often contains fossils and some of its varieties can be polished Many types of limestone including marble are transparent when cut very thin ROCK CLASSIFICATION METAMORPHIC Metamorphic rocks are formed by Fi39ng any rock type including a sly formed metamorphic rock to nt temperature and pressure ons than those in which the I rock was formed quotquotemperatures and pressures are 1igher than those at the earth39s I a and must be suf ciently high so as to change the original minerals into other mineral types or else into other forms of the same minerals eg by Recrystallization Slate a low grade metamorphic frock formed from shale or silts J quot Finio s Carraige House Slate SLATECLAY SHALE Is very densely structured absorbs little moisture splits well and is used as thin slabs usually dark grey and black Even though is barely resists abrasion it can also be used as a oor covering The material responds to surface damage by splitting off individual layers of the material are worn away and so remains homogeneous THE QUARRY Crema Mar l Coto Quarry Alicante Spain The largest quarry in the world The marble extracted by Levantina is internationally recognized as the best cream marble http5WWIvy0utube comwa tch vDy8jlt00aEeA A Levering B Splitting C channeHng STONE EXTRACTIENased on three fundamental principles LEVERING expanding open fractures by inserting levers crowbars or stones SPLITTING creating fractures preferable planar by strokes ie sledge hammer wedging heating or blasting with explosives CHANNELING carving making channels in the rock by carving with hammer and chisel pickaxe or stone tools heating with re sawing or drilling Prfrrcfprfes qfexrmcrfon and assocforedpmcessr feafirms Principle Process Tools Toolmarks Levering extraction on fractures Crack expansion Logs Crossbars Stones liardly39any Splitting Percussion Stone harmrnerspounders Clhisell Pick Sledge hammer Percussion rnarks plurnose marks on cracks Wedging Simple iron wedges Plugs and feather wedges Wooden wedges Wedlge marks of we rious slhapes Heating Fire Surface parallel flaking Blasting Ml Explosives Chalnnellinlg r Carving quot Clhisell Pick Stone tools Straight parallel Curved parallel Pointed grooves Sawing Blade Wire Sawn surface straight grooves Sawn surface carved grooves Drilling mainly rnodern lieating mainly modern Fire Wedging techniques The two on the left side quotplug and featherquot are put in premade drill holes and are a modern technique Opening natural fractures and isolating blocks by inserting stones A The blocks are then further split in several steps B and C Aswan Egypt LEVERING Levering may be described as the simplest way of extraction involving the expansion of natural cracks or other planes of weakness such as bedding planes using various tools L 7 in gum Percussion marks made by chisel for splitting a sandstone block Roman Period Egypt SPLITTING Splitting may be de ned as the act of generating new fractures for extracting rock This may be done by percussion stroke inserting wedges of some kind in prefabricated holes or by heat In a modern context splitting is mainly done by detonating explosives in drillholes Although splitting techniques may be applied on most rock types it is working best on hard siliceous quartzrich stone Partly because they in general display the most brittle behavior but also because it is a well documented fact and experience among quarrymen that siliceous rocks granite in particular have well de ned preferred splitting directions de ned by microfractures in qua z Splitting by heating is caused by a combination of thermal expansion properties and brittle behavior It works best on quartzrich rocks due to the well known but poorly understood change of mechanical properties of quartz when heated gr de3939j 91 aquot are 7 2 39 39 7quot 39 a w Wedge line in a Roman granite quarry Egypt lg j w 397 V I in A u 7 ll 5 quot quot7quot l39 inIs quot JLI quotn u39 i Channel in granite quarrywEgypt made by stone hammers possibly combined with heating 39 i3 53 lock made by bronze chisel and premade holes for inserting wooden levers or wedges along the base Giza Egypt CHANNELING Channels in the rock are made by removing the rock mass by chiselling picking sawing or heating In most soft stone quarries from the Bronze Age onwards channeling is the most important extraction method In most cases channeling is combined with other methods Channels are made perpendicular to the natural layering of the rocks and when the block is free on four sides it is split with wedges quottrench and wedgequot method or leverscrowbars inserted in chiseled grooves quotMinoan techniquequot or by inserting wooden wedges in the channels themselves creating shear stress along the block s bases extracted e quarry StO n e ll ltO E blocks handle As 5 workers They also quot pidly rcular saws tone prior to duce the sized blocks Herexcess oor SHAPING SHAPING naslcr lo 5th and htde umber cal Equally sitEd hloc 39 39 I l t v I ti I h LI 7 crttamntks Crema Mar l Cota Quarry Iicante Spairl CHISELING Once extracted and shaped stone blocks typically travel to their nal destination When removed from the conditions of the quarry most stone blocks quickly harden making traditional cutting extremely dif cult Occasionally quarry workers will further break the block down to t within a certain parameter so as to ful ll the purchaser39s desire Other times the purchaser must break the block down himself This cutting and shaping process called chiseing requires specialized hand tools that more accurately chip away at pieces of the rock on the outside due to its excessive hardness POLISHING In some cases stone extracted from a quarry serves a functional as well as aesthetic purpose The nal cutting technique polishing uses gently wide surfaced friction to smooth the surface 0 the stone until it is shiny and perfectly smooth As with chiseling polishing can only be done when the stone hardens after being exposed to air Polishing requires specialized tools such as rock blankets SURFACE TREATMENTS TOOLS The crandall a consists of a wrought iron bar attened at one end with a slot 38 in wide and 3 in long in which ten doubleheaded points made of 14quot square steel about 9 in long are fastened by means of a key It is used to nish the surface of sandstone after it has been worked with the toothaxe or chisel The patent hammer b made of several thin blades of steel ground to an edge and held together with bolts is used for nishing granite or hard limestone The bush hammer c from 4 to 8 in long and 2 to 4 in square has its ends cut in pyramidal points This hammer is used for nishing limestone and sandstone after the surface has been made nearly even fillingquot i fi luwrlftif th Hish wq H L uh 3 1 3quot magnum I 39L 39n 1 r kf V i Cu 1 H A 71 1 gt L vnm 1 MITRE quota Iu 1 i fag r jy im l inhl Ain i q 7 l ll illa39wiiaitllelliP Ill Il Taaguq39 397 Hf 39 f 7 JPE lyrgt39 H I I Filimfhrqj w I 3 n F j quot fi IIElq 3 71 titfr I 39 ffquot f quot s quot l a my a 3 Er 1 5 quot LI Il 5 SURFACE TREATMENTS At d Is shown the appearance of rock facedor pitchfaced work The face of the stone IS left rough JUSt as Itlcomes from the quarry and the edges are pItched off to aine Rockfaced nish is cheaper than any other kind as but little work IS required At e are shown two kinds of crandalled work that on the left shows the appearance when the lines run all one way while that on the right shows the lines crossing This nish is very effective for the red Potsdam and Longmeadow sandstones At f is shown broached work in which continuous grooves are formed over the surface At g is shown bushhammered work which leaves the surface full of points This nish is very attractive on bluestone limestone and sandstones but should not be used on softer kinds At h is shown pointed work that on the left half of the stone being roughpointed while the right half nepointed In the roughpointed work the point is used at intervals of one inch over the stone while in the nepointed the point is used at every half inch of the surface S U RFACE TREATM ENTS At i is shown the patenthammered nish generally used on granite bluestone and limestone The stone is rst dressed to a fairly smooth surface with the point and then nished with the patent hammer At j is illustrated tooled work For this nish a chisel from 3 to 4 12 in wide is used and the lines are continued across the width of the stone to the draft lines At k is shown vermicutated work so called from the wormeaten appearance Stones so cut are used in quoins and base courses This dressing is very effective but expensive At l is shown droved work similar to tooled work except that the lines are broken owing to the smaller size of the chisel used It is less expensive than tooled work When a smooth nish is desired the surface of the stone is rubbed This is best done before the stone becomes seasoned Palazzo Medici Florence Italy SURFACE TREATMENTS Rustication Ashlar is nely dressed cut worked masonry either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the masonry built of such stone Ashlar is the nest stone masonry unit generally cuboid or less frequently trapezoidal Precisely cut quoton all faces adjacent to those of other stonesquot ashlar is capable of very thin joints between blocks and the visible face of the stone may feature a variety of decorative treatments from quarry faced to tooled to smoothly polished TYPES OF STONE No standard stone size FIELDSTONE Rough obtained from riverbeds and rock elds RUBBLE STONE Irregular quarried fragments with one good face DIMENSION STONE T r13959America FirstCreditUnici 5E 139 Audiobxocksiferngirl gr 3i um Tj W X 11quot Q umwvilitkrtorn Jquotno toosquotci39t39iot Iquot3939ifquot3quotoici natem 39 Audra Ginesg Pinter iCloucl a ALittleAutl EACFaI39JJ D 9 Running Log forRu AR BookFintler US ii Nenmrerack iCleutl Shopping Cart C a n g u I a r imY IOUJ39 39lihe Tour 7 H quot Explore Upload Find slmtos seatla orgmum 1 Signm Equare Ile Emalll u i 7 Medlle U4U TI39ILIWISI39IHH i in Looking forthe HTML code and photo le Iinlt Check out this FAQ ELFsiting for itrlimpicm r 39 ail Cliff Dwellings Mesa Verde National Park CO Sandstone i a 41 L Iaii Fountains Abbey Ripon Yorkshire England Sandstone Georgia State Capitol Atlanta GA Mississippian Limestone ButtsMehre Heritage Hall University of Georgia Athens GA Red Granite Recreation Hall Arco ID Basa Limestone Tennessee State Supreme Court Nashville N m image 1 39 The Coal Palace Ottumwa IA 39 11 a Thermal Baths Vals Switzerland Valser Quartzite a Spain Granite xuom 52 mEEoBU vgtm5cmgt S55 25 IJIJ Musical Studi es Cent e Santi ago de Compostela S d m U U E c 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