UnderstandingWorldReligions.pdf RL 001
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Aaron Servello on Friday November 7, 2014. The Bundle belongs to RL 001 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Wesley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 247 views. For similar materials see World Religion in Religious Studies at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/14
Understanding World Religions Introduction Religion sets of beliefs and practices that people have that give theme meaning in life purpose belongingidentity and hope in the world Latin religio to tie back or return to source God Religion is universal Three Reasons for Religion 1 To meet or satisfy deep human needs a To remove or overcome fear guilt etc 2 To provide purpose meaning identity and hope 3 To answer deep human questions a Who am 1 Why am I here on Earth Where do people go when they die Why me Why do I suffer Ritualpractice relationshipresponsibility with source God Religion and Culture Expression of way of life of a people what people make an expression Religion and Philosophy answer questions Religion and Science provide solutions to human problems Rational versus Non rational observation reasoning versus emotionfeeling love faith trust Ten Common Religious Elements 1 Religious Identity a Name date place founder theme 2 World View a Based on knowledge and perception rational and nonrational 3 Ultimate realityGod a Eternal invisible immortal personal v impersonal b 1 No god 2 One God 3 More Gods 4 Unknown God Origin of Universe and Humans Destiny of Universe and Humans Literature quotquot Worship Practices 8 Ethics 9 Social Responsibility 10 People To be considered a Religion Long life 500 or more continuous years Impacted people and Culture 10 common religious elements Religions D Africaism D Hinduism D Buddhism D Daoism D Confucianism D Shinto D Native American Religion D Zoroastrianism D Judaism D Christianity D Islam Africaism Traditional African Religions 1 Religious Identity a Where Africa b When 700000 years BCE C Who Team Founders Homosapiens in Africa d Theme Celebration of life all life including death 2 World View a Spirit energy everything has spirit b Spirit is essence life C All kinds types and levels of spirits d Invisible realities are more eternal than things you see 3 Ultimate RealityGod All totality highest of highest the Ultimate God 0quot 9 Called High Spirit everything comes from High Spirit C Supreme beings gods d Ancestors spirits e All spirits are connected High Spirit higher than all evil spirits f All spirits get power from High Spirit g Symbols fire life breath Water 4 Origin of Universe and Humans a Universe created by High Spirit b Humans created by High Spirit i Humans are gift from the heart of God ii Humans are childrenoffspring of God iii Incarnation 1 Spiritual things becoming physicalvisible 5 Destiny of Universe and Humans a Universe No ending continuous goes through changes b Humans Life gt Death gt living dead gt spirit World gt reincarnation i Reincarnation is determined by High Spirit but with appealing through rituals by humans ii Goal is victory over evil spirits blessings iii Celebrate life 6 Literature a Religious oral traditional literature b Spiritual C Spoken Word is more eternal than Written Words 7 Worship Practices 990quot g h 8 Ethics a b c d 9 Worship is personal but also with family and community Sacrifice or offering Prayer rituals no day time or place Celebration Ceremonies dancing arts holidays Everything is part of Worship No difference between secular and spiritual parts of life Lib ation Respect for elderly ancestors Hospitality friendliness even to strangers Reciprocity karma you reap What you soW Human Rights Justice How to right things 9 Social Responsibility 8 b C 10 People 8 Family ancestors current family descendants Community all families nonliving and living things all of nature rivers air mountains etc Oral religious literature Africa Americas Caribbean etc Europe Hinduism 1 Religious Identity 8 b Traditional Religion of India started in villages and towns along rivers Name given by Europeans natives called it Sanatana Dhrama i Eternalageless Worshiprituals 10000 BCE Team Founders 9 0 e Connectedness f Many branches g Caste system Now Outlawed 2 World View a Oneness b Everything is connected to everything 3 Ultimate RealityGod Brahman universal spirit of all gods and goddesses one minds 3 b Profound Oneness C Is masculine feminine and animal in form d All gods and goddesses are an expression of Brahman i Ex Vishnu Shiva Oma Kali Durga etc Brahma personal form of God e Polytheismpolytheistic practices in worship ex Patron gods of families under Monistic concept 4 Origin of the Universe and Humans a Universe has no beginning b Humans no beginning eternal soul Atman personal soul J iva C Illusion 5 Destiny of Universe and Humans a Universe has no end goes through changes b Human Life gt death gt Mokshad i Full spiritual liberation state of mind or being completely free of all pain and suffering in the World ii Karma actions and consequences that affect reincarnation 6 Literature a Oral religious literature b Vedic Scripture oral literature compiled into a book 7 Worship Practices a Everybody i Rituals ii Good karma and behavior iii Religious deeds iv Temple Worship 1 No one day place or time 2 Can meet in homes shrines b Mokshad i Yoga gt body in sync with mind oneness ii Meditation gt guru spiritual teacher iii Devotion gt use yoga and meditation strictly to achieve Mokshad C Ceremonies d Arts and symbolism e Food 8 Ethics a Caste system problem b Nonviolence C Human rights d Reciprocity 9 Social Responsibility a Temple silent propaganda of religion physical structure i Social aspect ii Education iii Spiritual b Family gt religion passed on to children c Brahmanic Priesthood gt understand Vedic scripture religion Mokshad etc i Leaders help keep religion moving through generations 10 People a India b Worldwide Buddhism 1 Religious Identity a India b 6 century BCE C Ghatama Siddhartha first Buddha i Maya and Shaddohodana s son ii Hinduism was the only religion in India at the time he practiced it d Enlightenment to end suffering e Many branches f Buddhism named after the Buddha the Enlightened or Awakened One World View a Indescribable unity b Karma Ultimate RealityGod a Nirvana the great void emptiness nothingness i To be free from Worldly pain and suffering ii State of being and mind Origin of Universe and Humans a Universe expression of Nirvana goes through changes b Humans Buddhism rejects the idea of the Atman or eternal soul i Process of cause and effect gt karma ii Lifetime here and next life gt reincarnation Destiny of Universe and Humans a Universe no end goes through changes b Humans life gt death gt reincarnation gt life i Good karma Literature a Tripitaka i 3 Baskets of Buddha s Wisdoms 7 Worship Practices a Practice Good Karma b Four Noble Truths i Life is Suffering ii Suffering is caused by desire iii To end suffering is to end desire iv Eightfold Path C Five Precepts i No killing ii No stealing iii No lying iv No sexual misconduct v No intoxication d Eightfold Path i Right understanding ii Right intention iii Right speech iv Right action v Right Work vi Right effort vii Right meditation viii Right contemplation e Temple Worship f Ceremoniesholidays Weddings funerals etc g Artssymbolism h No one day time or place to Worship i Monks and nuns 8 Ethics a Non Violence b Human rights C Morality d Buddhism Five Precepts 9 Social Responsibility a Temple b Sangha religious group to promote Religion monks priests nuns C Arts d Leadership e Family 10 People a India b Worldwide Daoism 1 Religious Identity a Name of God Dao or The Great Way b Laozi 600300 BCE founder C China d 6 century BCE e Theme the Way of nature to immortality f Yin Yang i Qi energy composed of 2 opposing forces g Li Rituals 2 World View a Universe is unity with 2 opposite forces Yin and Yang 3 Ultimate RealityGod a Dao the Great Way divine ruler unconditional reality immortal impersonal 4 Origin of Universe and Humans a Universe expression of Dao does not end immortal b Humans originated from the Dao Immortality through legacy life continues after death 5 Destiny of Universe and Humans a Universe continues to change with no end b Humans become one with the Dao and achieve immortality i Reincarnation only human ii Death is not the end of life 6 Literature a Dao De Jung by Lao Zhu i Book existed before religionteaching 7 Worship Practices a Spontaneous living b Live close to nature and the Dao C Li rituals d Temple Worship e Ceremony meditation arts martial arts holidays f Priesthood and monks g No one day place or time to Worship 8 Ethics a Wu Wei Principle i Less effort for more results ii Living close to the Dao iii Negative emotions use more energy b Nonviolence C Morality d Human Rights 9 Social Responsibility a Temple b Family C Priesthood d Martial arts e Leadership 10 People a China b Not Worldwide religion practices Well known C Important impacts other cultures Confucicmsim 1 Religious Identity a 6 century BCE b China C Kung Fozi Confucious d Li Qi Yin Yang e Maj or Theme virtue in family and society for harmony f Became part of educational system 2 Word View a Universe is a unity under Heaven 3 Ultimate RealityGod a Called Heaven Tian b Divine Ruler C Supreme sovereignty almighty d Above all realities e Everything is unconditional reality 4 Origin of Universe and Humans a Universe Originates from Heaven b Humans originate from Heaven and Earth i Complete balanced and good by nature ii Stress leads to wrongdoing 5 Destiny of Universe and Humans 8 b Universe changes with no end Humans be stress free in this world and next i Reincarnation human only and afterlife 6 Literature 8 Yijung 7 Worship Practices 990quot h IT 8 Ethics To meet official Rites Ancestral rites Official obligations Parental obligations Temple Worship Teachings Five Virtues i Jen benevolence charity humanity ii Yi honesty and uprightness iii Zhi knowledge Xin faithfulness and integrity v Li correct behavior good manners Five Relationships reciprocate not restrictive to gender i Ruler to servant ii Father to son iii Husband to Wife iv Elder to youth v Friend to friend No one day place or time Ceremonies Holidays Arts Spiritual leaders priests teachers sages a Virtue b Nonviolence C Human rights d Morality 9 Social Responsibility a Family b Temple C Education system d Prieststeachers e Virtues 10 People a China b Important impacted World culture C Not World Wide Shinto 1 Religious Identity a Shin spirits or gods to Ways the Way of the gods b Japan 6th century BCE C No one founderTeam Founders 2 Ultimate Reality a Name Kami means many gods b Divine Spirit C Supreme interpersonal 3 Origin of Universe and Humans a From Kami 4 Destiny of Universe and Humans a Afterlife and Reincarnation 5 Literature a Oral Religious Literature 6 Worship Practices a The Four P s i Prayer ii Presentation iii Participation iv Purification 7 Social Responsibility a Family structure b Culture of people traditional lifestyle 8 People a Religion has in uenced Japanese culture b Not Worldwide but important still practiced Native American Religions 1 Religious Identity a Americas b 10000 BCE C Team Founder d Harmony and Nature 2 Ultimate RealityGod a Great Spirit divine and almighty creator 3 Literature a Oral Religious Literature 4 Worship Practices a Sacrifices or offerings b Prayer meditation C Rituals and ceremonies d Arts music dance e No one day place or time to Worship f Food g Symbolism 5 Destiny of Universe and Humans a Life death reincarnation Zoroastrianism 0 Ask about difference between good and evil 1 Religious Identity a Prophet ZoroasterZorathustra b 6 Century BCE C Persia now Iran d Con ict between good and evil e In uenced Judaism Islam and Christianity ideas context 2 World View a The universe is a battle ground of good and evil until good finally overcomes evil 3 Ultimate Reality a Ahura Mazda all good no evil i All powerful b Spenta Mainya i Good C Angha Mainya i Evil 4 Origin of Universe and Humans a Ahura Mazda both 5 Destiny of Universe and Humnas a Humans help bring an end to evil i Life gt death gt Judgement gt resurrection gt judgement gt Pure Paradise b Universe changes and will end when good conquers evil i New world 6 Literature a Avestra Writings of Prophet Zoroaster 7 Worship Practices a Choice between good and evilgood OVER evil b Confession C Practice good reject evil d Humans are born evil or neutral must choose good e Maintain faith of Zoroastrianism by supporting it f Prayer meditation g Ritual and ceremonies h Holidays i Temple worship no one day place or time 8 Ethics a Morality b Human rights C Fight the good fight 9 Social Responsibility a Family b Temple C PriesthoodSpiritual leadership d Still alive 10 People a PersiaIran b Important majorly impacted World and other religions Judaism 1 a Named after one of the twelve tribes of Israel b Founder Moses C Started later 1300 BCE d Egypt e Major theme God of law and Covenant for Peace f Kings 1 Saul 2 David i David had created an Empire ii Solomon s sons could not agree and hold kingdom together empire split in 2 g Two main branches traditional and reformed progressive h Abraham Father of Israel i Sons Ismael then Isaac ii Isaac s sons Esim and Jacob iii Jacob had 12 sons not including daughters 12 sons 12 tribes One tribe called Joseph 11 son Was sold to Egypt by older brothers becomes an Egyptian After 400 years began to suffer and remembered God Moses was sent to redeem people of Egypt and to Worship God in the Wild i The Ten Commandments j First Five books Torah 2 World View a Free Will i To choose God s will over Human will ii Humans put their will into God s will incorporate cooperate balance b Choice C Peace in the World 3 a Moses called it Yahweh sacred name of God i Lord I am 0quot Sovereign 0 Almighty all good d Creator e One god concept many names 4 Origin of Universe and Humans a Universe was created by Yahweh i 6 days b Humans created different from other beings in the likeness of the image of God 5 a Universe changes i Historic ii Messianic age iii Paradise stage after A b Humans i There will be life and then there will be a messiah and then paradise ii Hope iii If death comes before messiah 1 Resurrection 2 No resurrection believe in coming of messiah memory 6 2 a Hebrew Bible called Tanakh b Divided into 3 i Torah The Law by Moses first 5 books ii Prophets cannot conflict with Moses or Torah Moses was first prophet iii The Talmud The Commentary C 36 total books 7 a Eye for an Eye fairness payback justice b Human rights C 10 Commandments d Morality 8 a Obedience to the law Torah b Sabbath Saturday worship C SynagogueTemple worship d Holidays ex Passover e ceremonies f religious leaders ex rabbi g arts symbolism h identity with Jewish culture i Ten Commandments 9 People a Egypt b Israel C Promise Land d Worldwide small religion big impact especially historically e In uenced Christianity and Islam important 10 Social Responsibility a Story b Jewish CultureFamily C Temple Wall from first temple d SabbathSynagogue community e Leadership Christianity 1 Religious Identity a Named after Title of founder Jesus The savior the one that saves Christ the anointed one i Based on Person teachings parables often on love and ministry healing visitation of Jesus ii Human and Divine is God iii Born Bethlehem lived suffered died crucified by Roman government buried resurrected ascended 35 CE GalileePalestineMiddle East Maj or Theme love forgiveness salvation through Christ Abraham i Believed in the Word Jesus Three main branches i Orthodox ii Roman Catholic iii Protestant 1 Martin Luther and his 95 Theses Antioch speak Greek i Christians Went there Where they could not be persecuted by Roman gov t 1 Could not speak about Jesus because he was an enemy of the Roman state 2 Eventually Went to Rome speak Latin 1054 Christians in Antioch and Rome were excommunicated from each other i Could not agree on bishops idea of the Holy Spirit or prime location of Christianity 2 World View C d God Created the universe a b The Universe World fell short of gods will Jesus recommended the universe to God Faith and Love are required to appropriated reconciliation We need faith and love to enjoy GODSAVIOR amp CREATION Grace of God You can fall out of god s will but not the grace of god 3 URGOD a Father i Love ii All Good iii Creator iv Almighty v Spirit God Head 3 persons TriuneTrinity 1 Father 2 Son Jesus 3 Holy Spirit 1 11 1 4 Origin of the Universe Through Jesus Christ a Universe is created by Father b Humans created by Jesus Christ 5 Destiny of the Universe a Universe Changes Judgment New World b LifeDeathJudgmentResurrectionHeaven i Partial Resurrection Spirit ii Full Resurrection Spirit and BodyGlorified in Heaven 6 Literature a Christian bible 3 main parts 66 books i Old Testament 29 books Needed ii New Testament 27 books Needed 4 Gospels 1 Matthew 2 Mark 3 Luke 4 John 5 God iii Apocrypha Not Needed but will help you live better 1 Written between old testament and new testament 2 For instruction 7 Worship Practices Worship the Father in spirit and truth a To the father b Love if you have no love Worship does not take form needed Love others and yourself i Law of love C Sacramentsordinances i Sacraments Participating in something that is physical with spiritual benefits 1 Baptism a Physical thing Water b Spiritual thing New life 2 Communion a Physical thing Bread and Wine b Spiritual thing benefits d Service e Prayer f Holidays i Christmas Birth of Christ December of 25 ii Easter Death Resurrection 0 Dates are not important The name is the most important thing 8 Ethics g Sunday Lord Day Day Jesus Rose from the dead h Ceremonies i Arts Symbolism a Ethics of Love b Humans Rights C Morality 9 Social Responsibility a Love b New Family All you have to do is believe in Jesus Christ and you re apart of the family C Christian Church Even though it was physical with the Christian bible it is universal in the World d Christian Organization e Missionary Services Went to terrible places just to talk about Jesus Christ People World Wide religion Know for test RI GOD DESTINY of HUMANS AND UNIVERSE Worship practices Literature Ethics Islam Name Total Submission to one god Allah Founder Prophet Mohammad Lived died Last and greatest prophet ever since Abu Was Father died and mother brought him up Mother died moved place to place Moved with uncle Place Mecca O O O 0 0 6 Cen Era Abraham Built Kalbah alter Asked him to leave and Went to Medina Wanted to come back to Mecca to put the head quarters there This was because the holy alter was located KALBAH He believed it was built by Abraham and Isamael during their life together Go around it 7 times for holy reasons This is done today People visit First muslim First son Isamael Father of Irabs 2 main branches Happened after the death of Mahamid AB U maj or ALIMinor SUNI SHITES Traditional War view 0 The universe is a place to live happily by totally submitting to Allah one god Ultimate Reality 0 Allah Arabic name for god 0 Not just a name for god but one god 0 Creator 0 Almighty 0 All Good 0 Great Origin 0 Universe were created by Allah 0 Humans were created by Allah Destiny 0 In Islam In the universe will come changes then judgment the resurrection then the New World 0 In humans life then death judgment then resurrection then heaven Literature 0 Quaran 0 114 suras 0 Written in Arabic language Worship Practices 0 Total submission to one god allah 0 5 pillars 0 Shahadah Confession and Witness 0 Salat Prayer and it happens 5 times around the Kalbah 0 Zakat Giving 0 Sewn fasting eating for about 30 days for most people I Some people are exempted from fasting Example pregnant people elderly sick 0 Hajj Pilgrimage 0 Sharia law body of law everything We do in Islam there are laws civil matters criminal law and commercial law I Based on Quran holy literature 0 Jihad inner struggle I Bc your tired and you don t Want to pray Fight against submission Extended struggle 0 Fridaymosquethis is the physical structure I It happens on Friday 0 Religious leader Imam 0 Artssymbolism All kinds of beautiful arts Example Writings 0 Foodrituals 0 Holidays Ethics 0 Example Justice 0 Human Rights 0 Morality Social Responsibility 0 World Islamic Community 0 Rejected to begin Islam spread to all parts of the World 0 World Wide 0 Many families believed in Islam in different parts of the World 0 Issue of the Friday mosque community Constant reminder 0 Promoted the religion 0 Fasting as to help to promote Ulama 0 Ulama Society group of professional trying to promote Islam 0 5 Pillars People Started in Mecca World Wide Know Religious identity Ultimate Reality God Destiny World Practices Literature Social Responsibitiy New Religion Movements Usually comes out of old religion
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