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Pre- Midterm Notes

by: Nancy Shehadeh

Pre- Midterm Notes 43361

Marketplace > Ithaca College > History > 43361 > Pre Midterm Notes
Nancy Shehadeh

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These notes cover all topics discussed prior to the midterm.
United States History to 1865
Dr. Pearl Ponce
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Nancy Shehadeh on Monday March 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 43361 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Pearl Ponce in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/21/16
3.7.16 The Two Governments of the United States I. Articles of Confederation  After the Declaration in 1776, there are 13 separate states but haven’t established a union  Articles of Confederation- written in 1776, not signed until 1781- the first form of the Constitution creating a union  Committees are formed by representatives set by states o Committees that fluctuate o No real executive  Simple majority (7) for simple matters  Larger majority (9) for more complex issues  In order to change the Confederation, you need unanimous consent  Union/ Confederation is stronger than the world expected, but it is still very weak  States cant conduct foreign affairs  States cant declare war  A lot of restrictions on the states  But a good level of cooperation  Important aspects that stay with the state o Taxation o Commercial activity  States are working together, but there isn’t a mechanism to enforce aspects of the confederation  By 1781, all states except Maryland have signed Confederation  Northwest Ordinance was established by Congress  Territory = colony  A lot of weakness in Confederation o States aren’t giving any money to the federal government o Congress cant pay interest of the public debt and cant pay soldiers o Inability to regulate commerce  State jealousies  They need to reform Articles of Confederation  Massachusetts- a very serious rebellion takes place over issues of debt o Shays Rebellion o Next election, they elect people who will pass debt relief o Fear of legislative tyranny o States have proven themselves unable to govern o Final push to reforming the article of confederation II. Creating a Federal Constitution  Philadelphia to revise articles of confederation o Instead of revising, we create an entirely new government o 55 delegates and represents all of the states except for Rhode Island  Two Plans are put forward in Philadelphia o Virginia Plan o New Jersey Plan  Constitutional Convention o Gives federal government the power to tax, the power to print and coin money and the power to regulate commerce o Not going to veto state laws o Puts limits on the states  States cant levy tariffs  States cant participate in foreign relations  States cant coin money or issue bills of credit o Constitution decided on a single executive  Proportional Representation in the house o 3/5 rule  Two for every state regardless of population in the senate  Nationalists win Identifications  Articles of Confederation- see above  Northwest Ordinance: 1787; Western Cession terns into Northwest territory; congress establishes this; congress declares that we need to survey the land and form townships; significant because it is land that will be sold by auction; allocation that a certain amount of public land will go toward public education; northwest territory will be divided into 5 territories; once you have 60,000 people in a territory, you can become a state; Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, bit of Minnesota; one of the nations strongest accomplishments up to this point  Shay’s Rebellion: Led by Daniel Shays; farmers are getting together; debtor farmers; gets put down; last push to reform articles  James Madison: puts forward Virginia plan; federal government would be disinterested and sit over on top of state governments; father of the Constitution  The Virginia Plan: a single executive, a bicameral legislature, and a judiciary; a government that would be super imposed over the states; Two house national legislature that would legislate to all cases to which the states are incompetent; veto any state laws against the articles of union;  The New Jersey Plan: counter measure to Virginia plan; puts too much power in federal government; the feeling is that the Virginia plan weakens the states too much; led by New Jersey, Connecticut, New York, Delaware; revise articles of confederation  The Constitution of the United States: one single executive who can choose a cabinet, he is given powers to direct diplomatic relations, a four year term, perpetual election, power over the military; needed 9 states to put it into effect; supreme law of the land  Federalists: Madison, Jefferson, Monroe, Hamilton; pro- constitution  Anti-Federalists: concerned about the lack of consent, the fact that it is not a unanimous decision; saying you cant divide sovereignty; no match, intellectually, for the federalists  Bill of Rights: fulfillment of the promise to ensure there are safe- guards for individual rights; guarantees rights of speech, assembly, religion, press Terms and Numbers  Confederation: simple majority to settle minor matters; larger majority of 9 states to resolve important issues  Constitutional convention held in Philadelphia with 55 delegates from all states except Rhode Island  1790: US owed foreigners $12 million dollars and Americans another $42 million. State governments also has $25 million in debt


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