Anth 215 Lectures 10/14/14-10/28/14
Anth 215 Lectures 10/14/14-10/28/14 215
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Date Created: 11/08/14
10 14 14 Anth 215 Understanding Ethnomedicine Different Therapeutic Methods Today s objectives 0 Discuss various Na ceremonies related to Wellbeing and dying I Be able to identify the role of rituals Ritual I 3 functions of ritual as part of therapeutic modalities O Psychological I Lessens anxiety at times of physiological change or physical pains 0 Social I Restores or maintains social cohesion in smallscale communities 0 Protective I Protection psychologically and physically 0 Technical aspects 0 Use of medicine surgical alterations inhalations messages cupping injections chanting prayer animal sacrifice herbs and plants drumming dancing Some Na ceremonies 0 Background information 0 Yunnan region 0 Practice of walking marriages free sexual experiences I Women have own private living quarters I Live in paternal home men can come if Women allowed it I Biological father is not important to them I Head of house make decisions I Casual encountrers 0 Men come at night not discussed openly women can turn someone down or accept I Open Walking marriages 0 Public announcement saying they are committed to each other I Attracted attention to Chinese Gov t I Tried to model communities to a proper Way of leaving 0 Forced to marry 0 Forced to know who children were 0 Inform them who husbands Were 0 Many married or were forced into it 0 1976 1 husband 1 Wife 0 Rule banned a year later people returned to their old Way of living OOOOO 0 1980 denounced policy declared every ethnic minority was allowed to live by their own culture values etc Fatherless homes sexually promiscuous Don t observe marriage Main source of income is tourism Lugu Lake Religion I Tibetan Buddhist I Daba Want to provide different perspective of the peoples take away promiscuous stereotype How do you think Na rituals might relate to health Pig slaughter ceremony I Paying respect to ancestors tossing best pieces onto roof for ancestors to eat I Shrines to place pieces of best food also Daba funerary scriptures I Daba praying for people who come I Driving away bad luck and illness I Cleansing and purifying ancestors and shrines I Dancing bells donkey carrying pieces of animal sacrifice decorated as well pilgrimage up to the funeral I Women morn men dance Hlizadze ceremony I Each household has rep to pay respects each receives portion of meat and rice to give to ancestors I Flags and dress around fire I Men pray and bow to how respect I Women mourn and sob Labai J ibu ceremony I To protect and heal I Animal sacrifices I Meat tossed across ground How are Na rituals related to health I Better to protect than to heal 0 Head start on protection 0 Honoring ancestors drive out evil spirits I Afterlife health go to place where there is no sickness I Continuation of life 0 Honoring ancestors to be able to put them towards ancestral life no pain turn evil eye decrease harm on community I Extending life life continues after 0 After physical has passed away I Maintain and confirm family lineages I Psychological 0 Express emotions I Multi generations everyone knows place and knows what to do I Some aspects of health 0 Protect lineage protect descendants 10 16 14 Anth 215 Reproduction Health Illness and Culture 0 Have been attentive to cultural differences I Confronting biomedicine s culture of a culture of no culture 0 Focus on culture as part of healing traditions but is culture enough Riddle of Reproduction I Who don t women in Mozambique and Cameroon use existing prenatal and maternity services for instance in the face of immediate death or risk of pregnancy loss I Need to be out of the face of the public don t like others knowing avoid unwanted envy jealous neighbors witchcraft don t want to waste a pregnancy with risks taken traditional healers preferred of over western medicine social threats fear of being mistreated by physicians expensive costs time constraints and location from clinics lack of transportation lack of understanding of gestationreproductive process 0 Part of the answer summarized pregnancy and reproduction is not only a biological event but also a social construction Anthropology of Birth 0 Chapmann 2010 pp 11 0 11 birth mortality rate in US What is pregnancy I A biomedical approach 0 Duration of pregnancy I 9 months 0 Still birth I Baby dead before it is birthed I loss of a fetus that would have been able to live outside of the womb but dies in it or soon after birth 0 Miscarriage I Baby dies before its fully grown 3638 weeks I loss of life when not able to live on its own outside the womb 0 An Eastern Cameroonian approach 0 Mekil blood and ngul force 0 Mon child 0 Filling with force 0 Mon ateka detaa not yet hard or mon kolondo not filled yet 0 Premature birthborn before time amount of force a child has can be 79l0 months terms of force filling with force can explain why there is a pregnancy is lost Pregnancies ast risk 0 Witchcraft and sorcery but Why 0 Afraid to call upon themselves the evil eye or expose themselves to Witchcraft Pregnancies in politico economic setting 0 Reproduction as a social status and economic risk 0 International interventions local consequences 0 Sorcery as Way to manage and balance social economic and biological risks 0 Will the child Want to live Will they stay healthy Will I produce enough productive labor Able to live up to expectation s of bride price Live up to high social status 0 Am I able to create or maintain income land education 0 Who is competing for same resources Will wife make enough children Can I trust them Will women rightfully disclose pregnancies 0 Who do Women delay or postpone accessing care in formal biomedical care clinic 0 Traditional healers preferred to avoid or rid Witchcraft 0 Fear of mistreatment by physicians 0 Lack of transportation gov t cuts prevent Women from accessing it 0 Going to clinic too soon jeopardize family obligation you have Is culture enough 0 What did you learn about the role of culture in health seeking behavior 0 Is culture enough as a factor of analysis to understandcomprehend patterns of care giving and care receiving 0 In addition to culture focus on social structures social political and economic in nature 102114 Anth 215 understand how the social structure influences our social positions and interactions With reguards to our health Social Structure 0 The organized pattern of relationships between individuals and groups Within a society Which order their behavior in a predictable fashion and in uence their interaction I Family religionsbeliefs ethnocentrismculture relativism gender ethnicity government financial status jobemployment education sexuality law health care 4 general approaches to alcoholism I Moral models emphasize alcoholism as the consequences of personal choice 0 Disease models alcoholism as disease that is located in the individual but that is not necessarily curable chronic disease 0 Political and economic models Way social inequalities shape alcoholic use I Sociocultural models looking at Ways cultural beliefs and behaviors relate to alcohol cultural meanings and norms of behavior Anthropology and addiction 0 righteous dopefiend O Addicts primary goal was to stay high on heroin cottonshot O Constantly avoiding police I Sociocultural and politico economical 0 Supporting each other with cottonshots giftgiving 0 Emergency room for abscesses instead of treating each other I Addiction in Russia 0 Krokodil takes toll on Russian addicts O Codeine glue hourrush 0 Which elements of social structure can We detect in Pavel s Addiction Trajectories 0 Government and ethnicity 0 Health care system exposed him to different treatment models 0 Law Ukraine considered criminal France considered patient 0 Drug addiction in Russia 0 Social structure history and economics I Privatization in Russia in 1990s I Drug use as legal constitution I High unemployment rates due to deindustrialization for instance automobile industry Lada I Availability of cheap substitutes such as Krokodil cologne petrol codeine I Competing approaches to addiction 0 In Ukraine criminal don t go to hospital go to prison 0 Former soviet countriesEastern Europe addiction treated cold turkey and With placebo 0 France emphasis on harm reduction incentives provisions of needles inclusion into national health insurance system 0 USA addiction as disease of the Will versus disease of the brain I Is culture enough 0 No 0 Need to attend to social political economic and historical processes that shape patterns of care seeking and care providing and meanings and understanding attributed to ill health 102314 Anth 215 What have we learned so far Dancing Skeletons Review on the book 0 Gives in depth experiences of what another culture in a developing world is like 0 Structured to show everyday life problems able to compare your issues with their issues in life 0 Simplistic way to understand 0 Personal with everyone closer with population sat down with the people she was concerned with helpful to get more personal with individuals 0 Willing to open up about details about lives 0 Used own reactions in the book 0 Gives a holistic view of her experiences there 0 Rich personal data easy to relate to Criticism O Feelings of superiority sensed 0 Using comparison framework compared to US culture 0 Unprofessional ethnocentrism towards mother that was mentally challenged lack of cultural sensitivity 0 Lack of checking in later on after experience no follow up 0 No thesis hypothesis unfinished in some aspects 0 View US should be immune to life trauma daughters sickness Key Terms Illness Human experience and perception of unwanted alterations in health as informed by broader social and cultural meanings personal experience of pain and suffering Sickness All unwanted conditions of self or substantial threats of unwanted conditions of self and states or conditions of any part of a person overarching to refer to all kinds of conditions that make people feel ill everything related to health and illness Disease Outward clinically perceivable manifestations of altered physical functions or infection Orthodox refers to the theoretical medical and practical understanding that clinicians question and at times take for granted Kinship The structural relationship that define who is related to whom and in what way Acculturation give up cultural traits Enculturation return to original patterns original cultures Four patterns of resort 0 Self care 0 Therapy management group 0 Indigenous folk healers O Biomedicine Health disparities occur when one group of people has a higher incidence or mortality rate than another or when survival rates are less for one group than another Social structure the organized patterns of relationships between individuals within a society which order their behavior in a predictable fashion and in uence their interaction Structural inequality when unequal treatment is systematic and perpetuated by dominant groups social systems and institutions build into the system This leads to worse education and jobs worse incomes and housing worse health care and services more guns in rural hunting communities for nondominant Doctors of two worlds 1989 What do the two medical systems share in common Which cultural ideas or structural conditions give rise to differences between the two systems 0 Differences Struck by lightning gave him knowledge to be considered a healer Focus on what is thought to be right massaging techniques Beliefs more important to health than science Use of medicine rather than just home remedies Introduction of prayer Unsanitary practices Attempting to take away the pain restore life by taking it away Looking for symptoms in the body rather than outside Spirit and soul vs biological clues germs that will take away life Option to take medicine prescribed healers just do as they please Use of tools remedies foreign vs things easy to acquire there 0 Similarities 102814 Anth 215 Goal is the same to make person better House visits reconnecting with people often Both see value in community Making sure patients understood their procedures Both looking for symptoms touching body using body to communicate with what is going on and what needs to be done From Human Condition to Medical Ail Medicalization Be able to define key concept medicalization 0 Understand its importance for studying relationships among people medicine health and technology Medicalization definition 0 Biomedical sector 0 Drugs 0 Diagnosis 0 Marketing 0 Seeing body as machine 0 Changing definitions of illness 0 Treatment 0 Social norms 0 Prevention Pharmaceutical expansion Insurance companies Commercials and media Separation of body and soul Perception of healthsick FDA Food and Drug Administration Technology Patent law Definition by Conrad I a process whereby nonmedical problems become defined and treated as medical problems usually in terms of illness and disorders 0 a problem is defined in medical terms described using medical language understood through the adoption of a medical framework or treated with a medical intervention Characteristics of medicalization I A problem is defined in medical terms 0 Doctors are not the sole agent pushing for medicalization I Not uniform approach competing ideas and practices remain I It is bidirectional some entities become demedicalized 0 Eg Homosexuality I 18 19 century homosexuality seen as crime I Is it really healthy I Seen as psychotic disorder I 1950s activists saying gayness was normal I 1973 no longer considered being gay as a mental disorder I Source of problem located in the individual Why do We have this How do We explain that something is medical Rise of Medicalization I Desacralization of life I Rationality and scientific progress 0 Increased authority of medical professionals 0 Role of social movements 0 Age of AIDS activism I New York 1984 government FDA NIH organizations responded very low AIDS considered a gay disease not a real concern for US citizens I Act Up organization and others came together every day and every Week I Moment diagnosed had a year to live I 1996 people discovered better treatments I Professionalization of medical specialties 0 Role of finance and pharmaceutical markets Medicalization cases 0 PTSD 0 Alcoholism 0 PMS 0 ADHD 0 Eating disorders 0 Depression 0 Bipolar 0 Addition 0 Obesity 0 Sexual dysfunction 0 Behavior of children 0 Anxiety disorders 0 Infertility 0 Autism Our take on medicalization Relationships and interaction among people medicinescience finance and culture for the shaping of disease of health and wellbeing normal and abnormal thus giving the rise to debates of What is sickness and deviancy Medicalization of men s bodies Thursday Oct 30 Medicalization of sex who counts as male or female TuesThurs 4 and 6 Nov Medicalization of beauty and appearance Thurs Nov 13 Production and distribution of drugs in global markets remaining sessions When and according to whom is something a medical condition What are the different Ways people engage with a medical intervention Cochlear implants What is it 0 Device that is surgically implanted connected to parts in the ear to help those with hearing problems hear better 0 Device put behind ear connected to inner ear signals through ear hairs to the brain brain adopts it as sound 0 Huge controversy Out of every 1000 2 or three have hearing problems 0 90 born from hearing parents Who is eligible 0 People hard of hearing 0 People who have recently lost hearing 0 Children born deaf The earlier you start the more satisfaction later on A short history 0 France 1957 early experimentation with electrodes stimulating auditory nerves 0 USA 1960 early experimentation 0 UK 1977 Douek a less invasive extra cochlear approach and supplementing lip reading 0 1978 100 implants Worldwide 500 in 1984 Manufactures excited increased progress and possibilities FDA approval in 1984 impressive media representations Victory over total deafness What did deaf people think about implants the possibility of reentering the World of sound Why a slow embrace of cochlear implants 0 Response from deaf communities I 1977 France need for caution only a small number among the deaf are eligible little known about physiological and emotional effects of implants in adults and children I 1960s emergence of deaf studies I Recognition of sign language as natural language I Emergence of Deaf culture to distinguish cultural deafness form audio logical deafness or hearing loss I 1980s historiographies Written about Deaf culture schools for the Deaf Deafness as distinct culture with own language and history I Competing approaches to Ddeafness 0 Medical model deafness interpreted as an individual deficit a pathological state of not being able to hear brought about by illness genetic deficiencies or prenatal infection intervention seen as cure non ethical Deafness culture Deafness is not a disease but made into a disability intervention is measure of culture denying people right to become part of Deaf community culture and life 0 Difference between deafness and Deafness O O Deafness medical model audiological condition of not hearing Deafness With capital D referring to a particular group of deaf people who share a language ASL and a culture I What to take away for studying medicalization O 0 People engage with technology medical intervention and ideas in a Wide range of Ways adoption and rejection Need to think critically and deconstruction notion of disease illness and sickness When is an entity a medical problem according to Whom and under What circumstances Social movements and patient groups shape understanding of entity as medicalsocial problem shape trajectory of technological interventions
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