Week 6 Notes
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Psych 1 1762002 John A Updegraff Week 6 Notes Learning chapter 8 Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Learning cannot be observed directly Learning is inferred by a change in observable behavior Conditioning learning associations Cassica Conditioning We associate two stimuli that tend to occur together This allows us to anticipate uncontrollable events Operant Conditioning We associate our behavior with a consequence This allows us to repeat rewarding acts and avoid repeating punishable acts 0 E L Thorndike s law of effect More likely to repeat behaviors that are followed by favorable consequences reinforcements Less likely to repeat behaviors that are followed by unfavorable consequences punishments 0 Ivan Pavlov Resea rch on digestion Cassica Conditioning with dogs 0 A Bold Claim John B Watson 1924 says if given a controlled environment he could make them into anything he wanted doctor scientist teacher 0 Basics of Classical Conditioning Unconditiona Stimulus UCS A stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers an emotional or psychological response food Unconditioned Response UCR Whatever the natural response to the UCS is drool Conditioned Stimulus CS A stimulus that triggers a response after association with an unconditioned stimulus bell Conditioned Response CR The learned response to the conditioned stimulus drooling after the bell Generaization Stimuli similar to the CS can elicit the CR Greater the similarity the stronger the CR Extinction If the UCS doesn t follow the CS the CR weakens quotif the food stops following the bell the dog eventually stops salivating after the bellquot Applications of Classical Conditioning Counter Conditioning Helping to get rid of an existing fear common for phobias Advertising Associate products with positive stimuli Drug Overdoses Some conditioned responses are compensatory Most overdoses occur when experienced users try drugs in new environments 0 BF Skinner Arguably the most in uential psychologist after Freud Research focused on understanding the principles that govern operant conditioning Skinner s favorites Favorite subjects Pigeons and rats Favorite equipment The operant chamber or Skinner box Favorite procedure shaping Shaping Procedure by which reinforcer s guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal 0 Continuous reinforcement A reward is given EVERY time a behavior occurs good for an organism to start learning behaviors Intermittent reinforcement A reward is given SOMETIMES after a behavior occurs not good for getting an organism to start learning Good at getting an organism to KEEP PERFORMING a behavior 0 Ratio schedules reward comes after a certain number of responses Fixedratio Reward comes after a fixed of responses Variableratio Reward comes after unpredictable of responses 0 Interval schedules reward comes after the first response after a given period of time Fixedinterval Reward comes after a fixed time period Variableinterval Reward comes after unpredictable time period Ratio schedules result in faster acquisition than interval schedules because reward is linked to of responses Variable schedules result in faster acquisition than fixed schedules Variable schedules lead to more consistent responding 0 Primary reinforcers vs Conditioned reinforcers Primary reinforcers Food warmth light escape from pain Conditioned reinforcers Anything that reinforces due to its association with a primary reinforcer like money 0 Over justification ex give people money to do things they like and they probably won t like it anymore 0 Learning by observation Humans do not need direct experience with rewards and punishments they can learn by observing other people s behavior also
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