Human Biodiversity Notes
Human Biodiversity Notes 11184
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Nicole Caparas on Sunday November 9, 2014. The Bundle belongs to 11184 at University of Washington taught by Patricia Kramer in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 410 views. For similar materials see Human Biodiversity in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/09/14
September 25 2014 to November 6 2014 What We re Learning About homo sapiens gt their structure function growth distribution evolution gt variation in genetics environment and how they intertwine Genetics DNA deoxyribonucleic acid genes alleles different forms of genes phenotype physical manifestation expression of gene Historical Figures Gregor Mendel heredity meiosis gametes 2 copies experiment through pea plants Charles Darwin Alfred Wallace evolution natural selection Evolution is 1 change in 2 genetic constitution of population 3 from one generation to the next Evolution Forces 0 Mutation change in genetic pro le mistake in copying 0 Migration movements of genes 0 Genetic drift losing alleles by chance shit happens 0 Natural Selection survival of the fittest aka differential mortality and fertility Key Points of Natural Selection 1 Species are capable of reproducing faster than their resources can expand 2 All things show variation no two individuals are alike identical twins can have different phenotypes 3 All individuals struggle for existence and those with favourable variations will have an advantage over others competition 4 Variation is heritable 5 Successive inheritance of favourable variation over vast stretches of geologic time produces new species Favourable Variations Things that allow an individual to survive gt re ects past conditions not everything present today is favourable nowfuture Sexual Selection 0 sexy traits for males to attract female females choose those with good genes 0 stable preference has to prefer for a long enough period of time for evolution to occur Modem Synthesis 0 forces of evolution 0 modem genetics 0 comprehensive theory regarding how life changes Enviromnent 0 Aggregate things conditions in uences 0 PKU phenylketonuria unable to process amino acid phenylalanine genetic condition 0 Height Stature has a genetic component to it gives a range enviromnent individual grew up in nourishment 0 Body Mass genetic component MASSIVE in uence of environment Plasticilys ability to respond to environmental cues Phenotypes are in uenced by and the Measurements taken for a REASON Qualitative short green Quantitative 5 ft 0 red 128 green 0 blue Devices for measuring 0 surveys 0 rulers O re ectance meters 0 lab tests Protocol 0 Procedure 0 Consistency Error 0 mistakes violation of protocol 0 Variability Everything we talk about refers to Individuals smallest unit person subject object of selection change with time llL 1lljllif p collection of individuals determined by someone with a purpose gt Population determined by population different types of environment interaction may or may not share ancestryenvironment gt Sex cultural baggage interests goals presentation 0 Biology hormones extemal genitalia chromosomes Female XX estrogen ovaries clitoris Male XY androgens testes penis 9 Intersex medical construction to define bodies that don t t neatly into categories of malefemale O 2 of the population 9 infants sexed only by presenceabsence of penis Why only two sexes Historical data limited to 2 sexes 98 of people are not intersexed Measurements of individuals groups populations Statistics used to compare many individuals sample size avgmeanmode maxmin distribution standard deviationpercentiles outliers trendsregressioncorrelation Regression stats correlation coefficient r coefficient of determination r 2 p value sample size the bigger the better normal distribution l l l sd large atter curve more variation small steeper less variation 9 r 2 the bigger the better 9 p values smaller is better Human Skin 0 surface for decoration palette scar tissue malleable 0 naked amp sweaty 0 infinite shades Sunlight 0 infrared heat 0 visible light perceived as colour 0 ultraviolet radiation Skin Epidermis Melanocyte Dermis Melanin Hypodermis Naked amp Sweaty 0 Heat of the day heatstroke O Sweating evaporative cooling to stay cool 0 but with hair sweat drips into hair goes to the outside edge evaporates there cools hair not skin 0 Except for axillary amp groin face men and head Head Hair 0 Density of hair follicles per cm 2 0 Thickness diameter of hair shaft 0 Textureconsistency different kinds of hair adapt differently to swear 9 Rectangular 9 Oval bends in direction wavycurly 9 Circle straight Adaptive Significance of Head Hair 0 Insulation no fat later on head gt gets curly if wet from sweat 0 Texture UV Radiation 0 Good Vitamin D3 production Developmentmaintenance of bones rickets if bones are soft there s insu cient U VR Vitamin D 0 Bad Destroys folate used to create cells especially in the fetus Can damage cells melanoma skin cancer melanin creates colour Compromise dependent on the environment Melanocyte amp Colouration The Darker the melanocyte the darker the skin pigmentation responds to environment amp genetics Genetics of Skin Colour 0 Each person has two copies of genes one from mom one from dad I one gene has 3 alleles only for this class 0 Genotype gt phenotype Gene Environment large spectrum Adaptive Signi cance of Skin Colour 0 compromise between good and bad aspects of UVR 0 Light lets UVR through easily 0 Bad keeps UVR out more In nite Shades 0 Among individuals age lightbaby gt darkadult gt lightgrandmapa melanocytes die when older exposure to UVR changes colour of skin and production of melanin location on body such as torsounderarms through time for a person on person s parts Among groupspopulations 0 Male tend to be darker because they need to keep folate safe good sperm good DNA 0 Female offspring folate VD3 Age Albinism albino light skin melanin not produced genetic condition sensitive to UVR Population Stats 0 r 2 2577 0 Green spectrum because of UV radiation 0 p lt 00089 Exceptions O Inuits haven t lived in region of world long enough diet nchin Vitamin D O Europeans grainsdiet O Equational Americans not dark enough not much variation alleles mostly covered in rainforest so not so much exposure to sun Evolution of Skin Colour 0 Original skin colour White skin 0 What behaviour when where as people travelled in different parts of the world skin adapted to climate 0 What next depends on what we do with environment In summary Skin colour lt gt natural selection shaped our outer skin populations individuals groups Ethical Treatment of Human Subjects Nuremburg Code 1947 direct result of concentration camps experiments 10 basic tennets Declaration of Helsinki 1964 Belmont Commission Report 1979 Informed Voluntary Consent 0 Legal capacity to consent I8 older 0 Nor coerced 0 Sufficient knowledge 0 Nature duration and purpose 0 Hazards o Effects on health 0 Responsibility of research Nuremburg Tenets 0 Informed voluntary consent mentioned above Expectation of societal good has basis Based in knowledge useful prior knowledge Avoid suffering No death or disabling injury Risk good outcome doesn39t have to be greatly transformative if low vice versa Adequate facilities safe environment Skilled experimenters Termination by subject at any time Termination by research situation change Bottom Line 0 Informed voluntary consent 0 Minimize risks harm 0 Researcher is always responsible Declaration of Helsinki 1964 Basic Principles Adequate knowledge Independent committee Quali ed researchers Risk good Subject more important than societal good Subject privacy CONFIDENTIALITY Accuracy in publication Voluntary informed consent No coercion Capacity to consent All research adhere to these standards New Ideas from Helsinki 0 Independent review committee 0 Subject privacy Belmont Report 1979 0 Respect for person 0 Beneficence 0 Justice risks amp bene ts equally spread 1960s1970s 0 No more problems 0 Aberrant behaviour 0 Everything Taken care of by Nuremburg Code amp Declaration of Helsinki until Tuskegee Syphilis Study 19321972 Syphilis O Treponema Pallidum Pallidum o STDSTI 0 Venereal disease chronic painful multisystem failure 0 No decent treatments in 1932 but 0 Treatable w penicillin by 1947 Tuskegee Syphilis Study 19321972 Study protocol O 399 poor mostly illiterate African American 0 Deceived told they did or didn t have bad blood 0 Offered free medical treatment rides to clinic burial insurance 0 pk to study how disease spreads amp kills 0 denied participants penicillin denied access to other care denied info Results 28 died with syphilis 100 died from direct causes 19 children bom w syphilis wives got contaminated news leak 1972 caused public uproar end of study congressional investigation l l l 39 need for formal federal oversight hence Institutional Review Boards 0 Research 0 Systematically acquired O Generalizable knowledge 0 Teaching research methods 0 Informed consent is based on honesty IRB Approval Levels 0 EXempt IRB will allow academic department to say it is okay tlzen study is stamped 0 Minimal Risk doesn t have a lot of potential to harm folks 0 Full Review everything else Exempt 0 Public behaviour unless e g jaywalking 0 People can be identified 0 Risk of I Civil or criminal liability I Damage of financial standing employability or reputation Existing data Public data Educational data Survey data Taste amp food quality Never Exempt 0 Prisoners Pregnant women Fetuses Minors Nonpublic records Minimal Risk 0 Noninvasive medical procedures 0 Medical record review 0 Voice video digital or image recordings 0 Behavioural research Full Review 0 Everything else Colour Perception 0 Animals who can see wcolour have more adv vs those who can t O Ancestors had fruity diet Retina Structure 0 Rods brightness dark vs light 0 Cones sensors to different wavelengths of light red and green coding on Xchrom sub of only 3 amino acids and blue chrom 7 O sensitive to 0 long 0 medium 0 short gt see different colours because of sensitivity of longmedshort Colour Blindness 0 Anomalous trichromats can technically see 3 colours but in different wavelengths of light can possibly see more colours see different shades hard to know if you have it not 0 Dichromats 2 colours red green more likely on male wonly 1 Xchrom yellow blue Monochromats grey Genetics of Colour Blindness O RedGreen Xchromosome males don t give colour blindness to sons chrom y but daughters chrom X 0 Blueyellow chromosome 7 Pingelup 0 maksun descendants of one man who survived huge storm only 3 men survived l monochromat so descendants were monochromats Craniofacial Morphology 0 Phrenology 0 Craniometry Skull Shape 0 Cephalic Index ratio of max breadth max length 0 Doli chocephalic lt75 O Mesocephalic 75 lt max bl gt 8 O Brachycephalic gt 8 Facial Morphology Golden Ratio 1 618 Skull Shape 0 Sagittal keel 0 Men squarer 1 than Women Way to determine sex of skeleton 0 Browridge bump right above eyes when looking at face sideways 0 Prognatism forward protrusion of part of face Other Craniofacial Characteristics 0 neoteny youth 0 symmetry 0 teeth Eye Colour Hair Colour gt 6 genes gt 6 genes 3 pigments Pigments black black eumelanin Brown brown brown eumelanin Yellow red pheomelanin Blue no melanin Differences O Intraindiv gray blonde Groups 0 Populations Why 0 associated with skin colour 0 drift 0 sexual selection Postcranial body Morphology Body size 0 Bergmann s Rule large animals in cold climates small in warm BB Berg Bod 0 Allen s Rule thicker appendages arms amp legs in colder climates thinner in warmer AA Allen App Surface Area to Volume Ratio Heat SAVOL Production Volume the more cells more heat Loss Surface area lose heat across surface skin gt larger ratio more heat loss vice versa gt temperature healthcare nutrition are aspects of environment that all play a role in height Secular Trend in height Secular denoting attitudes activities other things wno religious spiritual basis 0 change in characteristic of population over time not genetic change 0 height 0 pubertal age 0 genetics amp environment Body Proportions Individuals baby head 1A of baby small body adult head smaller of stature body amp legs grown tremendously 9 head doesn t grow much but body changes A LOT 9 feet adult size before legs hands before arms 9 spine grows last Sexual Dimorphism 0 height other lineal dimensions 0 pelvic width wider for women to survive giving birth to babies Population Variation of body breadth 0 Gets larger as distance from equator in degrees gets larger 0 broader bodies Locomotion gt how people move around in environment WALKING Musculoskeletal System 0 Bones framework relatively rigid amp brittle ligaments what connects bones cartilaginous stretches from bone to bone 0 Joints space between 2 bones connection cartilage joint capsule surrounds join completely seals join contains synovial uid can leak as you get older synovial uid allow 2 cartilages to move past each other smoothly slippery O Muscles allow species to perform activities I contract actively shorter requires neural signals amp energy signal comes from brain I extend passively longer Purpose of muscles 0 Move skeleton 0 cross at least 1 joint 0 connected to bone via tendons cartilage don t regenerate well when injured 0 Move soft tissue 0 Eg facial muscles 0 bonestendons may be tied to bone on 1 end amp soft tissue on the other Muscle Types 0 Circular mouth closingsopenings of body 0 Parallel biceps O Convergent has to pass through constrained space pectoralis O Pennate provide force act through small space more effectively if angled requires more energy but less physical volume space rectus femoris leg Other Characteristics of Muscles 0 Size 0 orientation pennation angle nonparallel 0 Type of cells can go from slow gt fast intermediate 0 Type One Slow twitch I slow f1ring I ef cient at using energy aerobic I fatigue slowly 0 Type Two Fast twitch I fast f1ring I inef cient anaerobic I fatigue faster f1ring refers to how quickly muscle contracts Walking Quadrupedalism fourfooted ancestors Bipedalism twofooted us now Quadrupedalism most common form of terrestrial locomotion inherently stable many varieties l l l l Butt muscles used for propulsion contractions of muscles provides force by which the animals propel forward gluteus maximus medius minimus Bipedalism exceedingly rare form of locomotion inherently unstable calf muscles used for walking propulsion butt muscles gluteus maximusmedius used for stability l l l l l rigid foot for pushoff Musculoskeletalbased variation in walking 0 Leg length long feet more distance 0 Foot shape 0 rigid foor necessary to pushoff but can t conform to ground 0 mobile foot good for accommodation to the ground 0 Shape I Cavus high arch locked bones I Normal good arch some motion I Flatfoot lowno arch lots of motion Nervous System Central Nervous System 0 Brain 0 Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves Autonomic responses 0 Breathing 0 Heartbeating Consciously controlled actions 0 walking 0 talking Individual Variation 0 Infants brain grows rapidly rst couple of years 0 Altricialprecocial 0 Complexity increases throughout childhood size doesn t change much but forms more connections Connections increases into mid20s Hormonal changes at menopause shortterm memory 0 Old age decline of brain in function happens to all tissues of body Enviromnental Component 0 Malnutrition lasting scars on developing brain connections not made cognitive issues 0 If suddenly given proper food there s such a thing as catchup growt in height but not for brain development there s only one window of opportunity for brain growth 0 Injury connections can t be made kids relatively substantial as adults Hypoxia too little oxygen circumstances such as heights underwater people with lung problems clots in bloodstream gt Baby not as sensitive to this considering that birth is a hypoxia situation Genetic Component 0 related to size gt relative to body size 0 Encephalization Quotient EQ EQ brain size body size 100 0 Variation among groups of species taxonomic units among species no association between brain amp anything else within species Intelligence 0 Capacity for leaming reasoning understanding similar forms of mental activity 0 Aptitude in grasping truths relationships facts meanings etc 0 The faculty of understanding Antonym of stupidity How to measure intelligence 1 Intelligence Quotient IQ for kids BinetSimon Test 39239 IQ mental age chronological age 100 39239 a ratioquotient 39239 children 39239 Steps develop a test administer to group compute averages for ages give test to new child calculate mental age for individual based on 1st group calculate IQ 39239 Purpose to identify children who need special attention in school 39239 Children who perform poorer on test than peers have lower mental age 39239 Problem assume that both children are the same 2 Adult IQ Tests age doesn t work RANKING not quotient Standardized normal distribution Mean 100 sd of 15 usually little use gt 2 sd multiple parts language uency spatial ability short term memory 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 reasoning quantitative skills General Intelligence g parts of IQ test tend to be correlated measure of something innate disparate scores gt leaming disability normal distribution of people s IQ scores test taking stressful which affects performance pressure anxiety training those who take these kinds of tests do better culture free 0 culture sum total of ways of living build up by group of human beings amp transmitted from one generation to another 0 through language Culture changes not just words history world view technological knowledge gt people think that they shouldn t base IQ on language but quantitative skills FemaleMale Variation 0 little evidence of difference in sexes gt IQ may predict achievement in social realm but is it a measure of something innate gt until We have statistically valid culturefree not dependent on nutrition amp psychological elements
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