Notes From Last Test to Now
Notes From Last Test to Now Hist 101
Popular in World History to 1500
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Popular in History
This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Jeri Horner on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Hist 101 at Radford University taught by Mary C Ferrari in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at Radford University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Jeri!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Classical Societies Intro Persian Empire the whole yellow territory on map in the book Religion and Philosophy Will bring a long period of peace to large areas trade standardize money the bigger the reign more trade more powerful leaders social classes really start to separate Professor recommends doing long study guide after each section 9 next test Oct 199 less material but more philosophy religion and names Home base of Persia hemmed in by mountains and long arid plane Location will make this a trade gobetweenmiddle man Meads and Persians 9 two main people who settled area IndoEuropean Speakers Cyrus the Great 558530 BCE Conquers Meads and starts to expand Moves into Anatolia battles and wins taxes Lydia and heads east to conquer central Asia Dies on battlefield descendants continue conquering His son Darius takes over and reaches its height At its height Persia ruled everything from Russia down to Persian Gulf Professor s words not mine although I think they are funny Big ass empire Controls for 200 years Several wars with Greece beat each other up but neither ever got control over the other They are very kind conquerors just wanted loyalty from the people and they embraced the diversity of the people they conquered Persians free the Hebrews reestablish them into Jerusalem Cyrus rebuilt their temple for them Darius divides empire by districts and creates regional districts Ruled by one person called a Satrap pronounced sat trap court of last appeal Maintained order had complete control over that particular region A system of checks and balances which sent armies to keep an eye on the Satrap Persians also used spies to keep Satrap loyal to the King of Persian Empire Believed all their subjects were equal Capitol was Percepolis where local politicians come to gather they had large platforms where the speakers would rise above the people and large courtyards where the people could gather to listen The picture of the steps leading up to the platform is called Darius Relief Diversity was fine among the people so long as they brought gifts Persian kings were expected to live ethically and maintain order no chaos Boys were expected to be excellent horsemen and warriors moral physically exceptional Basically their jobs were to ride shoot and tell the truth They did their shooting via bow and arrow Language local level spoke whatever the people spoke but official language was Aramaic Based on trade and their ability to move goods and armies around Excellent Engineers The Royal Road Persia to Aegean Sea 1677 miles long connects them to waterways and other people Built hotels along this highway Horsemen could go all 1600 miles in just 15 days They had canals The Nile to the Red Sea is connected by a canal which is a 50 mile connect Money helps economy and trade Darius standardized money They also had a standardized system of weights and measures Water is at a premium Climate is so dry that they had to move water underground otherwise it would evaporate They did so by way of qanats They cooled the water by use of wind technically a very early air conditioning system Ahura Mazda main god creator of all living things always good can t be bad they were originally polytheistic Zoroasterism believes humans have free will to choose from good and bad sound familiar Sacred text called an Avesta Zoro Aster told the people to only worship one god Afterlife this is why it is important to be mostly good They would be judged by Ahura Mazda Persian Empire called Archaemenid Empire 558 BCE 330 BCE Alexander the Great from Macedonia conquered them by piece meal Didn t have to fight to get most of the places Persians didn t really care who took them over so long as their needs were met and they were allowed to be diverse Captured Persia and burned Percepolis The only reason he stopped conquering people and burning stuff was because his army did not want to continue He had a total of 7000 tons of precious metals Died at the age of 32 After his death empire divided amongst his generals Saleucus 32383 BCE these are Greek People Parthian 247 BCE to 224 CE bear in mind the BCE and CE Internet sources refer to this as BC and AD They will create their capitol near modern day Baghdad Nemesis was the Romans Sasanids come up with armor that is flexible leather base with iron strings sewn in Classic Chinese Dynasties were formed during the time of the warring states when all these philosophies came about and the people were just wondering how to fix it all how should rulers and subjects behave Familiar with Zhou Dynasty wanted to get back to that type of order Three different schools of thought Asked how people should behave Structure of family was a very important thing to him father provides protects and rules Children are to support and obey Three Values Ren be nice amp kind Li behave properly treat people courteously and know your place Xiao Pronounced Yow respect obey and support your parents Confucius believed everybody was good Strong advocate of educa on Even if you re born poor if you are educated you can lead Should protect the people they rule goal is the good of the people not their own personal gain Benevolence and humanity The best educated should rule They want the Confucian Scholars to rule Education system is basically studying text and learning literature very difficult so the best and brightest are pushed higher Confucian Scholars are the ones who get to rule even if they are born poor Confucius didn t write stuff down His students were the one who collected his teachings These teachings are called Analects Confucius student felt it was important for the ruler to create a government that was good to and for the people To avoid wars support education good government is peaceful government Rulers should be more like a dad He was able to cut taxes which avoiding wars helps with that Also believed people were inherently good Confucius student believed he had to come up with ways to make people behave Educate people to be good citizens and do not assume they will do so on their own Have to teach society their place through rituals that reinforce how people behave Believes people aren t that good Public rituals can reinforce who and what you are and how important you are Everybody s society has someone above them You can move up based on your intelligence Don t want hierarchies at all and don t like rituals at all Dao be in touch with nature like water it flows Passive force We Wei do nothing go with the flow main principle of Dao Do nothing government The government that does the least is the best ruler Make punishments so severe for minor offenses that people will behave Believed people are evil cared nothing about the place of humans in nature Made a government of very clear laws strict and wanted everybody to tell on each other Qin Dynasty Pronounced chin 221 BCE 207 BCE Replaced Zhou Legalist Dynasty main proponent was Han Feizi They reunite China Ran army based on performance built a million man army Qin Archer amp Cross bow made of steel mass produced Create really harsh legal code If you harbored a criminal you would be cut in two If they commit a crime and you don t report it everybody gets same treatment Nomads kept invading them so they built a wall in 220 308 not the Great Wall stretched 1400 miles made peasants build it It is in the same place as the Great Wall which was rebuilt about 1500 years later Quiz October 9 Qin only lasted about one generation Did very good things for China but they did too much too soon Peasants were greatly abused in China to this point Qin gave them land to grow more food The peasants are who built big things in China Government had advanced water projects irrigation Built the wall Establish a Census 9 helps with taxation and conscription Standardization of things like Chinese Script made all the symbols standard to mean the same thing Weights Chinese coin made of copper with a square hole in the middle so they could be carried on a rope Axle length of wheeled things Built roads and great wall Xiangu nomads China s Achille s Heel Standardized texts burned a lot of Confucian texts wanted just standard text manuals Qin Emperor the most powerful one tomb has 7000 clay soldiers buried with emperor in case he needed them in the afterlife They are in standing military formation with weapons Terra Cotta Warrior is a Qin Dynasty thing Han Dynasty 206 BCE 220CE Equivalent to Romans civilizations have so many parallels Conquer northern part of Vietnam Got rid of legalism harsh laws gone Lowered taxes wanted to lessen burden Kept million man army cross bow unity of 50000 people Xionghu defeated by Han stopped being nomads and became merchants Han created Silk Road Han Army protects this road sets up forts along the route Xionghu runs the fort Built canals and improved the road The Silk Road eventually connects China to Rome The bulk of what they trade is silk hence the name Silk Road All males served in military they had to register pay taxes and serve Han Wudi 14187 BCE Most effective emperor Brought Confucianism back Created college that taught 30000 people at any one time Focus on Liberal Arts Science and Math Invented compass Invented paper 9 expands amount of writing much cheaper than silk on which they wrote most of their stud Difficult to get into and stay in those schools but once graduated it was a guaranteed government job Confucian Scholars are highly educated Poor kids could also go to school under this rule Divided areas into 13 regionsprovinces one official like a governor in charge of each province Also had military person who served as a check of the official Reported to Emperor To get revenue created government monopolies on certain goods like salt iron and grain So if you wanted these things you had to get them from the government Helps to keep taxes low Han had more respect for farmers and tradesmen Silk Road starts in Northwestern China goes through Persia Mesopotamia and connects to waterways like Mediterranean for trade Took 6 months to get from one end to other Used camels that carried silk high volume low weight high commodity Most sought after product at this point Silk is harvested from silkworm that will only eat mulberry trees It takes 2000 cocoons to make one pound of silk have to feed these critters every two hours Also exported hemp rope and linens Imported horses because it was very difficult to keep them alive in that climate They also had handicrafts Han Dynasty collapse because such a big army had to raise taxes and got unfair with the taxation and the peasants revolted India Three Major Religions 1 founded the same time as Confucianism s age 30 separated himself from society lived solely by himself for 12 years It was a simple lifestyle until he came upon an aha Moment and then he preached for the rest of his life Believes all beings have souls including plants rocks animals every single thing has a soul Believes in Karma The way to get rid of bad Karma is to live a simple life which included extreme selfdenial because that causes suffering which will counteract bad Karma Some people would actually starve themselves to death in pursuit of warding off bad Karma They went out of their way to not kill anything else not even accidentally wore face masks so as to not breathe in and ultimately kill dust mites carried brooms to sweep before they stepped to remove any critters in their paths and they strained water before drinking it Avoided violence at all costs Believers of fasting and nonviolence The Mauryan Empire 321 BCE 550 CE MLK studied Ghandi s influence and both of them studied somewhat Jainism so the religion still does exist at least partially right here today Jainism rejects the caste system Buddha s name was Siddhartha Gautama 500 BCE Born in what is now Nepal Left home as a young man for aesthetic moment for six years at which point he found enlightenment Preaches but it is his students who pass down his words Sought the middle way wherein they don t sacrifice anything and it is a mixture of living a simple life and living in society at the same time Very popular with the middle class Similarly upper class not too fond of this movement Buddhists teach how to get to perfect enlightenment 1 Suffering is part of life 2 Suffering is caused by human desires 3 If you can understand weaknesses you can overcome them 4 The way to overcome them is to follow the Eightfold Path Right Knowledge understand suffering Right Purpose free yourself Right Conduct behave and do not take life Right Speech don t say mean things Right Livelihood do the best you can Right Endeavor which means right effort Right Awareness 9 fo Right Contemplation meditation blissful nothingness anybody can get here by following the four noble truths and the eightfold path Buddhists also ignore caste systems no levels just a path It is all morality Buddha was okay with you picking a god or keeping a god just follow the path Buddhism was preached in the vernacular whatever the locals spoke that s what they spoke Very flexible religion Buddhist followers wrote down his teachings which were called Had Monasteries where monks would recite sutras The religion begins to evolve into different branches These people believed Buddha was the god They created saints called perfectly religious people who are supposed to inspire others People worshipped the Bodhisattvas Last evolution was Buddhists could give money instead of living a simple lifestyle So the people gave money to the monasteries which resulted in huge beautiful buildings Buddha was important for about 1000 years 1200 CE began to lose followers to Islam amp Hinduism but is still to this day popular in Japan and SE Asia Buddhism only declines in India 3 Kept Caste System Evolved from Upanishads idea is to connect with the Brahman to connect with reality Jainists and Buddhists criticized Hindus for sacrificing animals so they stopped doing that Hindus ultimate goal is to get to Brahmin 1 Dharma obedience to moral laws good behavior morality 2 Artha it s okay to prosper as long as you do it honestly prosperity 3 Kama it s okay to enjoy sexual pleasure 4 Moksha salvation of the soul at one with Brahmin Hinduism has multiple gods preserver sod were the They wrote down ethical texts in a called a Validated the Caste System live the best way you can according to your caste Instead of sacrificing cows they decide to just not eat them they actually will not even be in the same room where red meat has been prepared The Mauryan Empire 321 BCE 185 BCE Once Alexander the Great dies power vacuum endures Chandragupta steps in to fill that vacuum Agriculture is prevalent Thick woods full of elephants Has an army with an elephant division as well as several other departments Has contact with the Persians and structures their government just like theirs Divided land into provinces and each one had a governor Created bureaucracy and collected taxed Government controlled most entities which meant lots of tax revenue Entities included elephants claimed all of them all grain sales were held by government monopolies shipyards prostitutes etc They built roads and their primary religion was Jainism Chandragupta s death was very questionable possibly starved himself to death with that same Jainist idea of extreme sacrifice Mauryan Empire is the one that united India Grandson was Greatly expanded empire conquered Kalinga in a blood bath Ashoka felt bad about the people his army killed and so he turned back to religion and became a Buddhist missionary Created the created 84000 of these Stupas which were worship centers that held relics things Ashoka had touched or been in contact with in some way Embraced nonviolent approach insisted armies act humanely Used government money to build shrines for Jainism Buddhism and Hinduism Ruled for 37 years Built roads Controlled between 50 and 60 million people Dies in 185 BCE and India is never as united again They are however unified culturally through religion but not politically Nomads who wandered into the area which was the northwestern part of India Become middlemen in the Silk Road developed trade Spoke Greek language Greek becomes the language of trade Kushan Buddha actually looks very Greek Advancements in astronomy trade and lots of literature was written Called themselves Gupta as homage to Chandragupta Tried to revive Mauryan Empire Pretty heavily taxed its citizens Had state monopolies Had governors The numerical system we have now was actually created here Huge patrons of the arts Developed place values in math and had zero which is different from the Romans because they did not used zero at all Mostly Hindu but very tolerant of other religions The statue Buddha of Gupta Era is wearing a dress made of silk which you can see through Almost looks like a Greek toga Lots of Greek citystates are islands Which leads to isolation There isn t a ton of flat land lots of mountains and water which tends to isolate people The city states were called Ordinary citizens elected their leaders which was pretty much the start of democracy large central areas where Greeks could gather that were surrounded by a little bit of country side didn t have a standing army but they taught each citizen how to fight Rich people were the officers but the everyday people fought in the everyday army Like a militia or our National Guard Unit curved head piece metal chest plate metal arm plates metal shin guards used shields and swords Groups would gather and move as one called a These are not standing armies Government pure democracy all free adult males could make all the decisions Women s job was to make strong men to fight in those armies Some city states used oligarchy which means people vote for a few people to represent them and they had control over the whole area The other side of that is a representative democracy wherein leaders are elected in each area to represent those people Some city states had tyrannical rule wherein someone just took oven People like their opinions and democracy so they would get together and form alliances and would then compete against each other They did this via sports Each citystate would send a team and they would compete every four years called Olympics The Greeks did indeed invent the Olympics The only difference between then and now is they competed naked They had running long jump wrestling etc Prize was a crown made of olive branches that would bring great fame to the Polis Sport and political competition were one in Greece Part of the competition was wanting to expand and would do this by creating colonies Greek colonies were everywhere some in Anatolia some in Russia did this to get resources from different environments The Greeks brought math and democracy to Italy via this colonization process
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