CM WEEK 6 AND 7
CM WEEK 6 AND 7 1060
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor Martin on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 1060 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Joseph Kidd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
CM Week 6 Dionysus Roman Bacchus God of religious ecstasy reached through various vehicles particularly wine Symbol grapes ivy Thyrsos pinecone topped staff the theatre Son of Zeus and mortal semele princess of Thebes Wife Ariadne princess of Crete Important cult sites Thebes Athens Alexandria Epithets Twiceborn Liberator sets people free manwomanish Not an original Olympian Appearance 0 Long hair 0 Androgynous o Disturbingly seductive Character 0 He is ecstasy Mystery religion 0 Religion of Ancient Greece and Rome in which secrete rite Gr orgia orgy were revealed to initiates Birth 0 Zeus slept with Semele and grants her a wish Hera find out they slept together and she goads Semele to make an impossible request of Zeus Semele makes a wish that Zeus will make love to her like he did with Hera He doesn t want to but he can t deny her he turns into bolts of lightning and she dies from his true form Zeus rescued the unborn Dionysus by sewing him into his thigh a few months later Dionysus was born Zeus gives the infant Dionysus to the care of Hermes and he takes Dionysus to the nymphs of Nysa to be raised by them Ampelus Ampelus is Dionysus lover who dies Dionysus grieves for Ampelus and cries over Ampelus him His tears mix with ampelus blood creating the grapevine He makes wine out of the grapes and drinks it to relieve his grief but Hera sticks him with madness and drive him forth a wander through various parts of the earth Until he lands in India and stays there for several years When he returns from India he is enlightened and powerful said to be riding either a panther or tiger Followers 0 Maenads Nymphs Faun Satyrs Solenoid o Centaurs No one knows the full details of the rituals but part of ritual is eating raw flesh Ecstasy would give people superhuman strength The Rural Dionysia 1 Omophagia eating of raw animal flesh 2 Opening of new wine ritual drunkenness 3 Ecstatic union with the god 4 Men playing Dionysus lead groups of maenads 5 No one knew in what 6 Others may have roleplayed satyrs etc Euripides o Tragic playwright Play Bacchae Characters 0 Tiresias prophet living in Thebes Cadmus retired king of Thebes Pentheus Dionysus cousin Cadmus daughters Autonoe amp lno Semele Mother of Dionysus and already dead Agave mother of Pentheus Story Dionysus returns to his birthplace Thebes which is ruled by his cousin Pentheus Dionysus wants to exact revenge on Pentheus and his aunts Agave Inc and Autonoe For not believing his mother Semele39s claims of being impregnated by Zeus King Pentheus has just returned Thebes from a trip and hears of this new religion spread by stranger Dionysus in disguise and Pentheus vows to stop it He sees Cadmus and Tiresias are going along with it and is outraged telling them to stop worshipping Dionysus They tell him he should join them and he refuses He orders the stranger to be brought to him He locks him up He tempts him with the knowledge of the secret ritual asking him doesn t he want to see it and Pentheus gives in Dionysus tells him he has to dress like a women to go see the ritual and he agrees as long as no one sees him When pentheus is dressed up Dionysus drives Pentheus insane by shapeshifting into multiple animals and lures him to the wood to see the secret ritual He puts Pentheus in a tree and gives away his position to his followers and tells them to kill him The Death of Pentheus The women under a mad and crazed spell chase him down and tear him apart limb by limb Penthouse s own mother agave who was head priestess joins in and pulls out his shoulder After he gets his revenge on Pentheus he gets his revenge on the women who talked bad about his mom When the women head back home still under the spell they see Dionysus and he snaps them out of the spell and lets them realize what they have done Methustos drunk A methustos not drunk English meaning amethyst Dionysus poured wine over the amethyst which was clear People believed if you wore it you can39t get drunk Midas and the curse of the Golden touch Midas does a favor for Dionysus and Midas is granted a wish Midas wishes for everything he touches to turn to gold This turns deadly when everything he ate and drank turned to gold He begs Dionysus to take it back and he does Dionysus and the kidnapping pirates Pirates see Dionysus and believe he39s someone important and plan to kidnap him Dionysus allows them to so he can screw with them Dionysus turned the mast and oars into snakes and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes so that the sailors went mad and leaping into the sea was turned into dolphins Hermes roman Mercury Messenger of the gods guide of souls to the underworld patron of thieves trickster travelers associated with roads and boundaries Symbol winged sandalscap caduceus Son of Zeus and Maia daughter of titan Atlas Important cult sites No major cult site but known in countryside s shrines where travelers and shepherds made offerings to him worshipped by young athletes for his speed and physical ability Appearance 0 Young in teen s maybe 0 Naked mainly Character 0 Obedient to the gods 0 Trickster with humans The Amazing Birth of Hermes Maia is the daughter of Atlas She has sex with Zeus inside a cave where she also gave birth to Hermes When he was born he immediately sought to steal the cattle of Apollo and stumbles upon a turtle He takes the turtle makes a lyre out of him and tells the tale of his own conception on it When Apollo leaves his home Hermes steals the 50 cows He cleverly disguised his tracks by making sandals made of bark from a fallen oak tree To make it even harder to track him he confused the herd39s trail by driving the cows bacloNard He takes the cows to and sacrifices two them to Zeus by buying them on fire with matches he made and hides the rest in a cave Apollo finds out from an old man who witness Hermes deeds He confronts Hermes and tells him to confess or he will be punished Hermes says he39s only an innocent baby and didn39t do it Apollo takes him to Zeus to getjustice but Hermes lies swears he did not do it but Zeus know better He forces Hermes to confess and give back the cattle Both brothers make up with Apollo giving him his golden staff and Hermes giving him his lyre Origin of o Lyre 0 Sandals 0 Fire sticks or matches Children 0 The God pan 0 Shepherd Daphnis o Shepherds see Hermes as the father of shepherds Hermes and Aphrodite son Hermaphroditus Raised by the nymphs and is normal until the age of 15 He dreams about traveling and takes off to travel He meets the naiad Salmacis when he swims in her pool and she tries to seduce him He rejects her and she backs off and allows him to use her pool As he bathes she watches him from the bushes she then lunged at him and won39t let him go and ask the gods they never be separated Aphrodite grants her wish and puts them in one body Ancient Greek herm boundary maker protects travelers In 415 BCE the herms were Desecrated The crime was blamed on Greek general Alcibiades who fled to Sparta He was convicted and condemned to death but is later pardoned Pan Roman Faunus Woodland god halfgoat halfman A follower of Dionysus Patron of shepherds sometimes said to have invented the panpipes or syrinx Son of Hermes Symbol pipes Important cult sites Athens Arcadia Known for bestial lascivious nature and inspiring panic 0 Panic comes from the name pan 0 Said to appear in different places to scare people Birth Hermes sleeps with a nymph named dryops and she gave birth to pan she is horrified when she sees his face he has a goat39s ears horns and a beard and runs away Hermes however is proud of him and takes him Worship in Athens Pan and the runner Pheidippides One day Pheidippides is running to deliver a message to Athens when he runs into Pan Pheidippides is terrified and Pan asks why they aren t worshipping him in Athens Pheidippides tells him he will tell everybody to worship him and tells the Athens what Pan said and they began to worship him The Assault on the Naiaid Syrinx A nymph and a follower of Artemis One day pan attempts to assault her and her father a river God turns her into Reeds Pan decides to make her his symbol and takes some of the Reeds and makes the first set of pan pipes out of them Hera39s punishment of the Naiaid Echo Zeus is having an orgy with the nymphs and Zeus put echo as a guard to warn him Hera makes her way over there and echo tries to divert her attention but Hera figures it out She curses echo making her only to repeat everything people say Later echo stalks narcissus a handsome and arrogant boy everyone is in love with Echo accounted him but she can only repeat his words back at him and when she confronts him he rejected her Other women not echo who were in love with him curse him for rejecting them and Aphrodite makes him fall in love with his own image He sees himself in the water and overcome by love but can39t touch his mirror image He is so instanced that he can39t leave the water and slowly dies echo finds him on draft bed and can39t save him When he is laid to rest his body becomes the narcissus flowers The final days of the crazed echo Echo is left crazed wasting away in the woods after narcissus death she finds a cave to live in and dies leaving only her voice behind continuing to repeat what other say CM Week 7 Demeter Demeter roman Ceres Goddess of agriculture and fertile soil Symbol grain torch poppy golden sickle Important cult site Eleusis Remains in we39d but has draft her Persephone by Zeus Meter mean mother Appearance 0 Stereotypically blond and beautiful 0 Shown as a slightly older women like Hera Character 0 Motherly and benevolent but can nasty Myth Main characters in DemeterPersephone myth o Persephone daughter 0 Hades amp Zeus arrange the adduction o Hecate and Helius witnesses o Metanira amp family take Demeter into their home 0 Triptolemus Eleusinian princeking Ecological myth Explains the origin of the seasons Persephone is swept away by Hades who was given to Hades by Zeus She is out picking followers with the daughters of Oceanus Zeus makes an arrangement with Hades for Persephone to be his wife Hades and Zeus lure her to this with this spellbound narcissus that entrances her Hades swoops up from hell and takes her to be his wife and queen Demeter does not know of the scheme and is depressed she grieves and uses the poppy dope to relieve her grief She wanders the earth for nine days and night carrying two torches and begs everyone she meets to tell her what happened to Persephone She finally goes to Zeus begging to know what happened and he lies saying he hasn39t got a clueFinally she gets some help from Hecate and Helius who witnessed the kidnapping Helius says he saw it being the sun god at this time and Hecate tell her she heard it She is angered and disguises herself as an old woman and begins wandering the earth She wonders on earth until she is practically dead since she39s not eating or taking care of herself When she wonders to Eleusis a woman give her some food and the women39s child laughs at her she is angered and throws the food at the boy turning him into a salamander She wanders further into the city and wonders by a fountain Metanira s three daughters find her and take her in not knowing she39s a goddess The let her stay in their how and she became a nanny to Metanira baby To thank them from helping her she decides to turn the baby immortal by putting him into the fire every night Metanira witnesses what she doing and is panicked of course and yells at Demeter Demeter is angered and throws the baby on the floor telling Metanira since she interrupted the ritual her child will never become immortal Demeter resumes her mourning and even lets the earth die Zeus tries to threaten and brib her but it doesn39t work and Demeter threatened in return that if he doesn39t let her see Persephone she39ll let the earth die Zeus relents and makes Hermes go get Persephone Their reunion is a joyful one but Demeter realizes something is wrong and ask her did she eat anything in the undenNorld and it turns out she ate some pomegranate seeds Because of this Persephone has to stay on Earth for 6 months for spring and summer and would stay in hell for 6 month in the fall and winter in which Demeter will mourn again 0 The Greek word for seed is sperma and anything with many seeds was invariably a fertility symbol 0 Pomegranates were seen as a hint she was impregnated After this arrangement Demeter decides to share the secrets of agriculture with humans mainly Triptolemus She also gives Triptolemus a winged serpent chariot to travel and teach agriculture to others The roman version of Demeter Ceres is considered the patron goddess of Missouri Sanctuary of Demeter in Eleusis Demeter s mysteries at Eleusis Compulsory stages 0 Lesser Mysteries Probably a prep course for the greater 0 Greater Mysteries Full initiation NonCompulsory 0 High Mysteries Not fully understood 0 Like Dionysus had secrete rites o If you were not initiated you would not find happiness in the afterlife o Lesser Mysteries 0 Took place in Athens in the early spring Greater Mysteries Held during September and October for 8 days If at war must declare a truce for 55 days 0 Day 14 in Athens player making sacrifice Cleansing in the sea 0 Day 5 initiates walk the 14 miles from Athens to Eleusis insulting and humiliating each other torches lit 0 Day 67 initiates witnessed rites in the temple of Demeter at Eleusis o Reenactments to place I But no one knows what they reenacted 0 Sacred objects were revealed I But no one know what they were 0 Day 8 concluding ceremonies The Hubris of Erysichthon He is a king that conquered a neighboring city and plans to cut down a tree for his palace the people tell he can39t do because it belongs to Demeter but he does it anyway As he began stop chop down the tree a dryad comes out of it and tries to stop him but he chops her up to Demeter punished him by making the goddess of hunger cures him with never ending hunger Hades roman Pluto King of the undenNorld Symbols Cerberus Helmet of Darkness Brother of original Olympian Wife Persephone Epithets Host of many everyone39s dies and goes to undenNorld Wealthy one jewels come from the undenNorld Unseen one Important cult sites No Greek town had sacred places for him but every hundred year they would have a festival in his name were the would sacrifice animals to him and beat their feet on the ground to get his attention Appearance 0 Bearded majestic handsome o Triplet so he looks like his brothers Zeus and Poseidon Character 0 Not evil 0 Altruistic and just 0 Had affairs 0 Typical make god Dying in Ancient Greece 0 Dead are honored so they do not haunt the living 0 Coin placed in the mouth to pay entrance 0 Hermes guides the souls below 0 When Hermes would drop of the dead the dead already there would grab at him to get out even the ones in Elysium 0 God Charon takes the money and ferries the dead across the river Styx aka Acheron o If you had no money for Charon people would just wander around 0 Dead enter the undenNorld where they meet at a crossroads before hades palace The dead are judged by three judges Hecate is witness Dead ushered to their final destination pains of Asphodel Elysium or Tartarus Geography of the undenNorld o Plains of asphodel this is where most of the dead went 0 TartarusErebus place for great sinners o Elysium Isle of the blessed heaven like place 0 Most sources place it outside the undenNorld o The river syxt aka Acheron surrounds the entire undenNorld 0 Some sources speak of four other rivers Pool where you can drink 0 Pool of Mnemosyne pool of memory for those initiated into mysteries rituals 0 Pool of Lethe pool of forgetfulness for the uninitiated Asphodel plains endless field of flowers which the dead eat 0 Asphodel is a real flower Elysium said to be an island out in the Atlantis It never snows rains or storms It is a wonderful place with no sadness Only important people go there However even people hear rather be aliveCronus is said to rule Elysium Who else live in Hades Hades and Persephone Charon the son of Tartarus who ferries the dead Cerberus the three headed dog that guard hades His job is to not let in the living 0 Heros need help to pass him Thanatos God of death 0 Root of euthanasia literally meaning quotpleasant deathquot 0 Works with his brother Hypnos the God of sleep to claim souls 0 Sons of Nyx goddess of night The Fury s goddess of vengeance 0 Take vengeance against crime of blood guilt and other horrible sins 0 They rise up out of Hades and pursue sinners with snakes torches cut them up and torture sinners in Tartarus o Said to been born from Uranus castration Hecate triple faced goddess of black magic 0 Appears in crossroads covered in snakes o Becomes Persephone s best friend after she is kidnapped Heros going to the undenNorld 0 Going to the undenNorld and coming out alive is said to be a great achievement Where were the entrances to the undenNorld Volcanoes Famous sinners in Tartarus Tantalus Sin 0 Murdered his son Pelops cooked him and offered him to the gods instead of his livestock The gods figure it out except Demeter who eats Pelops shoulder Zeus makes the Fates reverse Pelops death and he regains his body His arm that was eating was released by an ivory one Punishment 0 Tantalus he was made to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches with the fruit ever eluding his grasp and the water always receding before he could take a drink Tantalize come from his name The whole southern part of Greece is named after Pelops Sisyphus Sin 0 Serial killer continuously violated the guest host relationship betrayed Zeus When he is killed by Zeus Thanatos is told to chain Sisyphus down below in Tartarus Crafty even in death Sisyphus slyly asked Thanatos to demonstrate how the chains worked As Thanatos was granting him his wish Sisyphus seized the opportunity and trapped Thanatos in the chains instead Once Thanatos was bound by the strong chains no one died on earth Ares freed Thanatos and turned Sisyphus over to Thanatos as well Before King Sisyphus died he knows he will be killed by Zeus and tells his wife to throw his naked body into the middle of the public square Once in hades he complains to Persephone that this was a sign of his wife39s disrespect for him King Sisyphus persuaded her to allow him to return to earth so he can have a proper barrel Punishment 0 He is compelled to roll an immense boulder up a hill only for it to be pushed down by the furies lxion Sin 0 39Murders his father in law and he is ostracized by his people Zeus takes pity on him and takes him to Olympus to live He begins making eyes at Hera and Zeus suspects he lust after his wife Zeus decides to make a fake Hera to see if his suspicions are real lxion ends up raping the fake Hera and breaking the guesthost reationshipThis union with the fake Hera leads to the first centaur Punishment 0 lxion is bound to a burning soar wheel for all eternity Tityus 0 Son of Ge Sin 0 Hera puts him up to rape Leto mother of Artemis and Apollo Punishment 0 Zeus punishes him for trying to rape his lover by having him stretched out in Tartarus and tortured by two vultures who fed on his liver The Danaids Sin 0 49 sisters who murdered their husbands on their wedding night 0 There were 50 sisters but one didn39t kill her husband Punishment 0 They were forced to carry a jug to fill a bathtub with a leak to wash their sins off Because the water was always leaking they would forever try to fill the tub Guest host relationship ls sacred and protected by Zeus himself
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