Iberian Culture & Civilization Notes
Iberian Culture & Civilization Notes 1502
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Social Psychology 914 09142015 Hurricane Katrina 0 One of the worst disasters in US history 0 New Orleans August 2005 What has Social Psychology to do with Katrina 0 A lot Heavily affected the way people feel Events like Katrina illustrate some classic social psychology topics Prosocial behavior 0 Eg 1 million volunteers 0 Antisocial behavior 0 Robberies in isolated areas 0 Leadership 0 Government questioned for late reaction 0 Decision Making Government has to make decisions under time pressure 0 lntergroup relations Debate about racial minorities receiving help later 0 The self Massive change in living environment affects way people think about themselves and their social habits Social Psychology o Is the scienti c study of how people affect and are affected by others o Is concerned with the effect of other people real or imagined on our thoughts feelings and behaviors Focuses on the power of situations Draws conclusions based on scienti c method The ABC of Social Psychology o A AFFECT o B BEHAVIOR o C COGNITION Social Psychology within Psychology Aggression as example Cognitive o the way people perceive their environment and which cues in their environment or thoughts would lead them to be aggressive Developmental 0 how do children pick up and learn aggressive behavior 0 Personality 0 individual differences in aggressive behavior 0 Social 0 how people are in uenced by seeing violent movies 0 Clinical o schizophrenia and aggression Biologicalneuroscience 0 how body reacts 0 Social Psychology is interdisciplinary ls understanding human behavior largely a matter of Common Sense o Is social psychology you may sometimes have the impression that o It is all common sense 0 That you quotknew it all alongquot hindsight bias 0 Common sense 0 Can be a good starting point for experimental research 0 BUT intuition itself is a poor method in discovering the truth 0 Conclusion 0 Social psychology research topics can be found in current events and can help us understand these events 0 Social psychology is the scienti c study of how peoples quotABC s affect and are affected by others 0 Social psychology has differences and similarities with other branches of psychology 0 Common sense can be good starting point The Scienti c Method 0 State the problem 0 What are you trying to understand or solve Eg What makes faces attractive 0 State the problem in form of a speci c question Eg does facial symmetry make faces attractive Applied or basic research question 0 What do I know about the problem o What do NEED to know about the problem Review of literature a Existing theories n Existing studies Formulate a testable hypothesis 0 O O O O O 0 What kind of educated guess or prediction can I make about what I think will happen For Experimental Designs If then statement predicts an outcome Eg if a face is symmetrical then it should be rated as more attractive than an asymmetrical face For NonExperimental Designs Non causal relationship between variables the most blank the more blank You must be able to de ne the theoretical constructs operationally ie to measure the variables whether it is attractive or not is independent variable Construct validity of cause or of effect valid operational de nition Design the study NonExperimental No control No random assignment Correlations QuasiExperimental No random assignment Experimental Researcher controls procedures Random assignment Allows to establish cause and effect Independent and dependent variables Between and within participants Factorial Design more than one independent variable a Main Effect effect of a single variable ignores the effects of other variables a Interaction effect of more than one variable acting together on the dependent variable see two variables together l symmetrical face as smiling are more attractive than symmetrical faces with a neutral expression lnternal Validity con dence that independent variable caused change in dependent variable Confounds individual effects of two variables are mixed together and cannot be separated External Validity a Study ndings likely generalize to other settings and people a Stimulus Sampling use several different stimuli to ensure difference between categories not between speci c stimuli n Experimental realism is more important than mundane realism world outside of the lab to determine external validity o NonExperimental CorrelationalApproach a Does not allow to establish cause and effect a Relationship between two variables a Positive negative or no correlation computed by correlation coef cient Headlines of popular media articles often misinterpret research on which they are based Le a causal relationship is assumed but not actually observed a Eg to spoon or not to spoon l after sex affections boost sexual and relationship satisfactionquot Thirdlurking variables 0 Correlational vs Causational Language Correlational n Moremore lessless n Tied linked a Related connected I Eg people who sleep more remember more Causational Language n Increase decrease n Causes if then affects impacts n Bene ts enhances improves boosts undermines n Eg memory retention is enhanced by sleep 0 Laboratory High level of control High or low in experimental realism Low in mundane realism 0 Field Outside lab Low level of control High in experimental realism High in mundane realism Collect Data 0 Data collection is the process of gathering the information you need to be able to make it a decision 0 Who will you collect data from What participants and sites will be studied Which O permission do you need 0 What information will you collect How will you collect it Which instruments do you need How will you con rm validity O o Partici How will you administer data collection pant Sampling Quantitative Data Collection seect representative sample of individuals a Data can be easily quanti ed n Eg reaction time measure on computer body height Qualitative Data Collection purposely select peoplessites that can improve understanding of phenomenon D Data is hard to quantify in terms of measurement or population a Eg fMRi Case Study Sample Size a sample should be as large as practicay and statistically required a Within a large sample adding cases does not increase precision a When population size is small sample size should be large and vice versa Required Permissions n Institutional Review Board IRB Evaluates risks and bene ts of research project a Informed Consent from Participants n Permissions to use video recordings or images n Permissions from people at research sites eg hospital school etc 0 Data Collection Methods Using an existing instrument vs creating your own Pretests or preliminary studies necessary Surveys Interviews Observations Video recordings Records Questionnaires Reaction time measures 0 Data Collection administration Identify time needed for data collection Informed consent n Anonymity n Permission to use materials Random assignment if Experimental design Guide participants through different steps of experiment Debrie ng about purposes of the study especially if deception involved Compensation Test the Hypothesis 0 Statistical Analysis Clean your dataset and verify subjectdata correspondence Identify problematic subjects and others Explore your data a Descriptive statistics n Check data distribution normality n Eg age gender Choose the right analysis a Depends on your experimental design a Depends on the nature and number of independent and dependent variables Categorical eg gender 0 Continuous eg weight RTs o Interval eg age 1828 2838 etc Ordinal eg level of education a What effects do you observe Was your hypothesis veri ed against the null hypothesis 0 Communication of Results 0 Science requires communication of results tO Other scientists The general public 0 Ways of communicating results Meeting with colleagues Oral presentations at conferences Written presentations at conferences Peerreviewed journals The media books TV news outlets 0 Communication Format Formulate results comprehensively Content of scienti c communications n APA n Authors contact info and funding a Title and abstract I Introduction Method Results Discussion In lnclude graphic representation of data a References 0 Conclusion 0 Social Psychologists use the scienti c method to design experiments to study the affect behavior and cognition of people 0 Important to be aware of the limitations and challenges of experimental design and explore how to address these issyes Experiments can be criticized on the basis of internal validity external validity and the appropriateness of the measures used 0 Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection 0 Natural Selection of traits occurs when 0 A characteristic appears O The characteristic is genetically transmitted The gene is adaptive o It is the characteristic rather than the individual that is naturally selected 0 Selection occurs when the trait is useful for reproduction andor survival 0 Evolutionary explanations of social behavior Evolutionary psychology assumes that behavioral amp psychological characteristics can be inherited just like physical ones Human social behaviors re ect the in uence of physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce quotModular mindsquot 0 eg module for mating helps you nd a partner with good genes Sexy Voices video 0 What was the experimental design of the last study Vpoint in menstrual cycle a 2 levels ovulation vs not ovulation n Within participants repeated measures DV males ratings of attractiveness Reproductive tness in voice a Mendeep voice testosterone n Women high pitch voice estrogen ability to conceive quotFollow your nosequot ovulating women attracted to smell of highly attractive and symmetrical men Incest avoidance mechanism for faces that look like you rated as more trustworthy but less attractive Out group homogeneity effect reversed for angry black vs white faces The negative side of evolutionary approach Determinism 0 Genes hormones brain structure amp innate processes dictate ones choice and actions 0 Justi cation for negative attitudes and behaviors prejudices o Broad approach Functional explanations of behavior are hard to prove wrong they need to be integrated with other approaches Nomological approach how does a particular nding t in with many other ndings l risk for contradictions is this logic is not adopted 0 However current evolutionary psychologists move towards a more integrated approach Culture amp Human Behavior 0 What is culture 0 An informationbased system that includes shared ideas and common ways of doing things 0 Shared ldeas Nobody has culture by himherself o A system Connected by moving parts that work together eg food chains 0 Culture as praxis Shared ways of doing things eg driving on the right side of the road 0 Information and meaning Language past and future plans libraries 0 Why do we need culture 0 Fear of death l Terror Management Theory TMT the fear of death must be present in normal functioning but cannot constantly be present or else the organism would not function o Humans are the only animals with the consciousness of their death Existential anxietyfear of death 0 Culture as an anxiety buffer Make life meaningful and signi cant Cultural worldview that allow us to approach death Route to signi cance activists with symbolic transcendent and religious signi cant Symbolic immortality 0 According to TMT coping with the fear of death is also a function of selfesteem The quotI am Scalequot 0 Individualistic cultures lower of social entity statements Collectivist cultures higher of social entity statements Collectivism vs Individualism Collectivism interdependence dominates in many parts of Asia Japan India China also many parts of Africa Individualism interdependence dominates in western cultures US and western Europe 0 This trait accounts for many cultural differences 0 How people explain social behavior 0 Preference for unique things 0 Researchers Markus amp Kitayama What is the Cultural Approach 0 Cross cultural psychology 0 Learn about the cultural in uences on the mind by examining cultural differences Collectivism vs individualism same as interdependence vs independence 0 Learn about the development and transmission of culture by examining cultural change Where do cultural differences come from How does culture explain and shape behavior The culture acting on person The person acting as a means for the creation and transmission of culture Eg gender socialization Other examples of cross cultural psychology ndings 0 European Americans value extreme emotional states more Asian populations value calm emotional states Other cultural approaches 0 Transmission of memes instead of genes what ideas and behaviors are communicated eg Researcher Chip Heath 0 Transmission of culture via nonverbal behavior Researcher Weisbuch l when you perceive other peoples non verbal behavior you pick up on what is valued in culture 0 Transmission of behavior in primates Nature amp Culture Interacting What nature gives usis used by culture Nature shapes Culture 0 O O O Eg need for food water and shelter Eg the presence of pathogens in the environment more pressure to conform higher likelihood of collectivistic cultures Eg having not more than one girlfriend Morality laws and self control against impulses and wishes ie nature We do need both perspectives to make fully sense of human behavior 0 Allow for a wellfunctioning in society and the ful llment of the need for acceptance 0 Interdisciplinary science Conclusion 0 Human behavior results from the combination of nature and culture 0 Nature and culture interact to allow us to function well 0 People vary on how much they include social entities their de nition of themselves interdependence vs interdependent self construal Some behaviors are universal others vary across cultures 0 Main variation across 0 What is the self 0 Self concept self knowledge 0 Executive Function agent self 0 Public self interpersonal self The composition of the self 0 Self Concept l 0 Self Awareness Private self awareness Public self awareness 0 Self Esteem 0 Self Perception Selfconcept Selfknowledge Big 5 Personality Traits OCEAN 0000 O Openness to experience wide interests intelligent Conscientiousness organized responsible Extraversion sociable Agreeableness how much you care about others Neuroticism how stressed out you can be Information and beliefs about oneself Who you think you are Does the selfconcept change over time Changes in self concept 0 O O O Develops to become more complex Midadolescence opposing attributed detected by not reconcHed Late adolescence can reconcileintegrate happy sadmoody Although there is no sense of continuity across time the self concept can change The self concept also changed from moment to moment 0 O Wherever we are aware of ourselves we are not aware of everything that makes up our self concept Different parts active versus not Working self conceptphenomenal self 0 The image of the self that is currently active in a person s thoughts 0 Different relationships situations Eg in class vs at a party o Context plays a role The social identity that is salient in a speci c context changes the working selfconcept of an individual and affects hisher performance accordingly 0 I am scale Culture also affects self concept a Independent self construal what makes you different a lnterdependent self construal what connects you to the group The extended self other people included in the self Social Comparison 0 People constantly compare themselves to the people around them 0 Upward v downward social comparison Affect self concept through changes in self awareness andor self esteem We choose to compare ourselves strategically to feel good to improve selfesteem Social Comparison vs extended self Selfesteem maintenance model SEM 0 My friend is a famous actors Performance worse Relevance of domain not high Closeness high Increased self esteem basking in re ected glory 0 My friend is a famous psychologist Decreased self esteem because it is relevant 0 Social comparison extended self 0 Three factors determining the effect of social comparison on the self 0 Performance am betterworse 0 Relevance of domain contingency of selfworth o Closeness relevance of comparison person Self Esteem Part of self concept 0 Self esteem self evaluation 0 Non conscious evaluation process We only know the end result Emotional quotgut feelingquot 0 Contingencies of self worthdomain that is an important part of the self What is self esteem for 0 Terror Management Theory 0 SE helps us feel signi cant and deny our existential anxiety coping Socio meter theory 0 SE measures our social acceptability 0 Warning mechanism when our fundamental need for acceptance is not met Socio meter Hypothesis 0 Warning Mechanism 0 1 Monitor non conscious process O O O 2 Inform bring to conscious awareness 3 Motivate actions to change bad feeling we want to avoid Self esteem is sensitive to inclusionexclusion O Exclusion in particular Self Esteem High Self Esteem O O O O 0 Seek and expect success Risk takerinitiative Con dence Unstable HSE only after success Less affected by negative events Unstable HSE self defensiveness after self threat Narcissism Sel shness and violence 0 Low Self Esteem 0 Avoid failure and rejection 0 O No risk takerinitiative Doubt 0 Affected by negative events 0 Can thousands of selfhelp books be wrong o Quite possibly 0 Common assumption that HSE good and LSE bad Itdepends Eg you can have too much self extreme narcissism 0 Has two bene ts Feels good Makes you con dent Fooling ourselves Instead of nding out the truth about ourselves appraisal motive we prefer self enhancement and consistency o If belief that medical condition not treatable avoid seeking information about it 0 Over estimate of good and unusual qualities quotbetterthanaverage effect Overestimation of control over events Unrealistic optimism Self deception strategies to retain these positive illusions o Eg Self serving bias claim credit for success not failure 0 Eg social comparison Public Self Interpersonal Self The image of the self conveyed to others 0 Self presentation 0 Any behavior that seeks to convey some image of self or some information about the self to other people 0 Reputation eg Facebook 0 Something you did to impress others Romantic partners 0 We do stupid things in order to be well regarded or included Tanning Women eat 6080 less in presence of desirable man Self handicapping surprise others with success eg hangover for exam Self Presentation amp Identity 0 Self presentation can be used to claim an identity 0 Individuals differ in the extent to which they are concerned about self presentation 0 Self monitoring High SM what does this situation want me to be and how can I be this person Low SM who am land how can I be me in this situation Conclusion 0 The self helps us to distinguish us from others but also to gain social acceptance 0 Some parts of the self are stable but the self is also highly in uenced by the context 0 Self esteem and self presentation play an important role in establishing and preserving the self 0 People Perception control area of inquiry in social psych 1 Decoding person cues o the human visual system is exquisitely adapted for the perception 0 face body motion 0 face receives most attention face inversion effect recognition decreases l we process faces hoHsUcaHy face composite effect difficulty identifying a person when halves are from different people body perception 0 body inversion effect recognition of static body posture is decreased 2 Extracting Invariant Person Knowledge 0 physical attractiveness personality traits categorical knowledge person identity Personality can be drawn from Physiognomy facial features Outer appearance Demeanor People tend to agree on qualities they attribute to others Faces may be automatically screened for trustworthiness o Takes less than 10 milliseconds o More money is invested in trustworthy faces 0 Greater facial width less trusted and trustworthy o Categorical knowledge impressions and evaluations in uenced by the social categories to which the belong Biological cues sex race age dominate social perception more than non biological cues eg clothing 0000 O 0 Sex categorization O 0 Hair face shape skin tone darker and redder in males mouth nose eyebrows Body shape l movement 0 Age Categorization O Facial signs of aging body shape posture and motion 0 Race Categorization O 0 Skin tone shape of facial features Baby faced people are less likely considered to be guilty Familiarity through repeated exposure Focus on external features for newly met faces versus internal features Emotional response to person Spontaneous retrieval of person speci c semantic knowledge 0 3 Extracting Variant Person Knowledge 0 O O O can be variable in situations emotions eye gaze evaluation increased visibility of eyes unique shape and color High sensitivity to eyes looking at us quotpreferential lookingquot look at face longer that is looking at us faces with direct gaze capture and maintain attention eye contact leads to arousal and changes in body signal threatinterest in mating contest 0 context matters in gaze perception high accuracy 18 ft 28quot o gaze perception is tuned to a particular con guration of eye and face happy and angry faces seem to exhibit eye contact fearful have averted eyegaze 0 language of eyes eye attract our attention to objects persons events 0 Joint attention two individuals are attending to some object based on one individual using the attention cues of social individuals 0 Gaze following following another s gaze 0 Development of gaze following behavior starts very early Newborns prefer to look at face like stimuli Ability to follow gaze at 10 mo ls related to larger vocabulary Gaze following is the main de cit in autism quotmind blindnessquot Gaze cueing paradigm Stronger cueing effects observed in women than men Eyes are quotwindows to the soulquot signal different meanings Do we like looked at objects more Yes Mimetic desiresgaze induced liking even with dogs Same direction gaze following Same object joint attention OOOOO Shared attention foow someone s gaze Last time What you perceive matters Perception in uences cognition o Eg rst impression bias interpretation of subsequent information Primacy effect Ash 1946 0 Which adjectives come rst in uence the impression of the whole person Today What you think matters Cognition in uences perception Eg change blindness What is Social Cognition The study of how people think about people and social relationships Attribution Theory 0 Fritz Heider 1958 0 People have a tendency to give casual explanations for someone s behavior 0 quotNai39ve scientistsquot not only psychologists try to explain behavior everyone does Attribution An explanation for the cause of an event or behavior what caused that behavior 0 Why do we care about attribution o It allows us to predict and explain others behavior 0 Internal attributions Dispositional o The actions of a person are related to their internal character 0 quotJohn robbed the bank because he is a sociopathquot 0 External Attribution Situational o The actions of a person are related to the external 0 characteristics of their situation quotJohn robbed the bank to avoid losing his family to bankruptcyquot Fundamental attribution error 0 O 0 Also known as correspondence bias The tendency to believe that a behavior is due to a persons disposition rather than the situation in which the person nds there selves People tend to attribute others behaviors for their dispositions we tend to make internal dispositions for behavior Even when situation provides clear explanation Culture and FAE In American cultures we are more likely to say that the person is responsible for their behavior in Hindu Eastern culture people explained behavior due to context Perceptual Salience amp FAE Perceptual salience tendency for other people to engulf the eld and demand more attention than situational cues Perceptual salience study Taylor amp Fiske Study ActorObserver Bias We don t apply FAE to everyone Actor observer Bias n Tendency to make dispositional attributions for others behavior as observers but not for our own Self serving bias The tendency to attribute failure and other bad events to external circumstances but to attribute success and other good events to oneself The Duplex Mind 0 Automatic thinking 0 00000 O Requires no awareness Unintentional Not subject to deliberate control Requires no effort Fastefficient ln exible Eg understanding language Deliberative Thinking 0 000000 Requires awareness Typically intentional Control Typically effortful Slowless efficient Flexible Eg complex math problem 0 Thought suppression white bear effect 0 Do NOT think about X Your thought system automatically starts searching for any sign of X alert consciousness Deliberative system only active during suppression can sometimes work cognitive control 0 Other cognitive task Keeping you cognitively busy is unlikely to work because automatic system still actively searches for X l interference with current task How to avoid Paradoxically stop trying Eg staying awake versus falling asleep I Research encouraging insomniacs to stay awake helps sleep Try to think about something u easier than trying to not think about something u Weigner et al quotthink of a red Volkswagen instead 0 No rebound effect 0 Breakup example meet someone new 0 Automatic and deliberate thinking work together Automatic system makes conscious thought possible through avoidance of information overload Deliberative system allow for conscious override Knowledge Structures how we think 0 Typically try to think only as much as we need to make quick decisions on unimportant matters and more effort on important matters 0 Use timeeffort saving strategies 0 Eg quotrestaurant scriptquot 0 Eg quotspend the nightquot 0 usually work o but not always Expectations based on preexisting knowledge 0 Schema organized structure of knowledge that guides info processing Different types people events etc Includes how things t together 0 Advantages interpret info quickly Fill in gaps Eg poke in the back 0 Disadvantages incorrectly ll in gaps Eg Halloween 0 Individual Differences in thinking 0 Need for Cognition tendency to engage in and like thinking 0 Rational Experiential Inventory deliberative or intuitive thinking style 0 Activation of knowledge structures 0 Priming Activating a concept in mind Eg age priming effect 0 Framing Information presented as positive or negative O Eg beef 10 fat or 90 lean Counterfactual thinking Imagining alternatives to past of present factual effects or circumstances Eg what is this class was at 10 am instead of 8 am Heuristics Representativeness ipping a coin l more likely HHHHHH vs HHH39ITH Availability frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease which relative instances come to mind falling coconuts more likely than shark attacks Simulation Anchoring amp Adjustment Other errors amp biases O O CO 0000 0 False uniqueness effect underestimate the number of people who share one s prized characteristics and skills False consensus effect overestimate the number of people who share one s opinions Base Rate Fallacy ignoring general information being in uenced by the distinctive features of the case lllusory Correlations overestimate the link between variables Gambler s Fallacy a chance event is affected by previous events and will quoteven outquot Hot hand luck will continue Illusion of control a false belief that one can in uence evnts Hindsight bias I knew it all along Con rmation bias notice and search for information con rming one s beliefs Theory Perseverance Once a conclusion is drawn it is only changed by overwhelming evidence Polarization Shifting towards more extreme positions 0 Con rmation Bias 0 Snyder amp Swarm 1978 0 Task determine if interaction partner is Manipulation introvert or extrovert Participants generated own questions a Typical introvert what do you like about being alone a Typical extrovert what do you do to get to know people 0 Notice anything Leading questions 0 What happened Leading questions elicited corresponding answers 0 Selfful lling prophecy o Pygmalion in the Classroom Teachers were told some students would be bloomers n More attention encouragement n Which helps learning Our expectations I Shape our behavior a Shape others behavior a Con rming our expectations 0 Are people stupid O Depends on how serious the errors are some are trivial others correct themselves Depends on the case According to evolutionary psychologists less big errors when it comes to reproduction and survival Heuristics are often useful eg landing a plane without a motor and demonstrate the complexity of the human mind 0 How can people reduce cognitive errors 0 O O 0 Take a course in logicalstatistical reasoning Make complicated information easier to avoid overload Debiasing controlled instead of automatic processing can help Metacognition think about your own thought processes What is Emotion o Emotion o Conscious evaluative reaction to some event Affect 0 Automatic response that something is good or bad 0 Mood 0 Feeling state that is not clearly linked to event Emotion Emotions are the body s adaptive response 0 They mobilize the mind and body to respond to evolutionary important physical and social challenges Brief responses that are subjectively experienced as feeling that have a physiological component and that can be expressed in behavior Stimulus Emotion controversy 0 Does physiological arousal precede or follow the emotional expenence 0 Does cognition precede emotion 0 Researchers have fought about which is more important Common sense view 0 Have an experience behavior amp physiology William James s Sequence 1884 o Emotions are more in the body than in the mind What kind of emotion of fear would be left if the feelings of neither a quickened heart beat or shallow breathing were therequot 0 Consistent with modern quotembodied cognitionquot Mental states depend on our bodily experience Appraisal Theories Emphasize Construal ie appraisal evaluation Appraisal of a situation affects emotional response 0 Someone cuts you off on road be angry think he s a jerk or feel compassion he s probably in a hurry The quotBridge Studyquot 0 Low bridge no arousal no explanation necessary 0 High bridge l arousal l female confederate quotI must be attracted to the experimenter I will call herquot 0 Undifferentiated physiological arousal Misattribution of Arousal o Epinephrine explained arousal no particular emotion after exposed to euphoric confederate or angry confederate o Epinephrine no explanation l exposed to euphoric confederate then they felt euphoric exposed to angry confederate then they felt angry o Undifferentiated physiological arousal when explained o Construal when not explained o Schachter amp Singer s two factor theory of emotion 0 Different appraisal l different emotions o Appraisal can be quotunconsciousquot o Theories of Emotion 0 William JamesLange Physical activity precedes emotional experience Opposed the common sense view 0 CannonBard Emotional experience and physiological activity are triggered simultaneously Opposed the JamesLange View 0 SchachterSinger Two factors of emotion Physiology and cognition trigger emotion Emotion Perception amp Expression 0 Charles Darwin Cross Species Continuity o Anger displays in monkeys could also be a dominance display 0 Happy chimp l more of an agreement exists cross species 0 Charles Darwin Babies 0 Even blind and deaf babies display facial expression such as crying and smiling 0 Universal Facial Expressions 0 Paul Ekman 1967 goes to Papua New Guinea 0 Asked people if this person experiencing an attack a funny situation a loss a sudden sound seeing some rotting esh or seeing a wild animal happiness surprise disgust sadness anger fear 0 People were accurate in decoding facial expressions and mostly accurate for happiness 0 quotWhat would someone look like when all same situations as before encoding How universal is it o Elfenbein and Ambady meta analysis Cross cultural accuracy 58 a Basic emotions between 55 and 68 n Highest happiness 79 n Lowest contempt 43 All emotions signi cantly above chance 20 An in group advantage a People are more accurate in their own cultures 0 Vast cultural variation in display rules language and values related to emotions Inuit do not allow any displays of anger Tahitians do not have words for sadness but 46 words foranger Different languages have emotion words that do not exist in English o It is universal for basic emotions but also partially determined by culture 0 Also some quotsocial emotionquot displays are highly cultural Eg expressions of anger embarrassment 0 Also it strongly depends on the context 0 Emotion Perception amp Context 0 Why does this contextual in uence occur 0 Emotion perception relies on the structural combination of facial and body features Motion is helpful to judge emotional intensity 0 In general con gural holistic perception of emotion But the motion of speci c body parts can be enough to infer emotional states a Eg arm movement when waving lifting or drinking Emotion amp Gender 0 Gender stereotypes amp emotions o For professional women anger expression leads to a decrease in status but for professional men leads to an increase in status 0 People tend to attribute anger to internal factors for women she s an angry person 0 Because it s quotcounterstereotypicalquot for women to be angry Counter stereotypical Emotions 0 Expression of anger in women is sanctioned in professional context Emotion Regulation 0 Positive Psychology 0 Ed Diener 0 Martin Segliman o What makes people happy Emotions good or bad 0 have important biological functions 0 but also social functions anger is a signal transgression embarrassment signals appeasement Catharsis o the process of releasing and thereby providing relief from strong repressed emotions 0 Just let it outventing 0 Effects of catharsis Does it work a No empirical support for positive effects of catharsis n Eg venting anger Makes people even more aggressive o More likely for interpersonal con cits Risk of heart disease 0 Social sharing of emotions o Rim Emotions cause disruptions in people s subjective worlds Most emotions are shared with others shortly after they occurred together longer delay for sharing shame Social sharing is an integral part of emotional expenence 0 Similar idea to catharsis Does sharing of emotion reduce emotional intensity No neither the amount of sharing nor the delay of shadng o Merely verbalizing does not reduce emotional intensity however it is adaptive to keep memory alive 0 Sharing contributes to the construction amp consolidation of the memory 0 Sharing improves interpersonal relationships and social integration 0 Bene cial for physical and psychological well being Conclusion Emotions have there components experience behavior and physiology 0 Body and cognition are important Context in uences emotion perception and expression 0 Universality and cultural differences in some aspects of some emotions o Emotion regulation is essential 0 Although emotions have important biological and social functions but too much of a good thing is bad 0 Social sharing of emotions helps through better information processing and social support but not intensity reduction Attitudes Are goba evaluations towards some object or issue likedislike o Eg legalization of marijuana in the US Preference An attitude that is more favorable towards one objectissue than towards another objectissue Attitudes A positive or negative evaluation of an quotobjectquot o A person or social group 0 A thing or type of thing 0 An action 0 An abstract concept Attitude Research Development Gordon Allport attitudes are the more distinctive Can attitudes be measured 0 Ask people what they think 0 Development of questionnairesself report measures to assess a variety of attitudes Problems experiential demand and social desirability 0 People are worried about how they appear and they may answer in the most desirable way If people do not report their TRUE attitudes l invalid research conclusions How can REAL attitudes be measured 0 Development of questionnaires to assess quotsocial desirability tendenciesquot Eg MarloweCrowne Social Desirability Scale 1960 Eg Delroy Paulhus Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding 1991 n Eg quotI never swearquot 0 Reduce participants time to think Express attitude as quickly as possible Cognitive load perform a secondary task memorize a sequence of numbers and have to keep this in mind while answering a question 0 Development of indirect attitude measures Participants do not selfassess the attitude that is being measured Eg name letter effect to assess selfesteem o Other examples of indirect measures of attitudes lmplicit Association Test lAT n Assesses the strength of association between categories 0 Reaction times for good and bad words associated with an attitude object a Can be used to assess a variety of attitudes Race homosexuality obesity age gender self etc Affecting Priming Procedure Affect Misattribution Procedure AMP Extrinsic Affective Simon Test lmplicit measures or implicit attitudes Scientists rst though that indirect and classic selfreport explicit measurement methods assess the same attitude However experiments like the quotbob studyquot and the poor correlations between indirect and directexplicit attitude measures questioned this idea 0 People might have an implicit and an explicit attitude best measured by indirect and explicit measures respectively This debate is not settled yet Dual Attitudes lmplicit 0 Automatic Unaware Unintentional Ef cient Uncontrollable o Associative process 0 No validationtruth check 0 Explicit o Deliberate Aware Intentional Requires resource and effort Controllable o Propositional process 0 Validity of evaluation is checked Attitude formation processes Mere exposure 0 Endowment o Embodiment Classicalconditioning o Evaluative conditioning Operant conditioning 0 Social learning Evaluative Conditioning 0 Change in the valance of a stimulus usually neutral resulting from pairing this stimulus with another positive or negative stimulus Consistency Motive amp Attitude Change Heider s Balance Theory 0 Fritz Heider Relationship can be balanced or unbalanced people prefer balanced or consistent relationships A relationship is balanced when the multiplication sign of the and signs of each relationship results in a positive outcome Cognitive Dissonance o Attitudebehavior inconsistency l discomfort l rationalize behavior or change behavior The AB Problem Inconsistency between attitudes and behaviors How can it be solved Strength of attitude 0 Accessibility of attitudes o Behavioral intentions See Theory of Planned Behavior 0 Match between speci city of attitude and behavior improves relation Implicit attitudes seem to be better predictors of spontaneous behavior than explicit attitude Theory of Planned Behavior 0 Behavioral Attitude Subjective norms Perceived behavioral control 0
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