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Developmental Psych 04022014 People Theories and Methods Basics Terminology Prenatal Ends with birth Infant Starts day you are born to 15 to 2 Toddler Ends 25 to 3 year Preschooler 3 to 5 years Early childhood Ends at about 810 Late childhood Ends about 12 Adolescent 12 to 1415ish independent variable What you are manipulating Dependent variabe Outcome variable what you are measuring Figures John Watson 18781958 Behaviorism conditioning Little Albert Brought in to play with white rat startled the baby by banging two pans the child became scared of the sound and rat even worked when they brought in a little white rabbit Albert Bandura 1925present You also learn from people around you observational learning bobo doll experiment seeing aggressive behavior and them mimicking John Bowlby 19071990 Born to wealthy family with a nanny nanny left at age of 4 very traumatic experience Forming initial attachments early in development John Piaget 1896 1980 Children do not think the same as adults different kind of brain that has to develop Cognitive development and moral development Valentine Piaget created all of his infancy studies Eleanor Gibson perceptual Eleanor Maccoby social Lila Gleitman language TheoriesDebates Immanuel Kant Nativism We come to the world with innate abilities Domain specific John Locke Empiricism We come to the world with sensory abilities and we use those senses to develop blank slate when born Domain General Evolutionary Often use comparative approach Understanding various traits or behaviors as adaptiveconferring an evolutionary advantage Consider the role of culture to show similarities Socialization Thinking about the role of experiences and environments Consider the role of culture to show differences Domain SpecificDomain General There are different domains of knowledge or understanding biological knowledge understanding others emotions Some processes specifically affects some domains understanding of death Other processes affect all or many domains memory attention Methods Observation Why not all observational what if you want to know kids theory of birth Kids views about gender roles Understanding of physics Interviewing What if you wanted know If they help peers more than adults Experiments Lab experiment Study conducted in research lab everything is controlled Field Experiment Conducted in natural setting many things controlled for but not everything Observation vs Experiment Observation Noticing what is happening in everyday life Experiment Systematic investigation Hypothesis or theory driven True experiment includes a control condition What are the advantageswhen would you do Observation cheap no equipment needed Field experiment ecological validity some control Lab experiment time cost strong causal Habituation Video Quiz What is nativism Born with innate beliefs knowledge etc Who studied infant attachment Bowlby What the difference between field and lab What is habituation Getting used to a stimulus the process by which you get bored What do we use it to study Detection of differences of stimuli with infants Prenatal Development Video WEEK 2 Infant Cognition Review What is nativism Being born with an innate content Empiricism Blank slate What would be evidence of one vs the other If something emerges at 6 months innate or learned Nativist infant wasn t able to do it before this time physically What is a habituation study What kind of questions can it answer Showed whether or not an infant can tell a difference between two different things What is the difference between a field and lab experiment Field real world you cant control as much Cognition Piaget empiricist Infancy Birth to 2 years Infants learn to distinguish their own bodies Sensorimotor period Stage 1 Birth to 1 month Use of reflexes sucking reflexes stepping reflex grasping Stage 2 14 months Primary circular reactions Stage 3 49 months Secondary circular reactions not just their own bodies relationship between their body and external Stage 4 912 months Integrating schemas A not B error Stage 5 1218months Tertiary circular reactions acting intentionally Fails invisible displacement shell game Stage 6 18 24 months Object Permanence Objects Liz Spelke Renee Baillargeon Infants looking longer to things they find surprising Coherence object solidity Experiment with board and ball looked at if they were surprised or not when the board was all the way down or looked propped up this result goes against what piaget thought they do seem to expect the object to be there Objects coherent and solid Example the ball cant roll through another object look longer at the picture that depicts the ball as going through the book Two dolls going behind separate blockers Coherence is thinking there are two incoherent is thinking there is 1 doll Habituation to liquid or to solid Continuity Contact State Gravity book Inertia book Math How do you figure out if babies know math Mr Potato head and looking example Infants looking longer when there is only 1 Basic addition and subtraction up to 3 or 4 Cracker Choice Experiments Age closer to 1 year Two buckets and crawling watch experimenter put crackers into buckets and watch where they go they go toward the bucket that has more Manual Search experiments Box with a slot put two balls in a box how many times will the infant put their hand in Can also be used to test memory Representations Judy Deloache Do children understand 2D VS 3D representations 9 month olds will try to pick an object out of a book as if it is 3D Point to where the researcher hid something in the model and tell the children to find it in the actual room 25 year olds do not get it The more similar the spaces the easier it is 3 35 years becomes much easier Size scale error Do kids get confused about sizes of things Kids are first going to play with a bunch of objects that are normal sized then they leave and come back to a room with miniature versions She treats the toys as if nothing has changed she still tried to get in the toy car They want to play with the toy so bad that their emotions can override Scale error 2 take off shoe Think of an exam question from todays lecture Review What are some properties of objects that children understand What is an example of a method used to show that children know basic arithmetic What are some examples of limits to children s understanding of representations Trying to grab a something that is a 2D picture Scale Size Thursday Development beyond Infancy Piaget Constructivism Children construct knowledge on the basis of their experiences with the world Children proceed through stages of developments First stage sensorimotor birth to 2 years Object permanence Preoperational 26 Child has full motor skills but does not understand conservation of physical properties Video rocket fuel they children think that when it is put in a shorter container there is less Liquid solids spread out vs balled up same number but separated out mampm example Child think edocentricallv Perspective taking task do not realize someone else s perspective is different than their own Concrete Operational 612 Children can reason logically about concrete objects and events However they have difficulty thinking with abstract terms and hypotheticals Formal operational stage 12 and beyond Can think about abstractions and hypotheticals Can perform systematic experiments to draw conclusions about the world Issues with Piaget Stages inconsistency of the timeline Conservation of number comes before iquid More recent studies suggest some results were caused by his specific designs not by underlying competencies Stages underestimate how early kids understand these things If you ran studies as he did you would get his results Piagets Jargon Scheme A representation of the child s internal knowledge and internal representations of the world Adaptation The way in which a child who fits their schemes in with new experiences and information Assimilationaccommodation Assimilate interpretation something new and unfamiliar in terms of their existing scheme Accommodation alter their scheme to better fit the new information Domain specific knowledge rbai How kids and adults come to use landmarks and geometry Study child in a room each corner has a hiding place the experimenter hides something blinds folds the kids spins them and asks them to find the candy Where does the child look They find that children use the room geometry 5050 chance Red wall example Why are they getting it wrong left and right Disorientation paradigm Number Cracker choice go towards one with more crackers Manual search experiment if two object go in two should go out 1 need to learn the set of numbers onetwo 2 need to understand they apply to objects 3 need to understand last number said refers to total number of objects present Give a number task Cardinal Principle Knower Usually by 4 Video Video what is on the card Nativist arguing early on we have very clear concepts Piraha one two many 123 innate Folk Biology What about their understanding of death Story about baby mouse questions Biological Psychobiological Perceptual Emotional Desire Epistemic Week 2 4142014 Practice test questions What is bigger chromosomes or sperm Sperm Eggs travel down what kind of tube Fallopian tube Do human embryos initially have tails Yes Describe the give a number task When someone asked a child to give a specific number of something Cognitive Development Naive Astronomv What does the earth look like What causes the seasons The earth through the eyes of a child Draw what the whole world looks like Then draw where you are standing Are you on the inside the circle or on the outside Inside Draw someone in china The child in china is standing right next to her Where are the stars sun etc Above me What happens if you walk and walk You would get to an ocean What if you had a boat and could keep going You would fall off the edge What causes seasons Why does the moon have phases Nai39ve Iohvsics Infants know more than we thought they did Gravity task Most children think it still fails straight down regardless of the tube 3 representations nai39ve beliefs perceptual knowledge action knowledge Interim Summary cognition Largely we have talked about development of domain specific knowledge Now focus on domain general Memory long term memory explicit with conscious receall semantic facts and general knowledge episodic personally experienced events Implicit without conscious recall Procedural motor and cognitive memory Priming enhanced identification of objects and words HM Patient Anterograde amnesia Procedural separate from semanticepisodic Developmental memory issues Don t know all the strategies yet chunking rehearsal Children don t have strategies like this Metamemory Knowing what you remember ability to say yes I do remember that Source monitoring Remembering who the source of the information was Better memory when there was dissimilar storytellers in addition if they had unique items Infantile Amnesia Memory format change hypothesis Early on we store our memories differently than we do later Particularly because we didn t have language at that age Maybe initially memory as pictures now as words Neural change Hypothesis We know that peoples brains continue to change maybe in the very early years our neurons haven t connected enough in the area where long term memories are stored Cueing Hypothesis Need to have the relevant cues to remember something Game Domain specific and Domain general These are the signature of stage 3 o the sensorimotor period and involve applying ones motor actions to exterior object secondary circular response A failure to understand this leads us to pay too much for beer sometimes conservation Even adults make lots of errors in this domain as demonstrated by their inability to understand what causes the seasons to change folknai39ve astronomy Out ability to tell where information came from in memory Source monitoring The property of object understood by infants as demonstrated by the study showing the ball needs to touch the other ball to make it move Contact Researchers use the gravity task to assess this domain Nai39ve physics A very common looking time measure used to assess what infants know Habituation The term for when a child alters his or her scheme to better fit new information recognizing a cat is not in fact a dog Accommodation The big accomplishment of the first developmental stage according to paiget also a lack of it makes peek a boo fun Object permanence The kind of memory we consciously recall Explicit The group of people that believe the mind is a blank slate Empiricist When a kid tries to sit on a very small doll house sized chair the child is demonstrating this kind of error Scale The first stage of cognitive development according to piaget What is the sensorimotor stage The domain people study if they are interested in what children think about plants animals life and death Folk biology This stuff matters child witnesses Sam stone study 4 conditions Control Stereotype Stereotype and suggestion Suggestion A stranger named same stone comes to visit an experimenter has 4 interviews over 10 weeks at 10 weeks new interviews Control group 4 interviews the interviewer asks very straightforward questions nothing suggestive describe visit new person asks two questions about actions sam stone did not acutally do 10 said something that sam stone did do one of the actions he actually didn t do Then when they are re asked they all go back to saying no Stereotype condition A second group were presented with a stereotype about sam before he even came to the school Something that implied he was clumsy Then he visits doesn t interact with anything etc When asked if they saw sam do anything 42 said yes When questioned only 11 continue to say yes Suggestion condition Everything is the same as the control then during the 4 interviews they are given suggestive questions remember that timeon purpose or accident 52 believe that something happened then ask are you sure this happened 12 still say it happened Stereotype suggestion group 4 weeks before they are given a stereotype about sam Then then sam comes to the school 4 suggestive interviews 72 say to new interviews that yes sam did something when they ask if it actually happened 21 say yes Tuesday 4162014 Memory Interviewer Bias Accurate information Erroneous information What the interviewer believe to be true influenced what the kid said Landuacle and Thoudht Animal language is Kanzi really like human children Kanzi has not improved much over time Few words learned slowly through really extensive training Very limited ordering High repetitious No recursion Statement Typical chimpanzee utterances after several years of training Nim Nim eat nim eatetc Why would anyone expect chimps to learn human language Chimps are smart but more in needed for learning language than general smartness Chimps are our closest relatives but we split off 510 million years ago enough time for new brain structures to emerge Common View Animals do not have language in the way we do Development of language Timetable Birth 4months Lip smacking cooing squealing Preference for melody of own language Sensitive to all phonemes About 47 months Start babbling experimenting with phonemes About 12 months First words objects actions properties Usually just one word at a time Some sensitivity to word order About 18 months Learning words faster 2 word sentences Past puberty Outside the critical period learning more difficult Hard to learn your first language after you pass puberty Some people disagree Catherine snow They say contexts matter kids at school adults at work Complete immersion this is why it seems that children can learn a language faster Definitely accent is tricky Grammar is also tricky Basic facts All normal children develop language Exceptions brain damage genetic mutations No or little feedback or training Lack of correction Understand novel sentences Cross cultural evidence Language capacities are innate Chonsky Create computer simulations to try and figure out how we learn language What is the minimum number of rules it takes us to learn a word We figure out the probabilities that any given set of sounds is a word Video Sound and Fury Terms Sign language Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 Week 4 4232014 Sign Language Complete fluent language all the properties other languages have Nicaraguan Sign Language Up until 1977 if you had a deaf child they would not go to school stay home First school for he deaf emerged 1977 First school for lot of kids who were deaf taught oralist approach first cohort Outside the classroom the children tried to talk and each brought in their own home signs From this a new language started to emerge 1980s more and more kids and lengthened school through adolescence 1984 start of 2 cohort 1990 start of 339 cohort How language changes Study 1 Center Divider between two children one kid picks up a card and has to describe what is on the card to the second kid the second child has to correctly find the same card on their side using sign Tried with member of an early cohort and a later cohort the older person was not able to find the picture Need understanding of left and right this was not established in the earlier cohorts Older members less consistent in marking eft right relationships Study 2 Tested deaf Nicaraguans in Managua Exposed to NSL before age of 6 7 first cohort mean age 31 12 2339 cohort Cohort 2 95 performed much better on red wall task than cohort 1 68 Cohort 2 uses the words left and right more often than cohort 1 Study 3 Kids in the first cohort use spatial modulation less The later you go to school the less spatial modulation Study 4 Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Second cohort rotates more Verb Usage Man throw woman catch Later cohorts manthrow towoman or womancatch from man Redundancies reduced as the language got older Take home from this section Later cohorts do better If you did not get exposed to language until you are 10 you will never be as good even if you joined during the later cohorts Neural Develobment Three main structures Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain By 5 6weeks three sections are distinguishable 4lobes frontal Cognitive activities personality parietal somatosensory cortex occipital vision temporal language memory Our brains evolved from the middle and back forward Amygdaa emotiona Hippocampus memory Neurons Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Cell body Axon myelin sheath Synapse Dendrites Neurotransmitters at axon terminals Pre synaptic neuron to post synaptic neuron Axons can range from very very short to very long Video Neurons are the same cells all throughout our life Migrate have an idea where they are going Neurons are born from stem cells When a stem cell is put in it gets instruction from those around it If a developed is put in it continues with the original instructions Stages of cortical development Neural proliferation productions of neurons Neural migration movement of neurons to specified layers Synaptogenesis over production of connections Synaptic loss pruning Proliferations 18weeks all the neurons you will have are here Migrations Proximodistal inside out Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning Why do we prune Efficiency Pre frontal continues making synapses longer start to prune at about age 4 Overproduction of neurons and connections 3060 more neurons in fetus than adult brain 150 of adult levels of synapses between 412 months Experience determines what is kept Fire together wire together Use it or lose it What changes across the brains More folds Developmental methods for studying the brains What can babies do Biologicalneural responses include Electrophysiological responses Hemodynamic responses Heart rate Cortisol levels Pupil size Basics of neuroimaging Evoke responses ex show picture of mom What happens in images Studying the developing brains MRI Magnetic resonance imaging Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 X ray of the brain static size of something looking for a tumor Structure Eye tracking Strengths Millisecond level timing Non invasive Gaze information Pupil diameter autonomic response Weakness Indirect brain measure EEG Analyzes electrical activity in the brain by placing electrodes on the scalp Each electrode measures activity from millions of neurons Event related potentials ERPs time locked EEG to a specific stimulus Strengths Efficient timing Non invasive Same method can be used across age Weaknesses Poor confidence in localization Stimuli must be repeated and responses averaged fMRl Looking at changes that are happening over time Blood flow Blood naturally has hemoglobin with different concentration levels of oxygen Active areas of the brain expend oxygen and require more oxygenated hemoglobin Changes in oxygenation levels cause changes in the magnetic field Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 The scanner detects these change and provides functional information which brain areas are active Strengths High accuracy of localization y5lmaging of oxygen usage Weaknesses Very sensitive to movement not ideal with awake infants and young children Low time resolution around 8 seconds Expensive Motor Development Motor Milestones 2 months lift head 3 months raise chest with arms roll over 4 months sit with support 6 months sit by oneself stands with help 8 months pull self to stand 10 months creeping use something to help themselves walk 11 months stands unsupported 12 months walking Maturational account of motor development Argues that its about brain development not practiceexperience Twin girls and stair study Helped one walk up the stairs didn t let the other one near them both were able to go up at the same time Cross cultural evidence Dynamic systems theory of motor development Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 Not as simple as brain developing Takes in into account interaction of perception bodily changes environment clothes obstacles and brain Stepping reflex Arguing that the kid had the ability all along and the constraint that makes them not able to walk is not a brain maturation thing their body is too heavy Obese infants Take longer to walk showing experience does matter Karen Adolph Dynamic approach Week 5 4282014 social cognition Theory of mind Mental States Goalsintentions They see a hand going for a ball multiple times when the hand goes for the teddy bear the children stare longer When is goes to the ball the stare less because they see that as the goal When they use a pole not a hand they are split between the last two options the don t see the pole as having an intention We imitate underlying goal not action Mini barbell the adult would pull and pull and pull but never get it apart When the children imitated they pulled it apart shows the understood the goal not just the action is this true for only humans Only 10 pulled it apart versus the 60 with the human Preferences Whether or not they understand if people can have different preference Introduced the kid to someone who really like goldfish versus someone who really likes broccoli can they attend to one the other persons preferences are 14 month olds and 18 months Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Majority of kids 14 month and 18 month give the person who like goldfish more goldfish 14 month old they still give someone who likes broccoli more goldfish 18 month old the majority gives the broccoli lover more broccoli Beliefs Crayons or candles in the box at the beginning both kids incorrectly thought that there were crayons in the box false belief True Belief that there are candles in the box Sally Ann study puts marble in basket leaves ann puts it in the box where will sally look False belief she will look in the basket True belief she will look in the box 3 years almost always fail 45 year olds tend to pass Infant false beliefs Familiarization trial 1 Slice of watermelon in green box Trails 2 and 3 Belief induction trial TB green condition yellow box moves back and forth watermelon doesn t move TB yellow condition watermelon moves The woman is here both times FB green condition watermelon moves to other box when she is gone FB yellow condition watermelon moves with her there then she leaves and it moves again Infants understand false beliefs Purpose of Theory of Mind Perspective taking Deceiving Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 You have to know that someone can have a false belief Downside of being good at ToM If we are constantly thinking about other peoples minds it takes away from our own desire to do something ToM allows us to interpret other people and guides our behavior How to learn Learning form other Most of what we know is not from first hand experience How do we learn and who do we learn from Imitation Very basic facial imitation seems to be innate Also in macaque babies Rational imitation Whether or not we just do whatever other people do Tried to show young kids how to turn on the light by doing something unconventional Will they just blindly imitate just use their head or 1 They had their arms next to them 2 They had their hands next to the light in 2 they are more likely to use their head than in 1 Over imitation The children copied everything that they did no matter the box color What is the finding that we find when comparing chimps and kids in the over imitation studies When both children and chimps can see the clear box and what actually needs to happen to get the reward the children will still repeat all the other steps the researcher did where chimps skip this and go straight to the reward Our culture puts more emphasis on the process Social Referencing Kids were confronted with a toy they have never seen before parents reacted with disgust or positive reaction Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 How did the kids behave 12 months old move further from the object when their mom made the negative reaction Emotional Eavesdropping Child sees adult interact with toy Another adult expresses anger or not Half the time the angry person then leaves the room Will the child imitate action on toy Less play when angry and present moderate when neutral angry and absent more play with the toy Learning from others We imitate people We watch people and use their responses We also listen to them Selective trust paradigm Known object labeling Consistently accurate Consistently inaccurate Novel object labeling Ask for information Endorse information Both go with the person giving the previous accurate information Do children track accuracy or inaccuracy They trust the neutral person over the inaccurate Selection of more reliable informant on test trials by time and judgment They trust the same person a week later Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Summary Preschoolers selectively learn from previously accurate informants Age related difference 3 year old Preference for familiar informants Teachers from two different schools The both name an object differently 3 4 and 5 year olds believed teacher 1 over the other teacher Trust the one who is familiar over the one who is not Children go with the flow Pretest 3 informants pointed to 1 object consensus 1 informant pointed to a different object dissenter they trust the majority week 5 4302014 Face perception Thoughts goals beliefs Group membership lden ca on Emotion Our interest in faces Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 By 10 weeks they prefer a normal looking face When infants recognize the difference between faces Discrimination between faces At 6 months and 9 months they can tell the difference between the two pictures of the men What happens when we do this with pictures of monkeys they also look longer when they see a new monkey face at 6 months At 9 months they do not look longer at the new face use it or lose it they see human faces all the time and not so many monkeys Did follow up work and took a group of 6 months old and sent the mom and dads home with books of monkey faces the kid is now getting exposure to monkey faces regularly they found that after a few months the results were like the 6 months old looked longer at new face Could this same thing happen when looking at race 3 month old could distinguish all black middle eastern white Asian 6 month old only Asian and white 9 months old only white Summarize the finding about infants and their ability to distinguish people of different races If not exposed to different races in early months they will only be able to distinguish faces that they are exposed to Infant social preferences Preferential looking If shown two pictures you would look longer at the one that you like best Attractiveness Look longer at the picture of the attractive person Male vs Female Original hypothesis that they look longer at female Then maybe it is because of caregivers Same study with males as caregivers this time they look longer at male Infants look longer at things that they like Looking at what they prefer orrrrr Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Study on race shown two photos Babies 3 month old White Israeli Look longer at white Black Ethiopian Longer at black Ethiopian Israeli Black but around white No difference is this preference of familiarity Maybe it is a individual difference problem My conclusions infants look longer at things that are familiar Novel Groups Video Why do people of color not have the same things What if we look at eye color The on top group did better than when they were the low group The lower group was more withdrawn Aggression against the lower status group Social preferences and groups by Domain Race Toy Choice 10 month olds and 25 year olds and 5 year olds all white infants and children Two adults white and black offer an identical toy 10 month old infants do not differ in which they take from 25 year olds no difference Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 5 year olds big difference almost all went to get the toy from the white person Show two faces who do you want to be friends with how often do they pick the kid who is white versus the kid who is black White participants show a white bias 3 4 and 5 year olds On average black children at 3 to 5 show no preference Went to Africa and did something similar Blacks chose whites way more Three groups white colored and race All three groups have a preference for white Two have preference for color Kids in Japan that was similar 6 year olds 10 years olds and adults Japanese and white Japanese and black 6 year old 80 prefer Japanese over black or white 10 year olds prefer Japanese to black no preference between white and Japanese adults 5050 why 5050 when adult subconscious association test faster to associate things when the brain already Explicit vs implicit attitudes across development With White Explicit less preference as they get older Implicit they all show white bias no matter age With Black No preference Stereotype threat You perform worse if others have that stereotype about you Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 Asian females Math performance Took 1 big group and divided them into 1 of three conditions Control color random picture Color a picture of rice Color jumping rope feminity female stereotype Those who colored the pic of rice did the best at math those in the control were in the middle those who colored the female picture did worse Language and accent Native speaker vs foreign speaker or native speaker vs accented speaker First study infant study two people who appear on a screen one speaks in english one speaks in French In the other condition native speaker american accent someone speaking English with French accent Who do they look longer at Before they speak look equally long while speaking they look at both equal once they go quiet they look longer at the native speaker and native speaker with American accent Toy Choice 10 month olds and 25 year old one speaks in English and one in French each go to hand baby a toy who do they take it from More likely to take it from the native speaker at 10 months and 25 year olds in earlier slides they did not show race effects but show language affects Who would you want to be friends with One speaking English one French 5 year olds prefer same language and accent same as with the race studies With language they do show a preference for their own later they dont With race they show preference early and then later do not Preferences based on language and accent are very strong and may even be strong than those based on race Review When in development do people tradionally think false belief understanding being What is the evidence Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 4 years old the basket vs box task sally ann task What is some evidence that infants understand other intentions If a hand was moving down they expect it to pick up whatever is there not just for the movement They do not expect this for something that is not a hand Why might over imitation be useful to human children How to accomplish an end goal sometimes you have a lot of steps but it is the right way When does race vs language first appear to bias children s social preferences Language in infancy Race in preschool or 35 What is one finding consistent with the claim that infants look longer at the more familiar The one where they look longer at their mom They look longer at a female picture if they have a female caregiver Week 6 Tuesday 552014 Children s Morality Piaget Moral development follows generally cognitive developmental stages Some aspects of morality are not available to us when we are very young Piagets stages Premoral development until age 4 years No moral principles No sense of justice Heteronomous stage 410 years Rules are fixed like physical laws Focus on consequences rather than intentions Autonomous stage 10 and older Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Rules can be changed if people agree Intentions matter too Punishment should be appropriate to transgression lmmanent Justice A kid would get this scenario and then asked a question Scenario about the kid stealing and eating the apples the walking across the bridge and the board breaks and he falls in a river Why did he fall in the river Kids would say because he ate all the apples They basically believe in karma Kids like lucky kids more than unlucky Real life example Rape well she must have done something Kohlberg Scenano Progression across the moral development Obdeiencepunishment self interest conformity law and order human rights universal human ethics Changing from you are supposed to do things because that s the way the rule is to in my soul the correct answer is Jon Haidt Moral dumbfounding People don t know why certain moral actions are wrong they just feel wrong Opposite of the approach of Kohlberg Moral foundations theory There are 5 types of morality We all might weigh their importance differently Moral dumbfounding A woman is cleaning out her closet and she finds a flag doesn t want it cuts it up and uses it to clean Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Once a week a man goes to the store and gets a chicken Why is that so different from Haidt Just general the feeling Kohlberg was interested in the explanation Moral foundations theory 0 disagree 5 totally agree Harm It can never be right to kill a human being O Compassion for those who are suffering is the most crucial virtue 3 Fakness If a friend wanted to cut with meO Even in the fight against terrorism 5 Average 2 lngroup When it comes to close friendships 5 Loyalty to ones group is more important than individual concerns 0 Authority If I were a soldier and disagreed 2 Respect for authority 4 Purity 3 chastity is still important 1 Average 25 Harm and fairness are more important for liberal they come closer for conservative Evidence of harm domain in infancy Kids see these two scenes and then decide which one the want Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Pro social and anti social elephants Which does the baby reach for the nice one The stare at the nice one longer More evidence of harm domain moralconventional Researchers were interested in whether or not kids make distinctions between different kinds of things that are wrong Wearing pajamas to school and hitting another kid is this allowed at this school no at another school they say you can wear pajamas is it ok yes you can also hit other kids is that ok no Humans behave in surprisingly prosocial ways Prosocial behaviors doing a behavior that benefits someone else Helping others accomplish their goals instrumental helping helping to achieve an actual goal Infants help pick something up open something Even overcome obstacles to help More complex helping Does he actually mean I want that specific mug broken or just a cup to get coffee What are they doing 1 Familiarization one works one doesn t can you give me that cup so I can a glass of water Functional object almost always give them the functional object Kids understand what they actually want and will actually help Sharing with othersgenerosity Dictator game two people they never know who the other one is one person is given 10 dollars told they can give money to the other person if they want to Rationally they should give nothing They actually give on average 2 or 3 Dictator game across cultures Most people give between 0 and 50 Point people give more than zero Midterm 2 Notes 04022014 With children what happens As early as 4 years kids give more than zero Young kids do the same general thing they give even though economists think they wouldn t Why we are or are not generous One kid gets the same no matter what one kid can get 1 or 4 stickers depending on what the first kid decides More than half the time they chose to give the generous thing But why Reputation view they want to look generous to other people Does the possibility of building reputation build generosity When there is a wall between the two kids they are more likely to give the kid only 1 versus 4 Concerns with fairness Looking time study unequal trial or equal trial if infants understand the concept of fairness which should they look longer at The one where a giraffe gets both the find it more surprising only when they are shown as living Video What is the task and how is it connected Tell the child about two other imaginary kids what should they do with the other candy bar throw it away Tell the child it is between him and another imaginary kid what do they say to do with the extra throw it away This time the experimenter put two in an envelope for the other kid and one in an envelope for them the experimenter leaves the room to get another candy bar in this time a different experimenter comes in and evens the envelopes out when the original experimenter comes in they keep it Reputation matters lmmorality Bad behavior in one domain does not predict bad behavior in another Cheaters in classroom are not the same as cheaters on the playground No evidence that cheating lying or stealing increases across development What predicts bad behavior Parenting Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Well physical punishment by parents predicts More antisocial behavior More aggression Less internalized sense of morals Greater likelihood of abusing ones own childspouse How Modeling Environmental and genetic Conduct disorder Characterized by aggressive and antisocial behaviors A subset of children with CD also are characterized Psychopathy Approximately 10 of children with CD show CU traits CU traits predict adult psychopathy About 1 of adults are psychopaths Psychopaths and moralconvention distinction Week 6 572014 Mid 20 century view of parenting Don t coddle youll make them soft Don tf touch them comfort them hug them Mostly came from emphasis on behaviorism Response Harlow with monkeys Bowlby with humans Harlows work on monkey love He thought you could prove scientifically there is love Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Tried to emulate the lack of love behaviorists were saying Day they were born take form parents and they would live in isolation Wire mother studies Cloth motherwarmth and wire mother provides food no warmth or comfort The monkey would jump to the cloth one Extreme stress reaction even when blanket was taking away If you force it to keep living even without cloth mother it will completely disengage from everything John bowlby Mary ainsworth The strange situation assess kids attachment Bring a child and parent into lab they play stranger comes in and plays too then its just the stranger and baby baby comes back baby alone stranger tries to comfort kid The stranger did not help comfort at all Securelv attached infant a typically developing kid would look like this Measuring and categorizing Secure attachment 60 65 Insecure avoidant 20 Ignore mom when they come back Insecure ambivalent 10 when mom comes back upset Insecure disorganizeddisoriented 5 15 Influencing factors Secure attachment close contact Babies in Israeli community villages sometimes kids were taken care of in groups Soft vs hard carriers Sent the moms home with a soft cloth carrier or hard plastic carrier 83 of babies in soft securely attached 39 in the hard carrier became securely attached Specific parenting behaviors Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Parents of securely attached babies tend to Be sensitive to baby signals Adjust to babys mood and keep from interfering Accepting of baby even in difficult times Physically and psychologically available Insightful parenting Parents watch videos of their own interactions with babies Video taped babies without them their Questions what do you think was going on parents who gave more insightful answers babies more securely attached Insecure avoidant Don t respond to babys signals Not much physical contact Angry and irritable when together Insecure ambivalent Unaffectionate and inconsistent Insecure disorganizeddisoriented Neglect or physical abuse Depressed mothers Of abused infants 82 likely to be in this category Infant temperament profiles Jerry K easy temperament secure slow to warm up temperament avoidant difficult temperament ambivalent innate temperament that the baby comes to the world with Temperament does seem to play a role in influencing attachment behaviors and attachment quality BUT Infants can be securely attached to person A but not B Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Intervention study for difficult infants All difficult the parents were taught by the researchers what to do and some were not taught the ones that were taught had more secure relationship 60 something percent Parent problems loom larger than child problems If a mom has depression and she is the primary caretaker that is going to have a bigger impact that if the baby is born premature Outcomes Attachment relationships are fairly stable across childhood though change is possible Securely attached infants are more positive empathic and socially competent in ch dhood Securely attached infants are more likely to have better peer relationships in childhood and adult romantic relationships Internal working models Belsky et al 1996 Assess attachment security at 12 months Then at 3 years brought kids in for a memory task lnsecurely attached infants were more likely to remember the negative and securely remembered the positive Susan Johnson Three steps mom dot goes up to the middle stair over and over little blue on them pulses and they hear a baby crying then the mom goes back to the baby or up to the next step Secure looks longer when parent moves away Review 1 factor that influences attachment status physical closeness good for secure what was the dependent variable in the infancy study of internal working models of attachment looking time memory for pos or neg describe the behavior of a securely attached child in the strange situation criticism raised by Jerry Kagan about the strange situation temperament not attachment the study where they taught the parents technique did end up better attaching Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Emotions Definition and relevance Emotions feelings about things we are experiencing Positive or negative psychological stuff external smiling when happy Relevance Motivate Expressing emotions do babies have feelings How would we know Expressing Emotions lzard Method Videotaped babies indifferent kinds of situations Selected examples of peak emotions Asked undergraduates to guess what the baby was feeling Results Nai39ve participants were quite accurate Primary emotions in the first year joy fear distress Joy Reflexive smiling in newborns Often happens when baby is asleep Social smiles by 2 months of age One example of selectivity More likely to actually give a social smile when they are in a social interaction Familiar vs not familiar people Duchenne smiles more of a real smile Babies also have these differences They give real smiles more often to familiar people Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Fear Some weariness between 37 months old More apparent fear responses after 7 months for example Stanger anxiety Separation anxiety Nonsocial fears bugs etc One example of change over development kinds of stimuli that elicit fear Secondary emotions pride shame jealousy guilt and empathy Understanding others emotions Studying young infants is difficult 47 months old can discriminate among happy sad and angry faces For example Habituation trials happy Helen happy Helen happy Helen Test trials happy Helen vs sad Helen Finding they look longer at sad Helen More convincing evidence social referencing Example 1 Two novel toys look at one and show disgust and neutral or positive and the infant will spend more time interacting with the positive one Emotional eavesdropping Child sees adult interact with toy Another adult expresses anger or not Half the time the angry person then leaves the room Will child imitate action on toy They find that the person is not angry play more Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Neutral and still there play with it Angry and still there play less Preschooers can apply labels for others emotions and can understand the causes of emotions Older children can identify more complex emotions have more complex emotions script for emotions Individual differences ABUSE Question does extensive exposure to a particular emotion affect emotion perception Two groups of children 1 Children living in abusive homes 2 Nonmaltreated children Task saw faces of angry happy sad and fearful faces Saw angry happy sad and fearful Only difference in anger abused kids understand the angry face way sooner Individual differences neglect How does deprivation affect emotion recognition and understanding Two groups of children one children who had been institutionalize two children living in their bio families Two tasks Emotion identification Emotion understanding Findings emotional identification previously institutionalized children worse than controls for all emotions emotion understanding previously institutionalized children worse than controls for all emotions except anger Both tasks time in institution mattered Similar patterns through delayed Pl children were similar to control children in what they found easy vs hard Review One piece of evidence that emotional understanding or expression is innate Newborns smile in their sleep Midterm 2 Notes O4O22014 Evidence of the role of environment If you were abused you recognized angry faces quicker Describe a study showing that children can use others emotional displays to influence their own behavior Anger or disgust at a toy O4O22014 Individual differences 04022014 Week 7 5122014 Individual Differences What is intelligence General inteligence fluid versus crystallized intelligence Fluid not learned some are just better at problem solving than others Crystallized things that you know Alfred Benay Wanted all kids to have access to education needed to figure out who needed extra help so he made a test to give to kids Ravens Matrices Decomposing general intelligence wechslet intelligence scale for children WISC Information arithmetic vocabulary comprehension Tests are normed so that 100 is the average person Norm it further so that 68 end up between 85 and 115 95 fall between 75 and 130 Where does intelligence come from Nature of nurture Both Cyril Burt Leading figure in intelligence research some work showing that intelligence is highly heritable Most of his data was fabricated Leo Kamin Noticed weird things about the statistics All the people he thanks don t seem to have ever existed in Cyril burts papers O4O22014 General intelligence There is evidencecorrelations that there is a relationship between your IQ and your siblings Race and IQ Gene studies Higher percentage of your genes that are from African decent you should have lower IQ Not true Children of servicemen People who go into the military are more likely to be similar in socioeconomic status German woman who gave birth to babies whose fathers were American servicemen white and black fathers were both servicemen Black versus white father did not affect IQ Black White testing Gap 15 point difference 30 years ago now only 10 point difference Social class Social class is highly associated with IQ Environmental influences on IQ Romanian Orphans Develop autism like symptoms Not much language They walk differently They all ended up in the mentally retarded range Adoption studies Kids IQ is better predicted by their birth family Kids are given up for adoption from a wide range socioeconomic status Narrow range that adopts 04022014 The Flynn Effect You would do 30 points better now than in 1950 Driven by the people who are doing the least well the bottom people are getting better each year Nutrition Smaller families More and better schooling More stimulation Greater familiarity with testing Multiple intelligences howard Gardner Linguistic Logical mathematical Musical Bodily kinesthetic Spatial Interpersonal EQ lntrapersonal self Video Alonzo William syndrome amazing interpersonal skills terrible visual spatial skills Criticisms of multiple intelligences They still tend to be correlated Still tapping g general intelligence Very few alonzos Are these abilities of intelligences Executive Functioninhibition Inhibitory control Error monitoringcorrectionshifting Working memory AnotB Wisconsin Card Sort Task Shifting problem coor game Study also done with bilingualism 04022014 If you are bilingual and the game turns from colors to shapes you do better become good at being shifters Marshmallow task Being able to distract themselves is the best predictor for being able to finish the task Delay of gratification Children who could delay gratification at age 4 years Were judged as more intelligent and socially competent 10 years later Has higher SAT scores at age 18 Delay of gratification was a better predictor of school performance than IQ Marshmallow follow up 04022014 The kids that were in the unreliable group ate the marshmallow quicker Temperament Shynessintroversion About 1015 of healthy 23 year olds are quiet vigilant and affectively subdued for 5 10 minutes About the same number are spontaneous making no difference between familiar and unfamiliar Seems to map onto introversion and extraversion These rates are similar to other animals where the key signs seem to be variability in willingness to approach vs avoid novelty Longitudinal studies of shyness Two longitudinal studies One started at 21 months and one at 31 months Selected so that half kids who were shy quiet and timid inhibited and half sociable talkative and affectively spontaneous uninhibited At 75 years age 21 month olds who were not inhibited are also not inhibited when they are 75 Those who were inhibited at 21 months were inhibited at 75 years old General temperament New york longitudinal study Easy 40 adapt to new experiences display positive moods normal eating and sleeping patterns Difficult 10 emotional irritable fussy irregular eating and sleeping Slow to warm up 15 low activity level and withdraw from new situations and people adapt to new experiences but only after repeated exposure Fairly stable across childhood Interaction between child temperament and parenting styles Easy babies better attachment But also squeaky wheels Kids that are essentially annoying advantage because you can get extra Depressed moms have more inhibited kids Some evidence that adopted kids are influenced by maternal anxietydepressions suggesting it is not just genetic O4O22014 Incremental vs entity theorists Do you believe that a persons intelligence is fixed or is it something that changes over time First entity Second incremental Mindsets When challenged Incremental theorists are more likely to continue to work on it Entity theorists give up faster because they figure either they get it or they don t Goals Incremental theorists focus more on learning goals Entity theorists are more likely to focus on performance based goals Focus Incremental care more about he process Entity care more about the final product Experimental evidence Manipulation give kids feedback that focused on the person you are smart or on the process you worked hard What are the effects of this kinds of feedback 5quot graders told you are smart care more about performance goals relative to learning goals less task persistence less task enjoyment and worse task performance those praised for intelligence described it as a more fixed trait than those praised for hard work who believe it was subject to improvement so the kind of feedback children intelligent praise led to solve fewer problems that those in the effort phase why the entity case leads to quitting earlier Brainology Teach kids that they have to work their brain experimental got better They are given some study tips control they declined Take home O4O22014 Praise their ability to work hard and continue to try will help them improve Gender sex and sexuality Gender What somebody feels like on the inside Sex Your anatomy Sexualitysexual orientation Who you are attracted to Naturenurture Nature Very very messy in this case Clear biological differences by sex in Anatomy and physical size Physical aggression More mixed on cognitive spatial reasoning verbal skill but naturenurture is a bit unclear Major cases David reamer case CAH others we ll talk about today Influence of nurture Socialization in toy ads Perceiver effects we see what we expect to see Encouragement of gross motor activity big physical activities for males Jack in the box angry vs afraid When dressed as a girl people say she looks afraid when dressed as a boy people say angry Parent report of crawling strength 04022014 How good of a crawler is your kid Parents say their boys are better crawlers than girls But the kids in gender neutral crawling and then got new raters and asked which are better ends up being even Empathy and personality traits they do not actually differ Ok so what do we know about gender sex and sexuality Early understanding of gender and sex 34 months can distinguish male and female faces 911 months can associate faces with voices by sex 2 years children correctly identify the sex of others without being able to explain the differences identify whether they themselves are male of females 85 of kids by 3 can correctly idtentify their own sex 3 years children can explain gender identity on the basis of cultural characteristics long hair short hair 5 years children explain gender identify on the basis of genital differences 7 years can identify by facial structures Gender Stability and Constancy Kids own gendered behavior 1823 month olds boys look longer at trucks girls at dolls preschool girls play with dolls tea kitchen sets dress up pretend play involving household roles Boys play with transportation construction pretend play with action heroes aggression and danger elementary years children generally show preferences for same sex stereotyped toys also show peer preferences for same sex in general boys show stronger avoidance of other sex items girls show especially strong preference for other girls Gendered appearance gt50quoto of girls aged 34 insist on girly clothing gt40 o of boys aged 56 insist on boy y clothing Sexualprocreation knowledge in the preschool years Weird topic and why In many cases people note that sexually abused kids have too much knowledge about sexuality but what is too much 04022014 We need to know what is normal Also important to know what children understand about procreation and sexuality generally for things like folk biology Early procreation understanding 2 years children use colloquial terms to denote genitalia 4 year children have a vague understanding of intrauterine growth children have a very vague knowledge of the birth canal 6 years have knowledge of normal of cesarean birth Some facts about childhood sex understanding By 2 most children know at least one work to refer to their genitalia Often link genitalia purpose to elimination and say there is no other purpose for these pans By three can say which genitals are male and female Most 4 6s have some idea that babies grow inside the mom most don t understand how it gets out Nearly no 2 6s know about conception When asked what a mom could do if she wanted to have a baby most 2 6s say get married or go to the hospital Most have very little knowledge of non procreative sex through several reference kissing and cuddling When shown a picture of a child touching himself most children say it is bad Development of sexuality 72 of 1318 year olds acknowledge having sexual fantasies 67 of males and 34 of females report masturbating at age 15 50 of 9quot 12quot graders report they have has sex by 12quot grade about 23 have has sex but varied by race whites and Hispanics have lower rates of intercourse in high school than blacks in 1995 19 of teen girls had had sex before age 15 twice what was true in 1988 23 of boys and girls age 1418 have ha one sexual partner and 13 of girls and 19 of boys have 4 or more partners what predicts age of first sexual intercourse earlier puberty is associated with greater sexual experience amongst both sexes things associated with greater adolescent sexual activity lower family income lower parental education attainment O4O22014 older siblings who are sexually active single parent homes friends sexual experience for white kids but not for black kids having deviant friends depression in girls activities and sexual risk taking adolescents with higher educational aspirations and better academic performance tend to postpone first intercourse have sex less often time spent in academic activities and other extracurricular is also negatively related to early intercourse especially for girls Sexuality and culture variability by culture on some cultures premarital sex is encouraged because pregnancy tells you about the fertility of partners in other virginity is highly prizes especially amongst girls Swedish state on sex education suggests that students should gain knowledge that will equip them to experience sexual life as a source of happiness and joy in fellowship with other In the US education typically focuses on dangers of sex and need of females to be protected from predatory males also many abstinence only programs In the us in the early 90s only 4 of adults disapprove of premarital sex An interesting trend The processes are creating an interesting trend here Age of puberty is decreasing and age of marriage is increasing meaning now there are over 10 years between sexual maturity and marriage increasing the odds of premarital sex Unwanted Sex 7 of 1519 year old girls who have had sex say their first intercourse was nonvoluntary another 24 say it was voluntary but unwanted especially true of girls who had sex before age 13 of these 20 said non voluntary and 50 said voluntary but unwanted 7 of 1723 year old females have has sex against their will or were raped at least once what about atypical gender of sexuality development O4O22014 Rates of LGB in teens 35000 Minnesota juniors and teens 1 say they are lesbian or gay 10 say unsure 2 of 12 year old and 3 of 18s report same sex attractions 1 of 12s and 3 of 18s have engaged in same sex activity but only a third of these identity as GL 34 of adult lesbians and gays reported feelings different during childhood or adolescence these occur later in rural and southern areas and some studies also say in minority youth 23 come out first to a peer gaylesbianbisexual identity development study of 145 black Hispanic and white LGB youths 11 12 years first same sex attractions thought they might be LGB 1314 first same sex sexual activity 1415 thought they were definitely LGB talked to someone about it 16 years participated in a LGB social activity Transgender Children First identify around 24 same time normal developing children identify their own genden Mostly focused on clinical questions depression Often report first signs between ages 26 historically treated with psychotherapy and about 80 desist Of those who desist higher proportions of depression Etc New study unpublished with 19 transgender children living as identity not sex Implicit and explicit gender preferences implicit and explicit gender identity Gender typical kid show an association between their assigned sex and gender Controls more likely to pick peers of their same sex Code kids by what they say they are more likely to pick peers of their same sex Code kids by what they were assigned at birth Sex showed a preference for opposite of their sex Implicit O4O22014 Male and female and me and not me On the implicit they truly do think of themselves as what they identify with Male female good bad They do not differ from controls Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH Set of conditions that lead to too much or too little production of sex steroids About 11500 american Caucasians 1280 native americans and yupic eskimos CAH girls often have ambiguous genitalia not much sign in boys Tend to be shorter as adults than the average person Girls with CAH Have more male typical behavior as kids Engage more in aggression Have less interest in nurturingplaying with dolls Have especially good spatial and mathematical skills More interest in male typical activities and careers Less heterosexual interest more homosexual interest Are not transgender Week 8 Parents Socialization Approaches Two dimensions Emotionality warm and responsive or rejecting and unresponsive Control restrictive and demanding or permissive and undemanding Authoritative Warm involved considers chid s wishes and opinions set clear standards confronts disobedience high expectations Child 04022014 Preschool energetic and friendly socially competent Childhood high cognitive and social competence Adoescence high self esteem and academic competence Authoritarian Little warmth does not ask for chid s opinions enforces riles but does not explain shows displeasure punitive discipline views child as wild Child Preschool conflicted and irritable and fearful and moody Childhood average cognitive and social competence Adolescence average academics more conforming Permissive Moderately warm glorifies free expressions of impulses and desires does not set or enforce clear rules ignores bad behavior yields to coercion Child Preschool impulsive and aggressive Childhood low cognitive and social competence Adoescence poor self control more drug use Uninvolved Self centered unresponsive tries to minimize interactions with the child doesn t monitor where the child is or whether heshe is safe may be depressed and needy Child Preschool aggressive noncompliant moody Childhood disruptive poor classroom performance Adolescence hostile selfish rebellious Sources of variation in parenting styles Some sources of variation in parenting styles Quality of marriage Parent personality authoritative O4O22014 Parent mental health Parents own experiences as children Parent genetics Children themselves Parents effects model parents to child Child effects model child to parent Transactional model child and parent Socioeconomic statues On average lower SES families tend to Stress obedience and respect for authority Be more restrictive and authoritarian Reason with their children less frequently Show less warmth Why If you are lower in socioeconomic status you have less resources and more stress Marital problems Something to do with the jobs low SES hold Possibly adaptive Live in more dangerous environment Ethnicity Asian and AsianAmerican Parents Tiger Mother Studies of chinese and US parents Chinese parents reported lower warmth and acceptance more use of physical coercion There definition of warmth is different than what we use African American Parents For African American youth O4O22014 Spanking and other power assertive tactics do not lead to heightened aggression and antisocial conduct No nonsense parenting leads to good outcomes Bottom lines Authoritative middle class parenting is not necessarily adaptive for everyone in all contexts There is simply no single pattern of parenting that is optimal for all children cultures or subcultures Child Care Does parental vs nonparental care matter Initially evidence did not look good for child care Depends Did the parent want to be a caregiver is the parent a good caregiver is the nonparental caregiver a good caregiver Better childcare is associated with better schools versus worse schools Higher levels of compliance Better sociability and peer relations Better attention regulation Lower rates of negative affect and behavior problems Enhances children s language reading and math skills But these also tend to be attended by middle and upper class kids The Abercedarian Project Low income families randomly assigned to high quality child care or not for ages 05 Initially comparable with respect to scores on infant mental and motor tests High quality warm caregivers activities that addressed social emotional and cognitive development special emphasis on language From 18 months through completion of program children in the intervention group has significantly higher scores on mental tests At ages 12 and 15 years the intervention group has higher average scores on mental tests including reading and math from the primary grades Results at 21 years 04022014 40 of the intervention group compared with 20 of the control group still in school at 21 years about 35 of the young adults in the intervention groups had either graduated from or were at the time of the assessment attending a four year college or university In contrast only about 14 in the control group has done so Age at first child 19 vs 17 Employment rates were higher for the treatment group than for the control groups Diversity in family life Donor insemination families Compared DI children to children raised with 2 bio parents At 12 years the two groups were equal Behavioral problems Emotional development Scholastic achievement Peer relations Also comparable parenting both mothers and fathers Gay and Lesbian Families In short the studies do not support any of these ideas No more likely to be homosexual They are as mature and well adjusted No differences in cognition emotion or morality Divorce Parents Custodial mothers can sometimes become edgy impatient and insensitive to child s needs coercive parenting Noncustodial father can be permissive and indulgent Children In general tough on kids at all ages In the long term most kids do OK Stable 1 parent home gt conflict ridden 2 parent home O4O22014 Adoption Much higher rates of psychological problems than the average kid Most externalizing and learning disorders adhd conduct disorder substance More suicidal behavior lower cognitive functioning poorer school performance But depends on country of origin Korean adoptees in Sweden did just as good as babies who stayed with bio family Searching for birth parents Between 13 and 23 search for parents More often females search Some studies show that searchers have more adjustment issues Culture Emotions 1112 year old children in Nepal collectivist and the US individualistic kids heard scenarios like this you are doing your homework Then they were asked how they would feel US children more anger and Tamang children felt more shame Ideal Effect Background individualist cultures encourage influence while collectivist cultures encourage adjustment Influence requires immediate action and increase in arousal while adjustment requires suspended action and decrease in arousal Thus members of individualistic cultures should value high positive arousal Question 1 Do cultural differences in ideal affect emerge early in life 3 participant groups European American more exciting Taiwanese children more calm Questions 2 are differences in ideal affect culturally transmitted One idea yes through books Method coded top childrens book O4O22014 Smiles bigger in US and more excited Questions 3 can exposure to story book content alter ideal affect Show me your ideal playground Responses to successfailure 4quot and 5 grade EA and Chinese kids did a hard task ques ons do Chinese and EA parents respond differently to their children s success and failure does this have implications for children s future performance yes But mothers negative statements were not related to childrens change in performance Early social cognition Participants Tasks lmitations Helping Gaze following Collaborations Joint attention WEEK 9 5282014 Lying definition Two components False statement Deception 3 types primary lies short just a false statement they may not mean to lie secondary lies deception knows that they are lying Tertiary lies long more convincing Why do children lie To avoid punishment To get what they want Background Piaget Stages concrete operation stage moral development Theory of mind Deception Study designs Action of lying Don t peep at teddy bear Perception of lying Scenanos Development of lying 25 years false statement short time primary lie 3 years understand deceiving 35 years can maintain false statement long time 4 years old TOM false statement and deception secondary lies 611 O4O22014 moral understaind of lying is shifting 7 years disapprove lying Adolescence More complex understanding of lying More complex reasons for lying Frequent lying related to poor adjustment Implications and future research What does it predict in children Lying and anti social behavior White lies Questions Autism ASD Poor attentions skills Delays in social development Symptoms not present at birth detectable at around 6 months Diagnosis around 2 years of age Early intervention Speech and occupational therapy Two groups Verbal and non verbal Verbal Can communicate without the help of AAC Trouble relating to others Avoid eye contact Engage in repetitive behavior O4O22014 O4O22014 Lack of response Weak language Non verbal Language impossible without AAC Aided and unaided Unaided Body gestures sign language Aided Extra tools and equipment Speech generating device 23 empirical studies 87 show participants improved with the speech generating device PECS Using pictures to communicate Very effective 67 prefer SGDs over PECS Facilitated communication Facilitator provides physical support No empirical studies Negative consequences if it is the only way for the child to communicate Questions AAC augmentative and alternative communication Verbal versus non verbal Interventions on Risky behavior in Adolescents Risky behavior sexual behavior drugs and alcohol abuse and lack of adjustment ability Successful in multiple approaches 04022014 Link between childhood violence exposure and externalizing behaviors Effects of impulse problems Study violence exposure in childhood led to risky behavior in adolescence Child directed interventions Mindfulness and yoga based intervention Conclusion Attractiveness Reduction of problematic physiological and cognitive patterns of responses to stress Parent directed intervention Parents were taught different strategies Conclusion Parent monitoring Greater school family communication is beneficial Antisocial and substance abuse School directed intervention Drug abuse intervention program on 8 and 9 graders Risky driving and other risky behaviors Conclusion Driving record in 12 grad Alcohol use Reduced bad driving and alcohol use Child parent and school combination intervention Combination stronger support Teen and parent intervention Teachers parents and children Less violent behavior Early childhood experience can predict adolescence behaviors Single versus mixture of interventions Why Drugs during pregnancy First trimester Cell division Histogenesis Dividing of different layers Organogenesis Making the shape of organs and limbs Second and third Growth continues and functioning or organs Distribution of drugs Non pregnant Blood circulation Blood brain barrier Pregnant adult Placenta drugs also go through the placenta Fetal alcohol syndrome Central nervous system dysfunction Growth deficiency Facial abnormalities Postnatal symptoms Lack of impulse control Delayed speech Difficulty eating or sleeping Effects of Marijuana O4O22014 Third most common drug used No apparent physical abnormalities Possible change in length of body Minimal behavioral effects Jamaican study No significant behavioral effects Breast milk Can lead to motor development issues Post natal exposure THC in breast milk Questions Is there a difference in outcomes with differing intake methods No it still gets through the blood stream Extracurricular activities and adolescent development Two groups Sportsphysical activities Clubsmental History Started research from 70s 80s DVs considered Academics Self esteem High school dropout Risky behavior If you were not participating you are worse off Recent controversy Arts Sports Academic clubs O4O22014 O4O22014 Does type of activity influences outcome All seem to help just as much Overscheduling As long as the child is having a choice there is not much of an effect Factors affecting who benefits SES Race Gender Parental and or community support Supporting versus making them do something General research results Almost always any types of activity is beneficial Choice Sports associated more with high risk behavior Race Racial minorities lower ses groups more likely to be involved in risky behavior when not participating in a any activities Michigan study of adolescent life transition longitudinal study DVs Risky behavior school dropout drugs and alcohol GPA satisfaction Early adulthood job characteristics IVs Extra curricular Sports Pro social groups Organized activities have a positive influence better attachment with school Questions O4O22014 Imaginary friends How is this studied parental interviews child interviews observations Study Categorized them into three groups Interviewed the mothers about the friends When did they first appear How did you first find out Environmental questions Benefits Seen as a positive way to cope with life events Depressions or anxiety Trauma Lon ness Children are entertaining themselves rather than relying on others Gender difference Girls will create companions and friend Boys will create a superheros or characters Girls create friends that are lack so they can teach them Boys create overly competent characters so they can use them as a role model Girls rated themselves much higher than the imaginary friend Boys rated themselves lower Cons Have more conflicted relationships O4O22014 Older children have more issues Correlated First born or only child more likely to have one No significant difference in quality of quantity of friends ethnicity or mothers marital status Imaginary versus personified Imaginary objects are fully imaginary meaning they have no physical object Personified objects are teddy bears that have been given personalities Benefits Many benefits Similar gender differences Some research has found downfalls to having imaginary friends but it is much less studied Being first born or only child increases Questions Did girls have imaginary friends that were also girls And the same for boys Didn t find data for this Resilience in the face adversity Terms Maltreatment Resilience Non resiience Background Many children are maltreated and in different ways Resilience among children exposed to domestic violence Hypothesis Participants Operational definitions O4O22014 Exposed to domestic violence were much more likely to have a maladaptive outcome Only after 3 years Among the ones who were exposed to domestic violence some positive adapted some negatively adapted Easy temperament and less mother depression were significant predictors of resilience Working memory Storage for current activities Duration 1520 seconds Strategies Rehearsal Chunking Elaboration New information and relate it to past knowledge Mnemonics Transform the info into some Strategies used by children Increased use of different strategies Rehearsal Before age of 9 combination with other items After age 9 several different items Why WM increase Speech rate 10 year olds versus 7 year old faster vs slower processing efficiency O4O22014 faster in encoding Storage ability When the condition is more complicated you take more time to process make more errors Neurological evidence Same areas as the adult You get more efficient at processing the information not that the working memory actually changes Sports and self esteem Early research Study found difference between boys of varying fitness levels in self esteem and voluntary participation in physical activity Engaging in physical exercise can improve physical efficacy Change from elementary to middle school Measured their competence beliefs and subjective task values Decrease in competence beliefs in elementary school did not predict decrease in self esteem in middle school it did start to predict self esteem Gender difference Boys reported high self esteem regardless of competitiveness much greater satisfaction in their weight Females participated in competitive sports reported lower levels of perceived athletic performance Girls physical appearance Boys physical competence Encouraging signs for gender equality Benefits from participating in team sports Participation in team sports not individual increases self esteem Higher levels of self esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self esteem over time O4O22014 Social media effects on self esteem Social enhancement hypothesis Social compensation hypothesis View 1 social media helps increase View 2 decreases The effect of social networking sites on positive sef views Undergraduates One groups edited facebook One groups looked at google maps Those on facebook had higher self esteem Study 2 Females with social networking profiles has lower self esteem than females without SNS profiles Frequency of use did not predict sef esteem Attachment did lower self esteem Depressed mood was higher in Bullying in adolescence What is bullying ongoing pattern Bully Has strongly polarized views of a gender binary Strict view of hypermasculinty or hyperfemininity Perceives cyber bullying to be highly anonymous Possesses physical dominance Belongs to the majority ethic group Intergroup conflict theory Bullied Belongs to the LGBT community Higher displays of depressed mood Power disadvantage Low collective efficacy Mental disability How has bullying been studied Self reports Peer reports Sociometric reports Outcomes Bullying poses significant risks to both perpetrators Effects on self esteem Bullying and self esteem form a reciprocal relationship O4O22014 Children who were bullied and are now bullies have the lowest self esteem Studies shows that children who are victimized by racial bullying have decreased ethnic Prevention Bullying prevention suggestions Most effective Involve a comprehensive multi level strategy Target bullies victims bystanders families and communities Effects of homeschooling on social development O4O22014 Social development Homeschooling Individual Groups Reasons Why homeschool Religious Education achievement Dissatisfaction School environment Misconceptions Limited social interaction APA published opinions 1996 discouraging parents saying that they will have more trouble integrating into mainstream society Medlins study Assessment Social skills rating system Subscales Cooperation Assertiveness Empathy Sef contro Results Cooperation even Assertiveness public school kids did better Empathy homeschool better Sef control homeschool better 04022014 Not socially under developed More opportunity for community involvement Transition to college Higher levels of self concept Guest Lecture The brain requires inputs from the environment to develop normally Most of our perceptual cognitive social and emotional capabilities are built Human synaptic density Connection between different neurons Human gray matter development A certain degree of cortical thinning during childhood reflects pruning increased efficiency of neural processes Cortical development Substantial thinning in DLPFC from age 5 to 20 Visual Development Infant color sensitivity and acuity increase during the first year What if the expected inputs are absent Sensory deprivation Less synapses in kittens that are blindfolded never develop normal vision Same thing with humans Dramatic reductions in the thickness of the primary visual cortex Deprivation in cognitive social emotional Institutional Care gt100 million orphaned or abandoned children around the world 28 million raised in institutions institutional care common form of care for orphaned and abandoned young children in much of the world O4O22014 Legacy of institutionalized in Romania Communist policy 1996 decree Raise production by increasing population Belief that greater population greater power Establishment of the menstrual police state gynecologists who conducted monthly check of women of childbearing Results of policies Child abandonment Became a national disaster as families could not afford to keep their children and were encouraged to turn them over to the state In 1989 government was overthrown17000O children were found warehoused in state institutions Environment Isolation Little interaction with peers or adults No response to distress Lack of psychological investment by caregivers Rotating shift High childcaregiver ratio lnsensitive care Regimented schedule Non individualized care Bucharest Early intervention Project Examine the effects of institutionalization on the brain and behavioral development of young children Determine if these effects can be remediated through intervention in this care foster care Improve the welfare of children in Romania by establishing foster care as an alternative to institutionalization Recruit a sample of kids that were infants from the institutions High quality foster care Foster parents carefully screened and selected by study staff Trained in sensitive responsive caregiving O4O22014 Supported by social workers who made weekly visits to help manage behavior problems and support families Foster parent support groups Deprivation and Development Started out in institution and stayed Started in institution and went to foster care Normal kids in area IQ Normal IQ for kids in the community in their families Deprived early environment was a lot lower than the normal children but still higher than those children that stayed Language at 42 months Kids that were taken before 24 months were closest to typical development Working memory No difference in working memory between the kids that went to foster care and the kdis that stayed Planning Still not showing improvement in foster care Conclusion Environmental deprivation is associated with dramatic changes in cognitive development including Lower IO 2 SD below the mean Reduced expressive language ability Emotion recognition No significant differences between all groups Conclusion Mental Health lnternalizing disorders at 54 months Anxiety highest in the kids in institutions O4O22014 ADHD Not seeing improvements based on the foster care intervention Conclusions Attachment Security at 42 months Foster care a little more improvement Stranger at the door Caregivermother and child answer door RA come with me I have something to show you Kids from the institution walk away with the stranger way more Social Skills Typically developing best those taken away before 20 months comparable to normal those taken after 20 months similar to those who stayed Conclusions Insecure attachment lndiscriminate social behaviors Poor social skills Patterns of brain development Structural MRI Boundaries between grey and white matter can be segmented to allow volume and thickness estimates to be created Cortical grey matter Stayed in institutions and those who went to foster care were the same Biggest differences where complex social cognition Functional significance Cortical thickness differences in regions associated with working memory impulsivity attention and other aspects of cognitive control Cortical white matter Those who received intervention were close to the normal kids O4O22014 Reduced cortical grey matter Reduced white matter Dramatic cortical thinning particularly in regions that support executive function and social cognition Why Because there is intense synaptic pruning earlier The brain is plastic w
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