HIST CH 20 & 21 Notes
HIST CH 20 & 21 Notes HIST 1113
Popular in Survey of American History
Popular in History
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Date Created: 03/21/16
CHAPTER 20 The Business of America 1 A Decade of Prosperity 0 The business of America was business 0 The automobile industry stimulated the expansion of steel rubber and oil production road construction and other sectors of the economy 0 American multinational corporations extended their reach throughout the world gt American companies produced 85 percent of the world39s cars and 40 percent of its manufactured goods 2 A New Society 0 Consumer goods of all kinds proliferated marketed by salespeople and advertisers who promoted them as ways of satisfying Americans39 psychological desires and everyday needs 0 Americans spent more and more of their income on leisure activities like vacations movies and sporting events 3 The Limits of Prosperity 0 The fruits of increased production were very unequally distributed 0 By 1929 an estimated 40 percent of the population still lived in poverty 4 The Farmer39s Plight 0 1 Farmers did not share in the prosperity of the decade gt California received many displaced farmers 5 The Image of Business 0 Businesspeople like Henry Ford and engineers like Herbert Hoover were cultural heroes 0 Numerous firms established public relations departments 6 The Decline of Labor 0 Business appropriated the rhetoric of Americanism and industrial freedom as weapons against labor unions gt Welfare capitalism 0 Propaganda campaigns linked unionism and socialism as examples of the sinister in uence of foreigners on American life 0 During the 1920s labor lost over 2 million members 7 The Equal Rights Amendment 0 The achievement of suffrage in 1920 eliminated the bond of unity between various activists 0 Alice Paul39s National Woman39s Party proposed the Equal Rights Amendment ERA 8 Women39s Freedom 0 Female liberation resurfaced as a lifestyle the stuff of advertising and mass entertainment gt The apper 0 Female freedom became a marketing tool 0 New freedom for women only lasted while she was single 0 Business and Government 1 In 1929 the sociologists Robert and Helen Lynd published Middletown 0 The Republican Era gt Government policies re ected the probusiness ethos of the 1920s gt Lower taxes gt Higher tariffs gt Antiunionism gt The Supreme Court remained strongly conservative gt Repudiated Muller V Oregon 0 Corruption in Government gt The Harding administration quickly became one of the most corrupt in American history gt Harding surrounded himself with cronies who used their offices for private gain gt Teapot Dome scandal 0 The Election of 1924 gt Coolidge exemplified Yankee honesty gt Robert La Follette ran on a Progressive platform in 1924 0 Economic Diplomacy gt Foreign affairs also re ected the close working relationship between business and government gt Washington Naval Arms Conference gt The government continued to dispatch soldiers when a change in government in the Caribbean threatened American economic interests gt Somoza and Nicaragua 0 The Birth of Civil Liberties 1 Wartime repression continued into the 1920s 2 In 1922 the film industry adopted the Hays Code 0 A quotClear and Present Dangerquot gt The ACLU was established in 1920 gt In its initial decisions the Supreme Court gave the concept of civil liberties a series of devastating blows 0 The Court and Civil Liberties gt Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis began to speak up for freedom of speech gt The new regard for free speech went beyond political expression 0 The Culture Wars 1 The Fundamentalist Revolt 0 Many evangelical Protestants felt threatened by the decline of traditional values and the increased visibility of Catholicism and Judaism because of immigration 0 Convinced that the literal truth of the Bible formed the basis of Christian belief fundamentalists launched a campaign to rid Protestant denominations of modernism gt Billy Sunday 0 Fundamentalists supported Prohibition while others viewed it as a violation of individual freedom 2 The Scopes Trial 0 John Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution in school 0 The Scopes trial re ected the enduring tension between two American definitions of freedom 0 The renowned labor lawyer Clarence Darrow defended Scopes gt Darrow examined William J Bryan as an expert on the Bible 0 Fundamentalists retreated for many years from battles over public education preferring to build their own schools and colleges 3 The Second Klan 0 Few features of urban life seemed more alien to smalltown nativeborn Protestants than immigrant populations and cultures 0 The Klan was reborn in Atlanta in 1915 after the lynching of Leo Frank a Jewish factory manager accused of killing a teenage girl By the mid1920s the Klan spread to the North and West 4 Closing the Golden Door Some new laws redrew the boundary of citizenship to include groups previously outside of it Efforts to restrict immigration made gains when large employers dropped their traditional opposition In 1924 Congress permanently limited immigration for Europeans and banned it for Asians gt To satisfy the demands of large farmers in California who relied heavily on seasonal Mexican labor the law established no limits on immigration from the Western Hemisphere gt The law did establish a new category of quotillegal alienquot and a new mechanism for enforcement the Border Patrol 5 Race and the Law James J Davis commented that immigration policy must now rest on a biological definition of the ideal population The 1924 immigration law also re ected the Progressive desire to improve the quality of democratic citizenship and to employ scientific methods to set public policy 6 Promoting Tolerance The most potent defense of a pluralist vision of American society came from the new immigrants themselves Immigrant groups asserted the validity of cultural diversity and identified toleration of difference as the essence of American freedom In landmark decisions the Supreme Court struck down laws that tried to enforce Americanization 7 The Emergence of Harlem The 1920s also witnessed an upsurge of selfconsciousness among black Americans especially in the North39s urban ghettos 0 New York39s Harlem gained an international reputation as the quotcapitalquot of black America 0 The 1920s became famous for quotslummingquot 8 The Harlem Renaissance 0 In art the term quotNew Negroquot meant the rejection of established stereotypes and a search for black values to put in their place gt Claude McKay The Great Depression 1 The Election of 1928 0 Hoover seemed to exemplify what was widely called the new era of American capitalism 0 Hoover39s opponent in 1928 was Alfred E Smith of New York 0 Smith39s Catholicism became the focus of the race 2 The Coming of the Depression 0 On October 29 1929 Black Tuesday the stock market crashed 0 The stock market crash did not by itself cause the Depression 0 The global financial system was illequipped to deal with the crash 3 Americans and the Depression 0 The Depression transformed American life 0 The image of big business carefully cultivated during the 1920s collapsed as congressional investigations revealed massive irregularities among bankers and stockbrokers 4 Resignation and Protest 0 Twenty thousand unemployed World War I veterans descended on Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand early payment of a bonus due in 1945 5 Hoover39s Response 0 Businessmen strongly opposed federal aid to the unemployed 0 Hoover remained committed to quotassociational actionquot 6 The Worsening Economic Outlook 0 Some administration remedies made the economic situation worse 0 In 1932 Hoover created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation 7 Freedom in the Modern World 0 In 1927 the definition of freedom celebrated the unimpeded reign of economic enterprise yet tolerated the surveillance of private life and individual conscience 0 By 1932 the seeds had already been planted for a new conception of freedom CHAPTER 21 NOTES The First New Deal 1 FDR and the Election of 1932 0 FDR promised a quotnew dealquot for the American people but his campaign was vague in explaining how he was going to achieve it 2 The Coming of the New Deal 0 Roosevelt saw his New Deal as an alternative to socialism on the left to Nazism on the right and to the inaction of upholders of unregulated capitalism 0 For advice FDR relied heavily on a group of intellectuals and social workers who took up key positions in his administration gt Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins gt Harry Hopkins gt Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes gt Justice Louis Brandeis 0 The view of these individuals prevailed during what came to be called the First New Deal 3 The Banking Crisis 0 Roosevelt declared a bank holiday temporarily halting all bank operations and called Congress into special session gt Emergency Banking Act 0 Further measures also transformed the American financial system gt GlassSteagall Act gt Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC 4 The NRA 0 An unprecedented urry of legislation during the first three months of Roosevelt39s administration was a period known as the Hundred Days 0 The centerpiece of Roosevelt39s plan for combating the Depression was the National Industrial Recovery Act NRA 0 The NRA re ected how even in its early days the New Deal reshaped understandings of liberty gt Section 7a 0 Hugh S Johnson set standards for production prices and wages in the textile steel mining and auto industries 5 Government Jobs 0 The Hundred Days also brought the government into providing relief to those in need gt Federal Emergency Relief Administration FERA gt Civilian Conservation Core CCC 6 PublicWorks Projects 0 The Public Works Administration PWA was created to build roads schools hospitals and other public facilities 0 The Tennessee Valley Authority TVA was created to build dams 7 The New Deal and Agriculture 0 The Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA authorized the federal government to try to raise farm prices by setting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers not to plant more 0 The AAA succeeded in significantly raising farm prices and incomes for large farmers gt The policy generally hurt small farms and tenant farmers 0 The 1930s also witnessed severe drought creating the Dust Bowl 8 The New Deal and Housing 0 The Depression devastated the American housing industry 0 Hoover39s administration established a federally sponsored bank to issue home loans 0 FDR moved energetically to protect homeowners from foreclosure and to stimulate new construction gt Home Owners Loan Corporation gt Federal Housing Administration FHA 0 There were other important measures of Roosevelt39s first two years in office gt Twentyfirst Amendment gt Federal Communications Commission FCC gt Securities and Exchange Commission SEC 9 The Court and the New Deal 0 In 1935 the Supreme Court began to invalidate key New Deal Laws gt National Recover Administration gt The Agricultural Adjustment Act 0 The Grassroots Revolt 1 Labor39s Great Upheaval A cadre of militant labor leaders provided leadership to the labor upsurge Workers39 demands during the 1930s went beyond better wages gt All their goals required union recognition Roosevelt39s election as president did much to rekindle hope among labor 1934 saw an explosion of strikes 2 The Rise of the C10 The labor upheaval posed a challenge to the American Federation of Labor AFL John Lewis led a walkout of the AFL that produced a new labor organization the Congress of Industrial Organizations C10 The United Auto Workers UAW led a sitdown strike in 1936 Steel workers tried to follow suit Union membership reached 9 million by 1940 3 Labor and Politics The labor upsurge altered the balance of economic power and propelled to the forefront of politics labor39s goal of a fairer freer more equal America CIO leaders explained the Depression as the result of an imbalance of wealth and income 4 Voices of Protest Other popular movements of the mid1930s also placed the question of economic justice on the political agenda gt Upton Sinclair and the End Poverty in California movement EPIC gt Huey Long and Share Our Wealth gt Charles Coughlin gt Dr Francis Townsend The Second New Deal 1 Roosevelt in 1935 launched the Second New Deal with an emphasis on economic security 0 The Rural Electrification Agency REA provided electricity to rural areas 2 The WPA and the Wagner Act 0 Under Harry Hopkins39s direction the Works Progress Administration WPA changed the physical face of the United States 0 Perhaps the most famous WPA projects were in the arts 0 The Wagner Act brought democracy into the American workplace 3 The American Welfare State Social Security 0 The centerpiece of the Second New Deal was the Social Security Act of 1935 0 The Social Security Act launched the American version of the welfare state 0 Social Security represented a dramatic departure from the traditional functions of government 0 A Reckoning with Liberty 1 Roosevelt was a master of political communication and used his fireside chats to great effect FDR gave the term quotliberalismquot its modern meaning As the 1930s progressed proponents of the New Deal invoked the language of liberty with greater and greater passion The Election of 1936 0 Fighting for the possession of quotthe ideal of freedomquot emerged as the central issue of the presidential campaign of 1936 0 Republicans chose Kansas governor Alfred Landon a former Theodore Roosevelt Progressive 0 Roosevelt won a landslide reelection gt New Deal coalition 5 The Court Fight 0 FDR proposed to change the face of the Supreme Court for political reasons 0 The Court39s new willingness to accept the New Deal marked a permanent change in judicial policy 6 The End of the Second New Deal 0 The Fair Labor Standards bill banned goods produced by child labor from interstate commerce set forty cents as the minimum hourly wage and required overtime pay for hours of work exceeding forty per week 0 The year 1937 witnessed a sharp downturn of the economy 0 The Limits of Change 1 The New Deal and American Women 0 Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the role of first lady 0 However organized feminism already in disarray during the 1920s disappeared as a political force 0 Most New Deal programs did not exclude women from benefits but the ideal of the maleheaded household powerfully shaped social policy 2 The Southern Veto 0 The power of the Solid South helped to mold the New Deal welfare state into an entitlement for white Americans gt The Social Security law excluded agricultural and domestic workers the largest categories of black employment 0 Political left and black organizations lobbied for changes in Social Security 3 The Stigma of Welfare 0 Blacks became more dependant on welfare because they were excluded from eligibility for other programs 4 The Indian New Deal 0 Under Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier the administration launched an Indian New Deal 0 It marked the most radical shift in Indian policy in the nation39s history 5 The New Deal and MexicanAmericans 0 For MexicanAmericans the Depression was a wrenching experience 6 Last Hired First Fired 0 AfricanAmericans were hit hardest by the Depression 0 FDR appointed a number of blacks to important federal positions gt Mary McLeod Bethune 0 The 1930s witnessed a historic shift in black voting patterns 7 Federal Discrimination 0 Federal housing policy revealed the limits of New Deal freedom 0 Federal employment practices also discriminated on the basis of race 0 Not until the Great Society of the 1960s would those left out of New Deal programs win inclusion in the American welfare state 0 A New Conception of America 1 The Heyday of American Communism 0 In the mid1930s the left enjoyed a shaping in uence on the nation39s politics and culture 0 The CIO and Communist Party became focal points for a broad social and intellectual impulse that helped to redraw the boundaries of American freedom gt The Popular Front 2 Redefining the People 0 The Popular Front vision for American society was that the American way of life meant unionism and social citizenship not the unbridled pursuit of wealth 0 Artists and writers captured the common man 3 Challenging the Color Line 0 Popular Front culture moved well beyond New Deal liberalism in condemning racism as incompatible with true Americanism 0 The Communistdominated International Labor Defense mobilized popular support for black defendants victimized by racism in the criminal justice system gt Scottsboro case 0 The CIO welcomed black members 4 Labor and Civil Liberties 0 Another central element of Popular Front public culture was its mobilization for civil liberties especially the right of labor to organize 0 Labor militancy helped to produce an important shift in the understanding of civil liberties 0 In 1939 Attorney General Frank Murphy established a Civil Liberties Unit in the Department of Justice gt Civil liberties replaced property rights of business as the judicial foundation of freedom 0 The House of Representatives established an UnAmerican Activities Committee in 1938 to investigate disloyalty 5 The End of the New Deal 0 FDR was losing support from southern Democrats 0 Roosevelt concluded that the enactment of future New Deal measures required a liberalization of the southern Democratic Party 0 A period of political stalemate followed the congressional election of 1938 6 The New Deal in American History 0 Given the scope of the economic calamity it tried to counter the New Deal seems in many ways quite limited 0 Yet even as the New Deal receded its substantial accomplishments remained 0 One thing the New Deal failed to do was generate prosperity
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