Lecture Notes from 11 September to 30 September
Lecture Notes from 11 September to 30 September History 201
Popular in Religion in Roman Africa
Popular in History
This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Anna Fisher-Roberts on Monday October 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Kleijwegt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Religion in Roman Africa in History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
1 1920 1 5 Saturnalia l Festival of reversal masters waited on slaves most powerless section of society gets to be drunk for only this time Period of rest and relaxation Some senators escaped to study rather than attending the festival Christian authors disliked the noise of the festival and its devotion to material things Romans loved the festival Saturn a Seen as the Roman equivalent of Kronos God of liberation agriculture plenty wealth and periodic renewal Reign depicted as a Golden Age of peace and plenty Ate his children Before Rome was founded site of the city was ruled by Saturn and Janus i There was plenty peace and prosperity ii Ops the name of his wife means wealth f Association with concepts of time dictated time of festival at a temporal transition 7 Statue of Saturn was tied with woolen bands aionsl that were released during the festival representative of slave liberation as a metaphor a This is reflected in celebrations of festival in which slaves are allowed to get drunk and have fun as if they were free 8 Why are the Romans doing this a Associations with plenty and the Golden Age when the Earth produced harvests by itself and humans didn t need to work i Certain emperors were thought to be able to bring back the times of Saturn Slaves have a better time during Saturnalia than any other time ofyear c Phrygian caps were worn by slaves who were freed can also wear these hats on Saturnalia d Everyone wore the caps of freedom because everyone is equal on that holiday OWrRWN DQF U 14920 l 5 Roman Of cial Attitudes Towards Foreign Deities l 9 l0 ii 433 BCE Romans build a temple dedicated to Apollo during a time of plague a Apollo is the primary god of healing according to Homer Foreign gods temples were mainly built outside the city because they were seen as undeserving of being inside the city 3 BCE During the siege of Veil Romans engage in evoca 39o to lure the goddess Juno away from the city and back to Rome resulted in victory and a statue ofJuno was carried to Rome and honoured in a new temple Gods can be asked to come to Rome OR the Romans can tell the god of their enemy that they are more powerful and lure them away 292 BCE During another plague the Romans invite Asclepius a god of healing to come to Rome a God is said to take form ofa sacred snake that gets onto the ship then slithers off onto Tiber island The Romans built Asclepius a temple there 2 l 7 BCE After Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene by Hannibal they decide to import another deity Venus a Hellenized version of Phoenician deity Astartel a First time a foreign god s temple is placed inside the city 205 BCE Sibylline books consulted in a desperate attempt to expel Hannibal a Could only be achieved by importing foreign deity in this case Cybele or the ldaean Mother of the Gods b When goddess is brought to Rome within a year Hannibal is defeated and expelled from ltaly c Receives a temple in a posh Roman neighborhood inside the city d Receives own festival the Megalisa i Celebrated by priests of Cybele ii An extremely loud and raucous festival unfamiliar to Romans iii Priests are self castrated eunuchs at this festival people castrate themselves and become a priest of Cybele iv Priests cannot be citizens of Rome must be from Cybele s own country e Goddess is officially accepted into Rome f Romans are a bit suspicious of priests and entire cult due to feminine eunuchs Procedure of inviting foreign cults crisis consultation of Sibylline books embassies something is brought back cult is established temple is built installation of cult statue EVOCraro God is lured away from home victory statue is brought back to Rome temple built Cult is often lNTENTlONALLY brought in for a speci c purpose WITHOUT lNFlLTRATlON Bacchanalia a l86 BCE Cult of Bacchus is officially eliminated by Roman officials Bacchus is introduced to Rome the Roman authorities don t like him People end up getting arrested and executed and the cult is banned in the cut of ltaly This is an extraordinary development in the action of Roman authorities toward Roman deities NOT the norm e Why would the Romans decide to accept Cybele but not Bacchus QnU l2 The Cult of lsis a lsis is EVERYWHERE becomes most popular cult in Roman empire b Empire is quite stable at this point spread of lsis cult is incredibly rapid c Not necessarily a cult that has yet been adjusted to Roman standards f 9 l3 llitnras a nU i Priests were beardless and snaven entire cult of lsis is originally from Egypt and employs a historical representation ofa foreign cult Romans seem pretty alright with it relative to reaction to Baccnus lsis produces a lot of boons for humanity often seen as loving toward numanity unlike other gods Anytning good lsis probably created it marriage agriculture etc Above all a mystery cult into which you are initiated and then receive secret information that makes one a better person Slew tne life giving bull since act toollt pace in a cave sanctuaries of llitnras are constructed in a cave lillte manner often underground Originally a Persian deity Life giving bull is a symbol of fertility ear of corn on tail llitnras lltills it Complex cult that does not trouble Romans as much as Baccnus 16920 l 5 Magic and the Occult l Magic derives from the Persian word magus meaning sorcerer 2 lncantations were either sung or delivered rhythmically singing has a higher level of magic than mere speaking incantation 3 Healing a dislocation wound or break a Had to use two halves ofa reed and bring together while chanting specific words this had a healing effect on the fracture 4 Harmful magic a lfyou kill a dog cut out its tongue and bury it you perform harmful magic towards someone s speaking ability 5 Creates an effect on a person 6 Not all incantations were palliative some spells repaired some harmed 7 Pliny the Elder a The Natura Hsrog a work about basically everything there is to know about life in the ancient world 8 Punishments were administered to people who performed harmful magic 9 The Twelve Tables a Oldest system of laws in Rome that were written on twelve tablets and published in the center of Rome so that all who could read could be aware of the laws b They were also written down and referenced by several writers c Two clauses against using harmful spells against others lO The patricians and the plebeians a Patricians know the law but never wrote it down because once it was written down it was set in stone b Administered punishment individually l l A freedman was accused for using magic to produce more food than his neighbours a Jealousy not originally a Roman citizen b Worked for a long time as a slave c Called Chresimus useful slaves had only one name and were usually adjectives or animal names d Suspected of destroying others harvests by using magic because his harvest did much better than others e When dragged into court he argues that he s working harder and that s why he s more successful immediately accepted as the truth l2 Magic is often used in the agricultural world a If someone has bad quality products they assume that someone has used magic against them take no personal responsibility l3 The Evil Eye a Charms were hung to ward off the Evil Eye of someone else b Jealousy was seen as a natural ingredient of evil c Phalluses were displayed in houses to protect againstjealousy of others and ward off evil spirits d Competition l4 Mysterious Deaths a 33l BCE during a plague several high ranking men die under suspicious circumstances b Thought to have been poisoned by wives c Killed by trial by ordeal i Basically a lose lose situation to find out whether someone is guilty such as the dunking witch trials in Britain d Thought women were dabbling in medicine to cure husbands and were unsuccessful e l7O women condemned f Points to the idea that women are not to be trusted l5 The Witch s Workshop a Apuleis comes from Roman Africa i Author of several surviving works including the Metamorphoses also called The Godeh Ass l Tells story of main character going to Sicily to meet witches 2 Takes a potion and accidentally turns himself into a donkey 3 Finally eats roses sacred to lsis and changes back into a man and initiates himself into lsis cult ii Speech entitled The Apoogy l Given when accused of sorcery 2 Peope who accused him are not that bright 3 Accused by stepchildren of using magic to bewitch his future wife and get her money successful in defending himself l6 Curse lnscriptions a Usually inscribed on lead which is easily engraved and folded Can contain magical invocations Call upon a particular god or demon then bind them to the victim and to your spell Stems from hate which was particularly strong in Roman society Folded pierced with a nail then thrown in a grave particularly someone who died prematurely because they are restless and more receptive to doing your biddingl a fountain or a well l7 Germanicus a Dies in Antioch under suspicious circumstances had been ill in a room in which several tablets and dolls were found i Suspicion that the emperor was instrumental in killing him through curses and incantations ii Use of magic within Imperial Family l8 Anna Perenna a Relatively minor deity associated with magic shrine discovered underground in the workshop of a sorceress b Mainly love spells binding an unwilling partner to the wills ofa client l 9 Binding love spells were actually quite common very adamant about getting the person you want 20 Particularly cruel curse text pg l03l 2 l Who believes in magic Who makes use of magic a People who are superstitious believe in and use magic not necessarily just the commoners Very widespread no correlation between education level and belief in magic Everyone was afraid of magic d General assumption the more inferior you are the more you ll want to use magic DQF U nU 18920 1 5 Becoming a God 1 QONOW 10 11 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 22 Earlier writers are more cautious about giving divine status to individuals later writers are less restrained Deification ofJulius Caesar was more open Note dew means an actual god cfius means someone declared a god a People of Rome accept a decree raising Caesar to god status b First temple built in Rome dedicated to a fellow Roman raised to the stature ofa god llost emperors were declared gods after their deaths the ones that don t become gods were pretty horrible Result ofa combination between origins in Rome and contact with the Greek speaking world Ancestors are worshipped as divine but in privacy in their homes Worship of emperors is public with dedicated priests The tradition of viewing rulers as gods pharaohs Alexander the Great Roman generals Scipio Africanus who defeated Hannibal a NOTE the Persian king was never worshipped as a god Mother of Alexander the Great Olympia was said to have been impregnated by a god disguised as a snake then given birth to an outstanding human being Scipio Africanus was also said to have long conversations with Jupiter about matters of state Plutarch says that the people of Chalkis Greeks have declared him a god Romulus had been widely accepted as a god unknown if this occurred within Romulus lifetime or not until 3 C BCE Venus Genetrix ancestor of the Julii family the mother of Aeneas a Aeneas comes from Troy and was a son of Aphrodite b Roman families were often prone to insert gods into their family trees particularly those in politics Political ideas filter into the religion hard to keep them separate Caesar s deification a Murdered on 15 March in 44 b in July 44 during games held to celebrate Caesar s military victories comets were seen over several days This was interpreted as Caesar s soul being carried to heaven Octavian to become Augustus was only 19 when his father Caesar was murdered and inherited all his money and power eventually became the first emperor of Rome a Cited connection with Caesar throughout career advertised himself as the son ofa god Octavian returns to Rome after defeating llarc Antony and Cleopatra Fixed boundaries between immortal and mortal have fallen away a Festival is held every four years in Augustus honour b Festivals are only celebrated in honour of gods that implies that the person is viewed as a god c Treatment bordering on religious devotion People and priests were to pray to Octavian has already been given a position in Roman life that is very close to that of a god Every Roman has a GenUs a body double Octavian s was worshipped as well as his numen in 12 BCE Augustus is elected as pon fex maxmus after the previous dies The house of Augustus a gigantic house had a temple dedicated to Apollo inside it a This is a striking way in which a private home became a temple 23 24 25 26 27 b lnvolves the Senate in the temple not private Formally deified in l4 After his death Livia pays out a reward to a certain person who swore he had seen Augustus ascend to heaven this clinches the deification a The house in which he died became a temple b Festivals rededicated to him priesthood installed for his worship Tiberius refuses divine honours while he is alive due to traditional ideas about the gods Livia is the first woman to be deified by her grandson Claudius Chronology a 405 BCE Lysandreia is celebrated Lysander is a King of Sparta is celebrated as a god b 324 BCE Alexander the Great requests to be worshipped as a god in mainland Greece some city states respond favorably to this including Athens and Sparta c 308 288 BCE Hymn to Demetrius Poliorlltetes King of Macedonia i In the Greek word the idea is expressed that someone who achieves results in the mortal world can be a god 2192015 The History of Roman Africa l 2 O The history of this part of the world is very unique in the Roman Empire As long as the culture is stable and remains loyal to the Romans they don t care what the culture does The contact of the Phoenicians with other parts of the world is mainly related to commerce a Well known for navigational skills and excellent trade items b With these items came knowledge of philosophy and culture immaterial things that are circulating c Very present in the Mediterranean d Brought the alphabet to Greece in the seventh or eighth century Three cities along the main coast of the Mediterranean sea a Byblos Sidon and Tyre b Had huge trade routes across the sea 6 l O 595 BCE a Phoenician ship circumnavigates the entire Mediterranean sea lslands were like stepping stones across the Mediterranean 8 l 4 BCE foundation of the city of Carthage which eventually becomes the most important city of Phoenicia a Needed to establish a permanent foothold b Settled by citizens of Tyre c Carthage precedes Rome by at least 60 years Carthaginians have a head start d Carthage fares its own course after foundation Carthage invoked the interest of the Greek world Carthage becomes more important by 650 BCE expanding its military influence and established a permanent foothold on the western half of the island lO 264 24l BCE The First Punic War a For three centuries before the war at least four friendship treaties were signed between Carthage and Rome got along pretty well before the war Must have been commercial exchanges and cooperation c Carthage had a strong presence in Spain but not overly strong yet influence expanding along the coast d The outbreak of the war had several events leading up to it i 290 end of the Third Samnite War Romans vs Samnitesl l Rome is a growing power established quite a strong foothold in the middle of Italy ii 282 The Greek city of Thurii asks Rome for military support in conflicts with a neighboring city l Treaty is violated end result is that local cities are growing ever more fearful of the Roman influence 2 Greeks call upon Phyrrus a descendant ofAlexander the Great and a great general himself to help them against Rome 3 Comes with elephantsl iii 280 275 BCE Rome defeats Phyrrus indecisively then Phyrus returns home and is ironically and pitifully killed iv 272 BCE peace with the Greek cities Rome now dominates the area up to the river Po in the north 14 15 1o 18 19 1 Everyone knows that Rome will send an army against them at the slightest invocation 2 People are terrified of Rome 3 Carthage and Rome are still allied both enemies of Greeks 4 Island of Sicily is occupied by Carthage and controlled by Rome 5 Extreme proximity to Rome v 288 Mercenary soldiers from Campania called the Sons of Mars take the city of llessana vi 264 These soldiers were besieged themselves by an army from Syracuse Greece 1 Call for help from both Carthage and Rome 2 Both powers decide to help for strategic reasons due to the location of the city of llessana a If Carthage gets a hold of llessana they are incredibly close to the tip of ltaly which is ripe for the conguering b Did NOT want Romans to have a stronghold in Sicily the Carthaginians would be wiped off the island vii First Punic War breaks out e Romans are ultimately successful and are ordered to withdraw from Sicily Sicily becomes the rst Roman holding outside of ltaly a Beginning of the Roman Empire b Every few years Rome sends out someone to rule that part of the empire as a provincial governor c Usually an army is there until the holding is peaceful d Some governors still manage to wreak havoc After the First Punic War the Carthaginians expand their empire into southern and middle Spain 226 BCE Rome promises that they will not go South of the River Ebro Carthage agrees to not engage in any activities above it Carthage is equally sophisticated as Rome philosophy craftsmanship vast resources 221 Hannibal succeeds his father as commander of Carthage 219 218 Rome does not keep to treaty arrangements Hannibal refuses to withdraw and Rome declares war 218 201 Second Punic War a Several tragic battles that Rome lost to Hannibal but Hannibal s efforts are in vain because there is no way he can take Rome b Hannibal was hoping that the allies of Rome would be so dissatisfied with Rome that they would change their loyalty but this did not happen c 217 BCE Battle at Trasimene Lake Hannibal wins d 207 BCE Rome defeats Carthage at lletaurus River Hannibal s cause is lost e 201 BCE Peace treaty i Carthage forced to pay a huge war indemnity causing her to lose a lot of territory in Spain 197 BCE Spain is organized as a Roman province What Carthage is all about a Civilization is surprisingly sophisticated b Had strenuous relations with neighbors but at times also very harmonious c Dependent on the varying strength of the nations d Surrounded by other Kingdoms e llassinissa i The most famous of the llumidians ii Helped the Romans against Carthage in the nal years of the Second Punic War iii Helped to cause the outbreak of the Third Punic War 20 Religion in Carthage a Tanit The heavenly goddessl a moon goddess from Syria o Ba al was her companion Roman Saturnl c Tanit never really vanished from the religious scene still worshipped out under the same name 23920 14 The Province of Africa 1 149 146 The Third Punic War and last a Cato the Elder has become an icon of Roman virtue very traditional b instrumental in the process of bringing down Carthage c Carthage declares war on llassinissa due to conflict breaking a treaty with Rome d Cato goes to Carthage and sees a city not in tatters as Rome might think actually sees a very successful city who had recovered very well e Cato makes an effort to make Romans understand this discrepancy i Addresses the Senate and tempts them to attack Carthage due to the proximity of the city both for military reasons and resources ii Drops an enormous fig on the floor and tells Senate that the place from whence it came is but a three day sail away iii Also tells them that their ships could be attacking in a mere three days f In order to confirm this story i Check sources which supply the same story ii Verify that it is possible to sail from Carthage to Rome in three days 1 in summer there is a wind that blows across the Mediterranean allowing one to travel quickly from Rome to Carthage but going back is far slower due to the same wind iii Verify that Carthage is truly overflowing with beautiful figs iv Verify that it is possible for figs to travel well 1 Freshness does not last that long very unlikely that these figs came from North Africa 2 Most figs are in dried form g Cato s story is not true and the Senate may have been fully aware that the fig was from his own estate and was for dramatic purposes only i Represents a serious misgiving about Carthage Romans want to remove the threat once and for all h 146 BCE Carthage is destroyed i City razed to the ground then ploughed salt into the soil to ensure that nothing would ever grow there again ii Colony actually begins there again during Caesar s time and became a huge city once more 2 146 BCE Carthage integrated into the Roman empire military presence as well as some residents mainly traders looking for opportunity also had a provincial governor to keep order a Not of great valueyet b New capital chosen Yurica 3 in the following years areas becomes more important and soldiers request more or better land for their service a Only the wealthiest can serve in the Roman army b Politicians are looking for land for their retired soldiers 4 Jugurtha a llemidian prince wages war 5 Quintus Caecilus llelidus takes charge of the war for the main purpose of demonstrating the incompetence of Roman senators in a crisis a lllustrates that the Romans have become too attached to luxury and that they have lost their Roman virtues Area occupied by local tribes that are becoming important such as the llumidians lloors and Gaetulians a Eventually become more and more Romanized in both culture and religion b Enamored with Roman culture and deities c Transitions occurring in religion and culture Jugurtha is finally captured in l05 BCE by Marius main rival Sulla this angers llarius a Coins issued that depicted Jugurtha s surrender by King Bocchus b Used as a form of propaganda for certain politicians c After this defeat his Kingdom is added to the Roman empire and a small piece is given to Bacchus as a thanks Civil wars between Pompey and Caesar a Lasted until 46 BCE b Roman Africa holds onto the Roman Republic for the longest c Cato the Younger commits suicide rather than surrendering to Caesar in Utica d Between 46 and 44 Caesar develops plans to build a Roman city of Carthage and call it Colonia Julia Concordia Karthago becomes a huge city with a population of 500000 Why does Caesar need the capital need to be moved back to Carthage a If he were to Keep the capital in Utica where Cato resisted him he would be paying tribute to an enemy 25920 l 5 Culture in Roman Africa and Romanization l W Tacfarinas decides to revolt for no known motivation a Belongs to the lVlusulamii to later become lVluslim b Acquired support of two other tribes the Moors lVlauri and the Garamantes c Tnese tribes are eventually forced to settle and become Romanized 40 44 Ptolemy tne king of lVlauretania visits Rome and is then executed by the emperor Caligula a Berber population organized a revolt wnicn is put down in 44 b New emperor Claudius organizes lVlauretania into two separate provinces Claudius establisnes several colonies in Roman Africa and actively Romanizes a Giving privileges b Becomes the number one economic powerhouse of Rome produces most of its grain Slowly the area grows expands and becomes nignly urbanized Becomes wealtnier l93 Septimius Severus becomes the first Roman emperor from Africa a Spent exorbitant amounts to beautify his hometown Leptis lVlagna b Became a showcase of the family s power and influence c Very successful emperor 238 Africa successfully revolts against Roman emperor lVlaximinus anax and replaced tnem with their own Gordian a Period afterward was full of upneaval and chaos executions and political ambiguity b Patnetic successors to Septimius Severus Most of the Roman empire at this point is outside the control of the emperor Rome is doing very poorly but Africa is prospering despite this a Built a massive ampnitneater at Tnysdrus by a private funder becomes second largest ampnitneater in empire after the Colosseum lO 429 Roman empire is really struggling emperor is killed in battle by German Vandals a Everyone in the tribe crosses into Africa and over a couple of decades takes it over completely b Africa continues flourisning under the Vandals llteeping many aspects of Roman life i l Eastern emperor Justinian defeats Vandals and reconguers the entire Roman province under Byzantium l2 695 Byzantine Africa falls to Muslim invaders And now onto something more difficult l 04 Pnysical remains in countries especially in Africa demonstrates that people wanted to be Romans Romanization is linked to Roman imperialism Africa is carved up into colonies for different empires France England Rome etc Eastern civilization was considered inferior to western and that it is the objective of the West to civilize the rest of the world for the good of the people who are incapable of doing sownite man s burden Basis of Britisn administrators Knowledge is Greek and Latin language and history considered tne way in wnicn a brilliant mind was formed but were not really prepared to be public servants 00 The decision to assimilate or revolt was seen in religious choices either Roman or local gods a In the ancient world this was considered a learning curve to Romanization b Shrines were considered crude and therefore inferior versions of Roman ones but it has actually become a neo Punic revival c Punic cultures begin to make a comeback after Romanization Some people did not learn Greek or Latin so it was acceptable in court to speak Punic or Arab Some people spoke only Punic because they wanted to Civilization is in flux below the top layer of Roman identity there are other identities hiding that sometimes come to the surface 28920 l 5 How to Become Roman l The end ofa defeat by Rome is to determine status a Firstly you are a former enemy and there is a set of rules to which you must obey i Romans do not ask for taxes do not exploit subjects ii More about power and military exploits want everyone tojoin them b lfyou are already close to the Romans culturally the path with be shorter than someone coming from a different sense of culture gives an advantage c If one did not hold to Roman customs they were barbaric It was essential to change to Roman culture 2 No one is really excluded from attaining Roman citizenship eventually in 2 l2 the emperor bestowed citizenship on everyone in the empire 3 Why would the Romans allow non Romans to receive citizenship a Wanted to expand their influence considering their campaign was more about power b If conguered were treated well there would be far less revolt than if they were treated as inferior c Conguered could choose between citizenship and integration or rebelling and having their city razed to the ground 4 Ways of acquiring citizenship a Writing a petition i Need to be in good standing with the governor who is willing to support the request then taken to the emperor who will decide ii What are the possible limitations Who has access to it i Upper class who have more contact and better relations with the governor have a much better chance and desire to become Roman citizens 2 Only available to a limited number of individuals b Service in the Roman auxiliaries i After 26 years of service the veteran and family would receive Roman citizenship ifyou don t die of course ii llote ifa soldier dies the family gets no pension or benefits c Can be manumitted as a slave and receive citizenship i Some people sold themselves as slaves gave the money to their family and hoped to receive freedom at some point ii Only receive Roman citizenship if the owner is a Roman citizen iii Only ancient society in which slaves can so easily attain citizenship after being freed iv Happens actually quite often Romans free their slaves more frequently and on a much larger scale than other slave holding societies v Rome was a huge slave holder vi Easiest path to citizenship theoretically 5 Preconditions a Certain emperors removed Roman citizenship from some provincials for poor Latin somehow speaking the language is part of being a citizen b Loyalty to Roman interests seems to be at least on the minds of the government i lfyou were once a leader of a revolt it is far less likely you will receive citizenship 6 Flow to ldentify a Roman Citizen in its Natural Habitat a Romans have at least three names and will address themselves as such i First name Marcus ii Family name Tulliusl iii Nickname Cicero usuallya pnysical cnaracteristic o People witn a single Roman name could be i A Roman citizen in casual conversation ii A slave for slaves have only one name that is usually not foreign sounding l Slaves names were usually a result of the owner who gave them a name iii Foreigners wno had adopted a Roman name out not received citizensnip 7 What is indicated by the growing freguency ofsingle Roman names a A desire for convenience appeals to notions of Roman identity o Ratner lillte Cninese people who adopt Englisn names to more easily communicate witn Englisn speakers and attainioos 8 Growing number of texts in Latin in Roman Africa demonstrates hold of Rome over Africa a People who did not speak Latin would hire people to write for them in Latin o Being Roman gave one an enhanced status and increased involvement in the Roman empire i In Greece for instance many people do not become citizens until much later 30920 i 5 Native Revolts l Arminius a German renegade better Known as Hermann a b llot completely unaffected by Roman culture Responsible for the biggest disaster for Rome during the reign of Augustus i Wiped out three Roman legions almost 20000 men in 9 CE Barbarians were adapting themselves to Roman ways but were still rebelling Only a period ofabout 20 years between conguering and revolt The Romans introduced a center in which the emperor was worshipped as a god i lntroduced very early on ii Trying to create unity amongst conguered peoples and Rome iii Baclltfired rebels unified in resistance against Rome and the Imperial cult Before the Germans marched against Rome they meet in a forest sacred to a German version of Hercules their god of war a local deity i Withdraw to a particular sacred area associated with previous victories this is where they get their energy and inspiration 2 Romans were defeated in a series of small slltirmishes a hit 3qu L In 43 the new Roman emperor Claudius desperately needed to show his military genius Decides to launch an expedition into divided Britain Legions fight small armies of British royals and win all battles but it goes slowly Romans begin building settlements in Southeast Britain while they re still waging war against others Boudicca is the daughter ofa British llting i Romans behave very rudely towards this lltingdom l Romans are arrogant rape royal daughters etc ii These people had a very good relationship with Rome but Rome is misbehaving on a major scale in Britain There is a major temple of the Imperial cult in Britain to Claudius Growing displeasure with the Romans revolt breaks out led by Boudicca Destroyed Roman settlements and most importantly the temple of the Imperial cult Thousands of Romans are lltilled and governor did not make it back in time Boudicca appears in Tacitus writing to be a man because it was unthinkable that a woman could lead an army 3 Both the main rebel leaders Boudicca and Arminius were not untouched by Roman culture constantly mimic Roman behaviour speallt Latin etc Why is that 4 Why are these revolts taking place a number ofyears after the Romans had already imposed their authority What is the purpose of the apse of time between conquering and revolt 5 What is going on in these parts of the world that explain this behaviour a 0510 Boudicca is taunting the Romans being very insolent Attacking their culture Prays to her own god rather than a Roman god Dresses in a Celtic way Hermann s armies slaughter humans at altars participate in human sacrifice a very non Roman practice i A very definitive way of eliminating one s enemies f What we see in these two passages is that these revolutionaries are deliberately returning to their native roots g Eventually people discovered that their entire way of life was threatened by Roman rule i After some years it becomes reasonably certain what life is like under Roman rule and that discovery sometimes merits revolt to preserve cultural heritages and customs ii Romanization is a slow process iii Entire culture is under stress cultures are completely annihilated by Roman culture h To resist the Romans people transform themselves back into their native culture and use this culture against the conguerors They can rebuild their own culture as well This is taking place everywhere Rome arrives Rome has to deal with native revolts which is a constant strain Cultural transformation is a very traumatic process Even though local revolts end the relationship must be assumed to be uneasy due to cultural assimilation
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