Test 2 Notes!
Popular in Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Monday October 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to DEP3103 at Florida State University taught by Ryan Peters in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
9172015 Development in Infancy o A lot of change over a short period of time Start as an immobile organism with a set of re exes End with coordinated movements across multiple senses Muscles and Brain develop 0 View changed over the last century We originally thought newborn39s were passive and incompetent but now know infants actively participate in their world 0 Newborn Re exes I Re ex is an inborn natural response to a stimulus I Reveals health of the nervous system Decreased re exes show problem with PNS Exaggerated shows problem with CNS form basis for later motor skills Tonic neck re ex Palmar grasp swimming and stepping Re exes are adaptive Survival value Hierarchy of re ex responses Palmer grasp usually takes precedent They typically disappear when the frontal lobes develop 0 They can return due to neurological conditions Newborn States 0 5 states of arousal Regular sleep 89 hours Irregular sleep 89 hours Drowsiness varies Quiet alertness 23 hours Waking activity and crying 14 hours 0 Between birth and 2 years sleep and wakefulness patterns change I Declines from 18hr to l2hrs by age 2 Sleepwake pattern begins to form to the circadian rhythm Sleeparousal patterns are affected by brain development and cultural practices I Patterns have implications for early cognitive progress 0 Disturbed REMNREM cycle can be a problem with central nervous system Crying is the first way that babies communicate O O Stimulates strong feelings of arousal and discomfort in both men and women Usually cry because of hunger The frequency changes over time Cultural differences nonwestern babies cry less often I Could be because nonwestern babies are carried more often Colic Infant Learning and Memory 0 0 Infants do more and know more than just re exes We figure out what they know with habituation and conditioning studies Operant conditioning Responses are limited to head turning and sucking responses Reinforcers include Food visual designs music and human voices They will suck faster to get the stimulus they want Habituation The gradual reduction in the strength of response I Basically get bored Recovery Following habituation an increase in responsiveness to new stimuli Using Habituation to study memory I With passage of time infants shift from novelty preference to familiarity preference Sequence of Motor Development 0 GrossMotor Development I crawling standing walking Finemotor development I reaching grasping Differences in rate of skill acquisition normal Once thought to be separate innate abilities that emerge in fixed sequence 0 Many factors in uence development of motor competencies 9222015 Motor development involves acquiring increasingly compleX systems of actions with each skill Four factors in each new skills I CNA development I Body s movement capacities I Child goal I Enviormental supports Fine Motor Development Reaching and grasping I Prereaching I Reaching with two hands than with one I Ulnar grasp Adjust to grip object move objects from hand to hand I Pincer grasp Finer grasp I A lot more stimuli become available Sense of Touch 0 O O O Welldeveloped at birth Enhanced interactions between newborns and parents Physical touch is important for emotional development Reinforces neural connections Taste and Smell O O O Q Have preferences at birth Prefer sweet tastes Affected by mother39s diet in womb Quickly learn to like new tastes 0 Can locate odors and recognise mother39s smell from birth Hearing 0 Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth Prefer complex sounds They learn patterns in days Sensitive to voices and ready to learn language OOOO Auditory preferences I Women gt Men because of high pitch I Mom s voice gt Other womans voice I Dads voice Other men39s voices I Heartbeat gt Man s voice I Because of prenatal learning Speech Perception 0 Can detect sounds of any human language 0 Statistical learning capacity for speech patterns and sounds o Multisensory communication helps babies associate words with objects I Ie visualauditory Vision 0 Least developed of senses at birth 0 Unable to see long distances or focus clearly 0 Pattern perception I 3 weeks Poor contrast sensitivity prefers large simple patterns I 2 months Can detect detail in compleX patterns scans internal features of patterns I 4 months Can detect patterns even if boundaries are not really present I 12 months Can detect objects even if 23 of drawing is missing 0 Early Face Perception I Infants prefer to look at simple facelike stimuli with features arranged naturally upright I Quickly learn to prefer their mother39s face over unfamiliar women I Prefer to look at attractive and smiling faces 0 Depth Perception I 3 types of cues 0 Kinetic motion parallaX birth 1 month 0 Binocular binocular disparity 2 3 months 0 Pictorial Linear perspective 57 months 0 Visual cliff More crawling eXperience less likely to crawl off cliff k Steps in Intermodal Perception 0 Birth Detect amodal sensory properties 0 34 months Prefer matching sights and sounds o 56 months Reach for objects in dark Coordinating sight and touch Differentiation Theory 0 Infants I Search for invariant features of the environment I Note stable relationships between features 0 Visual patterns intermodal relationships I Gradually detect finer and finer features differentiation New experiences provide affordances 0 Definition The action possibilities that a situation offers based on one39s motor capability o Discovering by acting on the environment A Is infancy a sensitive period 0 Infants that eXperienced early deprivation are below average in physical and psychological development emotional behavior problems 0 Can only use natural observation appears that less than 6 months doesn39t cause def1cit but more than 6 month causes cognitive deficits 9242015 Physical Growth 0 Humans grow for almost 20 of their life o The purpose is so they can gain enough skills and knowledge for life to develop in a complex system Changes in FatMuscle 0 Birth Fat peaks at 9 months and muscle is added slowly 0 Childhood Girls add more fat and muscle continues to be added slowly o Adolescence Boys lose fat and gain muscle Girls add fat Gross Motor Skills 0 23 years Walks more rhythmically pushes toy jumps hops throws and catches with rigid upper body 0 34 years Walks up stairs pedals tricycle exes upper body 0 45 years Walks down stairs runs skips throws balls 0 56 years Increases running speed wholebody throwing and catching rides bicycle with training wheels 0 712 years Increases running speed vertical jump increases throwingkicking speed and accuracy 0 SeX Differences I Childhood small difference I Adolescence 0 Boys develop more speed strength and endurance 0 Girls develop fine motor skills that require agility and balance I More athletic pressure on boys Benefits of Team Sports Regular physical activity Social competence Selfesteem OOOO Teamwork effort and improvement are emphasized over competitiveness I Parental pressure for performance is linked to emotional issues A Hormonal In uences on Physical Growth 0 Endocrine system Pituitary and hypothalamus 0 Growth Hormone 0 Sex Hormones I Estrogens More in girls I Androgen More in boys testosterone Brain Development 0 O O O The brain is disproportionately large at birth At age 2 it is 75 of size while body is only 20 of size Synapses are junctions between neurons that impulses pass through Cerebral Cortex I 85 of brains weight I Contains most of synapses and neurons The last brain structure to stop growing Sensitive to enviormental in uences The reason humans are so intelligent Plasticity O O O O 0 Parts of brain are not specialized in young children High plasticityhigh capacity for learning Recover better from brain injury Even adults have plasticity Early eXperiences greatly shape organization of brain Lateralization O 0 Left I Sensory and control of right side I Positive emotion I Verbal abilities I Sequential analytical processing Right I Sensory and control of left side I Negative emotion I Spatial abilities I Holistic integrated processing Handedness I Righthanded 90 of people in left hemisphere I Lefthanded 10 of people in both hemispheres Growth Determined by prenatal position in womb and postnatal practice Also in uenced by heredity o ExperienceExpectant Ordinary eXperiences in the environment needed for normal brain development 0 ExperienceDependent Additional growth depends on eXperience speci c to the individual 9292015 A Factors that Affect Physical Growth 0 Heredity 0 Nutrition By age 1 they should eat all food groups Appetite is unpredictable by age two They prefer familiar foods 0 Social environment in uences food preferences because young children imitate elders 0 Repeat eXposure higher chance of acceptance Need a higher quality diet Request food that is restricted more often Breast milk is the best milk Newborn benefits 0 Less likely to get sick because of antibodies in breast milk Better vision Correct fatprotein ratio Complete nutrition Easily digestible Better jaw and tooth development Easier transition to solid food Benefits for mother 0 Reduced risk of breast cancer Easier to bond I Malnutrition More common in countries with higher poverty rate Marasmus wasting condition Kwashibior Unbalanced diet low in protein Irondeficiency Anemia Unbalanced diet low in iron Food insecurity uncertain access to healthy food 15 of US I Obesity Overweight Adult with BMI 2530 or child above 85 for ageweight Obese Adult with BMI over 30 or child with BMI above 95 for ageweight BMI isn t always accurate for judging obesity because people with lean muscle will have a higher BMI Body fat is more accurate OR de ne obese people with waist measurements more than 50 of height 25 of american children are overweight Negative effects include diabetes blood pressure cholesterol and breathing problems sleep and digestive disorders Causes of obesity 0 Heredity Low ses Lack of sleep Family eating habits Responses to food cues Low physical activity Television OOOOOOO Cultural dietary issues 0 Infectious disease o Emotional wellbeing Extreme emotional deprivation interferes with GH productions 1012015 Puberty o Attain an adult size body 0 Become capable of producing offspring after undergoing changes in physical features related to sexual functioning 0 Primary sexual characteristics physical features that involve the reproductive organs directly I Females ovaries uterus vagina Menarche I Males Penis scrotum testes Spermarch 0 Secondary Sexual Characteristics Features visible on outside of body that are not reproductive organs that show signs of sexual maturity I Females breasts underarm and pubic hair I Males Voice change facial hair underarm and pubic hair A Psychological Impact of Puberty o View of adolescence as a period of storm and stress is exaggerated to some degree I Wide variability in adjustment from person to person environment etc I Biological psychological and social forces in uence development c Industrialized nations experienced extended adolescent period I Prolonged dependence on parents I More years of education I Postponement of sexual gratification o ParentChild Relationships I Families have more con icts feel less close 0 Most arguments about mundane issues 0 Similar across north american subcultures o Psychological distances I Gender Differences 0 Girls More con ict with parents 0 Parents place more restriction on girls k Consequences of Timing of Puberty 0 Girls I Early Maturing Tend to stand out in negative ways 0 Unpopular withdrawn low con dence more deviant behavior negative body image more longterm problems Will seek out older people to hangout with I Late Maturing Popular Sociable lively school leaders positive body image 0 Boys I Early Maturing Popular con dent independent positive body image Will seek out older people to hangout with I Late Maturing Unpopular anXious talkative attentionseeking negative body image A Brain Development in Adolescence O Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters I react stronger to stressful events I eXperienced pleasurable stimuli more intensely I Contribute to teenagers drive for novel eXperiences such as drug use 0 Uneven brain growth I The prefrontal corteX is immature and allows troublesome behavior I Capable of rational thinking and still retain learning abilities Nutrition in Adolescents 0 Food intake increases dramatically 0 Poor food choices are common I Fewer fruits vegetables milk and breakfasts I Most soda and fast food 0 Iron calcium magnesium vitamin b deficiencies are common o More family meals lead to healthier eating 0 Eating Disorders I Anorexia Starve out of fear of getting fat severely underweights common to all SES groups cultural and family in uences affects 1 of girls I Bulimia Strict diet and exercise binge and purge 2 4 of girls Feel depressed and guilty about eating habits and want help Easier to treat Adolecent Sexulaity 0 North American attitudes relatively restrictive I Media contradicts I Opinions have changed over the past 40 years I Most say premarital sex is okay 0 Declining 0 Sexual partners are as well 0 Contraceptive Use I 20 of Americans do not use contraceptive I Reasons for not using c Concerns about image 0 Risktaking 0 Social environment 0 Forced intercourse I US has highest teen pregnancy rate 0 Ecological systems With teenage parents gt on testquotlt Sexual Orientation 0 About 4 of population 0 Is heredity involved I Genetic and enviormental factors can alter prenatal hormones I Prenatal hormone exposure I Later birth order 0 Coming out I Feeling different Ages 612 I Confusion Age 1115 Selfacceptance Timing varies Not all are able to accept themselves Suicide rate is higher Support from communityfamily is important CH 6 skip pg 25 8264 Core knowledge A Cognitive Development of Research 0 What is cognition Inner processes and products of the mind that lead to knowing 0 Includes all mental activity remembering categorizing planning 0 Research goals I Chart typical course I Examine individual differences I Uncover mechanisms of cognitive development 0 Constructivist approach I We don t start out as cognitive beings I Use perceptual and motor activities to construct organized ways of making sense of eXperienced 0 Four broad stages characterized by qualitatively different ways of thinking Stages are invariant and universal Schemes Shema o Psychological Structures 0 Organized ways of making sense of eXperienced 0 Types of Schemes I Behavioral Used to represent and respond to objects and eXperiences I Symbolic schemes Internal mental symbols images or words that one uses to represent aspects of eXperiences I Operational Schemes Internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought Adaptation 0 Building Schemes through direct interaction with environment consisting of two complementary activities 0 Assimilation gtquotOn examquotlt I Using current schemes to interpret external world I Used during equilibrium 0 Accommodation On Exam I Adjusting old schemes creating new one39s to better fit environment I Prompted by disequilibrium 0 Balance between assimilation and accommodation varies over time 0 Organization I Rearranging and linking of schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive systems I Occurs internally apart from direct contact with the environment Piaget39s Stages of cognitive Development 0 Sensorimotor Birth2 years I Think build schemes with eyes ears hands and other sensorimotor equipment I No abstract thinking Can t carry out many mental activities Circular reactions 0 Involves stumbling onto experienced caused by motor activity 0 Infant than repeats event and strengths it into a new scheme I Re exive Schemes birth to 1 mo newborn re exes I Primary Circular Reactions 14 mo Simple motor habits around own body I Secondary circular reactions 48 mo Repeat interesting effects in surroundings I Coordination of secondary circular reactions 812 mo Intentional Coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems Goaldirected behavior Object permanence Understanding that objects still exist even when they are out of sight Violation of expectation Infants stare longer if they are surprised This means babies are aware of their physical world I Tertiary Circular Reactions 1218 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions I Mental Representations 18 months 2 years Internal depictions of objects and events Mental depictions of information Images of people objects and places Concepts of categories and can manipulate with mind Deferred imitation and make believe play Development of Categorization Helps infants make sense of experiences Reduces the amount of new information constantly encountered 0 612 month olds organize information into useful categories Differing Views in Categorization 0 Older infants and toddlers are more sensitive to perceptual features and relationships 0 Shifts from conceptual and perceptual basis 0 Exploration of objects and environment lead to categorization skills Symbolic Understanding Most 1524 month olds can tell the difference between a real object and a picture 0 Displaced Reference The symbolic capacity to use words to cue mental images of things that are not physically present Video Deficit Effect o 40 of 3 month olds watch TV regularly O 90 of 2 year olds water TV regularly o Experts recommend not exposing children to TV until 25 years because they can not tell the images apart from reality 0 Negative effects include Poor skill performance deferred imitation and word learning poor problem solving I Piaget may be wrong on timing of object permanence deferred imitation categorization and problem solving by analogy All these are believed to occur sooner than piaget said Also motor skills are not necessary for comprehension o Preoperational 27 years I Big increase in capacity for mental representation Language is the most exible way of using mental representations I Make believe play With age becomes more detached from reality less selfcentered more complex and has many benefits Drawing I Dual representation Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol Mastered around age 3 I Limitations of preoperational thoughts 0 Cannot perform mental operations Thought is rigid limited to one aspect of a situation at a time and strongly in uenced by the way things appear at the moment 0 Egocentrism Inability to distinguish others symbolic thinking from their own They are unable to lie or figure out deception 0 Children as young as 18 months can understand that someone else can feel differently than them They want to make others happy even if they feel sad They can understand that others have different preferences o Animistic thinking The tendency to attribute thoughts feelings and emotions to inanimate objects Using motion as a cue as to if something is alive or not Comes from incomplete knowledge of objects 0 Centration Focusing on one aspect but ignoring the rest Reversibility Unable to reverse a set of directions 0 They also have difficulty with hierarchical classi cation organizing objects into classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences I Logical thinking develops gradually 0 Concrete Operational 711 years I Maj or turning point in cognitive development More logical exible and organized Conversation is now decentration and reversibility Can now pass the class inclusion problem Seration Ability to order objects along a quantitative dimension 0 Transitive inference Seriate mentally Derive relationships I Spatial Reasoning 0 Mental rotation o Directions improved 0 Cognitive maps I Limitations of thought 0 Problems with abstract ideas 0 Continuum of acquisition 0 Formal operational 11 years I Capacity for abstract systematic and scientific thinking I Hypotheticodeductive reasoning o Deducing hypotheses from general theory 0 Possibility gt Reality 0 Not as limited 0 Pendulum problem Propositional Thought Logic of verbal propositions no need to refer to real world circumstances Deductive Reasoning o Younger children struggle with this because they are not consistent with their own reality 0 Adolescents are able to use propositional thought Consequences of Abstract Thought 0 Idealism and criticism 0 Problems with decision making including inexperience and overwhelming options 0 Selfconsciousness and Selffocusing 0 Sensitivity to criticism 0 Personal fable 0 Imaginary audience School age children start to develop abstract thinking they may fall back on easier thinking though Educational Principles Discovery learning attention to individual differences 0 Overall stages are not as strict as Piaget says and the change process is more gradual o Piaget focuses on children constructing their knowledge through activity Maturation before learning Private Speech 0 Directed to yourself 0 Foundation for higher cognitive processing 0 Used for difficult tasks after error and when confused O Gradually becomes more silent Vygotsky o MakeBelieve Play Rules strengthen capacity to think before acting Help children separate thinking from objects Helps children understand social norms and eXpectations Learn about important activities in culture I It is not spontaneous toddlers need encouragement 0 Education I Assisted discovery I Proximal zone of development Some tasks children can complete with help of parents I Enabled through social interaction 0 Vygotsky focused on social interaction With others in context of culture to construct knowledge Zone of proximal development learning can lead to development
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