November 13, 2014 to November 20, 2014 Human Biodiversity Notes
November 13, 2014 to November 20, 2014 Human Biodiversity Notes 11184
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Nicole Caparas on Friday November 21, 2014. The Bundle belongs to 11184 at University of Washington taught by Patricia Kramer in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Human Biodiversity in Biology at University of Washington.
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It has all of the information from the beginning of the quarter to the first midterm!
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Date Created: 11/21/14
November 13 2014 to November 20 2014 Research Project 0 Presentation in lab 0 Research Report Online Submission 0 Data Online Submission Research Report 0 Introduction 1 pt 0 Summary of Measurements 4 pts 0 Problems 1 pt 0 Conclusion 2 pts 0 Roles of group members 1 pt 24 pages 1inch margins 12 pt font include all group members names and UW ID number TA s name gt Introduction What did you propose What did you actually do Why is it interesting gt Summary of Measurements Protocol detailed paragraph stepssurveys in appendix Sample Description Where did you get your data Are there biases Subsamples groupspopulations Graphical representation of data ONLY ONE gt Problems protocol equipment sample analysis or maybe you didn t encounter any problems gt Conclusion What did you find Limitations What did you learn Data Observations 0 Sources of information 0 Data handwritten sheets photos Worst Way to turn it in typed list of data excel spreadsheet printout Lactose Tolerance O Lactose sugar in mammalian milk digested in the gut by lactase O Lactase enzyme in small intestine that breaks lactose into 2 and 0 Without lactase in the system one will experience nausea cramps diarrhea gt net calorie loss even though dairy has a lot of calories because intake of lactose Without lactase ends up in the body getting rid of all of it by any means possible Development 0 Mammalian babies make lots of lactase 0 Adult mammals don t 0 Humans generally stop making lactase aroundat 5 years old Variation Individual difficult to survive if lactose intolerant especially as babies Group malesfemales make about the same amount of lactase in the body Population 0 06 70 of world s population is normal make lots of lactase when young then stops at 5 years old 0 06 approx 30 are mutants chromosome 2 gene deactivates shuts down mechanism of stopping the production of lactase at age 5 produces lactase throughout life only advantageous if you live with animals listed below for pets 0 06 not evenly distributed in the world Who are these mutants 0 Northern europeans 0 Northern Indians 0 Mongolians 0 Central Africans from Fulani amp Tutsi groups Why 0 Pastoralists groups with domesticated animals 0 As domesticated animals cows goats sheep horses uses as supplement eg cheese yogurt 0 consume milkmilk products 0 Domestic cats follow human pattern Multiple Mutations 0 Benign mutation 0 Preadaptation LACTOSE TOLERANCE is the weird thing NOT LACTOSE INTOLERANT Nutritional Ramifications O Nutritional Supplementation to help those who are malnutritioned 0 DO NOT give them dairy unless group is known to be tolerant because some who are not will end up more sick 0 Vitamin D3 supplementation in the US norther US who don t get enough sunlight amp dark skinned may have rickets bone problems 0 DO NOT give milk to strengthen bones because descendants of African slaves are lactose intolerant Vascular System Heart 0 Enginepump to move blood through vascular system the energy required to move blood 0 4 chambers 0 Cardiac muscle 0 involuntary contractions autonomic process 0 beats 5080 timesmin in adult 0 approx 140 beatsmin in infant Heart Beat Brain Pump against gravity has to pump enough to resist gravity Return with gravity easy to get blood out of brain Appendages Pump Wgravity Return against gravity difficult to get blood out of legs to return depends on muscular action when muscles contract they can push blood up the system augments ability of heart to pull up blood from tissues amp o 0 back up to heart Blood Vessels O Arteries carry blood from heart gt peripheral tissues skin muscles organs etc 0 oxygenated blood blood Woxygen associated W it necessary in peripheral tissues because it s necessary for actions such as muscle contractions O Veins peripheral tissues gt heart 0 deoxygenated blood going back to heart to get oxygen again 0 valves present to prevent back ow valves close on offbeat so blood doesn t ow back down 0 Capillaries connection 0 diffuse into tissues tiny in diameter difficult to see 0 allows for 2 systems heart amp tissue to Work W each other Blood 0 Blood function El Supply energy other necessities El Remove Waste byproducts 0 Composition 0 Plasma liquid component medium where other parts of blood are dissolved 0 Red Blood Cells eurythrocytes transports oxygen 0 White Blood Cells leukocytes amp others immune cells O Platelets thrombocytes clotting Red Blood Cells 0 4 chains 2 ot globin chromosome 16 2 3 globin chromosome 11 O 4 heme groups 3D stable composition but reforms not rigid O Bioconcave cell elastic like a flexible frisbee so it can go through capillaries 0 Oxygen transport Infectious Disease 0 Pathoge1 micro organism bacteria viruses protists unicellular organism that isn t bacteriavirus O Vector Borne vs Contagion 0 VB moves from one infected to another via another organism e g malaria O Contagion physical contact skin skin bodily fluids through airwater e g tuberculosis O Enters body 0 Attacks systems causes the systems to malfunction Malaria 0 Cast by protist Plasmodium O 5 species 0 P falciparum prevalent in certain parts of the world 0 Requires vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae O Infests red blood cells amp destroys them reproduces in RBCs amp they explode as nursery for baby plasmodiums 0 13 million deathsyear 250 million cases untold lost activity 0 can be killed by DBT but it can t be used anymore bc of its dangerous pesticides Africa Human Variability O Mutation in gene for 3 globin 0 Normal allele Hb O Mutated allele S 2 S Alleles SS 9 rigid sickle shaped 9 can t squeeze through capillaries gets stuck amp pile up can t remove waste products amp transport oxygen 9 limited oxygen 9 sickle cell anemia sickle cell disease peripheral tissues can die 1 S allele Hbs Q sickle cell trait 9 some normal red blood cells some sickled Q develops resistance to Malaria sickled cells destroyed before Plasmodium matures Q HbS have increased resistance to malaria relative to HbHb Other genetic modifications 9 O 3 thalassemia Mediterranean New Guinea G6PD glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency X chrome O 9 Duffy antigens Plasmodium vivax Chrome 1 9 Others 9 Compromise multiple selective forces acting on individuals Future 0 Anopheles ampother mosquitos eradicated South EuropeU S 0 Climate change amp migration of creatures changes general health care Blood Groups 0 Antigens on exterior of RBC 0 helps identify self from other BAD acts as nametags 0 antibodies protect from other invaders O Antigens GENETIC 0 29 systems identified so far we ll only run into 3 in this class 0 Rh o ABO 0 Duffy Rh O 2 genes on chromosome 1 Rh gt Rh gt Maternal fetal incompatibility O Rh mother Rh father 0 First Rh child is okay eldest sor daughter 0 Subsequent attack by mother s antibodies I Transmission of other to mother mom produces antibodies from 1st child I For future children the mother s body is already primed so antibodies is transmitted to the newborn FATAL the baby can look normal at first but can die shortly after I The blood didn t function properly 0 Obvious fitness consequences 0 NO evolutionary explanation 0 Gene on chromosome 9 O 3 alleles O no antigens A A antigens B B antigens O Codominant system 0 Blood type 0 00 0 Blood type A A0 AA 0 Blood type B BO BB 0 Blood type AB AB one allele from each parent 0 Initial method of paternity testing Population Variation 0 Blood type 0 O 90 in most Native American populations 0 lowest in central Asian amp Australian populations 0 Blood type A 0 High in Australian amp European populations 0 Absent in centralsouth American populations 0 Blood type B 0 High in northern Indian amp Asian populations 0 Almost absent in native American amp Australian populations Why Possibly because of infectious diseases Infectious Disease VERY TENTATIVE TOPIC O Cholera bacteria Vibrio cholerae O originated in India 0 Blood type 0 gthospitalization O Treponemal diseases bacteria treponema sp syphilis prita yaws O originated in NS America 0 Blood type A B amp AB 17 times more likely to develop end stage disease O Plague bacteria Yersinia pestis O Prevalent in Europe 0 Blood type 0 does not recognize plague as pathogen O Smallpox virus variaola major 0 Blood type A disadvantage Link Between ABO Blood Groups amp Infectious Disease VERY TENTATIVE TOPIC 0 Very high 0 in Americas due to treponemal diseases 0 Plague amp cholera decrease O in Europe amp Asia 0 Smallpox increases B Summary RBC Variation 0 Hemoglobin chains 0 Antigens 0 Population level variation White Blood Cells 0 Immune function 0 Types specific to invaders O Neutrophil bacteria 0 Leukocytes viruses Variability in WBC 0 Individuals increases with infection decreases with drugs 0 Groups AGE start naive of an immune system ready supply of cells to attack anything as an infant needs time to develop recognizes more diseases bacterias viruses as it gets exposed then becomes specific 0 Populational HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus 0 06 Contagion 0 06 Attacks helper leukocytes Reduces effectiveness of immune function 0 06 gt rapid spread of virus gt infection of other invaders 0 06 leads to AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome HIVAIDS HIV approx 33 mil cases world wide 22 mil in sub Saharan Africa AIDS approx 2 mil people died in 2008 300 000 were children oz 6 0 06 Blood and Infectious Disease 0 RBC 0 structural changes Duffy antigen Malaria 0 Type cholera plague treponemals small 0 WBC O Pathogen fighters O HLA antigen AIDS Blood V Plasma V RBC V WBC X Platelets lt up next Platelets amp Clotting Factors gt Platelets the band aid gt Clotting factors second line of defense to stop blood flow created in presence of wound 0 Seal damages to vascular system first line of defense when healing a wound 0 packs would Wmaterial 0 complex set of reactions through factors 0 coagulation cascade Trap pathogens in clot body uses blood makes it thicker uses it as plug to help stop flow of blood Hemophilia Type A ran in royal families of Europe Queen Victoria etc 0 Factor VIII 0 Gene on X chromosome 0 Normal phenotype 0 Female 0 Male O Hemophiliac phenotype don t produce factor 8 will keep bleeding no way to stop flow from body can t produce clots 0 Female 0 Male Hemophilias O Obvious fitness consequences 0 no obvious evolutionary explanation Blood Variability 0 Individual Group POPULATION most interesting Infectious disease not related to blood eXplicitly 1 Pertussis whooping cough can t stop coughing from can hurt yourself bc you re not getting enough air in the body can be fatal for infants and old people Bacteria Bordatella pertussis Vaccination Immunity resistance observed small amounts to create specific immune response Herd immunity vaccinate vast majority of population so those allergic to vaccinations have a protection since no one has it 0 Victim of success 2 Ebola 5 known species mortality rates vary from 3090 Virus Ebolavirus 3 Human Papillomavirus HPV 0 gt100 straints 0 critical role in cervical cancer high mortality rate 0 2 particularly dangerous HPV 16 amp 18 O 2 cause genital warts HPV 6 amp 11 HPV Vaccine available since 2006 for HPV strains 6 11 16 18 for girls amp boys UW Seattle Study 0 1820 year old male UW students paid to participate O sexually active w females O Genital amp fingernail swabs to collect samples of DNA analysis 0 survey regarding behaviour 0 June 20032006 0 Results 0 240 subjects average age 1st intercourse 17 years old avg partners 2 60 of study participants tested positive for HPV infection 8 tested positive for HPV 6 andor 11 infection 22 tested positive for HPV 16 andor 18 infection OOOOO HPV IS CONTAGIOUS 6 but not ALL disease is infectious Non infectious Disease Dental caries cavities bacteria destroys outer portion of tooth if not treated infections gt jaw gt head gt death Diabetes metabolic issues type 2 diabetes invading childhood issues Wcirculation hard to manage long term High blood pressure cardiovascular disease high prevalence of blood pressure can be treated Wdrugs amp lifetime changes can lead to stroke Diseases of novel environments Dental caries jaw gt spreading infection to space we ve changed our environment we eat things that encourage cavities culture hasn t caught up Wchanges no cavities older than 1000 years most have beautiful teeth Diabetes High Blood pressure cardiovascular disease Disease infectious or not amp Adaptation Phenotype adapted to environment of yesterday phenotype is result of selection acting over period of time on ancestors left descendants us but rapid change in environment can put one at a disadvantage can cause problems today bc culture changes 15 fast plasticity adaptation to environment has its limitations
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