KIN 365 test 1 notes
KIN 365 test 1 notes KIN 365
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This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Annmarie Jaghab on Monday October 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 365 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Wesley Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see KIN 365 in Physiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Architects vs Carpenters Abs class what s wrong You cannot spot reduce fat supplements are not regulated most trainers are successful based on placebo effect study was done in which both groups got a water pill and one was told it was a steroid and the other was told water pill and those who got the steroid got stronger and those who took the water pill did not what does certi ed mean Took a class often it takes trainers longer than 40 hours to work 40 hours a week the average lawsuit against a trainer is over 80K exercise physiologist vs personal trainer trainer only needs a HS diploma and a certi cation Exercise physiologists need a BS 1 in 3 children will develop diabetes diabetics spend 10000 per year on programs and if lifestyle changes were implemented these costs could be cut in half necessity of knowledge doing reverse crunches with a bad back could cause herniated disk over active traps with upright rows would cause neck problems Supine exercise shouldn t be done after 1st trimester Can t use HR monitor if someone is on a beta blocker If someone is on a statin cholesterol lowering drug you cant have them do eccentric contractions because they have a lack of uidity of membrane If someone is on metformin and eating a high sugar diet it would be bad variableweight machines vs constant load free weights Variable resistance is better for hypertrophy building muscle and for function free weights are better It is a paradox because most body builders use free weights Study guide questions 1 tness paradox we tend to do the opposite of what we need to do because exercises we like to do are easy for us 2 DPP diabetes prevention program was 40 more effective than metformin for controlling blood sugar in prediabetic patients 3 Dose response curve in exercise the ones who are most out of shape bene t most from exercise 4 The placebo effect in the world of tness those who got the water pill didn t improve and those that got the steroid got stronger 5 Counseling and education on lifestyle are more important than a trainer because they are much greater in bene t than the two hours per week with a personal trainer only do 1112 minutes of work per session with a client Guardrails 1 in 2 elderly with a hip fracture will die within a year from a fall the stats shown are from exercise only exercise is medicine decreased rates of diseases such as arthritis anxiety Alzheimer s diabetes CVD and hip fractures guardrais educationmotivation perspiration studies found no signi cant differences in the use of medicine and exercise for secondary intervention in 300 plus studies ABC s of prevention Aspirin for Antiin ammation Blood pressure medications Cholesterol lowering medications all of these can be accomplished via exercise Don t smoke Exercise Fish oil tablets Glucose controlling medications for stroke exercise was almost better than the medicine Guardrails goals 1 serve patients and make health care more optimal 2 assist students with learning in practical application and patient interaction 3 get more and more data for the efficacy of physical activity nutrition and wellness called guardrails because the way that the typical diet is and inactivity causes a slippery slope and a guardrail would be able to catch the person and treat them before they totally fall off the cliff 1 validated a nonexercise test that doesn t need to nd V02 max based on getting HR and asking them how hard certain activities are questionnaire based on activities of daily living 2 looks at CRP which is a measure of in ammation 3 patient retention of lifestyle Guardrail s gives a report card with 1 Metabolic heath systolic pressure risk factors waist circumference 2 cardiovascular how much meat in diet risk for disease 3 musculoskeletal range of motion 4 Nutrition ask what they re eating and what their daily habits are coaches don t want to listen to analysis that says athletes are over trained health screening rst step is always informed consent if there is over a 10mmHg difference in blood pressure in arms it is a sign of peripheral vascular disease rate pressure productdouble product RPP systolic x heart rate ex 145 x 8512325 so the myocardium is requiring a lot of oxygen and is in a lot of stress since it is over 11000 Decreasing it to 9100 can make your heart 25 more efficient MC medical clearance risk factors for ages over 45 male 55 female and need two risk factors found on page 7 of manual 1 family history 55 or younger rst degree relative having a cardiovascular event for male 65 for female 2 smoking 3 high blood pressure of over 140 and over 90 on two different doctors visits to classify as hypertension 4 high LDL over 130 and low HDL under 40 or over 200 total cholesterol 5 fasting glucose greater than or equal to 100 6 BMI over 30 7 sedentary need over 150 minutes a week of walking or over 75 minutes of vigorous at least 8 an HDL level of 60 or more takes off a risk factor absoute risk factors REQUIRE medical clearance no matter what 1 systolic BP over 160 2 diastolic BP over 100 3 if the males body fat is over 30 and females is over 40 4 if resting HR is over 100 bpm or irregularities 5 if resting HR is under 50 bpm 6 symptoms such as breathless when exertion Those with metabolic syndrome have a 2400 increase risk of developing diabetes mellitus Metabolic syndrome is characterized by 3 of the 5 following symptoms 1 high blood pressure systolic over 135 2 waist circumference greater than 40 for male and 35 for female 3 high triglycerides over 150ngl 4 low HDL less than 40 5 blood glucose over 109mgdL sight dehydration could raise lipid levels gucose levels should be tested at a post prandial state because most of the time the body is in a postprandial state so spikes in blood glucose levels can be better monitored as opposed to a fasting glucose test nationa lipid association wants to use non HDL cholesterol as a marker total cholesterol minus HDL Don t want that total to be over 160 or 30 points higher than their LDL target if it is higher they have dislipidemia CRP is C reactive protein which is a nonspeci c marker of in ammation systemically statin drugs prevented against a heart attack MORE by lowering CRP than by lowering cholesterol C peptide is a marker of how much insulin a person is producing because proinsulin is cleaved into insulin and C peptide type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent and type 2 is insulin resistant and type 15 is when type 2 people become type 1 microabuminuria means blood vessel damage from sugar or cholesterol If it is over 200 it is kidney failure fibrinogen is a clotting factor and goes up with people who have in ammation and increases risk of thrombosis vitamin D should be 30ngmL SLA special limited activities studies aerobic center longitudinal study in Texas wanted to study age related risk of death Found that over an 8 year pattern men had almost a 300400 reduction of mortality rate when exercised For women it was 465 nearly 500 reduction in risk of death compared to those in the lowest quintile The second point in the study was that the biggest reduction in risk was moving from the lowest quintile to the next quintile the Harvard alumni study only men were used gave us the 2000 calorie a week threshold Those who expended over 2000 calories a week had the greatest reduction of risk about 300 calories a day the Swedish women study only women were used 710 year follow up of these women and found that there is an inverse relationship between changes in physical tness and death Meaning that women who stopped working out when they were very active in the past had a 200 increased risk of death when compared to those that were still ache people who were active had cardio protective risks and a reduction of 19 against coronary heart disease 90 risk reduction the lowest quintile had a 300 increase in risk of stroke than those in the upper quintile of exercise the Harvard alumni study also showed a 300400 decrease in hype engon the nurses health study of only women nurses found that women who were active had a 40 decreased risk in death from breast cancer ARC study atherosclerosis risk in the community If people want to reduce risk of CVD by 40 over 4 years they need to do 4 things 1 BMI under 30 2 don t smoke 3 do 20 minutes at least of exercise per day where you would perspire 4 5 tennis ball sized servings of fruits and vegetables per day the more skin and the less cooked the better Diabetes prevention program trial risk reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes using metformin vs using physical activity 3234 prediabetic mellitus patients One group was given metformin and exercise was recommended The other group was lifestyle intensive and had counseling TLC diet low in saturated fat and low in cholesterol and exercise The lifestyle intensive group had a 40 decreased risk in developing diabetes Diabetes prevention stats with 13 people taking the drug OR 69 people using the lifestyle method Retention rate for the metformin group was 74 meaning they stopped but they were just as likely to stop taking the medicine as they were to stop exercising jupiter trial statins were more effective to reduce in ammation as it was to reduce lipids the focus is to reduce lipids reguar exercise lowers blood pressure both chronically and acutely and would be as powerful as a stage 1 blood pressure lowering medication ifestye was 40 more effective than metformin to combat diabetes steps involved in a tness program 1 informed consent protects you with regard to liability unless you are negligent Should be done by face to face interview so they can ask queonns 2 questionnaire for one on one training it is the health status questionnaire HSQ to look for risk factors and signs for needed medical clearance or limited activities or emergency procedures needing to be in place 3 behavior questionnaire looks at sleep patterns 68 hours at least adequate intake of fruits and vegetables less cooked less skin the better look if they re adequately hydrated see if they eat a lot of processed foods 4 nd resting measures resting bp160100 is absolute medical clearance resting heart rate greater than 100 bpm absolute medical clearance RPP bf 30 for male 40 for female absolute medical clearance waist circumference movement screen can t take them over 6METS if they need medical clearance or postural screen Determine if medical clearance is necessary MEDICAL CLEARANCE automatic medical clearance for a a chronic disease such as hypertension diabetes cancer CVD autoimmune disease pregnancy b symptoms on HSQ that are real symptoms that you asked about face to face c resting measure red ags BP HR BF d risk factors 2 or more for a 45 year old male and a 55 year old female famiy history 1st degree relative male less than or equal to 55 having acute coronary syndrome 1st degree relative female less than or equal to 65 having acute coronary syndrome smoking high cholesterol over 200 blood glucose over 100mgdl blood pressure over 14090 sedentary over 150 moderate or 75 minutes vigorous 6METS or highera week BM waist circumference over 35 females and 40 males lf HDL is over 60mgdl you subtract one risk factor 5 tness assessment based on 5 health related components of tness Cardiovascular tness metabolicbf muscle strength exibility muscular endurance CV screening V02 max test body composition BF waist to hip muscuoskeeta posture screening and movement screening increase in plasma volume from exercise dose response curve the greatest magnitude of bene t is in people who are least active The more t you are the less bene t you receive Functional Anatomy three planes 1 frontal divides into front and back halves Ex Jumping jack lateral pull down lateral raise 2 sagittal divides into left and right All exion extension and hyperextension occurs in the saggital plane Ex Squat bicep curl 3 horizontal involves rotation Ex Russian twist horizontal adduction musces PULL on bones exion is when you close off the angle of the joint extension is opening the angle hyperextension is really opening up the angle Adduction bring in towards the inside of the body Abduction bring outwards from the body internamedia towards the middle of the body externaatera rotation away from the middle of the body pronation like pouring soup supination like holding a bowl of soup retraction open up shoulders protraction like hunch back position anterior tilt is move hips to the front butt out gut out posterior tilt is more hips to the back old man for test given diagram and need to nd postural problems Thin line shows underactive muscle Thick line shows overactive muscle Upper cross syndrome tight upper traps and pecs Weak neckcervical exors and rhomboidsserratus anterior The imbalance results in protracted shoulders lordosis and kyphosis Lower cross syndrome tight iliopsoaship exors and erector spinaethroracolumbar extensors Weak abdominals and gluteus maximus The imbalance results in anterior pelvic tilt increased exion of hips and hyperlordosis reciproca inhibition agonist muscle used inhibits the antagonist the muscle that opposes it Ex In order to ex bicep the tricep needs to relax pull a pull muscle group contracts as the weight is pulled toward the body the concentric portion of the movement and lengthens as the weight is extended away from the body the eccentric portion of the movement push exercises chest shoulders triceps and your thighs calves delts glutes pecs quads tris pulls ex back hamstrings and biceps abs biceps forearms lats hamstrings obliques traps Muscle contractions 1 concentric force is greater than the resistance Acceleration H zone shortens 2 eccentric force is less than resistance Deceleration H zone lengthens 3 isometric forceresistance Stabilization 4 plyometric more neuromuscular Takes advantage of the stretch re ex of the muscle Can improve rate of force development by having rapid eccentric and concentric contractions It also increases the exibility and strength of the costamere titin and rest of elastic proteins study guide 1 push vs pull exercises 2 three planes of movement and the exercises that go with it 3 exion and extension plane of movement Saggital 4 reciprocal inhibition 5 cross syndromes and pelvic tilts Muscle imbalances that usually contribute to those things eccentric is important for dynamic stabilization eccentric is the strongest then isometric and then concentric force velocity curve inverse and power is an upside down U peak power is in the middle the more fast twitch bers the higher the velocity of fast twitch bers when you increase the resistance arm distance from fulcrum to the weight the contraction becomes harder during the downward motion of a squat it s ISOMETRIC because you re just stabilizing the body umbards paradox during a lower body closed chain movement like in a squat hamstrings and quads an antagonist and agonist are working at the same time the prime mover is the agonist that does the majority of the movement the synergist is what assists with the movement ex Running glutes are the prime mover and the hamstrings are the synergist causes arthrokinetic dysfunction joint problems 1 synergist dominance when the main muscle mover stops and the other surrounding smaller muscles take over For example when you sit too long your glutes become underactive and your hamstrings ll in to compensate for the glutes and then when you get up to run your hamstrings are in pain because they were put to so much work 2 reciprocal inhibition muscles on one side of a joint relax to accommodate contraction on the other side of that joint ex Runners knee when you re sitting the hip exors are over active so the glutes are underactive and reciprocally inhibited But when you run the synergist is the dominant part hamstrings need to be stronger than quads The prime mover is the primary muscle used to do the action synergists are muscles that assist in the action and antagonists are muscle which perform the opposing action For example during a bicep curl the prime mover would be biceps brachii the main synergists would be brachialis and brachioradialis and the antagonist would be triceps brachii core muscles are stabilizers So right handed people can sometimes lift more with left hand than right because the right core is stabilized cosed chain limbs are xed and trunk is moving ex Pull up squat open chain limbs are moving and trunk is xed ex Lat pull down Exercises classi ed by the acceleration phase frontal plane adduction lat pull down Frontal plane abduction lateral raise with dumbbells Downward phase of a squat contractions or for weight bearing leg of lunge Hamstrings eccentric Quads eccentric Glutes eccentric Erector spinae isometric upward phase of a squat contractions Hamstrings concentric Quads concentric Glutes concentric Erector spinae isometric Prime mover for push up pectoralis major Synergists would be triceps and anterior delts Antagonists would be on the other side of the pecs like posterior delts traps and rhomboids Study guide 1 force velocity curve and power 2 lumbards paradox 3 prime mover vs synergist Synergist dominance Types of agonists 4 types of muscle contractions with exercises 5 open and closed chain movements frontal plane adduction wide grip pull up or lat pull down frontal plane abduction lateral raise horizontal abduction bent row seated row horizontal adduction bench press shoulder exion front delt raise shoulder extension close grip row Intro to programming when you put resistance on a muscle the muscle grows Why Turn on MTORR which combines with a nuclear response element to unfold the DNA and grab a gene to grow more actin and myosin proteins MTORR is turned on by insulin leucine and in ammation weight lifting only promotes health if the stimulus exceeds the individual s tness threshold recommended starting point for resistance training is 1 set of 8 10 exercises for 8 12 reps 2 to 3 weeks this will be effective for the rst few months but bene ts will plateau when someone plateaus between 4 and 12 weeks you need to change the program around The changes can be subtle Ex In a squat bringing your legs closer together overload variables include frequency loading volume exercise selection movement speed and recovery time between sets if goal is function and endurance 23 days a week of total body or 4 day upper lower body split 50 to 70 of your 1RM rep max 6reps is 85 of your 1RM 8 reps is usually 80 of your 1RM 10 reps is usually 75 of your 1RM a circuit is when you switch up which muscles you re using to be more ef cient machine based weight training variable resistance is shown to be more effective for hypertrophy for function you want to focus on stabilizers and for hypertrophy you focus on the individual muscle groups For strength you focus on both strength trainers aren t as cut as lean as body builders because they re doing a lot of weight but waiting a lot between sets which is very creatine phosphate dependent whereas high reps would burn many calories and be glycolytic for power you use one day to focus on the force heavy and slow and on the other focus on velocity resistance training 1 hypertrophy program high volume leads to in ammation which allows the muscle to grow High metabolic cost and burns more calories actate can enter the blood brain barrier This effects LH leading to higher testosterone levels machines are variable resistance resistance varies but force is constant free weights are constant resistance resistance is constant but force varies throughout the range of motion for machines there is less need for the stabilizers so more effort can come from the muscle making them bigger for strength you want free weights because they use stabilizers and prime movers exercise order rst exercises require the most muscle cross joint and are most intense Where possible incorporate pushpull or upperlower alternating to provide greater recovery between sets use larger muscle groups rst because they have a greater metabolic demand and need more ATP mesocyce rst month introduction to movement emphasize exibility range of motion balance and core strength 57 weeks Then comes more functional movement with stabilizers 713 weeks Then comes machines with recommended 812 reps 1830 weeks strength training with lots of rest 3135 weeks power training low volume and more focus on velocity fisher paper says to go until you can t lift anymore ultimate muscle failure persons should select resistance type based on personal choice person should maintain a steady force through the range of motion person s should consider their somatotype and genetics to dictate muscle growth and development Prime Movers Pectoralis Major internally rotates lts action is adduction and internal rotation Protracts scapula Tests to see if it is tight shoulder mobility test overhead squat active ext rotation and abduction posture To see if it s tight push up showing synergistic dominance traps mainly active to compensate Lengthen put the muscle opposite of what it does Active assisted is better because it is safer Dynamic stretching is used mostly before a workout Strengthen function would be with a cable and balancing on a leg Power would use speed like throwing a medicine ball Lats does internal and external rotation of the shoulder and adduction To test for tightness do overhead squat shoulder mobility test with upper arm sagittal plane shoulder exion and frontal plane shoulder abduction To see if it is weak you look at if there is a limited ROM for lateral trunk exion and also for the lat pulldown look at internal shoulder rotation and anterior scapula To lengthen do arm over the head to the side stretch kneeling preacher stretch and physioball exion and abduction Active assisted stretches like wall hang with trunk rotation and partner stretch Deltoids the middlelateral delt is more massive Anterior delt does adduction and mainly for bench presses Middle delt is for abduction when the shoulder is internally rotated Posterior delt does hyperextension Tests for tightness can be done with an overhead squat or an impingement screen or shoulder mobility screen low arm would be anterior and middle delt while upper arm would be just anterior delt To tell if the delts are week it is hard to differentiate delts and rotator cuffs Role of rotator cuff is to act as a stabilizer It is weak if there is increased lordosis during overhead press or use of momentum during lateral raise Reverse y for posterior delts Strenghten with prone jackknife on medicine ball Traps they do rotation retraction elevation and depression they act as antagonists and agonist and inhibit each other Upper traps get tight when people are stressed due to neural activation of the accessory nerve Tightness in upper traps leads to upper cross syndrome Function is rotation of the scapula When upper traps are active the lower traps are inhibited When a muscle is tense we end up recruiting it more which is a vicious cycle So prehab is very important for the traps Want to do prone scapular retraction exercises To relax it massages YTWL exercises Strengthen with scapular push ups Hip exors rectus femores illopsas Sartorius pectineus Tensor fascialatte TFL some adductors lllipsoas does hip exion and external rotation Sarcomeres of the illopsas can get cleaved off from sitting in a certain posture Supine leg raise tests for tightness in hip and trunk Anterior tilt during lunges shows tight hip exors Thomas test has patient hug knee to chest and it should be able to push the other leg down If they cannot keep the hip rested on the bench and the knee is free to move then the illopsoas is tight To lengthen do lunges Lumbard s paradox during a squat or lower body exercise two antagonists can contract together hamstrings and quads The RF does knee extension in squat a lunge stretches more of the rectus femorus if it is exed more short muscles over time get weaker prestretch a muscle to make it more powerful A bridge movement where legs are extended on a ball is more hamstrings than glutes while the one where her knees are bent and she pushes her butt up its more glutes gluteus maximus is external and super cial Gluteus maximus is a hip extensor and does external rotation Strengthening the glutes can help prevent runners knee Limited range of motion with a full squat deadlift or lunge would mean glutes are tight Tightness also seen in Thomas test if unable to bring knee to chest Weak glutes would be seen in lower cross syndrome and there would be overactive hip exors and reciprocal inhibition To lengthen walking glute stretch or reverse lunge For function bridge on a ball Step ups emphasize the glutes most out of any exercise done for strength hamstrings lateral hamstring is bicep femoris and is the main hip extensor The medial hamstrings are semi s semitendenosis and semimembranosis They do knee exion and hip extension They get activated right before the foot lands for dynamic stabilization Laterally rotates the hip when the knee is exed Posterior tilt would be present if hamstrings are tight Seated reach would tell you if hamstrings are tight and if they can t get to their toes and they have good exibility in their back Limitations during a supine leg raise would mean hamstrings are tight If the hamstrings have less than 23 60 the strength of the quads they are at risk for an ACL injuryso a leg extension would be bad because it is causing a greater imbalance between quads and hamstrings Also if there is a difference of 10 per leg there is a risk for a hamstring pull Hamstring weakness would cause increased lordosis and external rotation during squat Ballistic stretching kicking leg high causes activation of muscle spindles that reduce the range of motion of the joints PNF stretching is an active assisted stretch If goal is function single leg Romanian dead lift or supine leg raises with knee exion For hypertrophy use the variable resistance machines Buddy hamstrings are mostly an eccentric contraction A deadlift works on the force side of a power curve so it has low power because it is done slowly Quads Made of 4 muscles vastus intermedius vastus lateralis vastus medialis rectus femoris Strengthening the vastus medialis prevents knee injuries Get rid of lateral knee pain by strengthening the VMO BODY BUILDER WOULD DO KNEE EXTENSION BC IT IS FOR HYPERTROPHY The lighter the weight the higher the volume know the selecting the exercise chart first exercise is most intense using most muscle mass alternate between push and pull exercises for power the rest is the longest know methods of training and systems bene ts and theory Systems pyramid training start with 8 reps lighter weight and then wait 2 minutes and then do 6 reps of a heavier weight and then wait and then 4 reps of a heavier weight bene cial because of post activation potentiation more calcium left over from the previous contraction Most common but least effective in terms of time usage circuit training group a couple of exercises together more than 2 which have no overlap ex Circuit A Chest press bent row abdominal curls back extensionsdo all this and then at the end rest and then repeat Circuit B Pull ups military press bicep curls tricep extensiondo all this and then at the end rest and then repeat Negative training only doing the eccentric component of the exercise ex Someone carries you up to the pull up bar and you do the rest Not good for beginners because they will get a lot of muscle soreness and the most eccentric muscle damage Slowest type of training you can do Mechanical loading which stimulates mtorr so this type of training would be best for body builders complex going from a heavy set to a plyometric Ex Squats to tuck Jump Training superset have two exercises that don t have overlapping muscle groups Same amount of work can be accomplished with less time Especially effective for the smaller muscle groups drop setstrip do a set to volitional fatigue and then you drop 10 of the weight off and then keep going contrast slow speed to high speed for the same muscle group Might recruit more motor units lsolationcompounds Flyschest press Lateral raisemilitary press Hamstring curlsljlsquats to calculate somatotype 1 calculate 1RM 2 wait 5 minutes 3 do 75 1RM 4 if you do less than 8 reps you have more fast bers that don t burn fat very well 5 if you did 812 reps you have a mix 6 if you do more than 12 reps you have mostly slow oxidative glycolytic bers 7 if you have mostly fast bers then you should do 46 reps 8 if you are in the middle 812 reps is ideal 9 if you have mostly slow bers do up to 20 reps ex The calvessoleus muscle is mainly slow bers and that is why we have to do so many reps in order to get hypertrophy if you re in a fasted state and weight train protein degredation is higher than synthesis hennman size principal of motor unit recruitment brain to spinal chord and depending on how many excitatory stimulus go through and stimulate motor units slow motor units rst and then add on the fast motor units 5 performance based components coordination speed power agility balance force x velocitypower oympic lifting is lifting a heavy weight quickly Want to maximally recruit motor units power conjugate method used by some of the strongest people in the world power conjugate method consists of one exercise the rst day of upper body force day every week you do it you vary the type of movement that works the same muscle and you work up to 1RM every week Another day would be a lower body force day Then you have an upper body velocity day and do 50 of 1RM and wait 30 seconds and 912 sets of it Then have a lower velocity day and do 50 of 1RM and wait 30 seconds and 912 sets of it Flexibility responsible for all exibility assessments in manual these are all indirect measures quick assessment to gage tightness and range of motion Exmodified sit and reach Right hip is forced in exion so you stretch the hip extensors lf pelvis shifts posteriorly away from wall hamstrings are tight and if reach is minimal and no posterior tilt then erector spinae is tight tight erector spinae for the one where she bends down for the cobra like one you want a 90 degree angle erect trunk If she lifts off the oor there is tightness in rectus abdominus see how far ngers can get below knee to test for tightness in the quadratus umborum and obliques pul knee up to chest and can tell glute tightness Thomas test on therapy table rectus femoriship exors would be tight if knee lifts and not in contact with bench If you tell them to ex knee and there is no resistance it was due to the iiopsoas not the rectus femoris knee extension tests for hamstring tightness Want to be able to bring knee up 90 degrees shouder exion test looks at tightness of lats appey back scratch test looks at the muscles that do internal rotation rotator cuff shoulders lats pecs anterior delts triceps teres major because it is an external rotation movement pasticity is the ability for muscle tissue to change muscle tissue is more elastic than it is plastic igaments tissues in the joint capsule are more plastic more of a permanent change that leads to less stability in the joint passive some external load pushes someone through a range of motion and ballistic stretching can do this eastic tissue is full of lysine residues which is sensitive to ROS exibiity training can change the muscle fascia and can make the muscle fascia more compliant when people become more exible their improvement in performance can either improve or worsen viscoeasticity has a viscous and elastic property Muscle fascia lengthen with stretching but then it gradually shortens back to where it was in addition to changing the muscle fascia we have an addition of sarcomeres stacking sarcomeres serial sarcomere addition in exibility training because the hypertrophy is linear and you add muscle bers in length as opposed to growth Ex Yoga Always adds slow twitch bers enhanced reciprocal inhibition a contracting muscle will be able to better relax its antagonist through muscle spindles greater GTO activation and enhanced autogenic inhibition from exibility training when they sense stretch they relax the muscle the muscle spindles reset and allow you to go further before the muscle spindles contract with aging our connective tissue lose elasticity because collagen levels go up and elastin goes down dehydration causes greater stiffness stiffness occurs with intracellular swelling like DOMS occurs in a loss of range of motion cross linking creates a web of scar tissue which build up and result in pain free nerve endings stuck in a web of collagen cause pain pregnancy changes elasticity because relaxin is produced by the corpus luteum which leads to less stability of joints and more exibility viscoeasticity has to do with the muscle creeping in length and then creeping back up ex Like a ketchup bottle hysteresis when it s not a direct linear trend Exercise bout the warm up increases the speed of muscle action and leads to greater blood ow genera warm up gross motor activation to increase blood ow and temperature in working muscles which use basic movements repeated continuously for a set period of time a speci c warm up is made of actions and musculature speci c to the activity and will often resemble either in part or whole the activity to be participated in functional warm up prehab which focuses on performance based components of tness and commonly weak muscles hip extensors and upperextensor rotator erector spinae and abdominalsobliques functiona warm up may be the most important type of warm up Reduces risk of injury and increases core temperature agiity drills are performance based musces that are commonly tight and associated with lower back pain Tensor Fascia Latte foam rolling it would help Look at the ober test to see if tight Hamstrings test for tightness with sit and reach Errector spinae test for tightness with sit and reach amp see if shoes tied sideways Piriformis Adductors Iliapsoas hip exors Rectus Femoris hip exors Quadratus Lumborum test for tightness by having them stand and lower arm to knee the quotCorequot the inner unit that acts like an internal stabilizing belt the inner unit consists of the TVA multi dus lumbar spinal erectors posterior internal obliques costal diaphragm TV lounging on the couch past midnight pneumonic core muscles are easy to activate and are recruited before the prime movers are activated They have a lower activation threshold the pelvic oor is important for closed chain movement errector spinae consists of 3 muscles don t need to memorize the inner unit chart in the prezi the inner unit is not a prime mover during crunches but the inner unit is activated rst the inner unit consists of slowoxidative motor units and made of alpha 2 motor units which are the lower threshold of recruitment the brace increases abdominal pressure which alleviates the compressive force on the back disks take a blood pressure cuff to 60mmHg and put it under abdomen and as them to draw in belly button and they should go to 40mmHg they should sustain 20mmHg of pressure for 30 seconds to strengthen the inner unit should be done in the beginning of a strength training workout to prevent injury Supermans plank cat walk sing system quotouter unitquot lateral sling consists of adductors ispsilateral deep glutes contralateral QL If it is weak they fail the QL testTrandelenburg test the anterior oblique sling adductors and the contralateral obliques to move SI joint To strengthen it do Russian twist with adductors being activated the posterior oblique sling goes from the thorocolumnar fascia up to the lat lateral sling is for stepping up stairs the deep longitudinal sling is for right before foot stroke Consists of tibialis anterior malitiftus lower back area posterior oblique sling for hip and shoulder swings consists of glutes and contralateral lats anterior oblique sling to shift pelvis forward
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