Exam #2 Notes
Exam #2 Notes ACBS 403
Popular in Biology Animal Parasites
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by meganthanson on Monday October 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ACBS 403 at University of Arizona taught by Charles Sterling in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Biology Animal Parasites in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Bovine Trichomonads Sexually transmitted lives in vaginal tract Spontaneous abortion in females 0 Causes sterility of uterine tissue if infected 0 Some calves life from but lose it at about 34 years ofage Prevalance varies widely Arti cial insemination will take care of this problem if bull donating doesn39t carry it Issue of heard management 0 Test animals 0 Control sexual activity Porcine trichomonads Feline Diarrhea Tritrichomonas foetus Fecal oral transmission 0 Many species eat own feces Lives in cat intestine 31 prevalence Doesn39t last long in fecal sample so need to work quickly with it Histomonas meegridis Chicken parasite Largely agulate parasite Causes enterohepatitis Weird lifecycleives in GI tract of chicken as a agulate o In order to be transmitted it has to be picked up by a nematode heterakis To live in nematode it goes to reproductive organs 0 Gets into eggs of nematodes then in to the larvae Life cycle 0 Nematode eats protozoan which multiplies and transfers to nematode egg 0 Egg passes with feces and develops within egg 0 Chicken eats nematode egg egg hatches and releases histomonas adult in GI tract Histomonas migrates to blood vascular tract of chicken and blood travels directly to liver 0 Can get into other organs a swell but sticks to liver and cecum Dientomoeba fragilis No cyst stage Looks like an amoeba it is a agellate agella doesn39t get expressed Fecal oral transmission commonly diagnosed parasite Life cycle 0 O 0 000 O Trophozoites in feces Transmission fecal oral No cyst stage identi ed Transmission might occur vis helminth eggs Ascaris Enterobius pin worm Trophozoites get ingested Divide by binary ssion Trophozoites in lumen of colon Get de cated out Prevalence varies widely Connected to histamonas by seeing Dientoboeba in pinworms larvae and eggs 0 Related because there are no cysts use trophozoites for transmission Not everyone that get infected gets sickcommensal relationship 0 Usually happy unless other microbes are upsetting balance in GI tract Mucosal immunity 0 lgA if there is pathogenesis in GI tract likelihood of mucosal immune response Naegleria and Acanthomoeba Acanthomoeba D contact lens 0 O O O O Cysts and trophozoites in soil Chronic encephalitis Brain and kidney tissue get infected Life cycle Enter through broken skin or lower respiratory tract Cyst Trophozoite Cysts and trophozoites in tissue infected human Mitosis Causes GAE granulomatous amebis encephalitis with people that have a compromised immune system Naegleria fresh water world wide D huge problem 0 O O 0 Primary cause of amebic meningoencephalitis Spends a lot of time as a trophozoite True amebo agellate Spends 12 time as amoeba 12 time as a agellate Oxygenated waterD nd amoeba deoxygenated water high temp waterD nd cyst Cases are relatively low seen in southern states Get infected by agulate form Needs to have access to mucosal membranes Goes through nose and beelines for brain Digests brain tissue tremendous in ammation 0 High fever severe headachesmeningitis Drs Usually think bacterial or viral meningitis unless they ask if patient has been swimming in warm water 0 Will die within 56 days most diagnosed too late 0 Life cycle in water unless speci ed Cyst Trophozoite Trophozoite in CFS amp brain tissue 0 Infected human Flagellated forms in CFS o Infected human Flagellated form Promitosis 0 Produce 0 Don39t get because it progresses so quickly Invasive vs Noninvasive Entomoeba histolytica l commensal and noninvasive 0 About 50000000 infected Entomoeba disparl invasive o Morphologically similar lacks some cysteine proteases that allow E histoytica to become invasive The two parasites are differentiated by enzymes and enzyme patterns Entomoeba histolytica Noninvasive Commensal Perfectly happy living in intestinal tract feeding off of bacteria lf disruption to mucous layer occurs it allows for contact with host epithelial cells 0 Does co because of presence of GALGALNACtin on surface of amoeba Recognized carbohydrates and glycoproteins on epithelial cells Once contact is made a series of contact depended cytotoxicity is initiated o In the case of amoebiasis depended on the cysteine proteases and amoebapore 0 Help destroy epithelial cells and allow organism to be invasive lnvasive colitis and might not get beyond submucosa o lnnate immune system largely composed of neutrophils rush to the scene If no neutrophils can neutralize amoeba they do so by secreting enzymes and nitrous oxide D destroy amoeba Shouldn t go beyond this because other immune factors rush to the site 0 lgA antibodiesD mucosal antibody 0 Macrophage like cells 0 All play a role in controlling amoebiasis o Amoeba can defend itself by ingesting RBC Hemoglobin in RBC will neutralize superoxide anion If there are enough amoeba can neutralize neutrophils and get into vascular system and migrate to extraintestinal sites 0 Only occurs in about 1 0 Where they go depends on where they get carried 0 Brain lungs liver Need to diagnose early or can be fatalD Metrodinizol Poor sanitary conditions D developing countries Directly or indirectly spread D fecal oral Water cysts get into water supply Apicomplexant parasite Organelles that are present in invasive stage Life cycle 0 Mature cystgets ingested o ExcitationD cysts get de cated out o Trophozoite OOOOO O Multiplication into cysts and trophozoites Amoebiasis invasion Amoebic adherence using GALGALNAC ectin to intestinal epithelial cells 0 Activation of quotvirulence programquot using amoebapore and cysteine proteases Cell damage with release of plLl B O Extracellular amoebic cysteine protease cleaving plLIB Cytokines and in ammatory mediators produced Neutrophil in ux Mediators damage epithelial cells Amoeba invade circulatory system and travel Complications of Amebiasis Amebic abscesses 0 00000000000 Diagnosis Brain Lung Subdiaphragmatic Liver Subheanc Periappendiceal Amebic ulcers Peritonitis Ameboma Anorectal stula Cutaneous amebiasis Pericardial effusion amebic pericarditis Microscopy stool and abscess uid Antigen detection stool serum abscess uid 0 Indirect hemagglutination antibody 0 0 Serum obtained during acute illness Serum obtained during convelescence Completes all of life cycle in 1 host 0 Can be any type of cat Eimeria lives in intestinal tract of cat Toxoplasmosis Unusual parasite life cycle might be initiated differently Starting in GI tract 0 Merogony o Gamogony and production of oocysts o Oocysts get passed in cat s feces Not directly infectious but close to Takes about 2 days for completion of formation of sporozoites Will contain a zygote that needs further replication Has 8 sporozoites but 2 sporocysts Takes about 2 days in environment to reach stage of nitration to be potentially infectious Cats can infect themselves through corporphaga but no one knows if it is true 0 Usually get infected through carnivorism 0 Cats are secretive about elimination Mouse eats cat feces tissues get infected not GI tract and multiplies asa Acute stage goes through the placenta 0 Vertical congenital transmission 0 More likely to happen 0 Acute stage will transform into chronic Dpersist for years 0 Bradyzoite probably in muscle tissue in animal Cats eat liberated from muscle tissue infected cat Carnivorism plays a huge role in infections human too 0 Multiple host species but not like in the cat Unsporulated cysts pass 2 days sporulated Transport hosts ies Can infect a wide variety of cellstachyzoiteimmune system controls replication bradyzoites Problem is 0 Don t know how disease is going to present itself Humans get infected from consuming other animals that aren39t fully cooked 0 Horizontal transmission spread through uids and tissues 0 If serologically need to worry about bradyzoites reverting to tachyzoietes o lgG antibodies in blood stream 0 How can parasites multiply in humans early in the infection 0 Infected meat o Litter box 0 M cells living in GI tract macrophagephagolytic cells Parasites get picked up Multiplies in vacuole Parasite prevents phagolysosomal fusion Majority continue to multiply in phagolysosome and continue to prevent fusion 0 Some escape and multiply in cytoplasm Release proteins to keep ysosome from recognizing phagosome Modi es phagosome membrane Parasites that are incompetent can be processed by macrophage and start building immune response 0 Over time macrophages become activated 0 Need activity from antibodies and cell mediated immunity 0 Cell mediated immunity is more important Immunocompromised have serious problems Apicomplexant o Rhoptries secrete substances to evade immune response 0 Apicoplast metabolic functions essential to survival 0 Does not poke holes in cells Host ce parasite interaction acute stage replication 1 Tachyzoite makes contact with host cell 2 Secretes substances and advances into a parasitophorous vacuole a Components of cell a line up around parasite to help sustain it inside the cell 3 Parasite multiplies and ruptures the cell 4 Infect new hosts Does not poke holes in the cell 0 Needs to complete life cycle When immunity kicks in revert from tachyzoites to bradyzoites o Bradyzoites persist in tissues Highlow pH Heat Shock Mitochondiral inhibition Tachyzoi Bradyzo i7 Jr Lack of nitric acid Lack of INFF TNFd T Toxoencephalitistost severe case TransplantsD screen for Tcruzi and Toxoplasmosis Immunity cell mediated immunity Plasma cells produce antibodies 0 Produce IgM then lgG lgG keeps immunity going and keeps bradyzoites at bay 0 Activate macrophages IFNF o Activate cytotoxic T cells and lots of other cytokines Disease Chronic allergies recurrent toxoplasmosis Effect eyes and brain 0 Lesions in both 0 Intense headaches blurry vision Congenitally 0 Can multiply everywhereDhydroencephalitis Danger of pregnancy 0 1St time getting exposed no immunity Gets into developing fetus in the 1St trimester Spontaneous abortion Late pregnancy ljproblems on inside of the fetus body 0 Get screened before trying to have a baby amniotic uid and serum If chances lower because of immune response 0 Pregnancy can lower immune responsiveness Toxoplasma linked to schizophrenia Antibody testing Test serum 0 IgG not infected o IgG infected Determine approximate time infected o IgG IgM infected for 1 year 0 IgG IgM infected within last 2 years OR false Get second sample 2 weeks after the 1St Treatment Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine usually given AIDS patients on antiretrovirals may modify depending on CD4 counts Patients allergic to sulfa may take 0 Clindamycin o Azithromycin o Atovaquone o Dapsone o Clarithromycin Leucovorin folic acid may be given with pyrimethamine if blood counts are lowered Sporozoites initiate infection Infection rates for crypto US100000 vastly underreported about 750000 casesyr About 23 different species 0 C parvum Sheep and reindeer Get into rural areas 0 C hominis Humans Higher populations How does this effect the epidemiology Oocysts get passed through feces D fully sporulated o 4 sporozoites and not complete 0 Infectious immediately once contact is made Directly infectious highly infectious 0 Kids most vulnerable Serosive transmission EX Household with small kids kids are infected Mom changing diaper gets fecal matter on hands and doesn t wash it fully off directly infectious doesn t take time to sporulate Usually see large scale outbreaks because it is so infective 45 days prepatent period time before showing symptoms 0 Sick about 1 week Oocyst is highly disinfectant resistant o Takes A LOT of bleach What happens when oocysts are ingested 2 Penetrate intestinal epithelial cells 3 Parasitophous vacole lies just above under the membrane of the host cell and wants to infect it 4 Undergoes merogony and forms merozoites type 1 a In the absence of oppressive immunity keep initial phase of merogony gonng i Have AIDS and not on antiretrovirals big trouble because it is opportunistic 1 Get dehydrated quickly because of amount of diarrhea 2 ln absence of effective immunity you go through autoinfective cycle a Self infection infection keeps going 5 Some merozoites become type 2 some macrogamete a Become sexual stage parasites 6 Macrogametes make zygotes a Zygote starts dividing Some oocysts become others c Majority produced are thick walled i Can persist in environment for long periods of time 0 Host infected with crypto sheds LOTS of oocysts 0 Only takes a few to cause infection 0 Can stain with acid fast stain o Nonspeci c Host cell membrane gets modi ed by the parasite 0 Doesn t take up nutrients from intestinal lumen but nutrients go into the cell and get redirected into the parasite Can nd a lot of ATPasis transport enzymes 0 Can be why drugs don39t effect parasite Prohibits drugs from being transported across membrane How does crypto effect apoptosis 0 Slows down certain pathways htat lead to apoptosis 0 Apoptosis cell programmed death 0 Advantage Needs to keep cell alive long enough to complete life cycle in cell 0 Cell turnover rate slows down somewhat Who s at risk Occupationalgroupings 0 Vet workers farmers animal handlers o Healthmedical care workers 0 Day care employees 0 Petting zoos Social groupings in contact with infected persons 0 Familysexual partners 0 Day care attendees o Nosocomial settings 0 Pet owners Travelers to select areas lmmunode cient and immunosuppressed patients 0 Lose lots of uids Children Malnourishment from diarrhea impairs their developing immune system 0 Lose lots of micronutrients ZINC most important because it directly effects immune system Pathogens in water too Stunt in growth and mental development Epidemiology Proven routes of transmission Ef uents to water effects recreational use and man Recreational use effects man and water treatment system Water treatment system effects man Pets to man Wild life effects land farm live stock and pets which both effect man Food chain effects man Suspected routes of transmission 0 Wild life to food chain 0 Man to farm stock 0 Exotic livestock to man 0 Bottom line organism is EVERYWHERE Treatment More than 100 chemotherapeutic agents found ineffective Agents with promising anticryptosporidical activity in ruminants o Paromomycin Lasalocid Supportive therapy Halofoginone Sulfaquinoxoanine toxicity likely to be an issue above 5mgkg o all treatment is expensive about 35 a day for paromomycin Recent human clinical trials 0 Spiramycin Azithromycin Dielazuril Letrazuril Paromomycin Nitazoxanide Atovaquone Octreotide Supportive therapy 0 000 0000000
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