COMPLETE MCAT StudyGuide - 200+ pages
COMPLETE MCAT StudyGuide - 200+ pages none
Popular in Physics
Popular in Physics 2
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Date Created: 12/03/14
Free senersgy P Transition sztjate Ea 1 f Heaniztza nits P P atit r Pro IJIEIE ProgrE55 of reactiitirl rcatalrEeoi REateannt5 t39 3939 Prooi Iuizts Free ElFlEllgjl39 Fquotro grE55 of reaaztirt jab Enzymes decrease the activation energy Ea of a reaction by lowering the energy of the transition state Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy Enzymes will increase the rate constant k for the equation rate kAB Enzymes do NOT change the Keq of a reaction Enzymes do not change Keq because it lowers the activation energy for BOTH forward and reverse reactions Enzymes will make the reverse reaction go faster also Enzymes do not change AG the net change in free energy o Enzymes affect the kinetics of a reaction but not the thermodynamics Substrates and enzyme specificity o Enzyme substrate interactions occur at the enzyme39s active site 0 Enzyme substrate specificity derives from structural interactions 0 Lock and key model rigid active site Substrate fits inside the rigid active site like a key 0 Induced fit model flexible active site Substrate fits inside the flexible active site which is then induced to quotgraspquot the substrate in a better fit 0 Enzymes can be specific enough to distinguish between stereoisomers o Enzymes can be protein or RNA Almost all enzymes in your body is made of protein The most important RNA enzyme in your body is the ribosome 0 Enzyme structure derives from 4 levels Primary this is the sequence of the protein or RNA chain Secondary this is hydrogen bonding between the protein backbone Examples include alpha helices and beta sheets backbone H bonding For RNA this is base pairing Tertiary this is the 3D structure of the enzyme This involves R group interactions and spatial arrangement of secondary structure Quaternary when more than 1 chain is involved When you hear about quotdimersquot quottrimersquot quottetramersquot quotoligomersquot that39s quaternary structure 0 Heat and extreme pH denatures enzymes by altering their structure Control of enzyme activity Feedback inhibition 0 The product of a pathway inhibits the pathway 0 For example hexokinase the first enzyme in glycolysis is inhibited by its product glucose 6 phosphate Anaerobic metabolism of glucose 0 Partial oxidation of metabolite glucose to pyruvate 2 net ATP produced per glucose Pyruvate is then reduced to either alcohol or lactate Bacteria reduce pyruvate to alcohol in a process called alcohol fermentation Humans reduce pyruvate to lactate in a process called lactic acid fermentation Glycolysis anaerobic and aerobic substrates and products 0 Glycolysis convert glucose 6 carbons to 2 molecules of pyruvate 3 carbons Location cytosol 2 net ATP made for every glucose 2 input ATP 4 output ATP 2 NADH made for every glucose Occurs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions Glycolysis is inhibited by ATP Aerobic decarboxylation mitochondrial matrix convert pyruvate 3 carbons to an acetyl group 2 carbons 1 NADH made for every pyruvate Only occurs in the presence of oxygen Acetyl group attaches to Coenzyme A to make acetyl CoA Anaerobic fermentation cytosol redox reaction reduce pyruvate oxidize NADH 1 NAD made for every pyruvate Alcohol fermentation pyruvate reduced to ethanol Lactic acid fermentation pyruvate reduced to lactate N dtcnit1c 2 Tf1 jr39f1tiiit39lI E II r4 Et1anit1c E5 Ejytosinc o A forms 2 hydrogen bonds with T o G forms 3 hydrogen bonds with C 0 GO bonds are stronger DNA with high GC content will be harder to break apart 0 Complementary strands of DNA hydrogen bond with each other 0 539 ATGC 339 will be complementary to 539 GCAT 339 or 339TACG 539 but NOT 539 TACG3 make sure you get the 539s and 339s right o Function in transmission of genetic information 0 Because of the complementary nature of base pairing DNA can transmit genetic information through replication o The plasmid must have a restriction site because you need to open it up for the insertion of your gene 0 The plasmid must have an origin of replication because you want to clone your gene which is inside your plasmid o The plasmid must have an antibiotic resistant gene because this lets you kill competing useless bacteria that doesn39t have your plasmid When you add an antibiotic only the bacteria with the antibiotic resistant plasmid will live 0 Plasmids replicate independently of the genomic DNA of the bacteria PCR 1 I239Ena39ttIrH39tian 2 unnaaailing 3 Elongation E G 3 2 5 El quot1 539 339 539 5 3 G F 7quot 1quot ll 3 E9 E3 5 3 5 A at Fiep aa t 3 rl cycles 239 2 mpIi iica39Iioan o Denaturation heat 90 C to separate double stranded DNA template 0 Annealing cool reaction in order for primers to anneal to the now single stranded DNA template Excess amount of primers so they out complete re annealing of the template strands o Elongation use heat stable polymerase to extend the primers 0 Repeat steps 1 to 3 for n cycles The resulting amplification of the original DNA template after n cycles is 2 Genetic code Central Dogma DNA gt RNA gt protein 1 DNA resides in the nucleus It codes information in genes 3 4 5 Transcription Inside the nucleus the DNA genes get transcribed into RNA messenger RNAs or mRNAs RNA The mRNAs get transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm mRNAs are working copies of the gene Translation ribosomes read off the mRNAs to make proteins Protein synthesized by ribosomes They are the end product of what39s encoded in the genes and they perform all the functions in the cell Codon anticodon relationship 1 2 Codon The mRNA is a sequence of nucleotides but it codes for a sequence of amino acids To do this every 3 nucleotide codes for an amino acid These triplets of nucleotides are called codons A single mRNA contains many codons Codons are continuous non overlapping and degenerate Continuous because one codon follows right after another There39re no nucleotides in between Non overlapping because the 3 nucleotides that consist of one codon never serve as part of another codon Degenerate because more than one codons code for a given amino acid Anticodon the 3 bases on the quottipquot of the tRNA A single tRNA contains a single anticodon at the quottipquot and the corresponding amino acid at the quottailquot Anticodons are complementary to their corresponding codon 3 The codon anticodon relationship During translation codons pair with anticodons so that the correct amino acids can be linked to a given codon Missense nonsense codons 1 Missense codon mutated codon that results in a different amino acid 2 Nonsense codon mutated codon that results in something other than an amino acid For example a stop codon Initiation termination codons function codon sequences 1 Initiation codon AUG signals the start of translation Lies just downstream of the Shine Dalgarno sequence Kozak sequence for eukaryotes 2 Termination codon UAGUGAUAA signals the end of translation Unlike other codons tRNA are not involved Instead a protein called quotrelease factorquot comes along and terminates translation Transcription Eukaryotic mRNA 539 cap nucleotides 339 polyA Prokaryotic mRNAs don39t have the 539 cap or polyA tail rRNA composition and structure eg RNA nucleotides Both tRNA transfer RNA and rRNA ribosomal RNA are products of transcription However they do not serve as the template of translation tRNA is responsible for bringing in the correct amino acid during translation rRNA makes up the ribosome which is the enzyme responsible for translation tRNA is made of nucleotides many of which is modified for structural and functional reasons At the 339 end of the tRNA the amino acid is attached to the 339OH via an ester linkage tRNA structure clover leaf structure with anticodon at the tip and the amino acid at the 339 tail rRNA is made of nucleotides many of which is modified for structural and functional reasons rRNA is highly structured because it contains the active site for catalysis The rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit is responsible for catalyzing peptide bond formation and can do this even without ribosomal proteins o Mechanism of transcription RNA polymerase promoters primer not required 0 0 Chain Initiation RNA polymerase binds to the promoter TATA box of the double stranded DNA closed complex The double stranded DNA template opens up open complex Chain elongation nucleoside triphosphates AUGCs adds corresponding to the DNA template No primer is required RNA elongates as the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA template RNA is made from the 539 to 339 direction Chain termination there are 2 ways that transcription can terminate 1 Intrinsic termination specific sequences called a termination site creates a stem loop structure on the RNA that causes the RNA to slip off the template Rho p dependent termination a protein called the p factor travels along the synthesized RNA and bumps off the polymerase Role and structure of ribosomes O O Ribosome is the enzyme that catalyzes protein synthesis Ribosome has 2 subunits the large and the small The large subunit is responsible for the peptidyl transfer reaction The small subunit is responsible for the recognizing mRNA and binds to the Shine Dalgarno sequence on the mRNA Kozak sequence for eukaryotes Both subunits are needed for translation to occur and they come together in a hamburger fashion that sandwitches the mRNA and tRNAs in between o Mechanism of translation 0 Chain Initiation To begin translation you need to form the initiation complex The initiation complex is basically an assembly of everything needed to begin translation This includes mRNA initiator tRNA fmet and the ribosome initiation factors and GTP aids in the formation of the initiation complex The initiation complex forms around the initiation codon AUG which is just down stream of the Shine Dagarno sequence The Shine Dalgarno sequence is the quotpromoterquot equivalent of translation for prokaryotes Kozak sequence for eukaryotes Chain Elongation protein is made from the N terminus to the C terminus mRNA codons are read from the 539 to the 339 end Elongation consists of 1 Binding new tRNA with its amino acid tRNAamino acid is called aminoacyl tRNA enters the A site GTP and elongation factor required 2 Peptidyl transfer attachment of the new amino acid to the existing chain in the P site The mechanism is a little strange what happens is that the already existing chain in the P site migrates and attaches to the aminoacyl tRNA in the A site 3 Translocation the lone tRNA in the P site gets kicked off E site and the tRNA in the A site along with the peptide chain attached to it moves into the P site The mRNA gets dragged along also the codon that was in the A site is now in the P site after translocation The A site is now empty and ready for the binding of a new Transllatinn Ilnitiatinnn Fnrminugu the IlargE i itiatinn anmnlex lFs rm lnrnger uriee le l Threw dizssnciateAn ETIP Iiiyadr llytze tn The large EJllfILll iTI ta rs Eweryrth n up Trwanslatin Elnguatian Tlf lfl si ih GP Pi A Eukaryotic chromosome organization Chromosomal proteins 1 Histones responsible for the compact packing and winding of chromosomal DNA DNA winds itself around histone octamers 2 nonhistone chromosomal proteins all the other proteins are lumped together in this group Responsible for various roles such regulatory and enzymatic Telomerescentromeres 1 Telomere the 2 ends of the chromosome 2 Centromere a region on the chromosome can be at the center or close to one of the ends After replication sister chromatids are attached at the centromere During mitosis spindle fibers are attached at the centromere and pulls the sister chromatids apart A common question is what is the difference between chromatin and chromosome The answer is chromatin is the quotstuffquot that chromosomes are made of If the chromosome is a cotton shirt then chromatin is cotton Control of gene expression in eukaryotes Transcription regulation 0 Transcription factors protein bind to enhancers or silencers DNA to affect transcription Enhancers increase transcription when bound while silencers decrease it The main difference in eukaryotes that sets them apart from prokaryotes is that enhancerssilencers can be very far away from the actual promoter and can be upstream or downstream The DNA must loop back on itself so that the transcription factor bound to enhancersilencer can actually make contact with the promoter Intermediate proteins are involved in the process 0 Eukaryotes lack the bacterial transcription regulation mechanisms such as the operon exists but very rare and attenuation DNA binding proteins transcription factors 0 DNA binding proteins bind to DNA 0 transcription factors bind to DNA so they have a DNA binding domain notype lood type phenotype AIA or IAi or 1B1 AIB Homo and heterozygosity o Homozygous when the two alleles that an individual carries are the same For example AA or aa 0 Heterozygous when the two alleles that an individual carries are different For example Aa Wild type the quotnormalquot allele or phenotype for an organism The wild type is usually the most prevalent although it doesn39t necessarily have to be true Recessiveness the quotweakquot allele The recessive allele is only expressed if both copies are present Only a single copy is needed for the dominant allele The recessive allele is usually denoted as the lower case letter the dominant allele is usually denoted as the upper case letter For example blond hair is recessive Both alleles for blond hair need to be present otherwise the hair is dark Complete dominance notype henotype minant minant sive Co dominance notype henotype oth A and B An example of codominance is the A and B blood type alleles Type A cells have A antigens Type B cells have B antigens Type AB makes both antigens Important differences between meiosis and mitosis lknitosis lineiosis t t d etrad formation pairing of homologous chromosomes 0 6 fa nd cross over tgyeg lttglclells identical to rdaughter cells different from parent cell quotdiploid 2n daughter cells liiaploid n daughter cells quot1 division involved quot2 divisions involved Telmphasei o Crossing over occurs during prophase I the actual site of cross over is the chiasma The chiasma is made possible because of pairing of homologous chromosomes called the tetrad which is formed by a process called synapsis 0 single crossovers results in genetic recombination The chromatids involved in this single crossover exchange alleles at a given locus Results in 24 recombinants 0 double crossovers Scenario 1 results in no genetic recombination The chromatids involved in this double crossover exchange alleles at first but then it exchanges them back resulting in no net recombination This is called the 2 strand double crossover Results in 04 recombinants Scenario 2 results in genetic recombination The chromatids exchange alleles during a crossover Then one of the crossover chromatid exchanges with a different chromatid This is called the 3 strand double crossover Results in 24 recombinants Scenario 3 results in genetic recombination The chromatids exchange then 2 totally different chromatids on the same chromosome exchange This is called the 4 strand double crossover Results in 44 recombinants Sex linked characteristics gene for the characteristic is on the X chromosome 0 very few genes on Y chromosome The Y chromosome is very small and carries few genes of importance All the sex linked alleles are carried on the X chromosome 0 sex determination XX female XY male 0 cytoplasmic inheritance Mutation Cytoplasmic inheritance inheritance of things other than genomic DNA All cellular organelles such as mitochondria is inherited from the mother Fungi Back cross mating between the offspring and the parent preserve parental genotype Parental generation P generation of the parent On a pedigree the is the row that represents the parents F1 generation Filial 1 children On a pedigree this is the row below the parents and represents the children of the parents F2 generation Filial 2 grandchildren On a pedigree this is the row below the F1 and represents the children of the F1 and grandchildren of the parents General characteristics 0 O 0 Made of hyphae filaments Parasitic hyphae haustoria A mass of hyphae is called mycelium Have cell wall made of chitin All fungi are heterotrophs they are either parasites or saprobes Lichens fungi algae Algae provides food fungi provides water and protection Mycorrhizae fungi plant roots Plant provides food fungi provides more absorption surface area Yeast molds mushrooms are all fungi General aspects of life cycle 0 O 0 Can be sexual or asexual Reproduces via spores or mycelial fragmentation Most fungi have both a haploid and a diploid stage of life cycle Virus structure General structural characteristics nucleic acid and protein enveloped and nonenveloped 0 Nucleic acid can be DNA or RNA single stranded or double stranded 0 Protein coat covers the nucleic acid 0 Some viruses have an envelope derived from the host39s cell membrane while others lack it nonenveloped Enveloped viruses bud off the host39s membrane Nonenveloped viruses cause the host to burst to release viral particles 0 Smaller than bacteria o Lack organelles nucleus Viruses don39t have any organelles or a nucleus The genetic material is simply packed inside a protein coat Structural aspects of typical bacteriophage p Elltctttlit 1 Tail 0 Head stores genetic material 0 Sheath provides a passage way for genetic material to be injected into the host bacteria 0 Tail fibers attach to the host bacteria Genomic content RNA or DNA Viruses can contain either RNA or DNA as their genomic content Out of the RNA viruses those that convert their genome into DNA inside their host are called retroviruses Size relative to bacteria and eukaryotic cells Viruses are roughly 100 times smaller than bacteria and 1000 times smaller than eukaryotic cells Viral life cycle Transduction bacteriophages undergoing Iysogenic life cycle incorporate the viral DNA into the bacterial genome Conjugation Bacteria transfer DNA between one another through the sex pilus o Exponential growth Bacterial growth starts off being exponential because of the nature of binary fission Later when food becomes short and it gets crowded growth slows and eventually plateaus Existence of anaerobic and aerobic variants Obligate aerobe must have oxygen for growth Obligate anaerobe dies when oxygen is present Facultative anaerobe doesn39t need oxygen for growth but grows better with oxygen Symbiotic relationships 0 O Parasitic bacteria benefits at the expense of the host Disease causing bacteria are examples of parasitic relationships Mutualistic both bacteria and host benefits For example the E Coli in your gut the natural flora on your skin Commensalistic one benefits while the other has no effect Prokaryotic cell genetics Existence of plasmids extragenomic DNA transfer by conjugation O Plasmids are double stranded DNA A plasmid can exist and replicate independently of the genomic DNA or be integrated into it Plasmids are inherited Plasmids are not essential for growth and reproduction in the wild Conjugation transfers genetic material between bacteria via a pillus A bacteria able to make the pillus F has a plasmid that contains the pillus genes F bacteria can transfer the plasmid to an F bacteria Conjugation can also transfer some genomic DNA because F plasmid can integrate into the chromosome o Transformation incorporation into bacterial genome of DNA fragments from external medium When a bacteria dies it Iyses and spills many DNA fragments into the environment Another bacteria encounters these DNA fragments takes them in and integrates them into its own genome If the DNA fragments contained an antibiotic resistant gene then the transformation just made the bacteria antibiotic resistant o Regulation of gene expression coupling of transcription and translation 0 Regulation at the transcription level some genes are actively transcribed while others are not Activaters and inhibitors modulate the transcription of a gene Regulation at the translation level Some mRNA gets translated more In prokaryotes mRNAs with better Shine Dagarno sequence are translated more In eukaryotes translation regulation can involve adding more poyAs to mRNA longer mRNA life time modulating the translation machinary phosphorylation of initiation factors or storing mRNAs to be translated at a later time mRNA masking Prokaryotes regulate gene expression predominantly at the transcription level eg Operons in which inducers increase transcription and inhibitors decrease transcription Eukaryotes have more regulation at other levels and can also undergo RNA splicing which can splice RNA in different ways to make different mRNAs For more eukaryotic gene regulation click here Transcription transIation coupling in prokaryotes translation occurs as the mRNA is being transcribed no RNA processing in prokaryotes In a coupled transcription transation system regulation by attenuation can occur for the Trp gene When cell is full of Trp translation occurs fast because of abundant Trp amino acid This fast ribosome movement across the Endoplasmic reticulum o rough RER and smooth SER rough ER has ribosomes studded over it smooth ERs don39t RER deals with protein synthesis folding modification and export SER deals with biosynthesis of lipids and steroids and metabolism of carbohydrates and drugs In the muscles the SER or SR stores and regulates calcium 0 RER site of ribosomes the ribosomes attach to the outside of rough ER and synthesis protein into the lumen o role in membrane biosynthesis SER lipids RER transmembrane proteins SER makes lipids of the plasma membrane RER makes transmembrane proteins carries them on its membrane RER membrane forms vesicles and bud off fuses with the plasma membrane transmembrane proteins now on the plasma membrane 0 RER role in biosynthesis of transmembrane and secreted proteins that cotranslationally targeted to RER by signal sequence Transmembrane proteins or proteins that are to be secreted need RER vesicle have a signal sequence right at the beginning When ribosome starts making those proteins they make the signal sequence first Signal sequence recruits a signal recognition particle that drags it to the RER ribosome now on the RER continues making the protein but snakes it into the lumen Signal sequence is clipped off 0 All ERs have a double membrane and is connected to the nuclear membrane an old aamc topic no longer tested 0 Cell signaling pathways Contact signaling physical contact triggers a change inside cell Chemical signaling chemical binding to receptor triggers a change inside cell Nerves use neurotransmitters The endocrine system use hormones Electrical signaling change in membrane potential triggers change in cell Action potential along neurons propagates and cause release of neurotransmitters into synapse Action potential along muscle cell membrane causes contraction o Membrane potential the resting potential of the cell membrane is negative because of the sodium potassium pump Exocytosis and endocytosis exo getting stuff out endo taking stuff in Cell cell communication General concepts of cellular adhesion 0 gap junctions connects two cells and allows stuff to flow through between the cells 0 tight junctions stitchesglues two cells together and does not allow stuff to flow through between the cells A series of cells with tight junctions also effectively forms an impermeable barrier o desmosomes connects two cells together by linking their cytoskeleton They are organized for mechanical strength not an impermeable barrier Cytoskeleton General function in cell support and movement o Microfilaments composition role in cleavage and contractility 0 made of actin o responsible for cytokinesis Supports cell shape by bearing tension lnterphase and mitosis prophase metaphase anaphase telophase o lnterphase G1 Growth S Synthesis replicate DNA G2 Growth 0 Prophase Prepare condense chromatin into chromosomes break down nuclear membrane assemble mitotic spindle centriole pairs move toward opposite poles of the cell 0 Metaphase Middle Chromosomes line up in the middle 0 Anaphase Apart Sister chromatids pulled apart to opposite sides of cell 0 Telophase Prophase in reverse de condense chromosomes re form nuclear membrane break down mitotic spindle Mitotic structures and processes 0 centrioles asters spindles responsible for pulling apart the sister chromatids o chromatids centromeres kinetochores sister chromatids are duplicated copies of the chromosome chromatids are joined at the centromere There39s a protein at the centromere called the kinetochore where spindle fibers attach to pull the chromatids apart 0 nuclear membrane breakdown and reorganization for most eukaryotes the nuclear membrane breaks down at the beginning of mitosis and reforms at the end of mitosis around each of the two newly formed nuclei 0 mechanisms of chromosome movement chromatids move apart during anaphase by the spindle fibers Microtubules cause the chromosome movement Phases of cell cycle G0 G1 8 G2 M 0 G0 no more DNA replication or cell division Examples include nerves and muscles 0 G1 growth make organelles increase in cell size O 0 Contains nucleus and organelles just like any other cell Has well developed RER and golgi makes a lot of proteins Axon structure function 0 O O Axon Conducting region of the nerve Axon terminals secretory regions of nerve Other names for axon terminal synaptic knob bouton Dendrites structure function 0 O Receptive region of the nerve gets input The branching helps to increase the surface area for reception Myelin sheath Schwann cells oligodendrocytes insulation of axon O Myelin sheath Covers the axon intermittently with gaps called nodes of Ranvier The purpose of myelin sheath is to speed up conduction by insulating the nerve in intervals This intermittent insulation causes action potential to jump from one node of Ranvier to the next Schwann cells makes myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system by wrapping around the axon Oligodendrocytes the central nervous system analogue of Schwann cells makes myelin sheath around CNS axons Insulation of axon achieved by the myelin sheath Insulation occurs in intervals which causes action potential to jump from one node of Ranvier to the next Myelin sheath is a good insulator because it is fatty and does not contain any channels Nodes of Ranvier role in propagation of nerve impulse along axon O 0 Action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next This jumping of action potential speeds up conduction in the axon Synapse site of impulse propagation between cells o Synapse conduction from one cell to another 0 Axodendritic synapse axon terminal of one neuron presynaptic gt dendrite of another neuron postsynaptic o Axosomatic synpase axon terminal of one neuron presynaptic gt cell body of another neuron postsynaptic o Axoaxonic synapse rare axon terminal of one neuron presynaptic gt axon hillock of another postsynaptic Synaptic activity l HFquot rt39tiatr l339n39te ritial I I l lpl 39u we k 39 I I Et 1quotdi FP1If tj1ti l 39 l o transmitter molecules Transmitter molecules neurotransmitters Action potential gt release of neurotransmitters by presynaptic axon terminal gt picked up by receptor of postsynaptic neuron Release of neurotransmitter exocytosis of vesicles containing neurotransmitters Triggered by calcium influx when action potential reaches axon terminal Neurotransmitter reception diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synaptic cleft binds to receptor opens up ion channels that causes a change in membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron graded potential If this graded potential is large enough it will causes membrane to be more negative on the inside hence negative membrane potential o Excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers summation frequency of firing O Excitatory stimulates an action potential to occur Excitatory synapse receptor binding causes postsynaptic potential to be more positive depolarization if it gets above threshold action potential results Inhibitory inhibits an action potential from occuring Inhibitory synapse receptor binding causes postsynaptic potential to be more negative hyperpolarization makes it more difficult to reach threshold Summation two or more nerves firing at the same time Two subthreshold excitatory nerves firing at the same time can sum to reach the threshold A threshold excitatory nerve and an inhibitory nerve firing at the same time and the resultant signal won39t reach the threshold Frequency Firing then quickly firing again If the first fire is subthreshold fire again before the previous depolarization dies and the new depolarization will be even higher than the first time Muscle CelContractile Structural characteristics of striated smooth and cardiac muscle old aamc topic 0 Striated skeletal muscles voluntary has stripes multiple nuclei shared within the same muscle fiber Strong but tire easily shaped like long fibers Smooth visceral involuntary muscles no stripes single nucleus per cell Weak but doesn39t tire easily shaped like almonds tapered on both ends Cardiac heart muscles involuntary has stripes single nucleus per cell strong and doesn39t tire easily highly branched shaped like fibers cross linked to one another o T tubue extension of the muscle cell membrane that runs deep into the cell so that action potential can reach there 0 Muscle contraction Nerve stimulates muscle Action potential runs along muscle cell membrane Goes deep into the muscle cell via T tubules Stimulates the SR terminal cisternae to release calcium Calcium causes muscle to contract via the sliding filament mechanism Sarcomeres quotlquot and quotAquot bands quotMquot and quotZquot lines quotHquot zone General structure only 2 l E i itt al I I H El Eanrtosrnera o I band thinnest thin filaments only sides of the sarcomere o H zone fattest thick filaments only center of the sarcomere spans the M line 0 A band contains both thick and thin filaments center of the sarcomere spans the H zone 0 M line line of myosin in the middle of the sarcomere linked by accessory proteins Collagen the most common fiber type Very strong Present in large amounts in dense connective tissue Elastic fibers can stretch Reticular fibers can branch and form nets Found in loose connective tissue 0 loose vs dense Loose loose fibers lots of fluff ground substance cells anything that you don39t associate with being fibrous fat paddings around organs Dense dense fibers predominantly collagen genuinely fibrous little fluff ground substance cells tendon ligament o Cartilage chondrocytes matrix elastic flexible used as padding in spinal discs ends of bones ear 0 Extracellular matrix secreted by cells ground substance glue and fibers Endocrine system Hormones o Function of endocrine system specific chemical control at cell tissue and organ level 0 Endocrine system make hormones specific control of all target cells of that hormone o Definition of endocrine gland hormone o endo within crine to secrete o endocrine glands secreting hormones into surrounding tissue fluids 0 endocrine vs exocrine autocrine paracrine endocrine hormone no duct acts long distances exocrine non hormone secretions into ducts autocrine local chemicals act short distances on themselves paracrine local chemicals act short distances on other cells o Pituitary makes FLAT PEG stores ADH and oxytocin FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone Stimulate ovary follicles to mature testis to produce sperm LH Luteinizing Hormone LH surge triggers ovulation stimulates testis to produce testosterone ACTH AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone Stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids TSH Thyroid Stimulation Hormone Stimulate thyroid to release thyroid hormones PRL Prolactin Stimulates breast to produce milk E Endorphins GH Growth Hormone Stimulates growth of muscle bone burns fat 0 Pineal makes melatonin which makes you sleepy at night 0 Thyroid Thyroid hormones increase metabolism requires iodine Calcitonin turns blood Ca2 into bone Lowers blood Ca2 o Parathyroid makes Parathyroid Hormone PTH which increases blood Ca2 by bone resorption dietary calcium absorption and calcium reabsorption in kidneys o Thymus Thymus hormones thymo thymic stimulates T cells to develop 0 Adrenal Epinephrine and norepinephrine fight or flight response Mineralocorticoids aldosterone increase Na and water retention raises blood pressure Glucocorticoids cortisol stress hormone increase blood sugar Androgens testosterone o Pancreas Glucagon increases blood sugar break down glycogen stimulate gluconeogenesis Insulin lower blood sugar stimulates glucose uptake by cells 0 Ovary make estrogen and a small amount of testosterone o testis make testosterone Endocrine diseases 0 Diabetes no insulin made or no insulin receptors glucose can39t enter cells high blood sugar cell starved of sugar leading to fatty acid metabolism which leads to production of ketone bodies which lead to ketoacidosis more acidic blood sugar in urine leading to more water in urine due to osmosis o Hypothyroidism Decreased thyroid hormone Low metabolism If cause of disease is lack of iodine in diet then goiter develops from an accumulation of thyroid hormone precursor lacking iodine o Hyperthyroidism Too much thyroid hormone High metabolism 0 Gigantism too much Growth Hormone during growing age well proportioned giants Nervous System Structure and Function Major functions 0 highlevel control and integration of body systems 0 response to external influences o sensory input sensory afferent nerve impulses conveyed to the CNS 0 motor output motor efferent nerve impulses from the CNS to effector organs 0 integrative and cognitive abilities Organization of vertebrate nervous system SEWIIEUF Sein sofry faffeirentl 2 3 Q E Effectror Motor efferent Siteletal Musclassy Somatic llnrirolunutariy Weieattirquotif I M amamit ltrluscles and Clrgans i IParasynlipuatrletic A Reflexes O Pupil constriction Synthesizes glycogen for storage from glucose feedback loop reflex arc effects on flexor and extensor muscles Feedback loop positive feedback reinforce initial event negative feedback counteracts initial event or reflex arc usually a type of negative feedback positive feedback uterine contraction lead to oxytocin release which causes more uterine contraction positive feedback blood clotting platelets activated at wound site attract more platelet activation and clumping negative feedback drop in blood pressure causes ADH release which increases it Conversely increase in blood pressure causes a drop in ADH Reflex arc withdrawal from a painful stimulus negative feedback Reflex arc knee jerk tapping the knee tendon causes sudden stretching of the muscle which lead to contraction of that muscle that creates the knee jerk negative feedback Reflex arc receptor gt sensory neuron gt integration center gt motor neuron gt effector receptor site of stimulus sensory neuron carries impulse from receptor to integration center integration center connects sensory to motor neuron via synapse inside the CNS monosynaptic no interneuron direct synapse of sensory to motor polysynaptic interneurons present motor neuron carries impulse toward effector chemoreceptor taste smell nocioreptors pain extreme heat cold pressure chemicals Olfaction taste 0 Olfaction 0 Taste Heanng Chemicals enter the nose via nostrils Gets into the nasal cavity Trapped in the mucus on top of the nasal cavity Picked up by the membrane receptors on cilia non mobie but they increase the surface area of the olfactory receptor cell Causes cell depolarization and subsequent transduction of signal to the brain Chemicals dissolve in saliva Carried inside taste bud Hair like microvilli of taste cells inside taste bud picks up chemicals Releases neurotransmitters to send signal to brain 0 ear structure Ear canal auditory canal Tympanic membrane eardrum Ear bones malleus hammer gt incus anvil gt stapes stirrup Vestibule contacts the oval window where stirrup vibrates is continuous with semicircular canals and cochlea Cochlea spiral houses hair cells Semicircular canals 3 of them perpendicular to one another senses position and movement of the head help you balance 0 visual image processing The lens of the eye just like a convex lens in physics forms a real image on the retina Real images are inverted The brain processes this inverted image to make it seem upright in your mind The brain combines the two images from each eye to make a 3D image from which you can judge distance Another reason for combining the two images from both eyes is that it gets rid of the blind spot in each eye Circulatory System o Functions circulation of oxygen nutrients hormones ions and fluids removal of metabolic waste 0 Oxygen delivery to tissues 1L 2 3 4 diffuses into the blood in alveolar lung capillaries binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells gets transported to tissues used in cellular respiration 0 Carbon dioxide delivered out 1 3 4 cellular respiration makes CO2 carbonic anhydrase converts it to bicarbonate CO2 gets transported by blood dissolved CO2 dissolved bicarbonate ion major bound to hemoglobin and plasma proteins diffuses out of the alveolar capillaries exhaled out o Nutrients 1 nutrients absorbed either by diffusion or active transport into blood stream in the small intestines Four chambered heart structure function Lung5 Pulmona rt F39ulIquotriorn an F3 ti in iaf39iEl3I39 F Higltt atrium Ht Right isantriclie Ln Left atriu irr Li39I39 Left went ricaE n 39fFrIEl High ire55ure 1 P rteriies 1 Q 0 Tl39lIELJE Ii2l iraliiE J lfiiu iiIll 39Ii 39ii39E39 i39I I 39rquot 395 p En HE iJ A tE 39 95 d F39ulI1quoticaitarg value 39L 39lElliiE395 393lIZi1l ii iZ valve L t pressure 0 Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart superiorinferior vena cava gt right atrium O Deoxygenated blood gets pumped to the lungs right atrium gt right ventricle gt pulmonary artery gt lungs 0 Blood arrives at the lungs and gets oxygenated O Oxygenated blood returns to the heart lungs gt pulmonary vein gt left atrium O Oxygenated blood gets pumped to the body left atrium gt left ventricle gt ao a Blood going through the heart including the valves 0 Vena cava 0 Right atrium 0 Pulmonary circulation vasoconstriction when oxygen levels are low gt less blood flow to low oxygenblocked alveoli gt more blood flow to good alveoli where gas exchange can occur Arterial and venous systems arteries arterioles venules veins Vein Artery cnnetiue EmuEr 0 l aquotllISE39 0 enzit39ttflit rn Iiapailla F5 0 structural and functional differences 1 Blood flows from artery gt arteriole gt capillary gt venule gt vein 2 Artery Elastic artery Aorta and its major branches Major function provide elastic pipe for blood straight out of the heart Lots of elastic tissue Layers endothelium smooth muscle connective ssue Not active in vasoconstriction Muscular distributing arteries 3 Arteriole Major function distribute blood to specific organs Lots of muscle Layers endothelium lots of smooth muscle connective tissue Some activity in vasoconstriction 9 Adaptations that help blood flow through the vein at low pressure Capillary beds Respiratory pump when you inhale your stomach squeezes on the veins and your chest sucks on it Muscular pump skeletal muscle squeezes on the veins when you exercise When you39re scared smooth muscles around veins constrict and squeezes blood 0 mechanisms of gas and solute exchange 1 Diffusion is the major mechanism of gas and solute exchange whether it is diffusion as a free molecule or bound to carrier proteins 2 Continuous capillary No pores on endothelial cells May have clefts at cell boundanes Exchange may occur through the clefts or by vesicle trafficking through endothelial cells Found in skin and muscles Blood brain barrier sealing of clefts by tight junctions 3 Fenestrated capillary Small pores large enough for molecules but not blood cells to leak through Found in small intestines to facilitate nutrient absorption Found in endocrine organs to allow passage of hormones Found in kidneys to allow blood filtration 4 Sinusoidal capillary Large pores large enough for blood cells to leak through Found in lymphoid tissues liver spleen bone marrow most abundant cell in blood white blood cells WBCs or leukocytes larger than RBCs lobed or irregular shaped nuclei fights off pathogens platelets technically not cells but cell fragments responsible for clotting blood 0 erythrocyte production and destruction spleen bone marrow 1 2 Bone marrow makes RBCs from stem cells Spleen destroys aged and damaged RBCs Other sites for RBC destruction include the liver and bone marrow Components of hemoglobin from destroyed RBC gets recycled iron recycled heme gt bilirubin gt bile gt excreted in feces protein globin broken down to amino acids 0 regulation of plasma volume 1 Blood osmolarity Higher blood osmolarity gt water goes into blood gt higher blood volume Lower blood osmolarity gt water goes into tissues gt lower blood volume 2 ADH vasopressin 1 water reabsorption in kidney 3 Aldosterone 1 salt reabsorption leads to 1 water reabsorption in kidney o coagulation clotting mechanisms role of liver in production of clotting factors 1 Platelets contain enzymes and chemicals needed involved in the clotting process 2 Liver produces clotting factors eg fibrinogen which circulates in blood plasma 3 Coagulation liquid blood gt gel 4 Clotting mechanism Platelet plug formation wound platelets gt platelets clump at wound release chemicals activates clotting factors Coagulation series of clotting factorenzyme activation that ends in fibrinogen gt fibrin Fibrin being the fiber mesh that seals the clot Retraction and repair clot contracts gets compact but after the wounded blood vessel repairs itself the clot dissolves Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport by blood 0 hemoglobinhematocrit 1 hemoglobin heme globin x 4 heme chemical ligand binding iron globin protein that surrounds heme 4 subunits of the heme globin complex form a tetramer called hemoglobin hemoglobin can bind oxygen and carbon dioxide 2 hematocrit o volume of blood that is red blood cells usually 45 o 0 oxygen content 1 each iron atom in hemoglobin can bind one oxygen 2 hemoglobin has 4 subunits containing 4 iron atoms Interstitial fluid pressure gt lymphatic pressure gt lymph vessel flaps open gt interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries gt lymphatic circulation merges with veins gt returns the fluid to blood Interstitial fluid pressure lt lymphatic pressure gt lymph vessel flaps close gt prevents lymph from leaking back out 0 transport of proteins and large glycerides fats get absorbed into the lacteals in the small intestine lacteal lymphatic capillary in the small intestine plasma protein that leaked into interstitial fluids get returned to the blood via the lymphatic system 0 production of lymphocytes involved in immune reactions technically lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow from blood stem cells however lymphoid tissues provide a place where lymphocytes can reside proliferate and differentiate lymphoid tissue is found in lymph nodes thymus and scattered throughout various organs lymph tissue contains many lymphocytes that cleansfilters lymph thymus is the place where T cells mature 0 return of materials to the blood cells and plasma proteins that leak out of the blood capillaries gets collected by the lymphatic capillaries and returned to the vein 0 Composition of lymph similarity to blood plasma substances transported Lymph stuff that leaks out of the capillaries mostly water plasma protein chemicals and white blood cells 0 Source of lymph diffusion from capillaries by differential pressure blood plasma from capillaries gt interstitial fluid gt lymph gt returned to blood 0 Lymph nodes activation of lymphocytes Matures in the Thymus cytotoxic T cells recognize antigen on infected cells and signal for apoptosis helper T cells recognize antigen on antigen presenting cells and signal for activation of B cells T cells and macrophages 0 B lymphocytes plasma cells Tissues Matures in Bone marrow B cells form plasma cells and memory cells when exposed to an gen plasma cells secrete antibody memory cells stick around in case the same antigen attacks in the future 0 bone marrow all blood cells arise from stem cells in the bone marrow B lymphocytes differentiate in the bone marrow o spleen Provides a site for WBCs to reside and proliferate Removes pathogens from blood Removes old RBCs and platelets o thymus T lymphocytes differentiate in the thymus o lymph nodes Provide a site for WBCs to reside and proliferate Removes pathogens from lymph Residing lymphocytes monitor lymph for foreign antigens and initiate an immune response when exposed to foreign antigens resiliency and surface tension effects 0 Lung is elastic it recoils as soon as you relax after breath intake If not for the rib cage the lung would collapse even further Surface tension causes the lung to collapse Surfactants produced in the alveoli decreases surface tension and helps alveoli to stay open Functions in homeostasis and osmoregulation Heat homeostasis Too cold hair stands up goose bumps vasoconstriction decreases blood supply at skin less heat loss Too hot sweat evaporative cooling vasodilation increases blood supply at skin more heat loss Water homeostasis lnsulates body against water loss Osmoregulation sweat excretes salts and nitrogenous wastes urea uric acid ammonia Some other functions of the skin 0 protect against UV radiation by making melanin absorbs UV make vitamin D upon exposure to sunlight Act as blood reservoir Vasoconstriction in skin shunts blood to other organs Sense touch pressure pain heat cold Protection Functions in thermoregulation hair erectile musculature O O hairs help insulate the body by trapping air in them Normally hair lies at an angle to the skin with erectile muscle attaching to it 0 When it39s cold erectile muscles contract and the hair stands up This erect position helps hair to trap more air providing better insulation fat layer for insulation fat in hypodermis act as insulation sweat glands location in dermis produce sweat cools the body by evaporative coo ng vasoconstriction and vasodilation in surface capillaries 0 When it39s cold vasoconstriction of arterioles reduce blood supply to skin capillaries Leads to less heat loss at skin surface 0 When it39s hot vasodilation of arterioles increase blood supply to the skin capillaries Leads to more heat loss at skin surface Physical protection nails calluses hair 0 nail hard keratin tougher than the soft keratin on skin 0 calluses extra thick layer of dead keratin packed cells on the surface of skin 0 hair hard keratin protection against abrasion disease organisms o Keratin protect skin against abrasion o The tight seal made from keratin packed cells and glycolipids form a barrier against pathogens Chemical protection Sweat is acidic contains antibodies and antimicrobial agents Sebum skin oil kills bacteria Natural flora good bacteria on the surface of skin don39t cause harm to you and they fight off bad bacteria that can harm you Structure Table of enzymes Enzyme Where found Amylase Mouth and small intestine Protease Stomach and small intestine Lipase Mouth and small intestine Nuclease Small intestine Ingestion 0 saliva as lubrication and source of enzymes 0 saliva dissolves food 0 saliva contains mucin a protein that lubricates the bolus chewed up food ball 0 saliva contains amylase which breaks down polysaccharides starch and glycogen o saliva also contains antibodies and lysozyme that kill pathogens 0 epiglottal action 0 epiglottis ap of cartilage that closes off airway when you39re swallowing pharynx function in swallowing o pharynx throat between mouth and esophagus 0 muscular tube that squeezes and routes food to the esophagus when swallowing closes off pathways to nasal cavity and airway 0 esophagus transport function 0 muscular tube that propels bolus food to the stomach by peristalsis 0 peristalsis squeezing stuff through a tube esophagusgut by smooth muscle Stomach 0 storage and churning of food 0 storage the stomach is a muscular bag that is elastic and can stretch to store food 0 Stores vitamins A D and B12 and iron 0 Detox metabolize alcohol remove ammonia in blood 0 role in blood glucose regulation detoxification 0 Blood glucose regulation by liver Blood sugar too low glucogenesis Blood sugar too high glycogeneis o Detoxification metabolize alcohol alcohol dehydrogenase remove blood ammonia inactivate various other drugstoxins 0 structure gross largest gland in body spans both sides of the abdomen though right side much larger Ducts draining to duodenum and gall bladder Bile 0 storage in gall bladder o Gall bladder stores excess unused bile and concentrates it Secrets it when needed 0 function bile is an emulsifying agent not an enzyme Bile breaks down large fat droplets into smaller microscopic droplets by forming micelles This increases the total surface area of the fat for lipase action Pancreas 0 production of enzymes bicarbonate o Pancreas is the major source for all the digestive enzymes Amylase digests starch Various proteases Lipase digests fat Ribonuclease digests nucleic acids 0 Pancreas makes HCO3 to neutralize the HCl from the stomach denatured by stomach pH 0 structure anatomic subdivisions 0 Duodenum o J ejunum o Ileum Large intestine 0 anatomic subdivisions old topic 1 Cecum blind pocket containing appendix 2 Ascending colon 3 Transverse colon 4 Descending colon 5 Sigmoid colon 6 Rectum stores feces 0 absorption of Water The large intestine absorbs any remaining Water that is not absorbed by small intestine 0 bacterial ora 1 Ferment undigested nutrients make gas 2 Produce Vitamin K important for clotting 0 structure gross lobespockets along its length due to muscle tone Unlike small intestine the large intestine has no folds or Villi Rectum storage and elimination of Waste feces 0 Rectum stores feces 0 The anal sphincter ties the end of the rectum 0 During defecation sphincter opens feces are released through the anus 0 Blood osmolarity too low gt aldosterone reabsorb Nat Cl follows 0 Kidney tubules secretion and reabsorption regulates osmolarity o Other ions Kt is regulated by aldosterone Aldosterone reabsorb Nat pee out Kt Calcium and phosphate regulated by PTH PTH parathyroid hormone more Ca2 reabsorption in kidney tubules also bone break down to release calcium and phosphates and small intestine to absorb more calcium acid base balance keep blood pH constant 0 Buffer systems Bicarbonate buffer system blood and extracellular fluid Phosphate Buffer System inside cells 0 CO2 H20 HQCO3 H 0 Breathing out CO2 decreases the acidity in blood 0 Kidney tubules Bicarbonate ion HCO3 peeing it out makes blood more acidic Reabsorption makes blood more basic not the other way round use Le Chatelier39s principle or simply note that bicarbs bind Ht so they have the opposite effect on pH Ht secretion gets rid of acidity removal of soluble nitrogenous waste 0 Urine concentrated urea in water with some salt 0 Urea harmless form of toxic ammonia nitrogenous waste 0 Amino acids gt Ammonia gt Urea gt peed out Kidney structure proximal tubule convoluted tubule on the side of the Bowman39s capsule the major site for reabsorption nutrient salts and water and secretion except for Kt the secretion of which is the job of distal convoluted tubule in response to aldosterone loop of Henle U shaped loop that dips into the renal medulla countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs here 0 O Descending limb water reabsorption by osmosis permeable to water but not to solute Bottom of U most concentrated Ascending limb salt reabsorption permeable to salt but not water distal tubule convoluted tubule on the side of the collecting duct hormone controlled fine tunes the work done by the proximal tubule reabsorption of salts and water Aldosterone controlled secretion of Kt collecting duct the distal tubules of many nephrons drain here ADH controed reabsorption of water hormone controled reabsorptionsecretion of salts Formation of urine o glomerular filtration O 0 Powered by hydrostatic pressure Both good stuff bad stuff and ions are filtered out as long as it39s small enough Good stuff nutrients Bad stuff urea and creatinine and uric acid Good stuff reabsorbed bad stuff peed out secretion and reabsorption of solutes O Proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb all the good stuff nutrients and most of the ions Bad stuff left in the filtrate urea to be peed out also actively excreted NH4 creatinine organic acids Loop of Henle reabsorbs water and salt using the countercurrent mechanism synapse gt receptors on motor end plate sarcolemma picks this signal gt graded potential created gt if reaches threshold then action potential created gt action potential travels down the sarcolemma and cause muscle to contract 0 voluntary and involuntary muscles voluntary you can control skeletal muscles eg Biceps involuntary you can39t control smooth eg gut and cardiac heart muscles 0 sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation sympathetic fight or flight heart beat faster pupil dilation raise blood pressure blood to muscles less blood to digestive system parasympathetic rest and digest opposite of sympathetic heart slower pupil constriction lower blood pressure blood to digestive system Both sympathetic and parasympathetic are motor neurons that innervate involuntary muscles Skeletal System Func ons o structural rigidity and support bone forms the body39s framework 0 calcium storage bone stores calcium When blood calcium is low parathyroid hormones signal bone tissue to break down and release calcium 0 physical protection rib cage protects internal organs Skull protects brain Spine protects spinal cord Many large bones also shelter bone marrow that contains stem cells that make blood Skeletal structure 0 specialization of bone types structures Long bones shaped like a rod eg arm leg finger bones Short bones shaped like a cube eg wrist ankle bones travels through vas deferens gt ejaculatory duct gt urethra gt penis mnemonic seven up Seminiferous tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct nothingUrethra Penis female ovaries fallopian tubes uterus vagina Monthly cycle primary oocyte matures into secondary oocyte every month To prepare for it the endometrium thickens If fertilization doesn39t occur menses occur and the cycle begins anew GnRH stimulates release of FSH and LH FSH folicle stimulating hormone stimulates growth and maturation of follicle Follicle houses oocyte and produces estrogen Estrogen normally inhibits LH and FSH but causes LH surge when it reaches a certain threshold Estrogen reaches this threshold gt surge of LH occurs LH leutinizing hormone luteinizing hormone stimulates the outer cells of the follicle turns it into corpus luteum maintains it LH surge triggers primary oocyte gt secondary oocyte gt rupture of follicle Corpus luteum makes estrogen and progesterone maintains endometrium No fertilization gt LH falls gt corpus luteum dies gt estrogen and progesterone fall gt endometrium dies menses gt cycle begins anew with FSH and LH re rising Fertilization occurs gt implanted embryo releases hCG gt hCG mimics LH to maintain corpus luteum gt estrogen and progesterone maintained by corpus luteum gt placenta takes over the responsibility of making estrogen and progesterone later on 0 Secondary spermatocyte n gt meiosos II gt spermatid n Spermatid n gt mature gt sperm n The fancy name for sperm is spermatozoa Female oogenesis occurs in the ovaries then fallopian tubes Oogonium 2n stem cell Oogonium 2n gt mitosis gt primary oocyte Primary oocyte 2n arrests at prophase I occurs before birth One comes out of arrest every month between puberty and menopause Primary oocyte 2n gt meiosis I gt secondary oocyte n Ruptures from ovary follicle into the fallopian tube Secondary oocyte n arrests at metaphase ll Comes out of arrest if fertilization occurs Secondary oocyte n gt meiosis II gt ovum n Ovum and sperm 0 differences in formation quotMale and female gametogenesis side by side quotMale Female Difference Spermatogonium renews its population by permatogomum Oogomum mitosis throughout life Oogonium stops 2 2 39 H H renew1ng 1ts population SOIIICUIIIC before b1rth 39 P 39 Hmary Hmary Pr1mary oocye arrests at prophase I permatocyte oocyte d S d econ My econ My Secondary oocyte arrests at metaphase II permatocyte oocyte erm Ovum Between the secondary spermatocyte and the p sperm there39s the Spermatid o differences in morphology Sperm motile flagella Egg nonmotile round 0 relative contribution to next generation Sperm contributes DNA only the egg actively destroys sperm mitochondria Egg contributes DNA everything else mitochondria organelles epigenetics Reproductive sequence fertilization implantation development birth 0 fertilization sperm egg gt zygote o implantation zygote morula solid ball blastula sea urchins or blastocyst mammals the blastocyst is the one that implants in the endometrium 0 development zygote blastocyst implantation gastrulation organogenesis Switch from getting oxygen from mom39s blood gt breathing Switch from getting nutrients from mom39s blood gt suckling Fetal circulation which bypasses lungs and liver gt normal circulation by closing off ducts and opennings Embryogenesis Stages of early development order and general features of each O The cells that migrate inwards form the endoderm The cells that remain outside is the ectoderm The cells in the middle are the mesoderm neurulation 1 ectoderm gt brain and spinal cord 2 the ectoderm does so by folding into a tube Major structures arising out of primary germ layers 0 O endoderm innermost layer guts lungs and digestive internal organs liver pancreas mesoderm middle layer muscle blood and bone tissues and interal organs kidney and gonads ectoderm outermost layer skin and nerves including the brain Developmental Mechanisms Cell specialization commitment followed by differentiation 0 commitment specification followed by determination specification cell is just beginning to be commited to develope into a certain cell type The commitment can be reversed at this stage determination irreversible commitment to become a certain cell type differentiation becoming a cell type and adopting its specialized functions epidermal cells produce keratin to protect skin against abrasion myocyte produce actin and myosin to make muscles contract neurons make neurotransmitters to transmit electrochemical impulses ssuetypes Epithelial skin lining of organs selective inhibition of translation of stored RNA in the oocyte Get translated only when needed after fertilization o Post transIationaI regulation some proteins are inactive until modified by certain enzymes active proteins can be selectively marked for degradation by ubiquitin Programmed cell death 0 apoptosis programmed cell death 0 During apoptosis strong proteases are activated and they digest the cell from within In mammals the proteases are called caspases o The spaces between our fingers are created by apoptosis 0 The tail of a tadpole undergoes apoptosis when it morphs into a frog Evolution Natural selection 0 fitness concept Fitness is defined as the ability to pass your genes on or reproductive success The classical trick question gives you an individual who is strong healthy long living but does not reproduce In this case no matter how good the other traits are if the individual does not reproduce then it has a fitness of zero 0 selection by differential reproduction Individuals who reproduce more viable offspring are selected for Individuals who reproduce less viable offspring are selected against 0 concepts of natural and group selection Natural selection survival and reproduction of the fittest birds occupying a habitat with 2 distinct niches eating berries for a living and eating seeds for a living small beaks are selected for eating berries large beaks are selected for cracking seeds medium beak is left out Group selection natural selection acting on the group not the individual Explains why altruism exists Altruism sacrifice the fitness of the individual to benefit the group family which shares similar genes with the individual When the benefit outweighs the cost the altruistic behavior is selected for o evolutionary success as increase in percent representation in the gene pool of the next generation Speciation If the frequency of an allele increased then that39s evolutionary success for that allele If the frequency of alleles of an individual increased in a population then that39s evolutionary success for that individual 0 definition of species Three conditions for biological species Be able to interbreed Be able to produce fertile viable offspring Does this naturally A dog and a cat can39t interbreed so they don39t belong to the same species A horse and a donkey can interbreed but their offspring the mule is sterile So horses and donkeys aren39t the same species Some species of flowers can cross pollinate to produce fertile offspring However this never occurs in nature because one is bee pollinated and the other is bird pollinated Thus they are different species even though they can potentially produce fertile offspring Speciation is the formation of a new species This can occur due to barriers to successful interbreeding within an initial species 0 polymorphism Polymorphism is just a fancy word for different forms of allelestraits o adaptation and specialization Adaptation is the genetic change in a population caused by natural selection Adaptation is caused by Darwin39s natural selection not by Lamarck39s ideas A giraffe39s neck is long because long necks increase the survival rate so more long necked giraffes survive to reproduce and over many generations the population evolved long necks The wrong idea by Lamarck is that the giraffe had to reach for higher leaves on trees so it stretched itself a longer neck Specialization adaptation of traits to better fill a niche 0 concepts of ecological niche competition A species ecological niche is what resources the species uses to survive in its environment Two species can avoid competition and better use the environment39s resources by occupying different niches As long as two species occupy different niches there39s no competition because they use different resources When niches overlap there39s competition Specialization occurs to better occupy a particular niche o concept of population growth through competition Population growth is checked by competition When resources get scarce competition increases which slows down population growth Competition within a species can force members within the species to occupy different niches which drives speciation Commensalism Relationship where one benefits and the other is not affected For example some plant seeds disperse by sticking to animal fur Mutualism Relationship where both species benefit For example lichens are made from a mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae The fungus provides anchorabsorption and the alga provides photosynthesis Relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny O Ontogeny development through the life of an organism Phylogeny development through evolutionary time of lineagesspecies In early development vertebrate embryos share similar features reminiscent of a common ancestor Gill slits Notochord Segmentation Paddle like limbs Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is the idea that the development of an organism repeats the evolutionary history of its species starting with the fish like common ancestor which then changes to the modern form as development continues to adulthood Evolutionary time as measured by gradual random changes in genome 0 Random genetic mutations drift that are not acted on by natural selection neutral occur at a constant rate By measuring the amount of these neutral mutations you can find out how much time has passed 0 You can compare genome differences between two species to find out how long ago they diverged 0 Another name for this concept is the Molecular Clock fquoti391tIE t Lar Clotzllt e rmrnis diHEl ElquotiCE Divergence Time Origin of life 0 Organic molecules created by atmospheric gases zapped by lightning which falls into the ocean to make primordial soup Oparin and Haldane Urey Miller39s experiment proved this in a lab 0 RNA World hypothesis the simple organic molecules formed RNA polymers that can self replicate Having enzymatic activity as well as serving as template 0 Protocells aggregates of RNA proteins inside lipid envelopes o Prokaryotes first anaerobic heterotrophs because early atmosphere blocks the light required for photosynthesis then anaerobic autotrophs that undergoes photosynthesis and makes oxygen then aerobics that utilize oxygen 0 Eukaryotes evolved by endosymbiosis where a big cell engulfed a smaller cell and then developed a mutualistic relationship Heterotrophs engulfed mitochondria Autotrophs engulfed chloroplasts Comparative anatomy Chordate one of the phylums in the kingdom Animalia Chordate features 0 notochord the quotbackbonequot of the embryo except that it39s not made of bone In vertebrates bones will replace the notochord to form the vertebrae ORGANIC CHEMISTRY sigma and pi bonds P sioma and pi bonds is a repeat of general chemistrv bondino hybrid orbitals sp3 sp2 sp and respective geometries O hvbrid orbitals is a repeat of general chemistrv bondino valence shell electron pair repulsion VSEPR theory prediction of shapes of molecules eg NH3 H20 C02 0 p9 VSEPR is a repeat of oeneral chemistrv bondino structural formulas for molecules involving H C N O F S P Si Cl 0 H Valence 0 Typically found in 1 1 ydrocarbon alkane alkene alkyne hydride All rganic compounds contain hydrogen 4 4 lkane alkene alkyne aromatic rings All organic ompounds contain carbon 5 3 mine amide imine hydrazone oxime nitro compound iazo compound nitrilecyanide azide 2 lcohol ether aldehyde ketone carboxylic acid acyl F alide anhydride amide ester ozone quotF quot7 1 quotFluoride s II6 2 or 6 trhio1 sulfide sulfate sulfite quotP 5 3 or 5 Phosphorous compound phosphate phosphite quotSi 4 4 Silane silicon dioxide Ithloride hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate l ll H E1 A W illli i fr Wu1 H H L Allkewe 3 aE39llIii39t1i 39iii rijga Alkyjie 5iI391iii lEEa HHE H H mnI11rnn1ia 4 1riT7n111y Sacmnd ry ill39mquotIzI a39 39lEL1 111rj1I1132 shmi e Imim 1l3 ramliie ame CI SiilIl ari1 3 ll quotlquoth lI 5 H Phosphate FT H EL Fhl pli F r E 0 A Eff El ErT 3 Sin HIE H Ea H siiam imizdle H H cu sl lZ 1a1ridEr cl E12 p if Hquot r739 if E3 llI5rpmllIlmritE m39lllZIillTitrE I llznurate delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules 3 SulIl iIle A j j sllllige l3 5 5 x 5 5 5 FED Y f l I F P E E 39 El e393 quotquot In r Ps 1 H l2 3939 Fern liIluH39aIIuE ELI39i5xmtaliTiiE EIEl2iIE39 lelntTa iEaIliutt 3 rwnalnali mg lCl1jltigr 1quottE1lZl tlIlIIlII i1MtE lliilriiflillil E l i39lE LTetett39nrg Resonance structures result from electrons not being fixed in position that39s why you quotpushquot electrons when drawing resonance structures When electrons are not fixed in position they are delocalized electrons For all practical purposes resonance and electron delocalization mean the same thing In ions resonance and electron delocalization occurs to quotdistributequot the charge around In molecules resonance and electron delocalization occurs in aromatic rings and conjugated double bonds Multiple bonding its effect on bond length and bond energies O 0 Multiple bonding decreases bond length Multiple bonding increases bond energy Positional isomers structural isomers that have the same functional groups positioned differently Functional isomers structural isomers that have different functional groups 0 geometric isomers iEtI1erItquotii iisutmtet39s H H H31 H Eta Traits H3EHEl Ho H EllH EH3 El El H 3 H33 Geometric isomers have the same molecular formula same connectivity but have different orientation across a double bond When both sides of the double bond contains the same 2 groups then cis and trans is used Cis same side Trans opposite sides When different groups are attached to either side Z and E is used Z is when the higher priority groups ranked according to the Cahn lngold Prelog rules are orientated on the same side across the double bond Zusammen is the German word for together E is when the higher priority groups are orientated on different sides across the double bond Entgegen is the German word for opposed o stereoisomers eg diastereomers enantiomers cistrans isomers num R HjL IiiH Hj EHEIDH Pe 7 Enantiniirmr sJ1aaLnmnJmrsE i 511 E HEE H R 39 L lH I IIIEEJH Tl1quot1139lE ViastEIrn1nnn39s H N A Lj H EHO R Hj3939 IEiH IE5139 HE39 H in H E I P Elaamtnajalam q lJ Ii1tnIn111 rr j E HID EH H 51 HIlfjL39 H L 39 ELHZIDH hiesn EH13 lZ l3 IH3 I393l3 A llI135 H EH3 IHi3t EH3 ist EE tst triEERt 3 EifEninja 2 triFEEtat 1lRA39i 39 quotC5 Ii H aIrquot39 tr La39rr 39quot39 M 39 3939 39 e39 V iarquot39 1 quottEII M H ti 1 Br anti H Hit 3 quoti H sift lt 1 Br H Er if if H H Er 2chu l H l tquottEE Z 231 i Z 3 rElffEFEtit EIIE1quot EiiZ39JlE1lTtquottElTS Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula same connectivity but have different 3D arrangements across one or more asymmetric chiral centers Chiral center is any atom with 4 different entities attached to it Enantiomers are mirror images of each other That means ALL chiral centers in one enantiomer is reversed in the other You can39t have stereoisomers if you don39t have a chiral center Diastereomers more than one chiral center inversion of stereochemistry on some but not all of its chiral centers For examples diastereomers would have stereochemistries of RR vs R S Another example of diastereomers would be RR S R V8 RRRW In rings it is easier to assign stereoisomers as cistrans rather than R or S Cis is having the same groups on the same side of the ring Trans is having the same groups on different sides of the ring A compound will have a total of 2 quota39 e e39S stereoisomers if it is not meso Meso compounds may have chiral centers but as a molecule they are achiral and optically inactive Meso compounds reduce the total number of stereoisomers Stereoisomers have the same chemical properties Enantiomers have the same physical properties Axall E quatoral Conformational isomers have the same molecular formula same connectivity same stereochemistry but can rotate about a single bond to switch between different conformations Technically conformational isomers are not really isomers because you don39t have to break any bonds to convert from one conformation to another They are more accurately called conformers Conformers about a single bond Eclipsed Synperiplanar highest torsional strain most unstable bulky groups eclipse each other Anticlinal eclipsed high torsional strain unstable bulky groups eclipse hydrogens Staggered Gauche low torsional strain stable bulky groups 60 staggered o Polarized light has EM fields all in one direction 0 Specific rotation chiral molecules containing a single enantiomer will rotate polarized light to varying degrees either to the left or to the right This is why chiral molecules are said to be quotoptically activequot 0 Left rotation or I or levorotatory 0 Right rotation or d or dextrorotatory o Caution or does NOT correspond to RS configurations o Caution d and I is NOT the same as D and L The upper case letters denote absolute configurations in sugars absolute and relative configuration ti5siigimiu1g R antil l H S1quotejn5a iE fIlquotiquotEll H H LH l 4 l l Ei Wcl l H39E Wirrl l 3 quotEfquot ttti H pup 3 rHe39 D HE i H 4 il l QH 1 EH o The definition for relative configuration can be very broad For example you may arbitrarily assign one chiral center to be R even though it may or may not actually be R as long as it is of opposite configuration to S which may or may not actually be 8 Additionally the cis or trans configuration that describes how one group is orientated relative to another group is also an example of relative configuration Reactions can also proceed via retention or inversion which describes the stereochemistry in relationship with the original reactant nfiguration bsolute R D bsolute S L lative rotate light right d lative rotate light left l o conventions for writing R and 8 forms If only1 chiral center RS molecule where RS is the absolute configuration and molecule is the name of the compound For example R 2 hydroxylpropanal If more than 1 chiral center RS RS molecule where is the carbon number in ascending order RS is the absolute configuration and molecule is the name of the compound For example 2R3S 234 hydroxylbutanal o conventions for writing E and Z forms If only 1 double bond EZmolecule where EZ is the geometric configuration across the double bond and molecule is the name of the compound For example Z 2 chloro2 butene see geometric isomer figure o Racemic mixtures contain equal amounts of both enantiomers Another name for racemic mixtures is racemate o Racemic mixtures do not rotate polarized light so they are optically inac ve 0 Separation of enantiomers Convert enantiomers to diastereomers Separation of diastereomers Convert diastereomers back to enantiomers 0 Separation of enantiomers by biological means Enzymes are highly specific and can differentiate between enantiomers For example if an enzyme digests or modifies all L amino acids then you39d be able to use that enzyme to separate a DL racemic mixture In nature all proteins are made up of Lamino acids Absorption spectroscopy o infrared region l Spec Trammittal ce 3 U39C l UUG we we nu ntlzzer rnn391 Rotations molecules can rotate Rotations produce waves mainly in the microwave region However part of the rotation spectra does overlap with the vibration spectra 0 Infrared spectra plots transmittance vs wavenumbers cmquot Transmittance increases as you go up the yaxis Where transmittance dips down that39s a region of absorbance Wavenumbers decrease from left to right Wavenumbers are correlated to frequency Peaks toward the left have higher frequency of vibration o recognizing common characteristic group absorptions fingerprint region o visible region Anything around 3000 cmquot involves a hydrogen atom be it 0H N H or CH Anything around 2000 cmquot and below does not involve hydrogen be it C0 CC C C or 00 With the same atoms the higher the bond order the faster it vibrates and so the higher the wavenumber 1700 cmquot is for the carbonyl group Remember this 3300 cmquot can be 0H NH or alkyne CH OH is the broadest NH slightly sharper alkyne CH is very sharp Broad peaks are due to hydrogen bonding 0H and NH Below 1300 cmquot is called the fingerprint region Patterns in the fingerprint region are unique for each compound just like a fingerprint is unique for each person 0 absorption in visible region gives complementary color eg carotene There are primary colors of light and primary colors of pigment Carotene absorbs blue light and reflect the others into your eyes The absence of blue produces yellow the complementary color of blue 0 effect of structural changes on absorption eg indicators Changes to chemical structure can lead to changes in absorption H indicator lt gt Ht Indicator H indicator absorbs at a certain wavelength and is of one color Indicator absorbs at a different wavelength so is of a different color At low pH high H H indicator and its color will predominate At high pH low H indicator and its color will predominate At neutral pH both H indicator and indicator will co exist in an equilibrium so the color will be a mixture of the two You should know the colors of the universal indicator Red very acidic Orange acidic Yellow weakly acidic Green neutral Blue basic Purple very basic ultraviolet region 0 pi eectron and non bonding electron transition Every time you have a bond the atoms in a bond have their atomic orbitals merged together to form molecular orbitals Every time you have molecular orbitals you get bonding molecular orbitals and non bonding andor anti bonding orbitals Normally electrons sit in their bonding orbitals because it is the most stable there If bonding orbitals are full then non bonding orbitals are occupied Given enough energy as in absorption the electrons transition from the bonding or non bonding orbitals to the anti bonding orbitals If too much energy is absorbed enough electrons escape the bonding orbitals enter the anti bonding orbitals to break the bond completely For UV absorption we39re not worried about breaking bonds We39re only interested in the pi electrons of double bonds because their molecular orbital transitions result in UV absorption Double bonds absorb UV because the pi electrons transition from the bonding and non bonding molecular orbitals to the anti bonding orbitals o conjugated systems Conjugated systems decreases the energy of electromagnetic radiation that is absorbed The more conjugated double bonds there are the longer the wavelengths of absorbed radiation If there are enough conjugated double bonds the molecule will start to absorb in the visible region Mass spectroscopy me ratio parent peak HE E1Il uquotE blll l lIEl DE base peak IT1illE39 LJZIaT ion parent pineal M i rtljil I II39III llI Ihjkrdf Fritz ml HMR appr o39tttm1ate values in ptIt li lliE j jg ll jvj1 ff Pi oiHI ir ralllg M5 T 4 jlgjH M3 39EJ 39E H HjCl39H HjHHg i2 l H protons in a magnetic field equivalent protons o Protons have spins of up or down 12 or 12 counterclockwise or clockwise The detailed vectors are not important here so simply up or down is fine 0 With an even number of protons the spins pair up and the up and down spins of all the protons cancel each other out 0 With an odd number of protons there is a net spin of up or down 0 Normally both up or down spins are equal in energy they are degenerate So either way goes 0 In the presence of a magnetic field the spin that lines up with the magnetic field gets the lower energy If the external magnetic field is up r quotSolvent llonpolar solvent quotWater Lonic and polar solutes dissolve ere Vonpolar solutes dissolve here lsolute he organic phase does not always float on ater is usually denser than other Density op Chloroform for example sinks below olvents but some organic he aqueous phase olvents are even denser Distillation Separates liquids based on boiling point The stuff with the lower boiling point is boiled off and collected the higher boiling point stuff remains behind o Simple distillation done with a normal column can separate two liquids if the difference in boiling point is large o Fractional distillation done with a fractionating column can separate two liquids with smaller differences in boiling point o Vacuum distillation done under lower pressure vacuum lowers the boiling point for all liquid components so you don39t have to crank up the temperature so high chemical might decompose Chromatography Basic Principles Involved in Separation Process 0 Those with greater affinity for the stationary phase comes out of the column slower Polar substrate has more affinity for polar stationary phase and hydrophobic substrate has more affinity for hydrophobic stationary phase Paper chromatography 0 Classically used to separate pigments in dyes o Solvent mobile phase Paper stationary phase 0 Pigments in dyes stick to paper solvent tries to wash them along those with greater affinity to paper stays behind those with greater affinity to solvent gets washed along 0 R value distance traveled by pigment distance of solvent front 0 R 0 means that pigment has not moved 0 R 1 means that pigment moved as far as the solvent front o Thin ayer chromatography 0 Thin layer chromatography advanced paper chromatography 0 Instead of paper you have a plate coated with a specific stationary phase of your choosing o R value used in the same way as paper chromatography Recrystalization Solvent Choice from Solubility Data o Recrystalization barely dissolving your compound then let it recrystalize out of solution compound ends up being more pure Barely dissolving use just enough to fully dissolve your compound under warm temperature saturated solution Recrystalize solution cools solubility decreases compound comes out of solution Solvent choice choose a solvent in which your compound is soluble in at warm temperature but not at cool temperature Also choose a solvent in which impurities are highly soluble o Impurities should remain dissolved in the solvent even when your compound recrystalizes out Aliphatic alkanes Description 0 nomenclature C atoms Name for straight chain alkane Name for cyclic alkane 1 Methane NA 2 Ethane NA 3 Propane Ityclopropane 4 quotButane ltyclobutane 5 Pentane ltyclopentane quot6 IHeXane Ityclohexane quot7 Heptane ltycloheptane quot8 Ipctane Ityclooctane quot9 Nonane Ityclononane quot10 Decane Ityclodecane After Decane there is Undecane 11 Dodecane 12 Tridecane 13 Tetradecane 14 and so forth for eleven membered alkanes upwards 0 physical properties Hydrophobic London Dispersion Forces present only Lower boiling points than compounds the same size but with functional groups Very long alkanes can have very high boiling points due to the sum of all the dispersion forces A useful reference is that heptane the 7 membered alkane has the same boiling point as water Important reactions RaiE l I hai1i J i NJnEEh i5 1 lti i irlJi39l W ct ci 5 gt 4 t Prtrjmgatinstt m 8 E39amp Lir 39 T E C p r c oh if j E TEirir11rmititin1 i 39 E 0 cI c cl quotquot39 W L cIT The free radical chain reaction is dependent on the presence of free radicals Therefore anything that inhibits free radicals will inhibit this reaction One example is antioxidants which eats up free radicals and therefore inhibits the free radical chain reaction 0 ring strain in cyclic compounds Cyclopropane has the highest ring strain pinacol rearrangement in polyhydroxyalcohols synthetic uses H H 0 E C3 Flu E E I I H3EJll3 Iitcat I EH3 EH3 EH3 Mechanism of pinacol rearrangement I IE I I P 0 I I 3 I I o I II E E E E E E E E I I I I I I EH3 EH3 EH3 EH3 EH3 EH3 protection of alcohols the best protecting group for alcohol is the trimethylsilyl group 0 To protect add ClSiMe3 to ROH o The alcohol gets quotcappedquot into R O SiMe3 0 To deprotect add F reactions with SOCl2 and PBr3 o FlOH SOCI2 gt R C by products S02 HCI o FlOH PBr3 gt R Br by products H3PO3 Fl3PO3 HBr preparation of mesylates and tosylates esterification acid alcohol ester Ester1it iratiott Ci I3 lll I739jEj 393H l3939397139 pR Ft 39 Halli atcitl 1E h l setter El Fl o inorganic esters replace the carbon of esters with a different atoms E tit organs cstcr TEE J stfu m itmrgartc cstcr aim D D a 1 o In biochemistry DNARNA polymerization the 339OH alcohol group attacks the 539 phosphate to form an inorganic ester linkage phosphodiester linkage of DNARNA backbone General principles o hydrogen bonding hydrogen bonding in alcohols give them a higher boiling point than their corresponding alkanes o acidity of alcohols compared to other classes of oxygencontaining compounds lower pKa more acidic mpound OOH carboxylic acids H phenols 2O water OH alcohols CO R alpha hydrogen in aldehydes and ketones CO OR alpha hydrogen in esters o effect of chain branching on physical properties going from straight chain to branched alkane with same carbons higher freezingmelting point lower boiling point Description o nomenclature o Aldehyde suffix al aldehyde 0 Ketone prefix keto oxo o Ketone suffix one ketone o physical properties 0 CO bond is polar with the carbon partially positive and oxygen partially nega ve o imine enamine r Jquot EALHHE NH h mti mi l DvflfitiiI gm iit1int t3 it quot Ec HEEEH K H2 I MHR H x 15117TtquotiiEJITtquoti if1 1 1 1 p Wt wii t i Q Hitl MHK MEX w R ctttttritttc Primary amine aldehyde or ketone imine Secondary amine aldehyde or ketone enamine reactions at adjacent positions Works for carbonyl compounds with an acidic alpha proton 0 oxidation aldehydes oxidize to carboxylic acids Ketones do not oxidize further 13 dicarbonys internal H bonding C rqg quotquotJf Us w Q Q 4 l J Y H I M W jV y wrs m m I E f H H H l3ifllicatlfi ru1t ll l t i1 fl fIl I1quottIquotfI a lIIEi39Ill ll Hilaor1 li r39lg o 13 dicarbonys have 2 carbonyl groups flanking a carbon atom with an acidic proton 0 Also referred to as active methylene compounds 0 Tautomerism causes one of the carbonyls to switch to its enol form which contains an OH group that hydrogen bonds with the other carbonyl CO group on the same molecule This is called intramolecular internal hydrogen bonding ketoenol tautomerism tau ItitII liilrI2 Il i I1 tI 1 cttol t irr11i ltcton l olrrn o Enol form is the one with the alcohol 0 Keto form is the one with the ketone o Keto form is more stable it is the predominant form organometallic reagents fa 3 Hr rl1 ir H MET o Grignard reagents are just like organometallic reagents they produce R o RX Mg gt RMgX o RMg X CO gt F COH General principles effect of substituents on reactivity of CO steric hindrance bulky groups on either side of CO blocks access to the electrophilic carbon so reactivity goes down acidity of alpha H carbanions P 3 I i3 T H H quot with U ttl39p139iiIll protufn LEI quoti 0 Alpha proton is acidic because the resulting carbanion is stabilized by resonance alpha beta unsaturated carbonyls resonance structures Eymthesizimg 5 t rettt1a ttr Ester IIa339 E39Equotl39i i 39EE E E JIei uamsEn5mti n ethyl EEEEIHIIE almstram i1i1r1e1 intquot mu1Iiim piquotIIitrlJE1 by IIIEJLEJE ETJ DH E1 II I H E H3rE IE ifJEit H25 IE t39fJEit H21 Z J ifJEit at it lift EJ ll H2 H H3tf1 rE Eit HEIEA IEIZIE I111 ii Et auneItimE i1an ester g metnsetiu Ester Eylittlitesis Uetingg tme Ittarcett1 E39 JZEquotiquot tins p39I I l39I IES iEEI D Ct 3 Ham 1 ti DIEt HEB IE3 i DEE El eii t it IETE EEI Ilj GI Ell Dw44arIsJa gl1t isIan 5 CFH jib H3Ej39EquotEnH2 CUE J I39 I Eta HI El Et H E aretIu te E E G H 39i39Z IiquotI39 Iii2i239l7 lIi2 0 E V 1 A E nnae Eff Rn H2 o Acetoacetic ester is synthesized by Claisen condensation of ethyl acetate in a process called acetoacetic ester condensation 2 x ethylacetate gt ethyl acetoacetate acetoacetic ester 3 keto ester Claisen condensation 1 alpha proton of ester leaves 2 the resulting carbanion attacks the carbonyl group of another ester molecule 3 Carbonyl group reforms and kicks off the alcohol group 0 quotAcetoacetic ester synthesisquot is a reaction where acetoacetic ester is used to synthesize a new ketone Acidic alpha proton comes off resulting carbanion attacks new R group Hydrolysis of ester turns it into a 3 keto carboxylic acid 3 keto acids undergo decarboxylation because the 3 keto group stabilizes the resulting carbanion via enol formation Enol converts back to keto form and the net result of this reaction is that an R group is made to attach to the or carbon of acetone Description o nomenclature o Suffix oic acid carboxylic acid dioic acid physical properties and solubility 0 High boiling point due to hydrogen bonding o Soluble in water infrared absorption 0 CO at 1700 cmquot 0 OH at 3100 cmquot Important reactions carboxyl group reactions 0 nucleophilic attack H Dill S HVHUH b EIDH EDII LiI1it 1t39t EiiE1iE mztniiitinst1s H ED E EH I9 9 t HI 2 139quot H I H Ear f ostot Fl 0 reactions at 2 position halogenation RCOOH X2 gt halogenation at the alpha carbon 2 position 0 General principles H bonding COOH has high boiling point because of H bonding dimerization Hydrogen bonding causes dimerization of carboxylic acids quot quotquotquot TR wQ acidity of the carboxyl group pKa of COOH is about 5 pKa of Ht is 0 while the pKa of water is 16 So COOH can be classified as a weak acid Vinegar is dilute acetic acid which is CH3COOH inductive effect of substituents electron withdrawing groups makes the acid stronger o electron withdrawing groups attached to positions close to the COOH helps to distribute the charge of the CO0 and stabilize it o A more stabilized carboxylate ion makes a stronger acid resonance stability of carboxylate anion the reason why COOH is a good acid is because the conjugate base carboxylate ion is stabilized by resonance no e tquotT4 K6 9 E5 3 HG HHUH HE R SHE REM D E D E RRBH H fff D E Khcat Ha iH3iFZJ M 4 T IL1uquot Mm Hm nucleophilic substitution Nucleophile attacks the carbon center of the CO group G 3 Th E n w Huuzquot Wm H Luz Iii E1 2 II JI 1 j39g39I E39iiI iI2 23 tamer 23 a 1inia c Hofmann rearrangement Hofmann rearrangement takes away the CO of an amide The alkyl migration is basically how the R group on the other side of the CO migrates and attaches itself to the nitrogen atom See figure below for detailed mechanism of the Hofmann degradation and how the aryl group migrates l39II i quotl I 1 39tIi1Ii1 lcgratltttion ot tttitlcs Elli T DH Hf mi 3 HHE Hf RHH2 ilarflgrtttioutt of tits t1lltjr il grottjii ilIllt1ul i1tiiitquotlrt n1cclt1aniaIt1 D 3 Cl l ll l Hr HH2 HHE a H if H rtc Ijrt Cl 39 Di 39 flag 9 ll H i i H t M x3t e H Eli 39h lZ339A391Ii1fi l39IquotCiflli2 Cl H Kg E 5 C H Alltyl IlIlligE39EIl39i39I139Ill ri i quotstc1 l tt1i trrna quot35 E37iilliiiAl 3 0 0 H H2 Hofq anf l HEHM H a transesterification Ester alcohol gt new ester Tratn5esterifi39icatinn Si Si II I Fl 5 El Fl lll H Ti Fl 0 El Ftquot39 pw HUII oatorl altnahti 1 ra torE o hydrolysis of fats and glycerides saponifioation saponifioation is basically the hydrolysis of an ester in base tit tit Eaponitt lll39ll no 3 or amp r H sf Itia llll H K 73 H H H aEF3H il2r l irrl2 EC 2 Eaponttuatsonnt Glgsrzottdo I I I ah EH EH EH 5 E 5 Itiaiiillg 33 I L iG13n 1ta1 lt r l eo F 1 arairll F 3 l393iH deem o hydrolysis of amides the leaving group is not NR2 it is the neutral amine ti R H P T t f TAT it 39391H EQH General principles relative reactivity of acid derivatives Acid chloride gt Anhydride gt Esters gt Amides 0 Acid halides are the most reactive derivatives because halides are very good leaving groups 0 Amides are the most stable derivatives because NR2 is a terrible leaving group Also the C N bond has a partial double bond characteristic Proteins are made of peptide bonds and they are very stable steric effects bulky groups around the CO group helps protect the carbon center from nucleophilic attack electronic effects groups that can redistribute and stabilize negative charges are good leaving groups For example the anhydride has a good leaving group the carboxylate ion because the CO0 can redistribute the negative charge to both oxygens via resonance strain eg beta lactams o Amides have a double bond characteristic between the carbon and nitrogen This means that the C N bond can not rotate 0 Normally the sigma bonds in a ring rotate as to achieve the most stable conformation but this can39t occur for the C N bond if the ring contains an amide 0 Because C N bond in an amide can not rotate rings that contain amides have higher strain 0 An example of this is the beta lactam which is basically a 4 membered ring with 1 amide in it Description nomenclature ttllpltsilltctazi acid W W C ti ll tit Di lfiG1 lIquot1 I2itl 1 Q Q H2 c r c rt il D D liictaltctc cstcr f f H2 o orketo acid 2oxo acid For example or ketopropanoic acid 2 oxopropanoic acid 3 keto acid 3 oxo acid or keto ester 2oxo ester 3 keto ester 3 oxo ester For example methyl 3 ketobutanoate methyl 3 oxobutanoate Important reactions decarboxylation hetarlitetn ester IEE39lIE39it39 tydra jrsis ltvetarlluttttin acdl til Ill H Ill ll H II c E c l clil H131 livetailttItn acadl IIl3lEt tquotIItIlII3t39 l39iIiiIlII Em f 0 0 titll l i393939 CD53 H2 p cc c c li gscHE quot391er em 11 tar t1lttlr1ei39sttr1 E E fi For example propanamine Ml ell2 pi39paitai1tin1c o stereochemistry and physical properties 95 g C 3 amines can be chiral But they are always racemic because of spontaneous inversions at room temperature Even protonated 3 amines undergo inversion because the proton comes on and off in an acid base equilibrium 4 amines can be chiral and they stay chiral because they don39t undergo inversion o infrared absorption primary amines RNH2 2 NH bonds 2 peaks around 3300 cm 1 secondary amines R2 NH 1 NH bonds 1 peak around 3300 cmquot tertiary amines R3 N no NH bonds 0 peak around 3300 cmquot Major reactions 0 amide formation HE ll d d 39HEmf Amine acid derivative with a good leaving group gt amide The protonated amine will have a greater steric interaction with the ortho group so it will be less stable Description nomenclature and classification common names 0 nomenclature Carbohydrate Sugars monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides Prefix Deoxy it has an H in place of an OH at a certain position DL absolute configuration assigned based on the chirality of the carbon atom furthest from the carbonyl group oi3 anomeric configuration Suffix all sugars end in ose o classification aldose sugars with an aldehyde group ketose sugars with a ketone group pyranose sugars in a 6 membered ring structure hexagon shaped For example glucopyranose glucose in a 6 membered ring furanose sugars in a 5 membered ring structure pentagon shaped For example fructofuranose fructose in a 5 membered ring ose sugar with carbon atoms For example hexose sugar with 6 carbons Another example aldopentose a five carbon sugar with an aldehyde group In order to be classified as a carbohydrate a molecule must have at least a 3 carbon backbone an aldehyde or ketone group at least 2 hydroxyl groups 0 common names Smallest E lquotIIlII1 g39 T IIIEE THU ti lIZEH Hint ll t2i Citl2EiH EHEBH G13scc11ti1dcl13st1c Dil1 t11otwacctottc The simplest smallest carbohydrates are glyceraldehyde and dihyd roxyacetone tH one IIZZHEIUH EH oi H tiH H H ZZHH H tZi a H H tilt H H fit an H H IZ 7lll H tiH Hti zaH H f2lll H tiH H ZZHH IEHEUH HHEHH IEHEUH 1llIIlZlIE aiE I7l LIlliE139JII5IS U tl1 IEtEE The 3 common monosaccharides are glucose fructose and galactose Glucose is our blood sugar and the product of photosynthesis Fructose is the sugar in fruits and it is sweeter than glucose Galactose is one of the monomers that make up lactose which is the sugar in milk it is less sweet than glucose j quot E EtEi1ll EllI EllI ID II Glycogen same as starch but with additional oc16 linkages for branching absolute configuration 5L39iiEllIIilil39lIE CutIrl39gu1quotatiot1 L E39 III tillltii ElIIEI lll Ifl llIla D H H I H llll j H lll llll lllljj D H H lll lllie quotEl Ill Ii7EIgl llll Ii7 lg llll LJ39U il li39EZIJEI DE1ttcu5c o The chiral carbon furthest from the carbonyl group determines the absolute configuration L or D of the sugar 0 If in the fischer projection the OH group on the chiral carbon furthest from the carbonyl is pointing left then it39s L If it39s pointing right then it39s D O O O O Eiiirt1Er S clI Epimers different configuration in just one chiral carbon Anrnrmers Anomers different configuration in the chiral anomeric carbon when the molecule is in the cyclic form Anomers are simply special types of epimers Epimers are simply special types of diastereomers Don39t confuse with enantiomers DL configuration in which everything changes configuration ttmmelrtllatttltl D H 1 E Zatlilnzil mu im ll rTnllett39si H I 39l39H llIl I 39l39llll H iiiIH 1 iilfi 35 9 DH EJH CHE GH in Hcon H IV d im H H q iH oq fu H2ll 3 EH Slim H 1 l 3Illl qz H ci1l l iI39 u39i H t 39l sC 2 D DH EHEH Hemiacetal formation OH attacks carbonyl group produces ring form Acetal formation another OH attack on the same carbonyl group produces polysaccharides if the OH is from another monosaccharide o Mutarotation equilibrium between the or and 3 anomers o Strong oxidation turns aldehyde and terminal hydroxyls to carboxylic acids and other hydroxyls to ketones The strongest kind of oxidation turns everything to CO2 and this occurs in cellular respiration o Mild oxidation is more selective Tollens agent the test for aldoses silver reagent selectively oxidizes the aldehyde to carboxylic acid Nitric acid oxidizes l 5ouprcnc A one V L s539srtitratclll o1ttf1 ot 3iJpt t391E SF Lt11l39tE139gt n391g pt11t1nErizu tit1t Tcrjiicttc li3391ilE lZit11ut39iI ioat Tarwcnc Terpenes are made from the polymerization of isoprene Terpenes contain double bonds which gives the molecule the ability to undergo cyclization Squalene the precursor of steroids is a terpene that consists of 6 isoprene subunits A complex selfcyclization reaction converts squalene to make steroids Squalene is classified as a triterpene Triterpene 6 isoprene subunits Diterpene 4 units Monoterpene 2 units triacyl glycerols H Ea n i quotI aTr39n5 1Lri I39garunn1 Eajstr i I1 i F A 3amp2 A f8 Dsg1iaa min O 0 Fatty acids can undergo phosphorylation and transesterification commonly called activation by biochemists O P1iiiI5 j2iiiI39Di39iE HCid 9 Hi P H DH Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Pyrpphsaphate Q Q anliydri i D H A Pyrophosphate is the simplest phosphoric acid anhydride Intro To Physiology Nervous System 0 Master regulator for the body 0 Takes sensory input integrates it and elicits motor output 0 Two divisions o CNS Consists of the brain and the spinal cord Mostly responsible for integration Spinal nerves AfferentSensory Towards the CNS 0 Sensory input from sensory receptors 0 Enters the dorsal side of the spinal cord 0 No synapses cell bodies exist in a dorsal root ganglion EfferentMotor Away from the CNS to effectors Effectors are muscles and glands Two divisions o ANS Autonomic NS Involuntary Visceral motor control of glands and smooth muscle Two divisions 0 Sympathetic fight or flight 0 Create the Blood Brain Barrier o Circulation Ependymal cells 0 Ciliated 0 Circulate do not produce CSF o CSF is produced by a choroid plexus o Immunity Microglia Macrophages Immune system isn t allowed into nervous system 0 Neuron o Dendrites The receptive region of the neuron Contains Na and K ion channels to start depolarization Receives neurotransmitter via receptors Post synapse The signal goes electrical chemical electrical o Membrane potential Resting cells are at 70 mv Action potential brings them to 30 Opening of Na channels brings charges into the cell 0 Causes the climb in charge 0 Depolarization Graded potentials can lead to Action potentials Can be summed in time or in space 0 Temporal summation 0 One after another they add up 0 Spatial summation o In the same space add together 0 Action potential Reaches threshold Generated at the axon hillock Depolarization due to Na channels opening Reaches about 30 Then K ion channels open up and there is repolarization Then hyperpolarization as they are slow to shut Then the gradient is reestablished by the NaK pump Another one cannot be fired for 45 ms Needs to be strong to overcome hyperpolarization Absolute refractory nothing can be fired 0 Relative refractory only a very strong graded potential will lead to an AP The number of AP s determines the stimulus strength 0 Variables Size 0 Increase diameter the speed increases Myelination Myelination increases speed by a lot Depolarizes EX glutamate o EPSP and IPSP can fight each other to try and create or not create an AP 0 The distance from the axon hillock makes a difference as the depolarization decreases as the distance increases 0 Terminal bulbs 0 Ca ion channels voltage gated open when the AP reaches and the influx of Ca pushes vesicles containing NTs to the wall of the terminal bulb o This causes their release into the synapse lonotropic receptors 0 Everything discussed here 0 Fast 0 Metabotropic receptors 0 Use second messengers 0 Usually G protein linked 0 And takes longer due to the second messengers Endocrine System 0 Method of communication in the body 0 Use the blood stream 0 Hormones are long distance 0 Hypothaamus top of the pituitary gland master control 0 Pituitary second in command 0 Lipid soluble hormones can go directly through the bilayer and attach to a receptor inside the cell 0 Hormones are usually controlled by metabotropic receptors GnRH Ocytocin o Gq subuinits Hormone interactions 0 Antagonism o Permissiveness o Synergism Endocrine gland stimulations o Humoral nutrients in blood 0 Hormones o Neuronal Faster than hormonal Pituitary gland portal system 0 Regular portal system is arteriole capillary venule o Pituitary portal system is capillary vein capillary Goes quickly from hypothalamus to pituitary More concentrated hormones in a shorter distance 0 Speed and concentration 0 Pituitary o Posterior pituitary Oxytocin Made in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and sent to the posterior pituitary to be released ADH 0 Supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus make it o Conuo ed Increased K level in blood Decreased blood volume or blood pressure Acth released by anterior pituitary Increased blood pressure or volume 0 Inhibitory o Targets kidney tubules o Antagonized by ANP release by the heart 0 Suessresponse o CRH released by hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone 0 Causes the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines epinorepi o Catecholamines release ACTH to raise the blood pressure 0 Catecholamines short term stress response 0 Mineralo and glucocorticoidsIong term stress response 0 Different behavior 0 Due to different receptors Muscles 0 Smooth cardiac and skeletal 0 Skeletal is under conscious control 0 Smooth and cardiac are unconscious Four functional characteristics of muscle tissue 0 Conuac on o Extension 0 E as c o Excitability 0 Motor unit 0 The motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates o Vary in size 0 Myosin and actin 0 Work together to contract the muscle 0 T tubules 0 Allow the AP to go down into cell and release Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum 0 Sarcoplasmic reticulum 0 Calcium ion storage 0 Glycosomes 0 Storage of glycogen for quick energy 0 Sarcomere o The smallest unit of the muscle 0 Z disc to 2 disc 0 H zone is based on thick filaments only 0 I bands only thin o A band length of myosin 0 Calcium 0 The final trigger for the muscle contraction what is the initial trigger for the muscle cell 0 Muscle contraction steps 0 Na enters and AP propagated along the cell and down the t tubule 0 AP triggers Ca channel in the SR to open 0 Ca binds to troponin Changes the shape of tropomyosin and actin active sites are exposed o Muscles need ATP to relax Motor unit recruitment and wave summation o lncreasely strong muscle contractions 0 Motor unit recruitment recruits more motor units 0 Wave summation work for one motor unit increasing in force not calling more Size principle for motor units 0 Smal meduim arge Muscle contaction o Isometric Same length No shortening of the sarcomere Develop tension in the muscle 0 lsotonic Shortening Same tension Tension is at or above the load so the muscle shortens Energy 0 Creatine phosphate Directly converts ADP to ATP for quick energy 0 Anaerobic mechanism Hlycolysis and lactic acid forms 0 Aerobic mechanism Glucose and fatty acids from fat tissue Provides hours of energy 3 types of fibers 0 Slow oxidative Endurance activities First recruited 0 Fast oxidative Sprintingwalking 0 Fast glycolytic Short term intense movement Oxygen debt 0 Spend more energy than can be provided 0 Lactic acid build up needs to be corrected Blood Vessels Deoxygenated blood comes from a capillary into the right atrium from the vena cava Pulmonary circuit is lower pressure Systemic circuit is high pressure Arterioles go away from the heart Veins go towards the heart Pulmonary veins eft atriumleft ventrice aorta arterioes capiary venues veins vena cava right atrium right ventricle pulmonary arteries Cardiac output 0 HR X EDVESV o EDV amount of blood left in ventricle when the heart is relaxed o ESV amount of blood left in ventricle during contraction The highest pressure of anywhere in the circulatory system is in the left ventricle to get it into the aorta Average of 525L of blood per minute Preload 0 Mean arteriole pressure pushes blood through the heart 0 Diastolic pressure 13 pulse pressure difference between systole and diastoe S3rstolii r pr essLlr jg e 1 i p i j v T l Piulllse 13935 lpressure E E if 5 quot Diastol ic pressure 40 t l 5 l llleanl P P llquotE 439SELIFE I ill I ll T I lleft Arteries tirfteriilolxes i 3apiIIaries 1lI39r ErliIlLllliE 5 Hilglht irentiricl e ireinle atriiium O 0 Pressure through blood vessels is steady does not vary up and down 0 How do the veins return blood to the heart 0 Skeletal muscle contractions 0 Breathing o Valves in the veins preventing backflow 0 Contractility is defined by a sarcomere length 0 At a stable sarcomere length still get increased contraction due to higher calcium levels 0 Kidney compensation 0 Multiple ways the kidneys can affect BP 0 Renin Angiotensin aldosterone system Angiotensin II causes an increase in BP o Interpulmonary pressure negative on inspiration zero at break and positive on expka on Transpulmonary pressure at O o Pneumothorax PpPT X C 0 Partial pressure total pressure X concentration Gasses diffuse from high to low 0 Tissues are in need of oxygen oxygen diffuses into them Dead air space 0 Mixes oxygen 0 150 mL 0 Conducting structures Dead air space causes expired O2 to be higher than alveolar O2 0 The alveolar oxygen is low due to it perfusing into the capillaries High altitude 0 Breathing rate increases 0 More Red Blood cell production Respiratory groups 0 Ventral respiratory group Generate normal breathing GABA o Dorsal Respiratory Group Modulates the VRG Can sense changes in parameters to then effect 0 Pontine respiratory center o Bicarbonate ion 0 70 is bicarbonate ion 0 20 is dissolved directly in the plasma 0 10 bound to Hb 0 Carbonic anhydrase o Converts CO2 to carbonic acid 0 In the Red Blood Cell 0 Cl comes into the RBC as the HCO3 ion leaves to balance the charges 0 Haldane effect 0 Lower 02 levels Higher PCO2 0 Higher 02 levels Lower PCO2 If oxygen is saturated harder for CO2 to bind to Hb o BPG o Helps push 02 off of the Hb so high levels in systemic capillaries causes 02 unloading HAPE 0 High altitude pulmonary edema o Fluid in the lungs 0 Causes a decrease in alveolar ventilation Digestive system 0 Nutrient competition in the gut between good and bad bacteria 0 Leptin is made by bacteria and signals body to feed 0 Many organs have dual functions O O 0 Liver Pancreas Pharynx Accessory organs 0 O 0 Support the digestive system not a part of the alimentary canal The alimentary canal is the path from the mouth to the anus The tube within the tube Pancreas Gallbladder Liver Stomach cells Mechanical digestion O Occurs via the teeth Chemical digestion o Chemically breaks down food 0 First is salivary amylase Breaks down carbohydrates 0 HCI degrades food in the stomach Creates chime Acid also kills many bacteria 0 SI Major place of chemical digestion Proteins fats carbs are all degraded and absorbed Gallbladder 0 Stores concentrated bile from the liver o Shunts it to the small intestine via the common bile duct with the pancreas Large intestine 0 Major site of water reabsorption 0 Also produces the feces The goal of digestion is to get the components of food broken down into usable parts Long reflexes 0 Go all the way to the CNS and get integrated 0 Prepare the body to receive food Short reflexes 0 Local enteric nerve plexus Reflexes are stimulated by food Antacids work by blocking H ion production and making the stomach acid less acidic 0 Has the effect of not killing some of the bacteria 0 Acid is usually 23 pH Stomach digestion o Breaks down food mechanically and chemically Mechanical is churning Chemical is acid and peptidases o Gastrin Stimulates the secretion of HCI and pepsinogen which works to chemically digest proteins in its active pepsin form 0 Pepsinogen Activated by HCI Into pepsin Pepsin then works to break down proteins 0 Skin secretions Doesn t require previous exposure Present at birth Enzymes that can directly kill bacteria Faster and more immediate Has internal nonspecific defenses Phagocytes 0 Fever 0 Natural killer cells 0 Antimicrobial proteins 0 Inflammation NK cells recognize antigen just that it has an antigen and releases chemicals called granzymes to perforate the membrane Macrophages Derived from monocytes 0 Stem cell is the hemocytoblast 0 General macrophages eat bacteria 0 Search for food and engulf them through a process known as phagocytosis Arrive after neutrophils part of innate defense Phagocytosis 0 Success rate increased opsonization Antibodies specific to the antigen are produces and coat the bacteria 0 Neutralization o Agglutination Urinary System 0 Kidney is at the center of the urinary system 0 Major functions Filter blood Excrete urine pH balance is important 0 blood comes from the aorta and feeds the kidneys 0 pair of ureters collects the urine 0 nephrons functional unit of the kidney 0 also the urine forming units 0 Proximal convoluted tubule PCT 0 Cells have lots of mitochondria and microvilli Absorption function 0 Kidneys modulate the systemic BP 0 Catcholamines o Angiotensin o Renin o ADH 0 Glomerulus is where renin is released 0 Can sense the BP 0 Renin raises the BP vasoconstrict Proteins cannot pass throught he glomerular filtration membrane because it is too selective 0 three forces determine the filtrate formation 0 glomerular hydrostatic pressure 0 Loop of henle o Descending limb water reabsorption passive o Ascending limb soute reabsorption mostly active 0 Collecting duct 0 Water reuptake Concentrates the urine 0 ADH affects it Higher levels more aquaporins more water reabsorption 0 Water is reabsorbed into the vasa recta as to not affect the ion concentrations Reproduction Meiosis evolved o Mechanism to correct for error without cell division 0 Ploidy cyce sometimes benefit from being haploid 0 Genes required for mitosis were repurposed for meiosis 0 Sex started evolution occurred rapidly Meiosis 0 Two stages Meiosis hapliod but still replicated Meiosis haploid and only one copy 0 Genetic variability Random assortment in metaphase I Crossing over in prophase I Random fertilization o 4 gametes out of the male process 0 1 viable gamete for females 3 polar bodies o FSH Receptors on the follicle cells 0 Estrogen release in the blood causes a burst of FSHLH release not production Positive feedback mechanism 0 Follicle gets larger produces more estrogen this triggers a shut off 0 FSH and LH surge occurs around 14 days Estrogen dependent 0 Surge causes ovulation 0 After ovulation the follicle ruptures and this leads to declining estrogen levels in the blood 0 Estrogen levels decrease progesterone increases 0 Follicular cells become the corpus luteum Under control of LH Degraded if no fertilization o Estrogen and progesterone Estrogenovulation Also allows sperm into the uterus by making the mucus slimy Progesteronechanging in the uterus to prepare for ovulation Blocks the uterus again 0 No fertilization The uterine lining is shed 0 Regular bleeding and shedding monthly The purpose is to make sure the uterine wall is responding to the hormones Also helps disinfect the uterus o Uterine cycle
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