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CHAPTER 10 J Sensory Physiology Sensory Physiology How we perceive our environment Six 59 30lY 3Y3t9m3 Three common steps associated 39 S at e S W with any sense 39 Proprioception 1Aphysica stimulus Temperature 2 Sensory transduction pain transformation of sensory input into Itch nerve impulses H H Visual 3 orrnu ation o perception or our I Auditory conscious experience of that Sensation Vestibular Olfactory Gustatory forms of nociception occur in the others too Just less o en The five senses Taste Touch a somatic sense Smell Sight Sound Additionally we include Other somatic senses Pain Temperature Itch Proprioception Sense of balance vestibular system Modalities amp sensory receptors Each sensory receptor responds to a particular modality The sensory receptor transduces the external stimulus into internal electrical impulses Stimulus transduction Receptor potentials are generated across their dendritic membranes in response to stimuli cable like properties The Receptive Field The receptive field of a sensory neuron encodes the location of the stimulus In sensory systems the receptive field is oftentimes comprised of a center and a surround magnitude of sensation and contrast between center surround are directly correlated Overlapping between receptive fields occurs Ganglion cell receptive fields detection of contrast On center GCs are most stimulated by central illumination amp darkness in the surround Off center GCs are most stimulated by surround illumination amp darkness in the center change in the light received gt change in the action potentials being fired at the ganglia Ganglia sees many receptive fields from different polar cells gets complicated The Eye Superior rectus muscle i Sclera mj Conjunctiva Ch 39 id Ciliary body Posterior Chambei Anterior Anterior cavity Retina Fovea centralis chamber l P Cornea Central artery Pupil Lens Central vein ms Optic nerve Posterior chamber Zonular fibers of suspensory ligament Vitreous chamber posterior cavity Inferior rectus muscle Anatomy of the Retina Fibers of the optic nerve Pigmented epithelium GangHonceHs Homeostasis of PRCS 1 Visual cycle of retinal constant shedding of pigmented epitheliur A AnmmhecdB PRCS rods amp cones sit at the back of the retina Direc on 39 Bipolar cells BPCS receive input from PRCs of impulses Ganglion cells receive input from BPCs BipoarCequotS Bipolar cells I Rods to ganglion cells Esr zontall Cones to ganglion cells lnterneurons mediate lateral information flow I HOriZOnta Cells Photoreceptor Connects rods and cones to each other equot5 Rod Cone Amacrine cells Ganglion to ganglion L e I f t fl Pigment epithelium L 39 quot39 L quot quot 39 n Orma 390 CW Choroid layer 39 quot o toK Sclera Hits ganglion axons first then neuronal cell bodies through bipo bodies then cell bodies of photoreceptor cells 9 Phototransduction goes In opposite direction back up to ganglions 9 Thalamic neurons 9 Cortical neurons Occipital lobe contains visual map FIGURE 1036 Re na Visual Transduction in the Retina Rods amp oones share many key elements of phototransduotion Photoreoeptors GPCR s Outer segment contains stacks of Rhodopsin in rods Photopsins in cones Photopigment is retinal Photoreceptors convert photons into Gprotein transducin I Dark Current PRCs are depolarized in dark r PRCs are hyperpolarized in light ea Dark current is a positive inward equot FIGURE 1037 depolarizing current Synapuc endmgs 39 29 Inner segment The Chemical Senses Gustation amp Olfaction TASTE Sensory receptors Taste buds Gustatorytaste cells specialized epithelia perform the sensory transduction Supporting cell Five submodalities Salty Na ion through LGIC causing depolarization opens Ca2 channels releases neurotransmitter Sour Ht ion through LGIC causing depolarization opens Ca2 channels releases neurotransmitter Sweet and Umami Sugars bind to GPCRs 2 d messenger closes K channels depolarization releases neurotransmitter Bitter Quinine bind to GPCRs 2 d messenger induces Ca2 release from endoplasmic reticulum depolarization releases neurotransmitter One sensory neuron per taste submodality The Chemical Senses Gustation Q Olfaction SMELL I Sensory cells are bipolar neurons intercalated among olfactory epithelia I Each sensory neuron has one type of receptor I Dendritic cilia contain odorant R s GPCR I odorant binds 9 I Gprotein dissociates 9 I Binds Adenylate cyclase 9 I Activates CAMP 9 I Binds to channel 9 I Opens a Ca2Nat channel both flow in 9 I Depolarization excites bipolar neuron I Axonal end of the bipolar neuron synapses at glomeruli in the olfactory bulb 9 I These neurons with the help of the interneurons tuft and mitral send information to prefrontal cortex I Smell and taste have in common all chemoreceptors Hair Cells Pitch frequency of sound waves encoded by location of stimulated hair cells in cochlea Specific location determines the pitch Just like motor maps a pitch map exists At rest Loudness intensity of sound waves encoded by degree of Memm bending of hair bundle 9 dep39eSSed gut determines frequency of action av T potential Action potential mm K J l J 1 1 1 1 1 Action potential The stereo cilia are connected t y e S C Stimulated d Inhibited quot the tip which is key to AP quotquot quot quot 39 quotquotquotquot frequency Ears and Shit Ears Outer Ear Consists of the auricle and auditory canal Collects longitudinal sound waves and channels them to the tympanic membrane which is the beginning of the middle ear Middle Ear Has the tympanic membrane which vibrates back and forth due to the vibrations from the outer membrane and pushes the ossices back and forth Ossicles also in middle ear 1 Malleus 2 lncus 3 Stapes The ossicles transmit information to the oval window of the fuid fied inner ear The ossicles use a reduced surface area to amplify the force from the tympanic membrane twenty fold The muscles tensor tympani and stapedius insert onto the ossicles during loud explosions to protect the inner ear Ears and Shit I E a rs copyright 039I39ho MccrawHlll Companies Inc Pormluion romlrod for reproduction or display 39 Outer earjl Middle ear 39 lnner ear I iiquot A F 39 I I I 90 f f Semicircular canals Facial nerve He 39x Vestibular nerve Cochlear nerve Auricle Cochlea Temporal bone Round window External auditory meatus Tympanic cavity Auditory tube ossicles Eanobe Tympanic membrane CHAPTER 15 Renal Urinary System Homeostasis Control of extracellular fluid interstitial fluid and plasma Control both ECF volume and composition ECF Composition Electrolytes Nat Kt Clquot Minerals PO43 Mg Ca2 Acidbase balance HCO3 Ht Toxic products of metabolism uremic toxins ECF Volume Renal cortex Renal medulla Key structures to know cortex medulla pelvis ureter artery vein nephron and its parts Renal cortex Renal medulla X 7 PM k Nephron Renal Renal artery medulla glomerulus distal tubule 39 ll 39 CO ectmg duct proximal tubule Nephron 1000000human kidney 500000dog kidney W loop of Henle descending then ascending limb Surrounded bv smooth muscle gtuar artery and vein Renal cortex Arcuate artery and vein Renal medulla Jar artery and vein Renal artery Renal pelvis Renal vein Ureter Continuous Limits macromolecular movement across wall to molecules lt500 gmlmole Present in brain and skeletal muscle In brain pericytes are astroglial cells and the glial cells plus continuous capillary are often called the bloodbrainbarrier Two types of capillaries most small molecules such as oxygen glucose and electrolytes readily get across Fe e5quot 5 Fenestrated Allows larger of Wes molecules to move across capillary wall though usually only up to 30000 gmlmole Present in liver endocrine glands gut and kidney Question Why would pores at these sites be useful lnterdigitated junction Glomerular Afferent arteriole Bowman s capsule Glomerular ultrafiltrate Efferent arteriole Angiotensin would increase filtration rate of GFR Control of GFR Pressure in the glomerular capillaries causes filtration GFR Think of afferent arteriole as a spigot opening it will increase GFR by increasing pressure in glomerulr capillaries The efferent arteriole is like a pressure relief valve opening it will lower pressure in the glomerular capillaries and reduce GFR Reabsorption Overview Not filtered solutes Albumin and other large proteins gt30000 Daltons Filtered solutes Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion Subtypes Conserved solutes important for kidney to save goal 100 reabsorption examples glucose and amino acids Balanced solutes kidney balances input with urinary excretion goal balance examples Nat Kt Ht Excreted solutes important to eliminate in urine goal excretion urea medications antibiotics Water Regulated by Urine Concentrating Mechanism Ap cal Lumen of 0 Gmcose membrane kidneylubule quot quot v 1 W f fa r O V t C C a if 3 0 gamer ATP 39 Facilitated lllj a diffusion A P Simple y U v39 u diffusion Pnm h active tr port 0 Capillary Conserved Solute Reabsorption Glucose as an example SodiumGlucose Linked Transporter SGLT in brush border membrane Secondary active transport SGLT2 early in proximal tubule SGLT1 late in proximal tubule GLUcose Transporter GLUT in basolateral membrane Facilitated diffusion Normally gt99 of glucose reabsorbed before end of proximal tubule Amino Acid reabsorption is identical except that there are different carriers gt99 in proximal tubule Drug Industry Developing SGLT inhibitors for treatment of metabolic syndrome F Metabolic Syndrome people and cats Issue Obesity Hyperglycemia insulin resistance Develop Heart and Kidney Disease i l Proximal convoluted tubule ds 4339 Passive Increasing NaC and urea concentrations Na Factoids Dlstal convoluted tubule o o 3 0 0 I 2 5 8 5 en a 1 9 Active Transport Proximal Distal Thick segment of ascending limb Passive Diffusion Loop of Henlez the Na enters the cells which then expel it because of the NaK pump think SGLT12 transporters Peritubular capillaries 39l 1quotrvi f 9731quot Distal tubule and collecting duct istal tubule A PPN Na reabsorption and WH secretion Cortical collecting duct d Adjusted in accordance with body needs Hormonesensitive Aldosterone from adrenal cortex increases Na reabsorption and KH secretion Ascending limb of Hene s loop collecting duct Renal Contribution to AcidBase Balance Proximal Distal Tubular Cell Tubular Cell Proximal tubule Bicarbonate reabsorption Carbonic anhydrase enzyme present in cytosol 0n W p and on brush border surface quot V of tubular cells 39Pquot39 l 9 i7 amp F 3 539 39quot439i 97 w v 9 3 3 an 5 9 7 8 aka A 0B s Tubular fluid Tubular fluid Distal Tubule Proton secretion NH3 and Phosphate in tubular fluid serve as buffers to absorb the H Copyright The McGrawHIII Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Low water intake High water intake dehydration overhydration Plasma 3 Plasma osmolalityy ZosmoIaIity Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus Posterior pituitary iADH iADH Kidneys 1 Water i Water reabsorption reabsorption Negative V Mme watei Negative feedback yexmetedyriniu nie feedback correction i 39 39 correction Kidney is responsible for Conversion of Vitamin D to its active form Release of erythropoietin stimulation of red blood cell production Regulates blood pressure Regulates electrolyte levels Regulates acid base balance CHAPTER 14 Respiration ext intercostals amp diaphragm actively contract causing thoracic cavity to expand Lung Diaphragm Thoracic cavity contracts due to passive relaxation of ext intercostals amp diaphragm 1 Air exhaled Noral Ventilation or Normal Breathing Air Passages Conducting Zone No gas exchange Inspired air is humidified and filtered mainly in the nose From external nares and mouth to beginning of respiratory bronchioles Upper ainvay nosemouth to beginning of trachea Lower ainvay beginning of trachea larynx to start of respiratory bronchioles Respiratory Zone Gas exchange Respiratory bronchioles and Alveoli Conducting Zone quot Nasopharynx Nasal air P093899 UPP Pharynx almay Mouth Oropharynx Lmym Eplglolm Trochoa Apex ol the lung Alvooll Lower Smaller 39mquot7 bronchi Carina Main bronchl Base at the lung Diaphragm Know upper and lower airway Conducting Zone W Thyroid Larynx1 cartilage T l Cricoid cartilage 39 A Traohea Carina quotVquot Right P3939ma39Y P 0d J Left primary 1 b C S c 39 bronchus at R I 39 4 39 39 s I I g V K 1 LOW A I 17 branches total including alveoli 1 Larynx 1 l 1 Trachea 1 l 2 Primary or Mainstem Bronchi 2 l Bronchi gt20 secondary and tertiary branches l Bronchioles gt100000 l Alveolar sacs 8 million l Alveoli many millions normal breathing Muscles of Ventilation Muscles of inspiration Muscles of expiration Contraction raises sternum up m s P p raises ribs increasing size of thoracic cavity 9 Contraction raises ribs increasing size of thoracic cavity Contraction lowers ribs decreasing size of thoracic cavity External intercostals Contraction presses Internal intercostals viscera up against the P t l inOr39s diaphragm further decreasing size of thoracic cavity Diaphragm External abdominal oblique Contraction flattens or lowers the dome increasing size of thoracic cavity Internal abdominal oblique Transversus abdominis Recius abdominis httpvideosearchyahoocomsearchvideoyltAOoG7mPdqZ1OQ1OAsuhXNyoAplung20ventilationampfr2pivweb Normal inspiration primarily driven by diaphragmatic and external intercostal contraction lnspka on Intrapulmonary pressure 760 mmHg 39 T 39 lt quot L 1quot 7 3 quot 39 pOS 3 ppX 39 v at 2 0 7 V 439 V F 39 A J39 4 a 39 quot37 3 7 quot 39 39 quot 4 39 39 39 7 w 39 c 39 quotgt It s it quot 39 398 39 39 quot V quot quot 39 V g lntrapleural pressure 756 mmHg quot 39 a 4 3 J 39 quot V 39 V H A g I n l 439 r I A w 2 H 39 r quot 3 39 39 r 39 1 3939 w 39 2 39 39 V v 3 39 w quot I 7 39 h I393939 39 1 I I 39 v 39 l39quotquot W 39 I 39 x39 G r A I 7 393939 quotCE I lt s39ovrs39 I 757 mmHg 754 mmHg Diaphragm Relaxing breathing requires the contraction of the external intercostals and diaphragmatic muscles Expiration is simply releasing the muscles However ACTIVE breathing requires the external abdominals and internal intercostals during expka on ac ve contracted diaphragm flattens Normal expiration primarily driven by diaphragmatic and external interoostal relaxation passive Inspka on Expiration 757 mmHg 763 mmHg 754rnn 4g 757 mmHg ac ve contracted diaphragm flattens passive relaxed diaphragm Surface Tension Water molecules lining the surface of all ainvays are attracted to each other This creates a force or pressure P that tends to cause ainvays to close surface tension attraction to collapse Tendency to collapse no exchange Solution Surfactant phospholipids A Basal lamina V A39Surfactant l 39 4 a n 0 39 a V g s no v 5 1 I quot quot 39 o 3 k 5 I quotif quot 3 39 r Io 0 39 l r u o 5 39 L p 39 7 V 39 z I P 39 i J 9 39 0 39 o J v I39 s Alveolus type produced by type II alveolar cells reduces surface tension keeps small alveoli open g production starts late in gestation Early birth Respiratory Distress Syndrome RDS due to alveolar collapse A r quot 39 T s r 53 quot 39 p r 39 g quot39 w V I w s V H T 39 Capillag p quot igrothe Sr l 39 0 o 2 gt quot Type 1 alveolar cells the lining cells for easy gas exchange Type 2 produce surfactants Lung volume in cubic cenumeters cc Lung volumes and capacities 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 1 Inspiratory capacny 3 Tidal volume Inspuralory V9390399 volume Extairalory reserve volume Flesldual volume Vital capacity T H Functional residual capacity Total lung capacity Most important alveolar air measurements of CO2 and 02 When breathing in the inspired air is only a fraction of the resid ual volume of air and its pressure in the lungs Fully humidified air is known to have a PHZO of 47 mmHg at AlveoIar airl body temp 37C THIS IS IMPORTANT 9 Inspired air A H20 here 212Lli e be 0 47 mmHg Systemic Artexy CO2 0003 mmHg 40 mmHg quot O2 159 mmHg 105 mmHg N2 601 mmHg 568 mmHg T a39 760 mmHg 760 mmHg clinical presswe indices of lung funoti Control of Ventilation Respiratory Centers in brain stem Rhythmicity Area drives automatic breathing cyclic contraction and relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals Diaphragm innervated by phrenic nerve which originates at the 6 cervical vertebra spinal injuries above C6 are fatal without immediate intervention Multiple inputs to these centers adjust ventilation to meet needs will discuss Some drugs depress this center reducing respiration Also inhibit the cerebral cortex Think when you hold your breath you feel the need to breathe in Inhibition of the cerebral cortex will make it so you don t feel any stimuli to breathe in Narcotics Alcohol Anesthetics Propofol Reduce respiratory rate and tidal volume can cause apnea if overdosed Pons Brain stem Pneumotaxic area respiratory Apneu 1ic area Cem quot3 39Rhythmicity area 7 Medulla oblongata s Voluntary breathing Cerebral cortex L Pons Pneumotaxic center Apneustic center p p p V iltilFjllljlriliitlllmiit 7 O E E U 9 chemoreceptors 3 chemoreceptors Aortic and carotid kg Medulla oblongata bodies E 9 3 lt2 gt Spinal cord Motoneurons to respiratory muscles Rhythmicity Area in medulla oblongata will produce an automatic normal breathing pattern of ventilation in the absence of any other input that is often irregular which is normal for it check tests the aortic and carotid bodies are peripheral chemoreceptors Voluntary breathing Apneustic center Chemoreceptors Aortic and carotid bodies Cerebral cortex Pons i Pneumotaxic center 9 llllleillllcljlllll a ill l orli t lll1r litll linlillirliit lt O E 5 C6 9 0 Chemoreceptors 0 2 Medulla oblongata E 9 3 lt2 Spinal cord V Motoneurons to respiratory muscles Cerebral cortex can voluntarily control ventilation you can take a deep breath while a physician auscults your lung sounds Cerebral cortical activity also affects the activity of the Rhythmicity Area in a general way that is not under voluntary control anxiety often leads to hyperventilation Ghemoreoeptor o quot neuLro ns Medulla e A oblongata Sensory nerve fcbers inn glossopharyngeai nerve Carotid body Medullary Central Chemoreceptors lt33953 33s3973o39gt 39 more sensitive 80 highly responsive to TCO2 Aocmoslt responsive to T H Carotid sunus a Common Carotid artery Aor 13 Peripheral Chemoreceptors 20 highly responsive to TCO2 responsive to T H 39 responsive to H02 Hoar Voluntary breathing A Cerebral cortex Pons iPneumotaxic center Apneustic center 5 ll llf lllUillll 3 Z quotlllllillii39ili ll it it qr M tumrm iitf n ei e D E 5 U 9 Chemoreceptors 8 Chemoreceptors Aortic and carotid g Medulla oblongata bodies E 9 3 lt gt Spinal cord Motoneurons to respiratory muscles Chemoreceptors play the critical role in controlling ventilation Central 80 of CO2 detection Medulla oblongata Detect H directly and CO2 indirectly Brain tissue CSF and blood perfusing the brain Peripheral 20 Carotid and Aortic Bodies Detect H directly and CO2 indirectly in arterial blood A Key Respiratory Reaction Carbonic Anhydrase E coz H20 Zyme H2003 7 H quot Hco Carbonic Proton Bicarbonate Acid Key Points Carbonic anhydrase is ubiquitous Adding CO2 to this system will lead to lH At rest tissues utilize more oxygen than can be carried as dissolved in plasma making an additional oxygen carrier hemoglobin essential for life Gas tank P02 100 mmHg Plasma Whole blood 0 39 Wx F fo21OO Po210O kc 08 04 cu 4 at 1quot quot39 l V 02 Oxyhemoglobin 100 ml Oxygen content Hemoglobin 98 of bood s oxygen carrying capacity Oxygen and Hemoglobin Systemic arterial blood after lungs 20 mL of O2100 mL of blood 97 of hemoglobin binding for 02 are occupied 97 saturation P02 100 mmHg Systemic venous blood after tissues 15 mL of O2100 mL of blood 75 of hemoglobin binding for 02 are occupied 75 saturation P02 40 mmHg Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Amount of O2 unloaded to Ussues 85 5 oozmo 5 Emzcoo cmmgtxO i 20 15 10 5 O 1oo omSwm cnomoEmcgtxo Emomn P02 Tissue Metabolism Key metabolic processes Oxidative Phosphorylation Required from blood respiratory system Q2 Wastes removed by blood respiratory system coz Ht Increased metabolic activity means increased 02 requirement What adaptations are present Bohr and Temperature effects Increased Ht andor temperature shift curve to right more oxygen released to tissues Carbon dioxide transport These numbers actually make a lot of fucking sense if you think about it 1 10 dissolved in blood any more than this and the aortic carotid and medullary chemoreceptors are going to do theirjob and make you hyperventilate all the fucking time not cool 2 20 bound to carbaminohemoglobin So systemic arterial blood filled with oxygen after a nice breath of spring air has a 97 saturation rate for hemoglobin Systemic venous blood which was just raped by oxygendeprived tissues carrying out oxidative phosphorylation has a saturation rate of 75 So from fresh air to being raped is a difference of only 22thus there isn t a whole lot of hemoglobin that are empty for CO2 3 Well you gotta dissolve it somewhere gt To pulmonary vein Ventilation and AcidBase Balance Suppose Ht ions buildup in blood blood pH falls what change occurs in ventilation minute volume and how does this impact H pH stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors carotid and aortic bodies a lincreased rate and depth of ventilation 9 lminute volume Relies on peripheral chemoreceptors since H can t get from blood to brain chemoreceptors Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics and Shit DNA vs RNA Prokaryotes 0 Single RNA polymerase for mRNA tRNA and rRNA 0 Promoters 35 consensus 10 consensus Molecular Genetics and Shit Eu karyotes 3 RNA polymerases RNA pol I for rRNA RNA pol II for mRNA RNA pol III for tRNA Promoters 90 CC box 75 CAAT box 30 TATA box Prokaryotes 0 No introns present 0 No posttranscriptional modifcations Molecular Genetics and Shit Eu karyotes DNA has introns which are transcribed into mRNA must be removed before translation Other post transcriptiona modi cations Poly A tail added to the 3 OH end 7 methy uanosine cap at the 5 en Molecular Genetics and Shit DNA FACTS U o 0 Supercoiled DNA is 39 P relaxed by DNA topoisomerase 9 Helicase DnaB protein breaks hydrogen bonds to unwind DNA strands 0 SSB coats singlestranded DNA to prevent reannealing O Primase synthesizes RNA primers on leading and lagging strands 539 9 DNA polymerase III a synthesizes DNA 5 gt 339 continuously along leading strand and discontinuously along lagging strand Okazaki 339 fragment p 0 DNA polymerase I removes nucleotides of RNA primers replacing them with DNA nucleotides 0 DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester bonds to join DNA segments Overall direction of synthesis 3 5 3 5 Leading strand Lagging strand Molecular Genetics and Shit copyngntonio uccuwurn colnponloc Inc Pamiuion nquirou tor reproduction or money RNA polymerase recognition site RNA polymerase binding site Pribnow box Coding strand Template strand 35 10 1 539i 3 DNA g 1 1 3a 3 El Jr st Prornoter Leader Coding region Trailer Terrninator Transcription Sta Direction of transcription gt a ShineDalgarno sequence or A MUG mRNA 5 39I 1 I 3 is 4 Leader Trailer Translation start Translation initiation codon stop codon b Molecular Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme to form a closed complex In the closed complex the DNA is still double stranded RNA polymerase Sigma factor 00 enZYm9 Closed complex Formation of an open complex In the open complex the DNA is unwound RNA polymerase Sigma factor COVE en7Yme Open complex Release of sigma factor RNA polymerase core enzyme Sigma factor RNA transcript Genetics and Shit Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display 5 Rewinding of DNA Coding Strand RNA polymerase Template Open complex strand Unwinding of DNA A Direction of RNA 1J transcription hybnd region Nucleotide being added to the 3 I end of the RNA Ribonucleoside t 39 h h t Key points Hp Osp a es 0 RNA polymerase slides along the DNA creating an open complex as it moves a The template strand is used to make a complementary copy of RNA as an RNA DNA hybrid 0 The RNA is synthesized in a 539 to 339 direction using ribonucleoside triphosphates as precursors Pyrophosphate is released not shown 0 The complementarity rule is the same as the ATGC rule except that U is substituted for T in the RNA ia 7 1 iv 4 339 RNA D NA A pG 6 A V Molecular Genetics and Shit 0 Rhodependent termination Hairpin structure is formedbut lacks the polyU sequence in mRNA RNA polymerase sits idle on DNA at terminator Rho factor binds at rut site in RNA runs into the RNA Polymerase and knocks it off he DNA Rho factor aids in the unwinding of the mRNADNA complex RNADNA helicase activity Molecular Genetics and Shit TRANSLATION Molecular Genetics and Shit Polypeptide Synthesis Initiation mRNA binds to the small ribosome and binds in the presence of initiation factors Small ribosome slides along the mRNA until it reaches a start codon AUG The initiation aminoacyltRNA complex methionine tRNA base pairs with the start codon Now the large ribosomal subunit is formed completing the complex tRNA is now at the P site as the first part of the growing polypeptide chain Elongation Complex slides along the mRNA adding new amino acids as it goes Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and the complementary tRNA anticodon A charged aminoacyltRNA is now in both the A site and P site Peptidyl transferase uses the energy stored in the aminoacyltRNA complex when the amino acid was loaded to catalyze the formation of a peptide bond The aminoacyltRNA used for this is the one in the P site Bond is made between the A site and P site P site aminoacyltRNA is now free and there is an aminoacy tRNA in the A site this one has its own amino acid Translocation addition of the next amino acid the ribosomal complex slides in the 593 direction along the mRNA moving the next codon into place in the A site Then the uncharged tRNA in the P site is expelled followed by movement from the A site to the P site of the aminoacy tRNA that is carrying the nascent chain A site is now empty Termination Termination codon UGA UAA UAG Release factor protein that binds to the termination codon causing the polypeptide chain to be released from the tRNA in the P site and the ribosomal subunits dissociate An no acids Amino acid t attachment site Ex hu tRNA Bound Large ammo acid subun An codon lncon ng tRNA P R k A I Q V IA 4 I quot44 s 1 quot39 4 H Small t subun Elongation 0 Peptide bond formation N 9 Translocation N tpati1 3sferase Eongation factors translocate formation of a peptide the quotb s m the quotquot har9d bond between the tRNA IS released to the E site and a new tRNA is recruited to amino acid in the P the A Site and A sitesThe peptide chain moves to the A site Ribosome movement along mRNA V 5 339 339 Molecular Genetics and Shit Mutation Severity Nonsense gt Missense gt silent Reversion Point mutations have the highest probability of reversion because it s a change in just one base pair Mutations that add or delete base pairs have the lowest probability of reversion Molecular Genetics and Shit I Lytic Lysogenic l V 39 3939 Integrated propllege repllcates with bacterial cell viral chromosome enters bacterlum may enter 8 may enter e f a 1 g recycle lytlc cycle rrepllcatlon of quot o r 5 4 f PI39oPaS W at chromosome y A I 39W quot39 39 quot39 39 quot quot39 39 r A 4 Q I Molecular Genetics and Shit Inducible Systems Require a compound known as an inducer to cause transcription of the structural gene The repressor is always made it binds tightly to the operating sequence and thus prevent transcription of the structural gene An inducer must bind the repressor protein so that the RNA polymerase can move down the gene Behaveon the principle of positive feedback p Inducible systems to operator structural promoter RNA polymerase binds lt u 73 bind to operator structural genes 0 are transcribed Molecular Genetics and Shit Blotting Techniques Southern blotting used to identify DNA Northern blotting used on RNA Western blotting used for proteins Eastern blotting doesn t fucking exist Molecular Genetics and Shit Structures Primary covalent bonds between amino acids Secondary noncovalent alpha helix and beta sheet Tertiary globular cluster Quaternary multiple tertiary structures linked together Note Four types of noncovalent bonds 1 Ionic 2 Hydrogen 3 Hydrophobic 4 London Dispersion Lecture Outline I Types of muscle cells How skeletal muscle looks How skeletal muscle works Wholemuscle contraction I Types of motor units Neural control of skeletal muscle The skeletal muscle cell SARCOLEMMA plasma membrane of a muscle cell SARCOPLASM cytoplasm of a muscle cell SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM SR specialized endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle cell Muscle cells are multinucleated Muscle cells appear striated due to dark Aband amp light banding pattern of sarcomeres Sarcolemma Sarcoplasm m p quot Myofilaments 2 Myo bms Striations The Motor Unit I Amuscle is comprised of W f many motor units Somaticmotor v I A motor unit is comprised of I t a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers cells it innervates I All muscle fibers in the same motor unit are of the same Motor unit Spinal cord Somatic motor neuron 3 Motor unit Motor unit I Speed ltteuromuscularl Somatic I p ililteslgltgl bers guncttons motor axon I fajgabty n I 07o I A typical motor neuron 0 o I 0o h innervates 100 to 1000 1 pi 0 00 C 6 muscle cells 0 m W 0 S I One muscle cell is typically 0 IJa4IJaJ JI 4JIsJ J4J 3JltKJ4zJIK e b 0 a j innervated by a single motor 0 0 neuron Lecture Outline Types of muscle cells How skeletal muscle looks How skeletal muscle works The motor unit The neuromuscularjunction Excitationcontraction coupling Sarcomere structure amp the sliding filament model of contraction Wholemuscle contraction Types of motor units Neural control of skeletal muscle Physical coupling of the DHPR and RyR A Voltage Dihydropyridine receptor no Rya nod ine receptor Sa rcoplasmic reticulum Calcium pumps causes the intracellular calcium levels to temporarily spike and then return to baseline levels brings the Ca back to the SR 743 TIHa T39 rquot3939rtr Sarcorziasmzr SuroIs3rnma C 5Y39 71Ul3939L 39efICLJi39 quotrns le fiber quotquot1 39P 39Jt1luv Sa l CO me re 1 DE 39 gin 39 A single muscle cell contains p a many myofibrils P h I A myofibril is comprised of seriallyrepeating sarcomeres gt striated appearance A sarcomere is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell Thin filaments actin Thick filaments myosin I Sarcomeres shorten during muscle contraction without a change in length of their laments gt sliding filament model of muscle contraction From Kandel et a Principles of Neural Science 4th Ed EC coupling amp cross bridge attachment the central role of Ca2 Muscle action potential so results in the release of Ca gross from the SR quot g Intracellular Ca binds to W troponin leading to a shift c in the tropomyosin x molecules thus allowing for t crossbridge attachment Ca myosinactin interactions cmmgr W0 O mp Multiple crossbridge cycles power strokes lead to muscle contraction Links for 12 Edition McGrawHill website for Fox s Human Physiology text 12th edition I wwwmhhecomfox12 I Click on Student Edition left panel Register free and sign in Under Study Tools choose Chapter 12 then Animations Action Potentials amp Muscle Contraction Breakdown of ATP amp CrossBridge Lecture Outline Types of muscle cells How skeletal muscle looks How skeletal muscle works Wholemuscle contraction Types of motor units Speed of contraction Strength of contraction Fatigability Neural control of skeletal muscle Overall organization Proprioceptors amp lower motor neurons Reflex circuits Muscles amp Energy How do muscles use ATP Myosin ATPases gt Burstsgf contraction heavy activity Ca2ATPases gt relaxation How do muscles make f g39 quot AT P Fatty acids ketone bodies Aerobic respiration Mb1oodAglucose Bursts of xi iv h ho Iation 0 dat e p Osp ry heavy activity mitochondria Anaerobic respiration glycogenolysis and fermentation to lactate substrate level phosphorylation Muscle contraction Phosphocreatme Creatine From Nelson amp Cox Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 5th Ed Lecture Outline Types of muscle cells How skeletal muscle looks How skeletal muscle works Wholemuscle contraction Types of motor units Speed of contraction Strength of contraction Fatigability Neural control of skeletal muscle Overall organization Proprioceptors amp lower motor neurons Reflex circuits Sensory receptors amp lower motor neurons Muscle spindle apparatus sensory feedback Located on intrafusal muscle fibers Muscle stretch gt spindle stretch gt stimulation of sensory neurons 9 information to spinal cord Increased lengthintensity of stretch of muscle gt increased AP frequency 9 carried on afferent neurons to spinal cord Lower motor neurons control of musculature ocmotoneuron innervation of extrafusal muscle fibers extrafusa all muscles fibers previously talked about in this pp ymotorneuron innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers Control muscle spindle stretches Reset spindle apparatus back to resting condition so they can respond to another stretch if and when it happens reciproca innervation when a muscle spindle sensory neuron excites the alphamotor neuron to an agonist muscle and also excites an inhibitory interneuron which synapses with the gammamotor neuron to an antagonist muscle Other Nuclear chain fiber can actually contract Their stretching stimulates secondary fiber stretching and thus afferent action potentials Nuclear bag Movement stimulates primary fiber particularly at beginning of stretch and thus afferent action potentials Primary fiber wrap around nuclear bag Secondary fiber sense degree of stretching of chain fiber Sensory receptors amp lower motor neurons Golgi apparatus Lies perpendicular to the muscle and is sensitive to changes in tension On nuclear bag Muscle spindle apparatus Lies parallel to the muscle and is sensitive to changes in length Is on the intrafusal muscles On nuclear chain Muscle spindle apparatus Extrafusal fibers lntrafusal fibers Skeletal iquoteCr39ar chem muscle Nuclear Peripheral bag fiber nerve motor and sensory C30 quot9Cquot 9 nerve fibers tissue sheath Muscle Afferent nerve fibers spindle e S 39Yquot Primary fiber Annulospiral endings Secondary fiber Flowerspary endings Efferent nerve fibers Tendon Gamma fiber 30 Alpha fiber Motor end plates a e a39drop b Double reciprocal innervation 9 crossedextensor reflex I R uad Rt Ham Extensor Flexor Lt Quad Lt Ham Extensor Flexor Musculoskeletal and Shit Terms Exoskeleton skeleton on the outside arthropods Endoskeleton skeleton on the inside humans Skeletorz A fictional super villain Axial Skeleton central framework Skull Vertebral column Ribcage Appendicular Skeleton outer Arms Legs Pelvic and pectoral girdles Skeleton Composed of cartilage and bone Musculoskeletal and Shit Macroscopic Bone Structure V Compact Bone 1 4 t The strong compact bone that gives our skeleton strength eplphyseal Plate eplphysis l Spongy or cancellous bone Spongy lattice structure sP quot3V b quot Trabeculae bony spicules present in the lattice framework Pemsteum quotV metaphysis Bone marrow fills the spongy holes of the lattice framework Red marrow composed of hematopoietic stem cells that generate blood Yellow marrow composed of fat and is relatively unactive Long bone Part of appendicular system Full of marrow Diaphyses Cylindrical shafts Peripheries compact bone Internal core marrow cavity diaphysls Epiphyses Dilated ends Peripheries compact bone Internal core spongy bone The thin outer shell houses the bonelining cells mostly osteoblasts that regulate movement of calcium and phosphate into and out of the bone Epiphyseal plate Cartilaginous structure that separates diaphyses and epiphyses Site of longitudinal growth Periosteum quot39 met3PhY5395 J Fibrous sheath that surrounds the long bone l Serves as site of muscle attachment via tendons pgphy55 Osteoprogenitor Cells g 39 r 39 4 Reside in the deepest layer of periosteum and are reserved for growth and repair Musculoskeletal and Shit Bone Formation Ossification Endochondral ossification The hardening of cartilage to form bones New bone forms in the primary ossification centers which are located within the mesenchymal tissue or in the cartilaginous model Secondary ossification centers appear later at the end of the cartilage model within the epiphysis Ossification eventually proceeds to the end of the bone where a plate of cellular activity appears between the epiphysis and diaphysis and later becomes the site of longitudinal growth Occurs in Vertebral column Pelvis Synthesis of long bones lntramembranous ossification The process by which mesenchymal tissue undifferentiated embryonic connective tissue is transformed into and replaced by bone Carried out by osteoblasts which perform synthesis on highly vascular embryonic connective tissue Occurs in Infants Mandible Frontal parietal and maxillary bones Musculoskeletal and Shit Joints Joints are made of connective tissue two types ofjoints Movable Joints Like door hinges and allow bones to shift relative to one another Strengthened by ligaments pieces of fibrous tissue that connect bones to one another Contains a synovial capsule Encloses the joint cavity articular cavity Articular cartilage coats articular surfaces of the bones so impact is limited to the lubricated joint cartilage and no t to the bone itself Synovial fluid eases the movement of one structure over another lmmovable Joints Bones that don t and shouldn t move ex skull Collagen Musculoskeletal and Shit 1 Type I II and Ill make up the main fibers of animal extracellular structures I 1 1 90 of all body collagen 2 Primary component of A Bone B Skin CTendon I 0 2 1 Cartilage Arrangements 1 Bone rigid plates 2 Tendons parallel tendons 3 Cartilage dense meshes Musculoskeletal and Shit MuscleBone Interactions origin ball and P K 39 3 g 9 i A origins K I 2quot 539 4 I I mdms triceps ltltquotquot39 quot2 hinge joint um insertion Evolution and Shit Theories of Evolution Darwin s Natural Selection Theory 1 Organisms produce offspring few of which survive to reproductive maturity 2 Chance variations within individuals of a population may be inheritable If these variations give an organism a slight survival advantage they are favorable 3 Individuals with a greater preponderance of these favorable variations are more likely to survive to reproductive age and produce offspring the overall result will be an increase in these traits in future generations This process is known as natural selection Over long periods of time aggregations of these favorable traits will result in the separation of organisms into distinct species Fitness is defined as the reproductive success of an individual Reproductive success is directly related to the relative genetic contribution of an individual to the next generation Evolution and Shit Theories of Evolution Neodarwinism The Modern Synthesis Differential reproduction When mutation or recombination results in a change that is favorable to the organisms survival that change is more likely to pass on to the next generation the opposite is also true Gene pool sum total of all genes from all individuals in the population at a given time Evolution and Shit Evidence of Evolution Paleontology fossils used for chronological succession of organisms Biogeography How geography can explain the evolution of different traits Divergence different isolated environments lead to variation and thus divergence into different species Comparative anatomy Homologous structures similar structure from a distant common evolutionary origin wing of a bat to the arm of a human Analogous structures similar in function but not from a common origin but rather similar environments wing of a bee to the wing of a bat Vestigial structures structures that remain even though they are no longer needed ex coccyx appendix Comparative embryology Comparing how similar embryos of different species are Molecular biology Comparing the presence of protein structures to see how long ago species diverged fibrinopeptide hemoglobin cytochrome c Evolution and Shit Genetic Basis of evolution Evolution occurs if there is a violation of one or more of the tenets of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium HardyWeinberg Equilibrium 1 The mating population is infinitely large 2 There are no mutations that affect the gene pool 3 Mating between individuals in the population is random 4 There is no net migration of individuals into or out of the population 5 The genes in the population are all equally successful at reproducing Gene frequency number of certain alleles divided by all alleles in the gene pool P dominant allele frequency Q recessive allele frequency Equa on Phenotypes P Q 1 Genotypes P2 2PQ Q2 1 i Evolution and Shit Mlcroevolution Founder Effect All descendants of a given population have arisen from a single pair of ancestors Bottle neck Catastrophic event kills everyone but a small population and thus all descendants contain only their gene pool Evolution and Shit Modes of Natural Selection Stabilizing Selection Maintain a certain equilibrium set point Ex fetus size not too small or large Directional Selection Move to a new point that is the extreme at first later becomes the norm Ex resistance to antibiotics Disruptive Selection Two extremes with no middle ground breaks off into two new species Ex finch beaks selecting for either large or small seeds no medium Evolution and Shit I Prezygotic Isolating Mechanism Temporal Isolation Two species may breed during different seasons or times of the day thus preventing interbreeding Ecological Isolation Two species living in the same territory but in different habitats They rarely meet and therefore rarely mate ex trees and water Behavior Isolation Members of two species are not sexually attracted to each other because of differences in such things as pheromones chemical signals and courtship displays Reproductive Isolation The genitalia of two species are incompatible so intercourse cannotoccur Gametic Isolation Intercourse can occur but fertilization cannot Evolution and Shit Postzygotic Isolating Mechanisms Hybrid lnviability Genetic incompatibilities between two species abort hybrid zygote development even if fertilization does occur Hybrid Sterility Hybrid offspring survive but are sterile and thus incapable of producing functional gametes Hybrid Breakdown Fist generation hybrids are viable and fertile but second generation hybrid offspring are inviable andor infertile The potential for hybrid breakdown exists whenever closely related but reproductively isolated species are introduced to each other and it occurs more in plants than in animals Evolution and Shit I Adaptive Radiation Adaptive Radiation when a single ancestral species gives rise to a number of different species Niche ecological spot where only one species calls home Evolution and Shit Macro Patterns of Evolution Punctuated Equilibrium evolution is essentially stagnant for long periods of time punctuated by huge short bursts of rapid change i Evolution and Shit I Origin of Life Primordial soup theory when the ocean contained large amounts of carbon hydrogen nitrogen and a little amount of oxygen Energy input in the form of lightning the sun radioactive decay and volcanic activity caused the formations of bonds between these atoms Stanley Miller tested this in the 1950s and did indeed create selfreplicating amino acids Evolution and Shit Ecosystem A system whose members benefit from each other s participation via symbiotic relationships positive sum relationships Refers to selfsustaining systems Niche Potential array of conditions under which an organism can survive The array of resources that is can possibly use Fundamental niche The maximum potential array of interactions it can participate in with other organisms Realized niche the array of conditionsresourcesroles that the organism actually uses Population Group of interbreeding individuals of the same species that is isolated from the similar groups of the same species A population lives in the same area uses the same resources and is exposed to the same environmental conditions Carrying Capacity The maximum density of organisms that a particular environment can sustain in perpetuity It describes the equilibrium population density as determined by the resources available in the region bounding the population in question Evolution and Shit Genetics Union of biochemistry and molecular biology Genetic engineering Used to modify DNA for some kind of practical end Population genetics Aimed at understanding and explaining the effect of genes on phenotypes and the role of genes on a population Epigenetics The study of inherited features not strictly associated with changes in DNA sequence Evolution and Shit Primary consumer Ex sea urchins eating grass on the lake floor Secondary Consumer Ex otters eating the sea urchins Tertiary consumer Ex sharks that each the otters Keystone predator Ex Since the otter is responsible for preventing overgrazing of the small grasses by predating on the out of control urchin population it is termed a keystone predator that exerts a topdown effect on the ecosystem Genetics and Shit Terms Genes The heritable traits coded for by DNA that can be passed on from one generation to the next Alleles Alternative forms to the same gene eye color Chromosomes What genes are organized into Genotype Allelic distribution of genes in an organism Phenotype Outward appearance of an organism that depends on the expression of the genotype Phenotypic Plasticity The degree to which an organism s phenotype is determined by it s genotype A high level of plasticity means that environmental factors have a strong influence on the particular phenotype that develops Genetics and Shit I Mende s Second Law Law of Independent Assortment Second Law Independent Assortment Each gene s inheritance is independent of the inheritance of the other genes Dihybrid Cross Testing the inheritance of two separate genes Unlinked genes Inheritance of one does not affect the inheritance of another gene Linked genes Inheritance of one gene does correspond to the inheritance of another gene Statistical analysis It is possible to calculate the given likelihood of a genotype in the progeny by multiplying the likelihood that one parent donated a specific gamete by the likelihood that the other parent donated a specific gamete Multiplication is required because you are finding the probability that both alleles will be incorporated Genetics and Shit Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Recombination Frequencies Genetic Mapping Crossing over The physical process of exchanging DNA between homologous chromosomes that are paired during meiosis Note if recombination occurred between sister chromatids nothing would change because they are genetically identical Recombination Frequencies The frequency of recombination ie tightly and weakly linked Genetic Map Diagrammatic representation that shows the relative distance between genes on a chromosome Constructed using recombination frequencies Map Unit Corresponds to a 1 chance of recombination occurring Genetics and Shit Variations on Mendelian Genetics 1 Incomplete Dominance Mixture of both phenotypes Ex RW Pink 2 Codominance Both genotypes are expressed NOT a mixture Ex RW red and white spots 3A Penetrance Percentage of individuals with a specific genotype that express the phenotype Ex using complete dominant and recessive 95 of RW red while 5 white 3B Expressivity Degree of expression of a phenotype in individuals that have a certain genotype Ex using incomplete dominance some RW may be completely pink while others may be mostly red or white with just a little pink and all of the spectrum in between 4 Inherited Disorders Recessive Both alleles must be present to express the phenotype Carriers heterozygotes Lethal both recessive alleles kill the organism ex cystic fibrosis Early Acting Lethal Recessive cause death before the individual can reproduce Dominant Late Acting Lethal Dominant don t cause damage until late in life after reproduction and thus the traits are passed on ex Huntington s disease 5 Anticipation Gets more pronounced with every passing generation ex Linkage 1 us 4 enetics and Shit 7 B J 25 hemophili c fem 5 p kA 25cairrier female 259x v hen 1o philialt in 35 Genetics and Shit Chromosomal Abberations Chromosomal Breakage Damaged spontaneously or by environmental factors Xrays chemo Deletion chromosome loses material Duplication lost material joins homologous chromosome Translocation lost material joins different chromosome entirely Inversion lost material returns to original chromosome but in opposite orientation Embryology and Shit Cleavage Fertilization in fallopian tubes but zygote moves uterus implantation Zygote unicellular so first division creates the embryo Cleavage A series of mitotic division of the zygote immediately following fertilization resulting in progressively smaller cells with increased 1 nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio 2 surface area to volume ratio for better gas and nutrient diffusion Two types of cleavage 1 Indeterminate Cells that can still develop into complete organisms 2 Determinate Cells that have a determined fate to differentiate into a specific cell type Important Cleavage Times 13 division 32 hours 2 39 division 60 hours 3rd division 72 hours embryo now in uterus Morula A solid 8 cell mass that results from the 3 division Blastocyst Appears on day 4 8 The process of blastulation forms a blastula aka blastocyst which has a hollow fuid fied inner cavity called the blastocoel Inner cell mass protrudes into the blastocoel and gives rise to the organism Trophoblastz cells that surround the blastocoel and form the chorion and later the placenta Embryology and Shit I Implantation Endometrium Uterine wall where the blastocyst implants Progesterone has thickened the mucosal layer of the endometrium The embryo secretes proteolytic enzymes that help it burrow in the endometrium The connection allows for nutrient and gas exchange and later for the growth of the placenta Embryology and Shi Fetus Embryology and Shit What turns into what Ectoderm Integument epidermis hair nails and the epithelium of the nose mouth and anal canal Ears Lens of the eye Nervous system Pituitary gland Mesoderm Musculoskeletal system cardiac smooth and skeletal Bone marrow Circulatory system including heart Excretory system Gonads Muscular and connective tissue coats of the digestive and respiratory systems Endoderm Epithelial linings of digestive and respiratory tracts lungs etc Liver Pancreas Thyroid Bladder Distal urinary and reproductive tracts Embryology and Shit What turns into what I CGIOITI A wide tubular space in which organs will form in but have not yet Surrounded by a muscular wall of mesodermal origin As development continues the celom divides into four compartments 1 Pericardial heart 2 3 Pleural lungs one each 4 Peritoneal abdomen Embryology and Shit Neurulation Definition development of the nervous system Process 1 Notochord a rod of mesodermal cells forms along the long axis of the organism like a spinal cord which through induction cause 2 Neural folds ectodermal cells that slide inward Neural crest cells cells at the tip of each neural fold that migrate outward to form the PNS including sensory ganglia autonomic ganglia adrenal medulla and Schwann cells The neural folds surround the 3 Neural groove ex valley between two mountains 4 The neural folds grow toward one another until they fuse into a neural tube gives rise to CNS Ectodermal cells migrate over the neural tube and neural crests to cover the newly formed basic nervous system Embryology and Shit Gestation First Trimester First few weeks Major organs begin developing Day 22 heart beats Day 22 some Eyes gonads limbs and liver form Week 5 embryo is 10mm long Week 6 15 mm long Week 7 cartilaginous skeleton hardens to bone Week 8 Most organs are fully formed brain partially developed embryo is now a fetus 3 months 9cm long 90 mm Second Trimester Begins to move around in amniotic fluid Face appears human Toes and fingers elongate 6 months 30 to 36cm long 300 360mm Third Trimester 78 months further brain development 9 months antibodies are transported by highly selective active transport from mother to fetus for protection and preparation for outside world Growth rate slows fetus becomes larger and moves less I Chapter 16 I Immune System Body Defense Mechanism N Defense rriechariisrri J Protect against cJiseasecatJsirig agents EJ39t39fiO J3fiS J Make up the irrirriurie system M Innate nonspeci c defense J Jriberitecig serves 2 7 a rst Jirie cf cieferise J External cieierise L Skin Cancer ceII Epithelial barriers Respiratory tract mucus ciiia enzyrries to kill bacteria Digestive tract iJCJ enzymes to kiii bacteria C3C fJi39tOLJfifiEtfy tract acidity tc Kiii bacteria J Jrrternai cieferise phagocytes fever irrterferbris c2 Adaptive speci c defense J A 39fLJ fJCquottiO39fi cf Jyrribbccytes AF changes with exbbstire J qjairied rict ifJ39fJ3fi39t3CJ Activation of Innate Immunity Trtggered tr reeborree to berthoger1eeeootaquotted rnoteotrter oettterrte PAMPS broduoed or1Jy by rrrtoroorgertterrte Lipopolysaccharide LPS frorn Gram beo has an envetobe oornooeed of LPS Peptidoglycan from Gram R beo Gram bao J Do NOT retetrr oryetet vtotet dye tr the Gram etetrttrrg brotooot due to the existence orquot art outer rrrerrtbrerte 39oreerrttrtg the p9ft3 tfEt tOf of the stair More reeteterrt egetnet errttbodtee beoeuee of their rnber1e39trebJe well e PAJVJPS can be reoogntzed by Toll receptors Jrrtrnurre oeJJe have eurfeoe receptors for PAJJPe oeJJed Toll R PAJJPeToJJ R oorrroJelt gt oytotdrree eeorettort from the rrrquoteoted oeJJe gt eottvete more tmrrrtrne oeJJe for 39rquotLJrt39ner body defense gt in ammation rrroet Jtkety to oootrr Innate Defense Fever 8 lnterferons Fever J Induced by byrcgerie J Eridcgeribue byrbgerie J J 3 ciber cyiciziriee reieaeed by W303 and brain in response to e39fIdO iOlti39fI from bacireriaJ ca beid J Nonspeci cally I bac I rJeLJ39ircbbiJ aciivi ee I irrierfercri brccJLJc39icrJ Nature of Inierfererre J Are bcJybeb39icJee produced by ceJJe irrfecquotecJ with virus J Provide erroraciirig nonspeci c reeieiarice Inc viral irrfec cri in nearby ceJJe J 3 types on B y irJquoterr39ercr1 Effects of inierfercrre J 1 Overall immune activities by I bbagccyibeie I IiJJer T ceJJ actiiquotiee I riaiural IltiJJer ceJI ac iiiiee I Ab pTOdLJC iiOfI by bJaerrIa ceJJe J J tumor growth I ceJJ cJiieicri I 39f EJquot LJ39fEIquot iO39fI cf adibccytee RBC B cells and Humoral Immunity Q 03 I hvj 1 E 39 O2 Antigen gt JJacropiiage binds antigen gt PresenLs it to 39neJper T Cell gt PreseriLs it to B sell gt Siirriuiaies aniiioody produgiion frorn piasrna cells gt StirriuJa ies5 corripierrierii proteiri produntiori gt Corripierrieni proteins bind to oquot39ner foreign cells gt JJacropiiages and rieutropniis bind to corripierrierii proieiris gt 9 Endocyiossiss of foreigri call gt M KOLJ dead rno 39ria fucka lnnate Macrophage Engulfs and consumes pathogen invaders Adaptive BCell Mast Cell Releases histamine and other chemicals that promote TCell inflammation Granulocytez Neutrophil Participate in inflammatory response Granulocytez Eosinophil Participate in inflammatory response Granulocytez Basophil Participate in inflammatory response Dendritic It presents antigens to adaptive immune cells inducing the cells to attack bearers of the displayed antigens Natural Killer Destroys the body s own cells that have become infected with pathogens also goes after cancer cells Antigens stimulate this cell to divide and produce antibodies that neutralize invaders or tag them for killing Killer TCells destroy infected cells in which they detect the presence of antigens helper and regulatory TCells coordinated immune response All components of the immune system are transported by the 1 Venous blood ow 2 arterial blood ow 3 lymphatic uid THE COMPOSITION OF BLOOD 39 SOLVENT FORCARRYING A O OTHER SUBSTANCES T PLASMA PROTEINS O O ALBUMIN OSMOTIC BALANCE pH 0 7 pi FIBRINOGEN CLOTTING IMMUNOGLOBULINS DEFENSE ANTIBODIES E E f ERYTHROTI TES RED BLOOD CELLS TRANSPORT OXYGEN ANO 5 TO 6 R CUBIC MILLIMETER OF BLOOD HELP TO TRANSPORT CARBON DIOXIDE lt1 39 I 9 3 auQ 393 l 3 996quot 39 7 39quot39 1 quot3 39 C 39 r r F quot5 O s gtri 2quot1 fquotJv3f39 v Z quot x I Chapter 19 I Regulation of Metabolism Nutritional Requirements JJaiabblib rate is total rate b39fbbcJyrna abbli3rr1 arrrbunt of O2 COIISLJIIIQCI by bodymin P s Basal metabolic rate BJVJR Awake relaxed 1214 hr aifter ealrirng at cbrnfbriable 2r3rno iffec eel by age sezz body surface area thyroid 39rJ ilyoer z39r1yrbicJis3rr1 nigh BIVIR ilypbirbyrbidisrrn lbw BJVIR 5 cg 3 eke 4 Protection against Oxidative Stress J J Oxidetile M fer rrleet other cells Free radicals are highly quottoxic to cells especially OH altering the etrueturee erquot prelelrie nucleic P i lipids and other molecules gt cell damage gt cell rriutetiori or cleeth Prerrleiee epepieeie aging irl fJerrlrrlequotery dieeee degerleretile g rrleligrierlt grewm amp other PPj Preieetlerl egeiriel exlcletile d Eridegerleue erizyrrlee i39rlEJquot neutralize free radicals Superexide dismutase SOD euperoxide eateleee Glutetrllerie peroxidase and glutatrilerle reduced ferrrl iterrllrle and efriere B Carotene vitamin C E Fruits and legeteblee Renal graft Glomeruloneph Bum Degenerative retinal damage Dermatitis Cataractooenesis Kldney E psoriasis l l l Angioplasty Keshan disease selenium de ciency lschemic Bowel v Endotoxin Liver I Injury Vessel a Rheumatoid Athritis Vasospasm Atherosclerosis Multiorgan Lung Radiation Brain Asthma Agi Trauma ARD5 Can Stroke Hyperoxia In ammatoryimmune Neurotoxjns bquot F SCh9F391i8R9 0W Parkinson39s Disease Dates Alzheimer39s Disease Antioxidant Free radical I 39 I N K Cell Adipose Tissue and Energy Metabolism J J J Herrhenai regulatieri of fat cell activities Energy is stored ih adipose tissue as triglycerides hedtrai tat T he storage ahd reiease of adipose seiis adipocytes are herrhehaiiy sehtreiied Exarhpies ihsuiih C J39rJ thyroid H adrenal gland 39rJ Adipose as a herrnerial tissue Adipeeytes secrete regdiatery hemieries eaiied adipokines when their PPARy are activated Adipekihes regdiate hunger me ta39eeJism ahd insulin sensitivity Adipeizihes iheidde adiponectin leptin TNFa resistin and retinal binding protein4 BP4 s Childhood obesity involves increases in both size amp number of adipocytes Weight gain in adulthood is due mainly to increase in adipooyte size Obesity is often diagnosed by using a body mass index Fl l 7 er I l M l i r w weight in kilograms h height in meters Healthy weight is BMI between 19 25 Obesity defined as BMI gt 7 Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism 39oeerpquotve Abserptlerr of energy w Ir39rJrJ 4 hr period J P9 J a erea ng insulin secretlerr F eirabeerpte eta39re H 9 2 1 2 2 Q 3 r SD L i G 5 c i D J 2 L 6 I1j Z J 1 D 7 I 3 2 1 JD 1 glucagon secretion Balance loetween anabeliern and ce39ia39oeJerrJ J The rate or deposit and wt39rJcJreweJ of energy 3LJb 3quot TEl p and imercenvereierr of energy eubetra Y are regulated by hormones Arrieger etic effects of rJeLJJ39rJ gJLJcagerJ 539rJ T certsoJ and E9 balarrce anabolierrr and catabeJerrJ U re re Metabolism AnIab39olism catabolismr Glycogen Glucose Glycogen Trigycerideslt Fatty acidslt Trigycerides Protein lt Amino acidsltZ Protein l I S PY Eagtre ex steroids lterowmnormonegt 39 l 2 ThVT Xquot39le T hyroxine Oral Glucose Tolerance Test e A person dririke 21 glucose eoluiiori and olood eerrioiee ere taken periodically e Normal oereorfe riee in blood glucose after 5 dririking eoluiion ie reversed to normal in 2 P 3 hfs gwo e Blood glucose levels in El ii9r iS with 3 5 dieoeiee rrielliiue rerrieiri 3 200 mgdi 2 hr 3 following gluooee ingeeiion v 39 e T he tee rrieeeuree gt Ability of irieuiiri to Jower blood glucose insulin resistance Type JJ dieoeiee Ability of 5 oeiie io insulin insulin secretion Type J diabetes Fig 83 aldoses continued Mduhctwm I I 515 4 un quot u I ll quot Il quot l K H H IDH lll39 H P 39 I 0 H l H H 39 H t UH I 1 UH C C 0 H can tHgtH 010 no we IAllosc nAlIrosc 0Glucose nMannosc nGulosc o Galac1osc ketoses continued Kelopenloses Ketohexoses I cHoH c o H quotCOH H con H c oH cnoH DPsicosc C ketoses continued Kctohcxose H 1 M CH0H n o H H0 C H no c H H C 0H cHoH DTagalosc Pasta bsorptive State Overall strategy rnairltairr blood fuel ssubsirate levels by J T BJood gJLJoos3o JovoJ J T BJood fairy aoid JovoJ Wherl blood gluoagorm inoreased J 391 GJyoogerJoJyo3 in the Jor J C JJdoorJeogorJoos J F LooJyso and o iogorJosss SltoJoiaJ rnusoJe heart liver and kidneys use fa 1r39y aoido as major source of fdeJ 39normono sonoquoto Jloaoo Fatty acids jg Triacylglyoerols Adlpocyt Fatty acids Metabolism and Adrenal Hormones Jvledulle J Seereiee epirjephrirje end rjerepmephrirje gt fg39nquot er 39fJg39nquot J 839rmLJJe tee gJyeegeneJyee gt 39nypergJyeeme J 8quotmuJa tee JpeJyee emJer to gJLJeegen e39ffee39re JLJrng fasting J Second meeeenger eAJJP emJar to gJLJeegen Cortex J p gJLJeeeer39eede eg eereeJ etmLJJe ecJ by ACTH quotfer Jengizermed eweee J Prerrjeiee gmeegen eeerep en gt gJyeegeneJyee gt 39nypergJyeeme J Premetee Jipelyeie keiegerjeeie hyperltequoteerne protein Loreadewn gJueeneegeneee Metabolism and GH Somatotropin J G39rJ Secreiiorj COf39ifOJJ3d by 3ornaquotos taquotn and C JJ JJ Growth hormone Ar39Jons Liver J 391 Growth in chJcJren and adoJes3cent3 Adiposetissue Most tissues Li olysis Decreased A 5 N pm A M r r Hr H r 3 T Reeaseof 11co e J J Hrozam a f fJr2J caJJ LJQ5J1 L or gjmmo sJ JCJa J fattvaclds uIuzaton I I 39k vvthf t 1 1naiooJJarrJ quotSquot quot39 1quotquoti 39 J Jan fr ll r J cu our P r ll 1 3 cu J LJpOJJa 39 mood rgmy 519195 Us or s1y dude Carmage tIlI1scleand H 0 er organs caaboJJ3rn a3o5i Prote grgmghesus J J Q JycoJys3 rate I glycogenesis gt 39rJypergJycerna diabatogerlic a ffeoquot J Growth a39frquoteots on bone amp mu3cJas rrlediated by somatomedins JGF J H AlonormaJ139ess J GgElfJ iSff dvvarfisrrj J Acromegaly J eJonga Iron ofjaw and deforrrliiies in bones of the face hanJ3 and feet Factors Affecting Plasma Ca and P044 Jrnportarice of Caquot39quot39 Bone struciure mLJscJe corJ39iracion neLJro39transrnssor1 second IIJQSSSIJQQT rnerribrane permeabJ 39y 39rJypocaJcema en39nances newes eltci39a39oJ iy gt rrJuscJe sspassrn ietanuss pC Sources of plasrrla Ca and P043 Bone 39forrnaquoton and resorption SeJe orJ also senes pd a storage of Ca PO53 hydrooltyapat139e CE4IOPO iltOamp J2 Ositeoblasts for bone depossiiiori coJJagen P vs osteoclasts for bone resorptiorl J Jn39es lrnaJ EIDSOTQUOIJ and urinary excretion Vesicle containing digestive Enzyme enzyme 0 oo digiests o co Iagen protems Bone Cquot E 39 resorption HCO3 HC03 CI 0 dissolves H2003 H CaP04 1 p z H ATPase Osteoclast Pump Regulation of Ca and P044 Balance I Pcj Parathyroid horrnoria PTH increases blood Ca2 J J J Formed in oaraihyroid giarid on top of 39r39nroid gland E3irigJa most important hormone in the oorriroi of blood Ca3 Siirrruiaiirrg bone resorpiiorr of Ca2 Siirriuiaiirrg rarJaJ raabsorpiiori of Ca3 Jrmibiiirrg rariai raabsorodori of P043 Prorno39rirJg 39rquotorrnaquotior1 of O39rJ2 it D3 T Ov2r s2ora ior1 of PT39rl gt osteoporosis HoO0 OQ9NQ p b Pharynx Thyroid gland Esophagus Trachea f lo b o K is lquot a f 0a J l l l l 77 Causes epiphyseal discs cartilaginous growth plates to ossify seal which stops growth is necessary for proper bone mineralization amp prevention of osteoporosis Sti m u I ates i 5 u l p if P activity amp su p p resses fo rm atio n of H lti w q o s Px 3 Terminology I Functional classes of neurons I A erent neurons gt sensory neurons cell body outside spinal cord nerving endings inside I E erent neurons gt motor neurons cell body inside spinal cord nerve endings outside I Somatic motor neurons skeletal muscle I Autonomic motor neurons cardiac muscle smooth muscle glands I ln irneurons Association neuron I Cell body and nerve endings both inside spinal cord I Groups of cell bodies Nuclei CNS vs ganglia PNS I Groups of axons tracts CNS vs nerves PNS Predominant Glia of Vertebrates Astrocytes CNS Most abundant type of glial cell Multiple functions via perivascular end feet on capillaries amp neurons Oligodendrocytes CNS Function insulation of central axons One oligodendrocyte per 15 internodes Myelin sheath white matter gray matter is dendrites and cell bodies Schwann cells PNS Function insulation of peripheral axons One Schwann cell per internode Neurilemma Ion Channels of the AP Absolute Relative I Fast Na Channel refractory E refractory E I Exists in three distinct states duZ39quotIL39 5 due iL 39 Lnued 5 Closed at V inactivated outward diffusion 39 r E 30 Nat channels of K I Open during depolarization E I Inactivated during refractory E E I Votage gated two gates g 0 E E I Main gate I Inactivation gate 55 I Slow K channel 2 70 1 I Exists in two distinct states E E I Closed at Vr V39t Open Nen depoll 0 1 Time2miisecods 4 5 I o age ga e one ga e I Main gate I Absolute refractory period is due to the properties of the sodium channel I Ensures unidirectionality of nerve impulse I Places limits on AP frequency I Relative refractory slow K channel Catecholamines neurotransmission amp cleft clearance Neurotransmission and cleft clearance a Ve39 Presynaptic p GI 1 Dopamine produced and stored in neuronerwr9 I synaptic vesicles 2 Action potentials open gated Ca2 channels leading to release of xi s 1 Dopamine produced and 39 stored in synaptic vesicles Ca X D r ction potentials open quot in r quot r neurotransmitter to post synaptic C lgt1tedCa2channes 8n A B kB n leading to release of is f 3 Inactivation of all the neurotransmmer l neurotransmitters by COMT in post P synaptic cell a successful neurotransmitter binds to the ligand gated channel instead of permeating the postsynaptic cell 4 Reuptake of t neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft by post synaptic 5 Inactivation of mt neurotransmitter by MAO in post synap c 4 Reuptake of most neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft I I K 1 39 neurotransmitter by COMT FIGURE 730 The CNS brain amp spinal cord The PNS nerves amp ganglia outside the CNS 12 pairs of cranial nerves exit brain mostly from the brain stem 31 pairs of spinal nerves exit spinal cord Most nerves are mixed comprised of both sensory amp motor fibers but there are some exclusively sensory The CNS and the PNS Copyright oTho MccruvHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Cranial nerves 12 pairs Cerwcal plexus L ical airs Brachral plexus Thoracoc 12 pairs Lumbar plexus Spinal nerves Lumbar I I Sacra p exus 5 pans A Sacral S0m peripheral t pairs nerves Coccygeal Ulnaf P s pa Median Radial Femoral Lateral femoral neous I DC FIGURE 827 The Autonomic Nervous System ri ht eMcGraw i Autonomic CNS ganghon Involuntary quot effector 39 g I 1 39 T I Smooth muscle I I I I Prega Iionic Postganglionic ne on neuron Although a lot of PNS The autonomic or visceral components its not strictly motor system Contrasts with PNS the somatic motor system Regulation of Cardiac muscle Efferent neurons autonomic Smooth muscle and glands motor neurons vs somatic motor neurons C039quot39tr0 Of i39quot39V0U39quot39tarY Central control frontal cortex amp visceral organs amp blood subcortical structures somatic Ve3Se3 vs hypothalamus brain stem amp S t t I I spinal cord autonomic Note Oma 39C may Con m a musc 9 these lists are not exclusive but autonomic could do the blood vessels sympathetic Sgma c motor re ex Autonomic motor reflex I Inteneuron Dorsal root ganglion mtemeuron Dorsal root ganglion 5 2 I Preganglion neuron Autonomic ganglion Somatic motor Postganglionic neuron Sensmy neuron neuron Sensmy neuron 93 viscera 0 FIGURE 91 10th Ed Lecture Outline I Somatic Motor Neurons Always cause stimulatory effect on muscle Release acetylcholine which binds to nAchR Two Divisions of the ANS Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Both divisions consist of preganglionic neurons cell bodies in the CNS and postganglionic neurons cell bodies in the PNS The divisions differ in 1 the origin of preganglionic fibers Sympathetic all middle Parasympathetic top and bottom 2 the location of autonomic ganglia Sympathetic prevertebral ganglia right next to spinal cord Parasympathetic terminal ganglia farther away from spinal cord 3 The types of neurotransmitters used by postganglionic neurons Pregangionic of both release acetylcholine onto nAChR all autonomic ganglia all neuromuscularjunctions some CNS pathways NOTE nAChR is always excitatory Sympathetic norepi some epi rarely acetylcholine Parasympathetic acetychoine General functional differences fight or flight sympathetic rest amp digest parasympathetic some common functions I A sympathetic chain of ganglia I paravertebral ganglia line either side of the spinal cord I Preganglionic axons split from the spinal nerves via the white rami wherein they enter the paravertebral ganglia I These preganglionic fibers branch I Some preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic neurons within the sympathetic chain of ganglia these postganglionic axons leave via the gray rami amp rejoin the spinal nerves 39 The Sympathetic Division Some preganglionic fibers simply pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia forming splanchnic nerves and synapse with postganglionic neurons within collateral prevertebral ganglia These postganglionic axons then control trunk organs Some preganglionic fibers also innervate the adrenal medulla causing it to secrete Epi and Norepi into the blood Mass activation the sympathetic system is typically activated as a single unit Sympathetic Motor Neurons Visceral effectors Smooth muscle of I blood vessels arrector I I pili muscles and sweat glands Sympathetic V I Dorsal root quota quot Dorsal 93quot9 Spinal gangmm root name Sympathetic chain 1 3quot hite ramus 9 Splanchnic Ventral root quotewe Visceral effector intestine P Collateral gang on celiac ganglion r 0 Preganglionic neuron HGURE 93 o Postganglionic neuron Spinal cord i The Parasympathetic Division Parasympathetic preganglionic 39 M03tPara3YmPath9tiC fibers originate in the Brain stem midbrain medulla pons sacral levels of the spinal cord Preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic fibers in terminal ganglia which lie close to or within target organs preganglionic fibers are not bundled within spinal nerves gt cutaneous effectors amp blood vessels associated with skeletal muscle are no t parasympatheticay innervated Four cranial nerve pairs including the vagus carry parasympathetic preganglionic fibers Cranial nerve III 39Vquot 39339quot Cranial nerve VII Hindbrain T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 QC 0 O o O 39 o C C C quot 39 T7 Symoahol39c chem T8 939 9 5 Greater splancn T9 nerve T10 T11 T12 L2 9836 collateral or prevertebral ganglia sympathetic division terI1ina ganglia in head para syeryrolpathetic division Lacrimal gland and nasal mucosa Subrnandubular and subllngual glands Parolid gland Lung Heart Lmor and galbladder Spleen Slomadw Pancreas Largg lM0l 0 Small untesline Adrenal gland and kidney Urunary bladder Reproductive organs FIGURE 95 Lecture Outline I The CNS and PNS I Spinal and cranial nerves I The autonomic nervous system ANS I Two major divisions of the ANS I Sympathetic I Parasympathetic I Neurotransmitters amp postsynaptic receptors of the ANS I Autonomic regulation of internal organs Cranial parasympathetic K nerves Sympathetic tthoracoiumbar nerves Sacral parasympathetic nerves FIGURE 97 Terminal ganglion ltgtV lt ACh V395 939339 Ach effectors 397 Paravertebral 1 ganglion r lt NE V395C939339 4 B ettectors 1 A Adrenal 1 medulla A E ACh p ENE hormones I It 1 t tr 1 I A F 39 g t gt39 lt NE V395 939339 Acn ettectors r 39 39 4 l 4 l 4 X l l 4 lt Visceral 8ll8Cl0f organs Preganglionic fiber sympathetic and parasympathetic lt nAChR Parasympathetic postganglionic fiber lt mAChR Sympathetic postganglionic fiber lt X1 X2 51 52 adrenergic receptors Some postganglionic sympathetic fibers that run with spinal nerves are cholinergic mAChR Sympathetic Adrenergic Innervation I Excitatory in some tissues inhibitory in others dependent on receptor type 39 1132 51 52 I Excitatory EPSP contractionconstriction or vesicle release I oc1 Vasoconstriction in viscera organs of digestion andor any organs in the abdominal and thoracic cavities ie reduce blood flow I 31 Increase cardiac outputheart ratecontractility flex heart muscles I Inhibitory IPSP or relaxationdilation I 32 Vasodilation in skin Arrector pili skin muscle and blood vessels Relaxation of arterioles to muscles increase blood flow relax digestive muscles fuck you time to fight not eat I 32 sometimes mAChR Relaxation of bronchioles of the lungs Sympathetic Adrenergic Innervation All adrenergic receptors are Gproteincoupled receptors GPCRs Gm GDP gt binds GTP gt Ga GM Modulation of enzyme activity gt changes in ion channel permeability downstream kinases get turned on and thus proteins get phosphorylated by aforementioned kinases Mechanisms of action 31 52receptor activation gt increases cAMPi gt smooth muscle relaxation mestive tract don t use energy to digest food bronchioles open to allow more oxygen flow gt increased heart contraction Mechanism 1 Norepinephrine binds to receptor 2 Gprotein subunits dissociate 3 Adenylate cyclase is activated A ATP binds to cyclic AMP B cAMP activates unactivated protein kinases 4 Activated protein kinase phosphorylates other proteins and opens ion channel Ca2 enters oc1 receptor activation gt increases Ca2i gt smooth muscle contraction gt vasoconstriction at certain viscera ocz receptor activation gt complicated cAMP 3adrenergic receptors Betaadrenergic receptor activated 9 G protein dissociates 9 Adenylate cyclase activated 9 cAMPi increases 9 Activates protein kinase A 9 Phosphorylates other proteins 9 Downstream effects Glycogen 9 Glucose1phosphate 9 Glucose6phosphate 9 Free glucose 3adrenergic signling cell Phosphorylates 4 proteins FIGURE 731 Vagal innervation of heart via M2receptors AcQ W 1 AC bI d Plasma membrane to receptor r I 0 I I 1 0 I quot IquotI I Iquot I K 39 39 I 1 III I ll II III II III Iquot quot I I 39 I I II I 2quot Q I I 39 I I I I I I I I r I I I t 39 I I I I g n l quot X ll X I I 0 ma 39 P I I I I I I I I I X I I I I I I I I a v I I I I I l 39 I V W r J I I 39 I I I I I I I I I 39 39 I I 39 I I I I I I J I 39 Z fr 39 I I I I 39 I I I I I l I I I I I I I I f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 39 I I I I I I I I I I II III II III S I Ir I I J In I I I I I 39 I gt I 39f3l I LR I I I II I 5 I 2 Gprotein 3 Gprotein c p 1 I 39 subunit binds to K I RBCGPIOI GProteins dISSOCIaI8S glagi n glit K K channeg p to open FIGURE 727 Parasympathetic cholinergic innervation via vagus gt M2type muscarinic receptors gt indirectly opens Kt channels gt hyperpolarization of heart muscle cells gt slowing of heart rate Autonomic innervation of organs Most visceral organs are duallyinnervated Antagonistic opposites most common Complementary similar effects Cooperative synergistic effects Some organs are only sympatheticallyinnervated Adrenal medulla Arrector pili muscles skin Sweatglands skin Most blood vessels Central control of autonomic systems Control of ANS by the CNS Cortex Limbic system amp hypothalamus Hypothalamus Brain stem reticular formation respiratory centers Autonomic centers in brainstem reticular formation Medulla oblongata control centers for cardiovascular digestive urinary amp reproductive systems A Spinal visceral sensory neurons Cranial nerves IX and X Smooth muscle cardiac muscle glands From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed V CHAPTER 8 I The Central Nervous System Nuclei and Shit Hypothalamus 1 body clock 2 body temperature 3 body growth 4ea ng 5 drinking 6 reproduction Pons Ventral Pontine Nucleu 1 respiration 2 taste 3 sleep Medulla 1 Vital Center Nuclei A cardiovascular B digestionswallowing C urination D reproduction 2 Early Relay Nuclei A hearing B taste C control of neck and facial muscles D balance httpstatichowstuffworkscomgifswearing 1gif Fore rain Cerebrum 1 Cerebral cortex A frontal lobe B parietal lobe C temporal lobe D occipital lobe E insular lobe 2 Basal ganglia A Corpus striatum 1 Caudate nucleus 2 Putamen 3 Ventral striatum B Globus pallidus C Subthalamic Nucleus D Substantia Nigra 3 Hippocampus 4 Amygdala Diencephalon 1 Thalamus 2 Hypothalamus The brain stem 1 Midbrain 2 Pons 3 Medulla Oblongata More structures httpstatichowstuffworkscomgifswearing 1gif Some other terminology Role of CSF Maintain proper fluid environment for Lt I brain S V3339 I Cavities filled with CSF 1Ventrice brain Imewenmcular 2 Central canal spinal cord foramen Tm 3 Meninges 3 layers venquotiC39e nC a39 Gray matter bl SP a39 39 Cerebral cortex Nuclei cell body and dendrites I White matter Funicui Tracts groups of axons CNS axons Oligodendrocytes myelin sheath Mesencephalio 39 aqueduct Fourth ventricle FIGURE 84 Studying the Intact Brain Singlecell electrophysiological recording EEG electroencephalography Imaging techniques 1 CT computerized 39tQ TQg raphy Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed 2 PET positron emission tomography 3 MRI magnetic resonance imaging 4 fMR functional MRI Roptinlod I Iguro 2 1st and 3nd panels with permission lrom RJ Dolan SCIENCE 298211911194 Copyriyn 2002 AAAS I The Cerebrum I Cerebral I Sirucggrrziral cortex hemispheres Convolutionsgyripeak Fissuressulcivalley Corpus callosum Fivenobes Frontal Higher brain Occipital Parietal functions Tempora Insular lobecortex Subcortical regions Basal ganglia Hippocampus Amygdala 3 Precentralv Superior frontal Central sulcus gyrus Postcenfral gyrus Superior frontal Parietal sulcus lobe Frontal lobe Oocipilal lobe Lateral sulcus Temporal lobe Cerebellar hemisphere Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex 39Fr39onlal poles Superior 939tUd39quota39 frontal gyrus fissure Superior lrontal sulcus b Occipital poles FIGURE 85 1 Cerebrum 2 Diencephalon I 3 Midbrain 4 Cerebellum 5 Pcns 6 Medulla oblongata 7 Spinal cord 7 Cerebral Forebram hemisphere 39 Midbrain 6 Diencephalon Hindbrain 5 Midbrain Brain stem 3 Pons N Medulla oblongata 4 Cerebellum 1 Spinal cord lt Sacral From Kandel et a Principles of Neural Science 4th Ed Ill The Midbrain I Part of the brain stem along with pons amp medulla I Func ons Role in motor control linkages between cerebellum coordination of movement basal ganglia voluntary movement and cerebral cortex movement Components of visual amp auditory systems Major pathway for control of eye movements Dopaminergic projection pathways Nigrostriatal N striations system gt motor control gt Parkinson s Mesolimbic Me so love system gt addictionreward behaviors gt Schizophrenia Little brain containing more than HALF of all the neurons in the brain 50 billion Func ons Coordination of movement motor learning Damage to cerebellum causes ataxia coordination problem Coordination of eye amp head movement control of balance Involvement in language amp other higher cognitive functions IV The Cerebellum Major input center receiving information from 3 spinal cord cerebral cortex inner ear Three regions Outer Cerebellar cortex Three layers Molecularlayer Purkinjelayer Granulecelllayer Five neuron types Fourinterneurons Basket Stellate Golgi Granule Purkinje cells projectionl co ec on Middle Internal white matter center Three deep nuclei IV The Cerebellum Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Has many dendrites in order to receive a wide variety of input from many different regions of the brain Similar to pyramidal cells of cerebral cortex Central gray matter Two dorsal horns Afferent uses sensory neurons Two ventral horns Efferent uses motor neurons Surrounding white matter funiculi Ascending tracts Dorsal Parietal lobe Post central Gyrus Contralateral Bottom up control Somatosensory information from PNS to CNS Medial lemniscal tract Crosses over at medulla oblongata Controls Touch receptor Joint stretch receptor propioreceptor Lateral spinothalamic tract Crosses over at spinal cord Controls Pain receptor Temperature receptor VII The Spinal Cord Descending tracts Ventral Ventral Frontal lobe Precentral gyrus Top doWn control Motor output from CNS to PNS C0rtic0spinal tract Crosses over at medulla Controls skeletal muscle extrapyramidal tract Ipsilateral Ascending Tracts Postcentral gyms Axons ot thirdorder neurons Thalamus Cerebral cortex Medial Iemnlscal tract axons of secondorder neurons Medulla oblongata Fasciculus cuneatus axons of firstorder sensory neurons Lateral spinothalamlc tract axons of secondorder neurons Joint stretch receptor prop ooeptor Pain receptor Spinal cord Axons ot firstorder neurons not part of spinothalamic tract Fasclculus gracllls axons of firstorder sensory neurons Temperature receptor a quot Touch receptor b FIGURE 824 CNS Function Structures Circuits and Neurotransmitters Learning amp memory Glutamate pathways Hippocampus amp cerebral cortex The biogenic amines Serotonin pathways gt Mood amp depression Dopamine projection pathways from the midbrain Mesolimbic pathway gt addictionmotivation Nigrostriatal pathway gt motor control circuit Glutamate and ionotropic Glu R s Synaptic plasticity LTP longterm potentiation Hippocampus Learning Consolidation Cerebral cortex Shortterm vs longterm A F ornix Thalamus Basal forebrain Prefrontal cortex Mammillary body Hippocampus Rhinal cortex From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed Synaptic Plasticity Synaptic Plasticity Changeabiity of the synapse Molecular mechanism for learning amp memory Wellstudied in the hippccampus Glutamate and iGuR s of particular importance for LTP Mechanisms of LTP Normal synaptic transmission NMDAR inac ve Early LTP NMDAR activation amp Short term effects Late LTP NMDAR activation amp new protein synthesis gt longterm effects How the shit goes down 1 Glutamate binds to AMPA and NMDA receptors NMDA requires voltage gated in addition to glutamate 2 Ca2 goes through NMDA receptors to cytoplasm activates CaMKll 3 CaMK induces increased Na diffusion through AMPA receptors causing NO release 4 Nitric oxide increases release of glutamate from presynaptic axon Glutamate 1 Glutamate binds to AMPA and NMDA receptors 4 Nitric oxide increases release of glutamate from presynaptic axon NMDA receptor Postsynaptic quot membrane of dendrite 3 CaMKll induces increased Na diffusion through 2 AMPA receptors 2 Ca goes through NMDA receptors into cytoplasm activates CaMKIl FIGURE 816 F To view P iquot it Before Side viaw v X t I 1 After LTP From Purves et a Neuroscience 4th Ed l Qualitative Categories of Memory Im Iicit From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed Hippocampus Learning and creation of short and longterm memory Cerebral cortex Storage of short and longterm memory Shortterm memory eary LTP Seconds to hours Synaptic changes no new protein synthesis Longterm memory ate LTP Days to years Synaptic changes new protein synthesis Two Types Declarative Explicitexplain Semantic Fact Ex remembering the names of bones Episodic Event Ex remembering an anatomy lab NonDeclarative Implicitimpulse Skills and conditioning Ex Tying shoes Immediate memory V l 39gt Working memory Temporal Categories of Memory gt Longterm memory A d Forgetting A I lt Brain structures involved in learning amp memory Explicit Implicit Acquisition and storage Acquisition and storage of declarative information of nondeclarative information A Shortterm memory storage Shortterm memory storage hippocampus and related structures sites unknown but quotpresumably widespread From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed CNS Function Structures N Circuits and Neurotransmitters Learning amp memory Glutamate pathways Hippocampus amp cerebral cortex The biogenic amines Serotonin pathways gt Mood amp depression Dopamine projection pathways from the midbrain Mesolimbic pathway gt addictionmotivation Nigrostriatal pathway gt motor control circuit The Biogenic Amines I Bicsynthesis I Postsynaptic receptors I Neurctransmission I Synaptic reuptake amp enzymatic degradation BIOGENIC AMINES CATECHOLAMINES Dopamine CH2 CH2 RIH3 HO OH Norepinephrine I Epmephrme CH2 CH2 NH2 I CH3 HO OH INDOLEAMINE HO CH2 CH2 ky Serotonin 5HT I N From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed Tyrosine ltiOO CH2 CH KIH3 HO Tyrosine hydroxylase Dihydroxyphenylalanine DOPA CH2 CH 11113 H0 0131 CO2 decarboxylase Dopamine H CHT j NH3 HO 0 11 02 DopamineB hydroxylase Cateoholamine Biosvnthesis Norepinephrine OH H CH CH NH3 HO OH Phenylethanolamine R Nmethyltransferase Epinephrine RH H HO OH NEUROSCIENCE Third Edition Figure 610 P 2004 Sinauer Associates Inc Serotonin Biosynthesis FIGURE 732 10th Ed Postsynaptic receptors for bio enic amines I Serotonin Many GPCR s effects can be stimulatory or inhibitory One LGIC 5HT3 receptor NatKt channel gt stimulatory Dopamine All GPCR s Effects can be stimulatory D1 receptors or inhibitory D2 receptors Norepinephrine amp epinephrine All GPCR s alpha and betareceptors effects can be stimulatory or inhibitory Rece 4 quot39r393913 t7 f39 I 393 r x 39 quot397 I 39 Neurotransmitter Receptor 8 8 d to rs Purineso r 39 J Subunits 339 239 2 quotU u vb LGC s ionotropic receptors Receptor class Receptor subtype From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed Catecholamines neurotransmission amp cleft clearance Neurotransmission and cleft clearance a Ve39 Presynaptic G 1 Dopamine produced and stored in neuronerwr9 synaptic vesicles 2 Action potentials open gated Ca2 channels leading to release of xi 1 Dopamine produced and 39 stored in synaptic vesicles Ca X D r ction potentials open quot in r quot r neurotransmitter to post synaptic C lgt1tedCa2channes 8 k leading to release of is f 3 Inactivation of all the neurotransmmer l neurotransmitters by COMT in post P synaptic cell a successful neurotransmitter binds to the ligand gated channel instead of permeating the postsynaptic cell 4 Reuptake of t neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft by post synaptic 5 Inactivation of mt neurotransmitter by MAO in post synap c 4 Reuptake of most neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft I I K 1 39 neurotransmitter by COMT FIGURE 730 CNS Function Structures Circuits and Neurotransmitters Learning amp memory Glutamate pathways Hippocampus amp cerebral cortex The biogenic amines Serotonin pathways gt Mood amp depression Dopamine projection pathways from the midbrain Mesolimbic pathway gt addictionmotivation Nigrostriatal pathway gt motor control circuit The Biogenic Amine Hypothesis of Depression Depression might correspond with decreased activity of biogenic amine 5HT Norepi DA pathways Genesis of hypothesis drug reserpine had both depressive as well as Parkinsonlike sideeffects Reserpine decreased monoaminergic signaling in the brain by inhibiting the uptake of DA NE 5HT into presynaptic vesicles Three generations of antidepressant drugs Antidepressants A Monoamine oxidase inhibitors cii cH NH NH 1st Generation MAO s Phenelzine 0 II E3 cH NH H C Ci 39cH I N C CH lsocarboxazid O 39 B Biogenic amine uptake blockers itricyclic antidepressants N 00 2nd Generation Tricyclics O I CH3 H CH3 CH CH CH N CHCH CH N CH3 CH3 mtbramme Amitnptylme C Selective serotonin reuptake blockers quot C 3 quot39 3rd Generationquot SSR s momma C From Kandel et a Principles of Neural Science 4th Ed Presynaptic neuron ending Tyrosine D opa at c 1 1 Noreplnephrlno H j o 39o 4 yw F V 0 V P 39 l V p C f A 39 O 0 0 0 O 0o Py 5 o 390 39o Circulation 39 39 1 o 0 x 0 0 NoreplnePjIrlne 0 o 0 o 0 0 0 Inactive products FIGURE 730 CNS Function Structures Circuits and Neurotransmitters Learning amp memory Glutamate pathways Hippocampus amp cerebral cortex The biogenic amines Serotonin pathways gt Mood amp depression Dopamine projection pathways from the midbrain Mesolimbic pathway gt addictionmotivation Nigrostriatal pathway gt motor control circuit Dopaminergic projections Nigrostriatal pathway DA nuclei in substantia nigra of midbrain project to putamen of basal gangha Important for motor control Compromised in Parkinson s disease LDOPA can increase dopamine and improve motor controbut also can have schizophrenialike side effects Mesolimbic pathway DA nuclei in ventral tegmental area of midbrain project to nucleus accumbens of basal ganglia as well as prefrontal cortex Important in reward behavior amp emotion Overactivity in Schizophrenia D2 antagonists can have Parkinsonlike side effects but also act as neurolepticsantipsychotics The Basal Ganglia 1 Corpus striatum Caudate nucleus Putamen Ventral striatum Globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Corpus 1 I callosum 1 e N A quot V 4 M 3 39 Ir Lateral 0 V Caudate nucleus ventricle L 2 P Putamen Thalamus Globus pallidus External segment Internal segment Internal capsule Subthalamic Claustrum nucleus Amygdala Substantia nigra From Kandel et a Principles of Neural Science 4th Ed Substantia nigra O 4 V V O From Calder et al 2001 Nat Rev Neurosci Basal gangHa Basal GangliaThalamoCortical motor circuit A complex motor control circuit exists between the cortex thalamus and basal ganglia Stimulatory input substantia nigra MB to corpus striatum BG Inhibitory output from globus pallidus BG to thalamus Excitatory output from thalamus to motor cortex Nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson s dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra midbrain to the corpus striatum basal ganglia deteriorates gt increased inhibitory output from globus pallidus to thalamus gt decreased excitatory input from thalamus to cortex gt h ypokinetic disorder The basal gangiathaamo cortical motor circuit 1 Glutamate neurotransmitter excitatory Dopamine neurotransmitter excitatory 1 GABA neurotransmitter inhibitory Caudate Putamen Thalamus Globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Substantia nigra FIGURE 812 gcellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction and Shit Prokaryotes Reproduce via binary fission a form of asexual reproduction in which the single DNA molecule attaches itself to the cell membrane and duplicates itself while the cell grows and then invaginates duplicating itself Eukaryotes Autosomal cells contain the diploid Zn number of chromosomes Haploidlgerm cells contain the n number of chromosomes Cellular Reproduction and Shit lnterphase G1 S G2 sometimes G0 Where cells spend most of their time Quiescent Phase G0 Subset of G1 Mitosis prophase metaphase anaphase telophasecytokinesis Where the cell divides Cell Cycle Types 1 Labile Continuously dividing to replace damaged cells due to the dangerous environments they are exposed to include Skin Tympanic membrane GI tract 2 Stable Arrested in G0 phase but can reenter the cell division if properly stimulated or damaged include Stem Pancreas Liver 3 Permanent Lose all mitotic activity during embryogenesis and are unable to divide even if damaged include Nerve Cardiac Cellular Reproduction and Shit lnterphase G1 Stage Presynthetic gap Cells create organelles for 1 energy and 2 protein production Cells double in size Restriction point regulatory check point for the cell to pass into the S Stage S Stage Synthesis Cell replicates its genetic material so each daughter cell has a copy After replication each chromosome consists of two chromatids bound together at the region known as the centromere The ploidy of the cell does not change because although the number of chromatids doubles they are bound together and thus act as a single unit and are still considered a single chromosome The amount of genetic material does double somatic cells ALWAYS have 23 pairs46 chromosomes it can just change from haploid 1 N to diploid 2N It is in the form of chromatin which is unwound and not in the traditional shape G2 Stage Postsynthetic gap Cell simply prepares for division Makes sure there are enough organelles cytoplasm and genetic material This is where mitochondrial DNA replication occurs Threequarter view H23 Side view W m 301 xr V a239i 39 A V h j 39 39 1 N 39 I quot 4 I J I 4 different histones in nucleosomesz 2 each of H2A H2B H3 and H4 3 Nucleosome 11 nm 5 Beads 0quot 3 String I I 39t lt r r39 w Hnstone protems re 1 t1 P quot9 39 quot 1 s 943 1 0nm up e a O fiber Histone octamers I 39 quot I V quot 14 9 h 39 U 10nm of DNA around quot fiber X histone core Linker DNA duplex DNA 2nm H1 histone stabilizes coiling of nuc1eosome bound DNA G e Condensed chromatin 1400 nm Solenoid 34 nm 30nm fiber 39 Solenoid f 34 nm Extended chromatin 300 nm Linking protein scaffold Coiled chromosome arm 700 nm Chromatids Centromere Cellular Reproduction and Shit Mitosis Somatic cells undergo mitosis and result in two diploid individuals that are identical to the parent Prophase Chromosomes condense Centriole pairs separate and go to opposite poles of the cell and the spindle apparatus forms between them The nuclear membrane dissolves allowing the spindle fiber to enter the nucleus and the nucleoli disappear Kinetochores attached to fibers appear at the centrosome centromere Metaphase Centriole pairs are now at opposite poles Kinetochore fibers interact with spindle apparatus fibers to align the chromosomes at the metaphase plate AKA equatorial plate Anaphase Centromere splits so each chromatid has its own distinct centromere allowing the sister chromatids to separate Telomeres are the last part to separate Sister chromatids begin to be pulled to opposite ends of the cell by the shortening of the kinetochore fibers Telophase Spindle apparatus disappears Nuclear membranes reform around each set of chromosomes and nucleoli reappear Chromosomes uncoil to their chromatin form Each new nuclei has the complete genome Cytokinesis Pinching of cells Each cell has a set number of division before it dies cancer does not Cellular Reproduction and wl Shit V NO HOMOLOGUE PAIRING IN MITOSIS MITOSIS PROPHASE 1 Qn METAPHASE NOTE Homologs ignore one another in mitosis ANAPHASE 1 Cellular Reproduction and Shit Meiosis Gametes specialized sex cells produced by meiosis that give one half of their genetic material to form an offspring Gametocytes undergo meiosis and produce four haploid individuals genetically unique to their parents Meiosis One round of replication followed by two rounds of division Meiosis I Reductional division Homologous chromosomes being separated generating two haploid daughter cells Meiosis ll Equational division separation of sister chromatids generating four genetically unique haploid cells Cellular Reproduction and Shit Meiosis I Prophase I Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that code for the same genes one is inherited from each parent Synapsis HCs come together and intertwine Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids so each synaptic pair of HC contains four chromatids and is thus a tetrad Crossing over when HC break at the point of synapse Chiasma or chiasmata and exchange equivalent pieces Sister chromatids are now no longer identical Metaphase I Anaphase I Disjunction the Mendelian Law where each chromosome of paternal origin separates from maternal origin and either can go into either cell random mixture occurs Telophase I Cells are haploid now because HC separate Note that sister chromatids joined at the centromere are still present in each cell Cellular Reproduction and i Shit V N SPHASE BETWEEN MEIOSIS I AND MEIOSIS ll Cellular Reproduction and Shit Meiosis ll Prophase ll Metaphase ll Chromosomes are separated into pairs of sister chromatids Anaphase ll Telophase ll Four haploid daughter cells are produced Chromosomal theory of inheritance I Somatic cells contain homologs two copies of every chromosome I Number of chromosomes 2n count centromeres I Gamete cells do not contain homologs n I Consistent with Mendel I If loci are on chromosomes gt 2 copies of each locus per somatic cell and 1 copy per gamete I Two gametes fuse syngamy to produce another individual who will then possess two copies of eachlocus MEIOSIS PROPHASE I Qn Note if other alignment METAPHASE1 is equally likely then We can explain independent assortment Equal segregation ANAPHASEI V Occurs here TELOPHASE I PROPHASE II bottom cell shown 1 39 METAPHASEII ANAPHASE H EE Starting cell before S phase Q O O O O O Q o 39 390 C O O O 0 O Q 0 of meiosis Qn Qn Resulting gametes Note Only one of the two possible arrangements are shown Metaphase 1 could have given a different product I12 I Chapter20 ll Reproduction 39 in quot 7 JV 7 l l l Reproduction mechanisms to transmit the genetic code from one generation to the next Determined by male Sexual reproduction Genes from two individuals are combined in nrnn 23 mitosis ways to produce a new individual variation and adaptability Diploid vs haploid chromosomes mitosis and meiosis Fertilization germ cells gametes gt zygote zygote gt embryo gt fetus through growth and development 3 3 390 5 Genetic Chromosomal Sex Autosornel 22 pairs vs 57 cnrorrlosornes Genetic chromosomal sex cleterrnined by the fertilizirxg sperm cells 5 gt s39nrernosernaJ P5 is rnaJe J i3 X and p 5 cnrornosornes X has 1090 genes w39n1Je V has onJy 80 genes The V c39nrernesorne has rrJer1y tes39isspec c genes Barrbody The inactive X s39nrernosorne in a female sernatis seJJ gt s39nrerneserneJ sex is 39ferneJe Can be seen on the nusJeus of neu39rop39nJs Gonadal Sex Cjohade rerhalh ihcJiffereh l until day 40 of cohceolloh in h u rhah felt 9 g39ffOm0SOrT3 cohlaihe eltdelermlhlhg egloh in the X chromosome SRY SRY ehcodee leclledetermlhlhg factor TDF which determines the gonadal sex of lhcllvlclual TDF is a DJJAolhdlhg protein that ehhahcee other UEJIJSCT olloh factors TDF lhclucee rhaleheee through the formation of which produce gt clerohe Genetic chromosomal eex determines gonadal sex which in ELJTIJSJ glelermlhee phenotypic sex U2 Seminiferous Interstitial tubules cells Develop in early embryo Follicles do not develop until third trimester TDF prorrrotee the forrrratlorr o TestisDetermining Factor TDF r l L xr from errroryorrlo gonade J Seminiferous tubules appear vvlfrrlrr day 4360 produce CJerrnlrral oelle eperrrre Sertoll oelle rrorrgerrrrlrral cells J Leydig cells eeorete teetoeterorre T to JJaegullnlzee errroryonl etruoturee 8eore dor1o fT deollrree very low levels urrill puberty a T deeoerrd lrrto eorotdrrr ehortl y before birth b3g Q3 of Y ohrorrroeorrre and TDF gt female develop ovaries folllolee don appear urrtll day 105 Spermatic cord Efferent ductules rif 39 39 W Basement Seminiferous 0 W Amembrane tubules I 1 2 K 7 permatozoa Interstitial Leydlg r 5 as 7 cells w 0 GermIrga thellal r J S 6 7 M Loecno Late spermatids r 39 A six V 1 l 39 a Spermiogenesis 9 9 PF Secondary Spermatocytes Meiosisj39 7 q o 7 39 39 39 l 5 Primaryspermatocyte Spermatogonium quot Interstitial cells 399 Development of Accessory Sex Organs e JJLJJJeran 39fJ39fJbquot O factor MIF MIH AMH J Grewirrg but males kill 139 V 0p a V V r r I r r 1 I gonads Q J Jr maJe JJJF secreted rrcm Sertoll cells or me gquot sernlmfercus iuLcuJes gt regression of the JJullerian 3 I Testosterone MIF No testosterone No MIF CJLJCES 7 r 39 I I I 4 t I t e enerates lt Munerian aquot339 e quote ric ehLWTgt terUs39 J Jn rremale wrtncut JJJF JJLJJJerJan CJLJCIS developed D9 fargmr ltmu eranr cr PmX P S amp W 0 F dU393 liJ i jj fT ei3een5tia Testosterone 7 Me tep No testosterone Degenerates ejaculatory ducts Wm 39 e2 Tes39icsquotercne and cJ ffan CJLJ xxx N Testostemg othstzfglu nic otestosterone gt Iabiav J No growing but maJes feed it t J Jn maJe testosterone gt growth and develccmerrr cf t39Je Wolf an ducts into maJe sex accessory organs q 1 epididymis vas cleferens serninal vesicles and iO jacLJJa tcry cJLJcquot K eeee quot8 L J DhycJrc Ites Itcs Itercrre DHT gt penis scrciurrt prostate J Jr fernaJe cJ f an CJLJCES Jegeneraquote in the absence J DHT er tes39tcsquotercne Development of Accessory Sex Organs TDF Indiiierent N0 TDF dy J gonads L Q Ovaries Testosterone MIF No testosterone No MIF Degenerates Milllerian Paramesonephric N0 MW gt uterus inhibition mUquot f8quot duct uterine tubes factor MIF I ducws dementia es os erone Mesgnephnc 0 es os erone gt Degenemes ejaculatory ducts W 39quot39a duc Prostate Testosterone Other embryonic N0 et 5 e39 e gt Vagina labia structures clitoris Penis scrotum 7l its 30 0 u 0 Development of External Genitalia Female accessory sex organs develop as menace a result of the absence of testes rather ether as 21 result of the presence of ovaries t Exterriel geriiteiie ExterrJeJ geriiteiiie are same during J E wits Pemm Ex terneJ geriitaiie deveiops trite rnaie Anus genotype due to testicular seeretieris J Jr the absence or 39femaJe extemai geriitaJia is tJeveJeped em penis HOIIIOIOQOUS structures Penis 3 lt gt clitoris Q Scrotum 3 lt gt labia majora 2 Scrotum Scrotal raphe Glans clitoris Hymen Vaginal ori ce Urethral orifice Perineum Anus Endocrine Regulation of Reproduction 39rJypotnaJarnicpituitarygonadaJ axis J Hypothalamus py GnRH L39rJR39rJ into 39nypot39naJarno nypopnyseai portal vessels Anterior pituitary gonadotropins LH Juteinizing hormone FSH foJJicJestirnuJating norrnone Secreted in pulsatile fashion to prevent desensitization and down regulation of receptors Prirnary effects of L39rJ and FSH on gonads Stimulation of sperrnatogenesis and oogenesis Stirnuiation of gonadal 39norrnone secretion T P E Maintenance of gonadal structure Gonads Sex steroids testosterone cf E B P 53 Garnetes Peptides inhibin stimulating follice for female Negative teedoaci sex steroids 39rJ FSH and in39ni39oin FSH seiectiveiy causing infertility in rnaie due to decrease in nurnioer of garnetes production Hypothalamus 9 GnRH Anterior 6 ituitar 9 P Y FSH LH Tim Gonadotropms Sex Inhibin steroids Gametes sperm or ova Onset of Puberty Hormonal Changes 39 J and LH secretion is high in newloorrt out faJJs to Jow Jevels in few weeks r FE At ou oerty 39rJumans orrrJa tes Brain maturational changes or CJrJFt39rJ neurons J GABA n no ton T gJu tama te S39tffJLJJEJ39tOfJ tn 39nyoo t39naJarrJus v Rats sheep J sensitivity orquot gorJado troorJ to rtegattve feedback effects of 9 sterotd horrnorres 1 PuJsa tJe CjrJR39rJ secretion frequency 2 amoJ tude gt ouJsa tJe LH 0 FSH secretions esp during sJeeo gt gorJadaJ sterotds secretions gt sex steroid secretion gt produce secondary sexuaJ c39r1arac ters ts Age of onset reJa ted to the of cod y fat in the 39fernaJe J Leptin secrettorr frorrr adtoocytes may be required for ou39oerty r39LJfJC tO S of sex sterotds S tmuJa ton of soerma togerJess or oogenests J J Secondary sexual c39rJaracters tcs Functions of Sertoli Cells Form bJcosJ ie3 iee3 r arrkr Gap jurwtiorrs Preems autoimmune desiruc39ior1 of perrn Produce F S ligand gt loinds to ihe F S R on T cells gt apoptosis of T cells gt prevenLs 1mmLJne erijiack FSH 4 FSH R on Serio cc Us gt ssccrcic inhibin Pnagocytize resduaJ bodice To rrraiuraiiorr o fsperrr1atozoa T air ASP rr I secret 31IJJfO I939IJ439OIJ JIJlDTOE Binds to tes39ros39terone and conce iraies iestosterorle rJquot39r1e uouJe3 S ermatozoa 3 chromosomes Lumen of T r seminiferous Sertoll cell w 39 tubule Secondary spermatocytes 23 chromosomes Primary spermatocytes Z 46 chromosomes Wallof seminiferous tubule Arraiorri y Ovarian cycia Female Reproductive System J Oarias 39fpJJicJes corrtairi ova corpus Juieurrr CL Suspense T E 39t 393 quott Ampuna J Uterus 39r1om body and cervix errdorrreiriurrr 2 quot R x 339 quot quot50 ut Jt5 ltet quote J Oidurir utarirre tube 39faJJppiarJ iLJ390e 2quot3 yquotquot quot P L 0 cl e i139 quot J Vagina and exiarrrai genitalia i r393 e39nt J 5 15 Lgggigg Labia majora Japia mirrora ciiirpris hymeri nrggnn irgr3quot39 39 Perimetrium Fornix of vagina r H I r I V 7 J Cervix of uterus J a rrrorrms gesrarron 0 x J 09 opgoma vagina J A late gestation rst meiosis not cprrrpiaia gt primary ops tesidipipid ggigggy Mat J Aquot Lorri 2 J 09 primary oocytes 939 quot quot r Gr iquot9 Secondary iollicle J A puqarlry 300000 J 400000 primary oocytes rimary llicle F39quotquotaquotV 2 39 olllcje gfomcle 2 Amrum Secondary 39 oocyte Corona quot P radiata j39f Secondary oocyte Zona pellucida Folliculogenesis and Oogenesis Primary 39foJJoJee oorltalrl primary oooytea pia N I I I I I oocyte Mature J For eurnulatee granulosa cell growtn Primary Growing1 SecondaryIIggan t Antru m r follicle rquot3 a39Y 39 O cje IfoIlcleV Develop lrlto eeoorldary rquotoJJoJes J Appearance of vesicles oorltalrling quotfluid Sec day I I I I I oocyte JVJEIELJTS JHEO graa an TOHJCJS I so I I 3IIIltIrIltIgtI J Fusion of its vesicles to form the antrum aica n r A I U mar iggggdaw M 0 O I I I II I I I G 39miquota39 p P q Zona J JJ rnerouo dlvrelorl oorrloleted secondary oocyte epithelium Icus penucnda m k I I I C u eum J Fe39rJ etlrnulauon gt granulosa cells produce estrogen at inhibin J ararluloea oelle torrn a ring corona radiata arourld oooyte oogomum and forrn mound ournulue ooohorue together called I 39 S 39quot S cumulus cells f I I I P39 yt J Lrl eurrrulatee one graarlarl roJJJoJe gt ovulauon others gt m 439393w rw 5 ores atresia 3 sE a i II I I II II First sg f I Secondary oocyte zndoorlrre oontrol or ovulauorl gglar 2a f ff quot eS J Growth of 39r39oJJoJee FSH 3233 9 quot 39quot Sx 39 quotquotquot quot quot J Stlrrlulatlorl of ovulation LH dmsm S i a 3quotd Zygme ody 933 degenerates Phases of Menstrual Cycle Uterine Aspect II quot3 DC J wreiory phase D15 J28 O O W W 12 U2 porjr J to JuteaJ p39nase of the ovarian V in P4 secreiiorj gt 3irrJuJats eaJopmant of LJquot e39rJf3 gJanJs 1 Q E2 and P4 gt 3trrJLJJats3 s3cre tons3 from uigrine gJanrs gt prepare to nourish an errjbryo Regressssed FL gt necrossiss and ssJough39ng o39fer1dornerurrJ gt rner13 trLJairor1 D J of next cyde Thickness of Ovarian hormone Ovarian Gonadotropin endometnum secretion events secretion Ovarian cycle Early Corpus luteum eVEoBingfQic eL rc r Iuteu regresses Z 22 9 0 O Q o U Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase Days 1 7 14 21 28 Menstrual cycle Menstruation Proliferative phase Secretory phase P Menstruation Other Contraceptive Methods 0 a R39nyt39nrn rnet39nocJ X Progesterone 39nig39n right after ovulation ESTRUS in neat sexuaiiy reoeo39tive oertain J Women rneasure oral basal body Jterrioeraiture uoon awakening daiiy J Preovuiatory stage E2 39nig39n gt bt rnoderateiy 39nig39n ropin secretion I I Ovarian cycle Early Corpus luteum Develop ingfqllicie J T r Jr R I I N V gr E P I I 9 C g I J V Q r Iuteu regresses ne r ay or rJ surge I 2 4 ow b t owest 0 JJJ 9 19 9 Q go J Q 8 H IP j bl ti Q dDays F1OquotiCU39ar p7hae OVua1t2on Lutgillvlphase O V H Jr J V r V nu 39 O A1 I I J No oonoeotion Jr ooitus ooours o D oerore or J D arter equota quot ovulation Jr window of tirne Thickness of Ovarian hormone Ovarian Gonadot endometrium RU488 morning after oiJJ P4 antagonist ooouoies P4 r J XK J J R J 370 K Essure inserts are r Jaoed into t39ne 39raJJor Jan tubes b 366 Oral temperature C a oa t39ne ter gt induoe benign iibrotio reaotion gt barrier rquotorrned prevents sperm from reao39ning an oooyte G 421290 J8 1 L 1 5 2 3 at as 10125 C day 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Pa JJaJe oontraoeotion J Jaseotorny sberrriaitogeriesis oontinues oryots present sites ror irrirriurie reactions Fertilization Process Ejeeuleie BOO rrJJJerJ eperrne enJy J 00 reach uterine feJJeperr tube Capacitation of perm EJEJCLJJEIEQCJ sperms are infertile Lrrriil in the female reproductive tract for gt 7 hr FerlrJze irerr occurs in fallopian tube Acrosomal reaction Tryperr Je errzymee in eereeeme ereeie pore err Zena peJJuecJe quotfer eperm perreiratlerr Cortical reaction hardeningquot of zone pellueide prerteeglyeerr avoid peJyepermy Ca2 lens 90 to eytepJaerrJ and form the fertilization membrane Completion of second meiosis in secondary eeeyte Gerneire Jifeeparr 3 D for sperm lt J D for eeeyte Nucleus containing chromosomes Acrosome containing enzymes Sperm cell nucleus Inside ovum d n E G h I Fetal Circulation I Fetal Circulation N 4 to iungs 2n adutt t The fetal heari moi ihe mo hers quot i heari Jjheji buJJs3 up ihe feiaj mood pressure io drive its Hood ihrough 3 f Li2 li392 fquot 3 Pulmonary trunk che 39fe raJ sjjrcujajcjon 4Ducws 80318 0 OyganaieJ wood from ihe pJ3J33IJi2J gt umioJcaJ vein gt enter ihe fetus gt 3 H 3 Ainerorvenacava gt park bypass Jer jnio ductus venosus 4 gt cauJ21J vena cava common zlzac m3as with sJeoygenai9sJ bJoosJ r retumjng from the feiaJ body W meJ o Y JSIJ31i9 J bJOOCJ gt quot quot 43 VJ V p V 3quot gt J J JI39 EILTJLJIIJ gtJ 6 f o um oica arzery Fetal Circulation 9 to lungs in adult superior vena cava aorta 1 Ductus arteriosus 2 Foreman ovale E E 39 39 39 H 3 Pulmonary trunk 4 Ductus venosus inferior vena cava common iliac artery internal iliac artery umbilical vein external ilia o artery I PLA39iENTA umbilical arter veins and venules CI Veins and venules 65 heart 7 El pulmonary vessels 9 III arteries 12 arterioles and capillaries 7 Muscle conlracled39 Closed valve There are valves in many large peripheral veins particularly common in extremities legs Important role in return of blood to right atrium from systemic veins Assure one way flow Passively pushed open as Compressed blood flows toward heart Passively pushed closed If blood starts to flow backwards Heart Factoids 3 Heart energy sources ATP NADH Creatine phosphate Not FAD Smooth muscle Responsible for contractions of hollow organs Myosin Light Chain Kinase MLCK Activated by calciumcalmodulin Transfers a terminal phosphate group to a hydroxyl group on a serine andor threonine Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase MLCP Dephosphorylation Cardiac Cells and Calcium Cardiac cells handle calcium in a unique manner First they have slow calcium channels in their cell membrane discussed later Second they have Ca ATPase pumps carriers in their cell membrane that remove Ca Third their specialized endoplasmic reticulum Sarcoplasmic Reticulum SR also have Ca ATPase pumps in their membrane which pumps Ca into the SR so that the SR serves as a calcium storage site Result At rest Cytosolic Ca very low 005 mmolL this is like other cells Extracellular Ca high throughout body 5 mmolL Sarcoplasmic Reticulum SR Ca exceedingly high gt 10 mmolL SA node AV node AV bundle bundle of His Left right Vi bundle branches HCN Channels The primary difference between conductive and contractile cells HCN Channels contractile cells don t have them yperpolarization Gated Qyclic ucleotide responsive HCN channels yperpolarization Gated Spontaneously open in response to cell achieving normal transmembrane polarity not depolarization Open slowly Permeable to sodium Na entry depolarizes the cell Phase 4 resting potential is unstable Qyclic ucleotide responsive CAMP is a cyclic nucleotide seen in sympathetic nervous system cAMP causes HCN channels to open more rapidly increases rate of depolarization How the shit goes down 20 1 HCN channels spontaneously open in response to hyperpolarization causing Na to come rushing in down its electrochemical gradient Because it is permeable to both Na and K and the electrochemical gradient is greater for the entry of Na than it is for the exit of K the entry of Na predominates This causes K to not be able to leave adding to the gradual positive shift towards threshold 2 This causes the Fast Ca channels to open and they diffuse into the cell down their electrochemical gradients causing the action potential 3 As this happens the adjacent cells which are connected by connexons start attracting the ions from the initial cell due to the electrochemical gradient between cells These ions from cell 1 then rush into cell 2 via the connexons It s Fast Ca channels open causing depolarization Continues to cell and Cell 3A 3B 3C Its notjust a straight line Its every direction The cycle continues 4 As these fly down the a path through the SA Node they begin diffusing through connexons to contractile cells which in turn diffuse them further to even more contractile cells 5 The contractile cell on the periphery then depolarizes causing its Fast Na channels and the Slow Ca channels to open It is almost like a line of gun powder SA Node and conductive cells to which a ton of other wicks are connected The gun powder burns wicked fucking fast and like a wake lights all adjacent wicks while the initial gun powder is flying way ahead by now The actual muscle contraction is caused when all of the contractile cells on either side of the gun powder and with depth are depolarized These are like the delayed firecrackers So the conductive cells zip the depolarization message along really fast the gun powder that lights all the other wicks The other wicks then burn burn burn burn and BAM all contract at the same time Note the gun powder has burned through in its entirety long before the firecrackers go off As in the gun powder burned all the way through in like 2 seconds while all the other wicks then burn for a minute and half before they blow up the firecracker 6 So the Fast Ca Channels of the conductive cells open spreading the depolarization stimulus to the adjacent contractile cells which open their Fast Na Channels and Slow Ca Channels The Fast Ca Channels and the Fast Na Channels allow the conductive and contractile cells to spread the depolarization to the whole muscle mass in 002 seconds The Slow Ca Channels open too but don t start doing shit for a while They are open for two hundred times as long It is only after a long time relatively that Ca starts diffusing into the cells This then causes the ryanodine receptors to open ejecting Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol causing muscle contraction When this is over 1 CaATPase pumps on the membrane of the cell pump Ca out into the ECF while 2 CaATPase pumps on the sarcoplasmic reticulum pump Ca into the SR The overall action is to reduce Ca concentration in the cell making it responsive to further depolarizations 3 39quotS Action potential 0 Membrane 39 Pacemaker Threshold potentlai potential 50 mV quot 100 I 39 4 lsovolumic relaxation Aortic pressure Atrial pressure Ventricular pressure Ventricular volume Electrocardiogram Ejection Rapid inflow lsovolumic Diastasis At 1 t I contraction I Ha Sys 0 e 1201 Aortic Alortic valve 100 valve C0583 I6 3pens 80 quot iquot F E 60 cfg 40 amp AV valve 20 closes 8 J 0 Z a 39quot W393Q 21301 4 E 3 90 2 R 8 501 P 39 o S T 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Systole Diastole Systole Phonocardiogram Heart Sounds turbulent blood flow progluces sounc S1first heart sound quotubquot occurring at the onset of systole due to AV valve closure and semilunar valve opening Q second heart sound quotdubquot occurring at the onset of diastole due to semilunar valve closure and AV valve opening S1 and S2 are normal and are heard in all mammals There are third and fourth heart sounds S3 and S4 which are not normally heard except in very large animals such as horses Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds that occur whenever there is turbulent flow of blood in the heart This commonly occurs when heart valves fail to function properly There are 2 main types of valvular abnormalities In each of them a murmur may be heard wlvular Insufficiency a valve that does not close adequately thru which retrograde flow occurs in dogs usually involves the mitral valve Valvular Stenosis a valve which does not open adequately and consequently restricts flow results in ventricular hypertrophy or the enlargement of the ventricle due to the accumulated blood coudn t it also cause atrial hypertrophy Bruits are sounds produced by turbulent flow in the vascular system partial obstruction of a vessel possibly a thrombus or an embolus abnormal connection between an artery and a vein AV fistula Volume ml Pressure mm Hg 1201 100 D O I O O 4 Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure Aortic valve orfns 1 S Ejection lsovolumic contraction l l lsovolumic relaxation Rapid inflow Diastasis Atrial systole loses 3939 AV valve opens Aortic valve l l quot k K A r Diastole f l L O lt D39393939 11quot Systole I Aortlc pressure kAtrial pressure Ventricular pressure Ventricular volume Electrocardiogram Goal attain and sustain a normal blood pressure Pressure measured in mmHg Similar throughout arterial tree Often referred to as blood pressure Blood pressure is the key variable in the cardiovascular system Blood flow to tissues requires Blood pressure that is at the proper level set point Too low systemic hypotension causes body organs and tissues to have inadequate blood flow ischemia Too high systemic hypertension damages organs and tissues Blood pressure that is constant variable pressure prevents organ and tissue blood flow from matching needs Systemic arterial blood pressure Mean arterial pressure 1 Et t s MAP t lAf equot339l 39 t esystolic pressure Tb39liOOd39 C m p dpressure Diastolic pressure An appropriate formula for a mammal at rest is MAP 13 X systolic 23 X diastolic Average in a human body 100mm Hg Three variables describe blood flowing thru a vessel P Q and R CPD Q P hydrostatic blood pressure mmHg created by force of left ventricular ejection of blood Q blood flow mLmin R resistance or the opposition to blood flow offered by a vessel The relationship between resistance to blood flow R diameter D and length L of a single blood vessel is referred to as the Poiseuille39s Law R k LD4 where k is Poiseuille39s constant What does this mean If you double the length you double a vesse s resistance to flow If you double the diameter of a vessel you increase R by 16 times If I were planning to control R I would alter diameter of a vessel Increase diameter vasodilation reduces R Decrease diameter vasoconstriction increases R Three variables describe blood flowing thru a vessel P Q and R CPD Q D Ohm39s Law Ohm s Law of electrical circuitry V I x R the driving force difference between two points V or voltage rate of flow of electrons I or current Opposition to flow or resistance R Ohm39s Law of the Cardiovascular System P Q x R the driving force difference between two points P or pressure rate of flow Q or flow Opposition to flow or resistance R or resistance MAP HRX SVX TPR Any factor which alters heart rate is called a chronotrope A positive chronotrope increase HR A negative chronotrope reduces HR Note they innervate the SA Node and increase the E of heart cycles Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic vagus nerve postganglionic fiber muscarininc receptor M2 acetylcholine as neurotransmitter stimulation of the SA node leads to a slowing of phase 4 depolarization by opening K channels and hence a slowing of the heart rate negative chronotrope Sympathetic stimulation cardiac nerves postganglionic fiber 31 receptor in heart norepinephrine as neurotransmitter of the SA node exerts a positive chronotropic effect by opening the HCN channels more rapidly Note it is completed by increasing norepinephrine and decreasing acetylcholine Both are always firing though MAP HR X SVX TPR SV affected by Preload prestretch of myocardium EDV Its like stretching a trampoineit serves to fire the blood out at a faster rate Afterload resistance to blood flow created by the aorta an increase causes a direct increase in preload probably causes ventricular hypertrophy MAPHRXSVX TPR 80 inotrope eg sym stim Increased Contractility 60 Normal quot I Contractlllty 40 I Stroke I Volume quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot quot Decreased mL 20 1 Contractility inotrope eg bacterial toxins E 1 0 I I I o 20 40 60 80 100 EndDiastolic Ventricular Volume mL EDV or Preload Control of R NOTE All tissues have Intrinsic and Extrinsic control of resistance It s only the vital tissues that can override the ECR Example of arterial baroreceptor system defending against systemic hypotension low MAP Hslood Pressure 4quot quotquotquotquotquot quot quotquotquotquotquot quotquotquot quotquotquot quotquot quotquotquot quotquot quotquotquotquot NH 1 I earoreceptor Activity Arteriolar fcomraction 3232 Wasoconstrtcuorl 9 Comraczimy 3Sys1oic Duration xi Central Nervous SYm 3 he 9 5YStem ACIMIY 3 Parasympamelic Activity Myocardium F J CO quotquot SA Node Ir tHean Rate quotquot39f p neqafwo feedback Copyright 6 The McGrawHil Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Stimuli 1 Blood now to kidneys quot fg39 39 f 39 39a39 Angiotensinogen globular molecule quot quotquot V5 produced in the liver 1 Angiotensin I deca peptide Ra quot Agll octa peptide cut off from Agl Angiotensinogen Angiotensin I ACE ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor I Anglotensin II 6 All this happens in the blood Adrenal cortex stream dogma A Vasoconstnction olarterioles 1 Salt and water retention by kidneys Cardio and Shit Hydrostatic pressures Force per unit area that the blood exerts against the vessel walls Generated by the contraction of the heart and the elasticity of the arteries Blood flows from arteries to capillaries Capillaries are leaky and thus some of the pressurized fluid leaks out carrying nutrients with it to the interstitial space this leakiness causes hydrostatic pressure to drop On the venule end of the capillary bed hydrostatic pressure falls below oncotic pressure Oncotic osmotic pressures The osmotic pressure generated by the concentration of particles mainly proteins in the plasma compartment Constant along the capillaries because nutrients filter out and wastes filter in at almost equal rates Opposite of hydrostatic it has an inward force that pulls fluid and whatever particles suspended in it out of tissues and into the blood stream Starling forces The balance between hydrostatic and oncotic pressure lmbalances can cause problems in the circulatory and lymphatic systems Cardio and Shit capillary bed Z4 v J 2 39 wt Chapter 10 Organohalide Reactions Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from 1 Alkenes by Allylic Bromination 2 Alkenes from Tertiary alcohols 3 Alkenes from primary and secondary alcohols 1 SOCIZ 2 PBr3 Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from Alkenes by Allylic Bromination Reactants 1 Alkene 2 NBS 3 Brz Solvent 1 CCI4 Other 1hvhght Products 1 Bromoalkene on the allylic carbon Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from Tertiary Alcohols Reactants 1 Tertiary alcohol 2 HX gas Solvent 1 Ether Temperature 1 0 C Products 1 Tertiary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Notes 1 Reactivity order 3 gt 2 gt 1 Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from Primary amp Secondary Alcohols Part I Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Products 1 Regiochemistry 1 Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from Primary amp Secondary Alcohols Part I Reactants 1 Primary or secondary alcohol 2 SOCIZ Thionyl chloride Solvent 1 Pyridine Products 1 Primary or secondary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from Primary amp Secondary Alcohols Partln Reacta nts 1 Primary or secondary alcohol 2 PBr3 Phosphorous tribromide Solvent 1 Ether Temperature 1 35 C Products 1 Primary or secondary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Preparation of Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides from Primary amp Secondary Alcohols Part III Reactants 1 Primary or secondary alcohol 2 HF or 3 CH3CH22NSF3 Dimethylaminosulfur tri uoride Solvent 1 Pyridine Products 1 Primary or secondary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Reactions of Alkyl Halides Reactions of Alkyl Halides 1 Grignard 2 Gilman A Alkyllithium reagents B Lithiumdiorganocopper reagents 3 Organometallic Coupling A Diorganocopper reactions B SuzukiMiyaura reactions Reactions of Alkyl Halides Grignard Reagents Organomagnesium compounds Reactants 1 Magnesium metal and A Alkyl halides or B Alkenyl vinylic halides or C Aryl aromatic halides or Solvent 1 Ether or 2 THF Products 1 Alkyl magnesium halides RMgX Notes A The halide can be 1 Cl 2 BR 3 mir uoride B Carbon takes a negative polarization C A Grignard reagent is a carbanion such a strong base it cannot come in contact with H2O or it will be destroyed Reactions of Alkyl Halidesz Gilman Reagents Gilman Reagents lithiumdiorganocopper compounds 2 steps Step 1 Alkyllithium Reagents Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Products 1 2 Reactions of Alkyl Halidesz Gilman Reagents Gilman Reagents lithiumdiorganocopper compounds 2 steps Step 2 Lithiumdiorganocopper compounds Reactants 12 equivalents of Alkyllithium 2 Copper iodide Solvent 1 Diethyl ether Products 1 Lithiumdiorganocopper compound Gilman reagent Reactions of Alkyl Halidesz Organometallic Reactions Organometallic Coupling Reactions 2 Types 1 Diorganocopper reaction 2 SuzukiMiyaura reaction Reactions of Alkyl Halidesz Organometallic Reactions Organometallic Coupling Reactions 1 Diorganocopper reaction Reactants 1 Gilman reagent gtgt A Alkyl halide or gtgt B Aryl aromatic halide or gtgt C Alkenyl vinylic halide 2 Halide can be A Chloride B Bromide gtgt C Iodide gtgt D Nejver uoride unlike Grignard where it is rarely uoride Solvent 1 Ether lntermediates 1 Trioraganocopper intermediate Products 1 Alkane Alkene or Aromatic depends on what you reacted 2 Organocopper 3 Lithium halide Reactions of Alkyl Halidesz Organometallic Reactions Organometallic Coupling Reactions 2 SuzukiMiyaura reaction Reactants 1 Aromatic or vinyl substituted boronic acid R BOH2 2 Aromatic or vinyl substituted organohalide Solvent 1 CaCO3 2 THF Other 1 In the presence of AAbase gtgt B Palladium catalyst PdPPh34 lntermediates 1 Organopalladium compound formed from palladium catalyst aromatic or vinyl substituted organohalide Step 2 1 Organopalladium compound reacts with boronic acid compound aromatic or vinyl substituted boronic acid to form diorganopalladium complex Step 3 1 Diorganopalladium complex decomposes Products 1 Bi ary product 2 Regenerated catalyst Alcohols and Phenols Ethers Epoxides Thiols Sulfides N Shit 1 Synthesis of Ethers A Sufuric acid synthesis B Williamson Ether Synthesis C AIkoxymercurationdemercuration 2 Reactions of Ethers A Cleavage by HBr and HI B Claisen rearrangement C Acid catayzed epoxide opening D Base catayzed epoxide opening 3 Synthesis of thiols 4 Oxidation of thiols to disulfides 5 Synthesis of sul des 6 Oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides and sulfones Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Sulfuric acid Ether Synthesis Reactants 1 Symmetrical primary alcohols 2 Sulfuric acid Products 1Ether 2 H3O Note 1 SN2 mechanism Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Williamson Ether Synthesis ll Reactants 1 2 or 3 Solvent 1 Products Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Alkoxymercurationdemercuration Step 1 Reactants Step 2 Reactants 1 Products 1 Stereochemistry 1 Regiochemistry 1 Notes 1 Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Claisen rearrangement Reactants 1 Allyl aryl ether 2 Phenoxide ion Intermediates 1 Allyl phenyl ether undergoes Claisen rearrangement with heat Products 1 oAllylphenol Notes 1 Similar rearrangement occurs with ay vinyl ethers creation of a y5unsaturated ketone or aldehyde Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Acidcatalyzed epoxide opening Reactants 1 Epoxide 2 HBr Solvent 1 Ether Products 1 Trans 12 Haohydrin Notes 1 Epoxides that only have a primary andor secondary carbons are attacked via SN2 and if both are present the lesser sterically strained is attacked 2 Epoxides that have any tertiary carbons well there can only be one tertiary carbon on an ether are attacked via SN1 Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Basecatalyzed epoxide opening Reactants 1 2 3 Products 1 Notes 1 2 3 Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Basecatalyzed epoxide opening Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 2 Products 1 Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Synthesis of thiols Reactants 1 Solvent 1 2 and Intermediates 1 Products 1 Notes 1 2 Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Synthesis of thiols Reactants 1 Alkyl halide Solvent 1 H2N2CS thiourea 2 H20 and NaOH Intermediates 1 alkyl isothiourea salt which is hydrolyzed with a base Products 1 RCHZSH thiol Notes 1 SN2 mechanism 2 Can use SH hydrosulfide anion but it often undergoes an additional SN2 reaction to create a sul de Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Synthesis of Sul de Prereaction Reactants 1 2 Reactants 1 2 Products Ethers Epoxides Thiols and Sul des Oxidation of thiols to disul des Reactants 1 Solvent 1 and Products 1 Notes 1 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles Preparation of Nitriles Dehydration of amides Reactants 1 2 3 4 Products 1 2 3 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles Reaction of Nitriles Reduction to Yield Primary Amines Reacta nts Products 1 Enzymes and Shit I Enzyme Review 1 Lower the activation energy 2 Increase the rate of the fonNard AND reverse reactions but not the rate constant 3 Do not alter the equilibrium constant 4 Are not changed or consumed in the reaction this means that they will appear in both sides of the equation 5 Are pH and temperature sensitive with optimal activity at specific ranges of the two 6 Do not affect the overall Delta G of the reaction 7 Are specific for a particular reaction or class of reactions Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Specificity Substrate molecule on which the enzyme acts Active Site location within the enzyme where the substrate is held during the reaction EnzymeSubstrate Complex complex formed when the two are a ached Theo es 1 Lock and Key Theory The active site lock is already in the correct conformation for the substrate key to bind No alteration of tertiary or quaternary structure is needed 2 Induced Fit Theory The substrate causes conformational change on the tertiary of quaternary level for a more perfect union Widely accepted theory Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Kinetics Saturation The point at which additional substrate concentrations will not affect reaction rate Said to be working at maximum velocity V MichaelisMenten E S k2 k1 ES k3 E P Km Amount of substrate where half of the sites are saturated max Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Activity Regulation Allosteric Effects Allosteric enzymes Alternate back and forth between active and inactive forms via conformational change Allosteric Sites are sites other than active sites whose activation by allosteric activators can activate it whereas allosteric inhibitors will inhibit it Inhibition When an enzyme is regulated by its own products feedback inhibition positive or negative or by other molecules reversible or irreversible Reversible Competitive noncompetitive uncompetitive Irreversible The active site is made permanently unavailable or the enzyme is permanently altered Enzymes and Shit Agonist mimic the effect A normally synthetic analog that mimics the effect of substrate molecule ie synthetic marijuana Inhibitor vs Antagonist fuck the effect An inhibitor binds to a regulatory site on a substrate molecule protein lipid carbohydrate neurotransmitter etc and fucks up it s ability to bind to it s receptor but does not fuck up the receptor itself An antagonist binds to the receptor site and fucks it up making it so the substrate molecule can t bind to it but does not fuck up the substrate molecule Competitive antagonists Noncompetitive antagonists Uncompetitive antagonists Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Activity Regulation Table 53 Effects of reversible inhibitors on kinetic constants Type of inhibitor Effect Competitive I binds to E only Raises Km Vmax remains unchanged Uncompetitive I binds to ES only Lowers Vmax and Km Ratio of VmaxKm remains unchanged Noncompetitive I binds to E or ES Lowers Vmax Km remains unchanged a Classical competitive inhibition b Nonclassical competitive inhibition C3Q 3 E3 c2 J H db The substrate 5 and the inhibitor I compete for the same site on the enzyme c Uncompetitive inhibition E25 The inhibitor I binds only to the enzyme substrate ES complex preventing the conversion of substrate S to product ll 910 The binding of substrate S at the active site prevents the binding of inhibitor I at a separate site and vice versa d Noncompetitive inhibition 3 39 E23 l H 123 E2 The inhibitor I can bind to either E or ES The enzyme becomes inactive when I binds Substrate S can still bind to the El complex but conversion to product is inhibited Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Activity Regulation Competitive Binds to the enzyme only Normally when 50 substrate molecules would occupy 50100 receptors now one of those molecules gets beat out by an inhibitor thus Vm raises because it takes more substrate molecules to fill half Vmax is unchanged because if a certain amount of substrate is added then it will eventually knock out the inhibitor Enzymes and Shit I Enzyme Activity Regulation A Competitive Inhibition Competitive inhibitors are the most commonly encountered inhibitors in biochem istry In competitive inhibition the inhibitor can bind only to free enzyme molecules that have not bound any substrate Competitive inhibition is illustrated in Figure 58 and by the kinetic scheme in Figure 59a In this scheme only ES can lead to the for mation of product The formation of an E1 complex removes enzyme from the nor mal pathway Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Activity Regulation Uncompetitive Only binds the ES complex and thus decreases Vmax because more substrate cannot overcome this type of inhibition Because ESI complexes are formed and don t disappear the equilibrium formation between S9 ES is disrupted that is less ES forms because more ESI are forming This shifts the equilibrium 9 E8 meaning substrates have a higher affinity for receptors less substrate is needed to fill half the receptors because they all eagerly want to bind to a receptor Vm decreases Note the ration of Vmax to Vm to does not change Enzymes and Shit I Enzyme Activity Regulation B Uncompetitive Inhibition Uncompetitive inhibitors bind only to ES and not to free enzyme Figure 510a In uncompetitive inhibition Vmax is decreased 1 Vmax is increased by the conversion of some molecules of E to the inactive form ESI Since it is the ES complex that binds I the de crease in Vmax is not reversed by the addition of more substrate Uncompetitive in hibitors also decrease the Km seen as an increase in the absolute value of 1Km on a doublereciprocal plot because the equilibria for the formation of both ES and ESI are shifted toward the complexes by the binding of I Experimentally the lines on a double reciprocal plot representing varying concentrations of an uncompetitive inhibitor all have the same slope indicating proportionally decreased values for Km and Vmax Figure 510b This type of inhibition usually occurs only with multisubstrate reactions Enzymes and Shit Enzyme Activity Regulation Noncompetitive Binds to the enzyme or the ES complex fucking up the ability of E8 9 E P this lowers Vmax However the binding of inhibitor to the enzyme does not fuck up the ability of the substrate to bind to the enzyme meaning Vm stays the same Enzymes and Shit I Enzyme Activity Regulation 0 Noncompetitive Inhibition Noncompetitive inhibitors can bind to E or ES forming inactive E1 or ESI complexes re spectively Figure 511a These inhibitors are not substrate analogs and do not bind at the same site as S The classic case of noncompetitive inhibition is characterized by an apparent decrease in Vmax ll Vmax appears to increase with no change in Km On a double reciprocal plot the lines for classic noncompetitive inhibition intersect at the point on the x axis corresponding to 1Km Figure 51 lb The common x axis intercept indicates that Km isn t affected The effect of noncompetitive inhibition is to reversibly titrate E and ES with I removing active enzyme molecules from solution This inhibi tion cannot be overcome by the addition of S Classic noncompetitive inhibition is rare but examples are known among allosteric enzymes In these cases the noncompetitive inhibitor probably alters the conformation of the enzyme to a shape that can still bind S but cannot catalyze any reaction Most enzymes do not conform to the classic form of noncompetitive inhibition where Km is unchanged In most cases both Km and Vmax are affected because the af n ity of the inhibitor for E is different than its af nity for ES These cases are often referred to as mixed inhibition Figure 512 Cells and Shit I Prokaryote Review Simplest of all organisms Shapes2x Spherical Rod Nucleoid region single circular molecule where the genetic material is located Plasmid small circular pieces of DNA that contain a few genes may allow a bacteria to be resistant to antibiotics Replicate independently of genome All have Cell membrane Cytoplasm Flagella some Cells and Shit Prokarytes Bacteria Cell wall present in all prokaryotes No nucleus Ribosomes subunits 308 and 50s No membrane bound organelles Unicellular Eukaryotes Protists fungi plants animals Cell wall present in fungi some protists and plants Nucleus Ribosomes subunits 408 and 608 Membrane bound organelles Unicellular or multicellular The cell Golgi complex Secretory vesicle Nuclear envelope Centriole Mitochondrion Chromatin Plasma membrane Nucleus Microtubule Granular endoplasmic reticulum Cytoplasm cylosol Agranular endoplasmic Ribosome reticulum FIGURE 31 Eukaryotes Cell Membrane City Analogy The city wall Phospholipid bilayer studded with proteins and lipids Lipids and temperature A Low temperature low degree of unsaturation ow double bonds and low cholesterol you want it to be as fluid as possible high movement because the temperature says there is low environmental movement B High temperature high degree of unsaturation high double bonds and high cholesterol you want it to be as solid as possible low movement because the temperature says there is high environmental movement Types of Plasma Membrane Movement 1 Lateral Rotation A Motion along the plane of the membrane B Capable lipids and proteins 2 Axis Rotation A Spin on their axis B Capable lipids and proteins 3 FlipFlop Rotation A Alternate between inner and outer surfaces facing the extracellular or cytoplasmic environment B Capable lipids only protein receptors shoudn t ever face the cytoplasm Proteins Transport Proteins allow polar molecules and ions to move in and out of the cell Cell Adhesion Molecules CAMs allow cells to recognize each other and contribute to proper cell differentiation and development Cholesterol Regulates the fluidity or stiffness of the membrane cholesterol directly proportional stiffness Also synthesizes steroid hormones Eukaryotes Endoplasmic Reticulum City Analogy shipping department that takes goods from ribosomes and sends to correct location A series of interconnected membrane bound organelles 1 Smooth Ribosome free Roles Hormone synthesis Lipid synthesis NADPH 9 free radicals Lipid modification addingremoving double bonds Detoxification of drugs and poisons Calcium storage 2 Rough Ribosome studded Roles Protein synthesis Protein modification like GA such as glysosylation both the Rough ER and the GA perform glycosylation Eukaryotes Vesicles and Vacuoles City Analogy wrapping used in the repackaging in the golgi apparatus 1 Transport and 2 store materials that by the cell Ingested take in Digested break down Processed chemically alter eg for energy Secreted released eg neurotransmitters Vacuoles 1 Larger than vesicles 2 More likely to be found in plant cells 3 Have phospholipid bilayer 4 Can be composed of many vesicles Vesicles sometimes have protein layer nclusion lifeless accumulation of cell products and is I think a subdivision of vacuoles See exam krackers problem 251 pg 211 Eukaryotes Microbodies City Analogy specialized factories Catalyze specific reactions by gathering the necessary enzymes and substrates Two types 1 Peroxisomes Use superoxide dismutase to convert superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide but still release some free radicals Created hydrogen peroxide is used to break down fats Fatty acid beta oxidation into usable molecules Use catalase to break down excess hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen Catalyze detoxification reactions in the liver Self replicating like mitochondria 2 Glyoxysomes In germinating plants they convert fats to usable fuel sugars until the plant can make its own energy via photosynthesis Eukaryotes Mitochondria Continued Heterogeneity Due to mutation more than one type of mtDNA may exist in a cell Homoplasmic All the mtDNA in a cell is of one type Heteroplasmic The mtDNA in a cell is of varying types Eukaryotes Cytoskeleton City Analogy The roads and highways of the cell that allow materials to move around also the loadbearing framework Provides framework for anchoring other organelles within the cell Composed of 3 types of fibers smallest to largest 1 Actin filaments Smallest of roads for transport Movement Muscular contraction interact with myosin Materials within cellular membrane lateral axis etc Amoeboid movement entire cell 2 Intermediate filaments Maintain overall structural support of the cytoskeleton 3 Microtubules Largest of roads highways for transport Polymers of tubulin proteins that are hollow unlike actin Involved in structural support Movement Chromosomal separation during mitosis and meiosis Structural basis for Cilia trapping foreign matter Flagella sperm motility Eukaryotes Viruses City Analogy Spies that hijack factories to make their own goods Acellular structures composed of nucleic acids surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid Obligate intracellular parasites Cannot reproduce independently must hijack and replicate itself using the cell s machinery The replications are known as virions which infect new cells Bacteriophages are OPs but do not enter the cell like virions instead they inject their genetic material into the cell but leave their structure on the outside OIPS cannot make their own ATP Genetic Material Can be circular or linear Can be single or double stranded Can be RNA or DNA Can not be interesting to study Lecture outline The cell inside amp out The extracellular environment Movement through the cell membrane diffusion amp osmosis Movement through the cell membrane oarriermediated transport Movement via vesicular fusion The membrane potential I Cell signaling J Extracellular amp intracellular water Intracellular Extracellular 2730 L I 14165 L I Cell membrane Interstitial quot uld volume 1113 L FIGURE 148 Simple diffusion across a cellmembrane The diffusional driving force is proportional to the concentration gradient However the degree to which or whether a substance will diffuse across a lipid bilayer is dependent on the selective permeability of that membrane I Simple diffusion or osmosis is the noncarriermediated downhill movement of some molecules across a cell membrane Gases CO2 N2 02 Pe r m ea b I e S m a I I u ncha rg ed Q po I a r PuD if if N H 2 C N H 2 Wate r slig htly if s ill U rea permeable ft Pe rm e a b I e gt5f 3J iD 0 Molecular Cell Biology 5th Ed 0 Solute 0 Water FIGURE 67 More dilute O O Q O 0 Q O O 0 More concentrated O O O O o O 0 0 O Osmosis is the net diffusion of H20 solvent across a membrane from regions of higher H20 to lower H20 In order for osmosis to occun 1 Membrane must be selectively permeable to water 2 Concentration gradient for solute must exist across the membrane 3 Solute must be osmoticay active membrane nearly impermeable to solute Osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure is the force needed to counteract osmosis Pushes in the direction of equilibrium Increased solute concentrations increase the osmotic pressure of the solution Volume X Volume X Force preventing gt III volume change Pure water 180gL glucose HGURE6J 10th ed a 10 Osm 20 Osm Volume 2131 Volume 437 b 1 5 Osm 15 Osm FIGURE 610 10th ed Types of membrane transport proteins ATPpowered pumps Ion channels 1O0 1O3ionss 1O7 1O8 ionss Exterior T x 0 0 V N W U c t I 0 Y O50 Closed ATP ADP Pi ope Transporters aka carriers 1O2 1O4 moleculess Uniporter Symporter Antiporter Lodish et al Molecular Cell Biology 5th Ed vim AjLA A x P WW4 WW D u 1 A 1 AA H F E A HMA A J Lu ATPpowered pumps Ion channels 10 1 03 ionss 1O7 1O8 ionss Exterior T I I 3 V r 0 0 c 39 ytoso Closed Open ATP ADP Pi Red uphill Red downhill Lumen of kidney tubule or small intestine Juncuonal complex Blood Glucose Na lower higher concentration Apica smace concentration Epithelial cells Colransport I or kidney tubule or small intestine Tmmponl nNd wni39 8 provides energy for gticoee higher 0 b9 moved J concentration gradent la 13939 quot I Facilitated 39 i diffusion l T Basolateral P mafy Glucose surface active lower transport ATP used to move both Ne and K against their concentration gradients 1 39 39 39 FIGURE 621 The membrane potential In addition to concentration gradients there is also a charge gradient across our cell membranes This unequal charge distribution the inside of the cell is more negative than the outside of the cell creates a membrane potential Vm A typical cell at rest has a resting membrane potential Vr of 60 to 80 mV The negative charges are on inorganic macromolecules quotTypicalquot Eukaryotio Cell mM inside mM outside K 5 12 Na Na 140 3l39 120 Caz 2 Resting Vm 60 to 80 mV Equilibrium Potentials The value of the membrane potential Vm is dependent on All ionic concentration gradients across the membrane NOTE ions do not equilibrate to equal concentrations The permeabilities of each ion across the membrane 0 ocean gt Vr is approximately equal to EK due to the presence of open Kt channels in the membrane at rest closed EK is the Nernst equilibrium potential Open for Kt ions EK is equal to the voltage that the membrane would assume if it were only permeable to Kt ions L disheta39M 39ecu39ar Cell Biology 5th Ed Calculating EK quotTypicalquot Eukaryotic Cell mM inside mM outside Given these typical concentration gradients calculate the Nernst equilibrium potential for potassium Resting Vm 60 to 80 mV Predicting ionic movements So given the opportunity in which direction would net movement of a particular ion x occur We can predict this by knowing three things I The membrane potential Vm I The Nernst potential EX I The charge of ion x Lecture outline The cell inside amp out The extracellular environment Movement through the cell membrane diffusion amp osmosis Movement through the cell membrane oarriermediated transport Movement via vesicular fusion The membrane potential I Cell signaling Receptor proteins C Gproteincoupled receptors D Intracellular receptors A i x 9 0 x 39 quotl x i r 5 39 39 39 4 E v 4 39L X V Q1 5 393 F535 9 3 x 39 From Purves et a Neuroscience 3rd Ed The Feedback Mechanisms x Negeiive feedbecis J Common reguieiery mechanism for meiriieriensse of hemeeeieeie J Deefende ihe Q point gt reverses the sievieiien gt presiueee change in eppeeiie siireeiien J Hemeeeieeie ie eehievesi by me negative feedback inhibition J Eggempie ineuiin and leieesi sugar 0 P Peeiiive feedbecls J Aeiien of eifeeiere empiiiiiee ihe ehengee J Je in same siireeiien N change J Eggempie irypeinegen and irypein 313 veiien Set point KGK 9 GK 1Norma averaggl Chemical Composition of the Body 4 p 2729 Hydrophobic Lipophilic Substances The bLIL39 of any IIpsI moIecLIIe I53 IJOIJHpOJEIf J ConIIInIIIg long hydrocarbon chains IpIs are soILI399Ie In IIOIIpOJEIf sojveniss Ilipophilic such S ether and ioenzene bu are IrIs3oILIioIe In waier hydrophobic H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I HquotC39 C C C C C C C C C C C C C39 C39 C I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I on H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Palmitic acid a saturated fatty acId T H H C H l C 0 CH3 COH or C6H6 Benzene l Hquot H H PL Cha pter 3 Cell Structure and Genetic Control Chapter 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Conversion into acid chlorides Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Products 1 2 3 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Conversion Into Esters via SN2 Reactants 1 2 Products 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Conversion Into Acid Anhydrides via heat Reactants 1 2 Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Alcoholysis to prepare Esters Reactants 1 Carboxylic acid 2 Alcohol Solvent 1 Acid catalyst Products 1 Ester 2 H20 Note 1 Only simple alcohols can be used 2 Equilibrium favors ester formation with excess of alcohol 3 Equilibrium favors carboxylic acid formation with excess water Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Conversion Into Amides Reactants 1 Carboxylic acid 2 Primary amine RNH2 Solvent 1 DCC Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide Products 1 Amide Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Reduction to Yield Primary Alcohols Reacta nts Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic acids Reduction to Yield Primary Alcohols Sensitively Reactants 1 Carboxylic acid 2 1 BH3 THF 2 H3O Products 1 Primary alcohol Note 1 Used when there are sensitive substituents ex Nitro Group that you don39t want to reduce Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid chlorides Hydrolysis to yield acids Reactants 1 Acid chloride 2 H20 Solvent 1 Pyridine Products 1 Carboxylic acid 2 HCI Note 1 Because HCI is formed as a byproduct the reaction is carried with base Pyridine or NaOH to remove the excess HCI in order to prevent side reactions Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid chlorides Alcoholysis to Yield Esters Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Products Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid chlorides Aminolysis to Yield Amides Reactants 1 2 or Products Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid chlorides Reduction to Yield Primary Alcohols Reactants Products 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid chlorides Grignard Reaction to Yield Tertiary alcohols Reactants Products 1 Note 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid chlorides Gilman Reagents to Yield Ketones Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Intermediate 1 Products 1 Note 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid anhydrides Hydrolysis to yield acids Reactants 1 2 Products 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid anhydrides Alcoholysis to yield Esters Reactants 1 2 3 Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Acid anhydrides Aminolysis to yield Amides Reactants 1 2 Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Esters Hydrolysis to yield acids Reactants 1 2 or 3 and Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Esters Aminolysis to yield amides Reactants 1 Ester 2 NH3 Solvent 1Ether Products 1 Amide 2 Alcohol Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Esters Reduction to yield Primary Alcohols Reactants 1 Ester 2 1 LiAH4 ether 2 H3O Products 1 Primary alcohols 2 Alcohol Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Esters Partial reduction to yield aldehydes Reactants 1 Ester 2 1 DIBAH and toluene 2 H3O Products 1 Aldehyde 2 Alcohol Ca rboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Esters Grignard reaction to yield tertiary alcohols Reactants Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Reactions of Amides Hydrolysis to Yield acids Reactants 1 Amide 2 H3O or 3 NaOH H20 Products 1 Carboxylic acid 2 NH4 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles Preparation of Nitriles Dehydration of amides Reactants 1 2 3 4 Products 1 2 3 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles Preparation of Nitriles Dehydration of amides Reactants 1 Amide 2 SOCIZ 3Benzene 4 80 C Products 1 Nitrile 2 s02 32 HCI Carboxylic Acids Derivatives AldehydeKetone Halogenation Reactants 1 or 2 Solvent 1 Products 1 or 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Dehydrobromination of ozbromo ketones Reactants 1 Ketone with Alpha Bromine Solvent 1 Pyridine and Heat Products 1 Ketone with Alpha alkene Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Alkylation of Enolate Ions Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis Step 1 Reactants 1 2 gtgt 1 and gtgt 2 Intermediates 1 or 2 Step2 Reactants 1 and Products 1 2 3 Notes 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Alkylation of Enolate Ions Direct Alkylation of Ketones Reactants 1 Ketone with Alpha Hydrogen 2 1 LDA in THF 2 R X Products 1 Ketone with Alpha alkyl group R Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Alkylation of Enolate Ions Direct Alkylation of Nitriles Reactants 1 Nitrile with Alpha Hydrogen 2 1 LDA in THF 2 R X Products 1 Nitrile with Alpha alkyl R Chapter 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Aldol Reaction Reactants 1 2 Aldehyde with Alpha Alkyl group RCHZCOH Solvent 1 NaOH and Ethanol Products 1 Aldehyde with Beta Hydroxy group RCH2COHHCRHCOH Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Mixed Aldol Reaction CHZO 1 2 Solvent 1 and Products 1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives lntramolecular Aldol Reaction Reactants 1 Solvent 1 and Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Claisen Condensation Reaction Reactants 1 2 and Products 1 2 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Mixed Claisen Condensation Reaction Reactants 1 and 2 and Products 1 2 Note Carboxylic Acids Derivatives lntramolecular Claisen Condensation Dieckmann Cyclization Reactants 1 EtOCOCH24COOEt or EtOCOCH25COOEt 2 Na Oet and Ethanol Products 1 mEtOCOcyclopentanone 2 HOEt Note 1 16diester results in 5membered cyclic 3keto ester 2 17diester results in 6membered cyclic 3keto ester Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines Stork Reaction Reactants 1 CCRNR2 2 CCCOR 3 1 Mix in THF solvent 2 H3O Products 1 RCOC2CH2COR Preparation of Alkynes Dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihalides Reactants Solvent 1or 2 Products Reactions of Alkynesz Conversion Conversion into Acetylide Anions Reactants 1 Terminal alkyne 2 NaNH2 Solvent 1 NH3 Products 1 Alkyne anion Sodium ion 2 NH3 Stereochemistry 1 Syn Reactions of Alkynes Addition of X2 Step 1 Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Step 2 Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Products 1 Reactions of Alkynesz Hydration Hydroboration oxidation Step 1 Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 2 lntermediates 1 Products Reactions of Alkynesz Reduction Reduction via Catalyst Reactants 1 Alkyne 2 2 H2 Solvent 1 Pd or 2 Ni or 3 Pt Products 1 Alkane Stereochemistry 1 Syn Reactions of Alkynesz Reduction Lindlar Reduction Reactants 1 Alkyne 2 H2 Solvent 1 Lindlar catalyst Products 1 Cis Alkene Stereochemistry 1 Syn Reactions of Alkynes Oxidative Cleavage Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes Reactants 1 internal alkyne or terminal alkyne 2 KMnO4 or 03 Products 1 Internal Carboxylic acid 2 Terminal CO2 Preparation of Alkenes 81 Dehalogenation Reactants 1 2 Products 1 Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Halogenation by radicals Reactants 1 Br2 2 hv light 3 alkane Intermediates 1 Br radical Products 1 Bromoalkane Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Halogenation Reactants 1 HBr 2 Alkene Intermediates 1 Cyclic halonium ion Products 1 Alkyl halide Stereochemistry 1 Anti Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Hydration Reactants 1 2 3 Solvent 1 Intermediates 1 Products 1 Regiochemistry 1 Notes 1 Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Hydration Reactants 1 H20 2 H2304 3 Alkene Solvent 1 Heat Intermediates 1 Carbocation Products 1 Alcohol Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Notes 1 Reaction conditions are too severe for most molecules Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Oxymercuration Reactants 1 HgOAc2 2 H20 3 alkene Solvent 1 THF Intermediate 1 1 Mercurinium ion add H2O Intermediate 2 1 Organomercury compound Step 2 1 Cleaved by NaBH4 sodium borohydride Products 1 Alcohol Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov for OH Notes 1 The hydrogen that replaces the mercurinium ion can attach from either side depending on the exact circumstances Important because Borohydration always adds the hydrogen cis to the hydroxide Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Reduction of Alkenes via Catalyst Reactants 1 Alkene 2 H2 3 Pt or 4 Pd or 5 Ni or Products 1 Alkane Stereochemistry 1 Syn Notes 1 The reaction is sensitive to the steric environment around the double bond 2 Alkenes are much more reactive than other functional groups Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 PeroxyacidEpoxidation Reactants 1 Peroxyacid RCO3H 2 Alkene 3 Strong acid Products 1 Epoxide Stereochemistry 1 Syn Notes 1 Single step no intermediate 2 Donated oxygen is the one farthest from the carbonyl group on the peroxyacid performing the donation Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 HalohydrinEpoxidation Reactants 1 Alkene 2 Halohydrin 3 Strong base Products 1 Epoxide Stereochemistry 1 Anti Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov for OH Notes 1 Same pathway as halonium ion except base takes away the halide Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 AcidHyd roxylation Reactants 1 Epoxide ring 2 Hydronium 3 Alkene Products 1 trans 12 dialcohol or diol or glycol all same thing 2 Regenerated acid Stereochemistry 1 anti acid goes to bottom of epoxide ring Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 OsmiumHydroxylation Reactants 10504 2 Alkene Solvent 1 Pyridine Intermediate 1 Cyclic osmate Step 2 Cleaved by 1 NMO or 2 H20 and NaHSO3 sodium bisul te Products 1 cis glycol Stereochemistry 1 Syn Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Ozonolysis Cleavage Reduction Reactants 1 Alkene 203 ozone Intermediate 1 1 molozonide rearranges to Intermediate 2 1 ozonide Step 2 1 ozonide cleaved by gtgt A Zn metal in acetic acid or in water gtgt B CH32S Products 1 A Ketone or gtgt B Aldehyde Notes fragment rules apply 1 Tetra substituted double bond 2 ketones 2 Tri substituted double bond 1 ketone 1 aldehyde 3 Di substituted double bond 2 aldehydes Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Ozonolysis Cleavage Oxidation Reactants 1 2 Intermediate 1 1 Intermediate 2 gtgt B Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Ozonolysis Cleavage Oxidation Reactants 1 Alkene 203 ozone Intermediate 1 1 molozonide rearranges to Intermediate 2 1 ozonide Step 2 1 ozonide cleaved by H202 and OH Products 1 A Ketone or gtgt B Carboxylic acid Notes fragment rules apply 1 Tetra substituted double bond 2 ketones 2 Tri substituted double bond 1 ketone 1 Carboxylic acid 3 Di substituted double bond 2 Carboxylic acids Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Potassium Permanganate Cleavage Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Products Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Potassium Permanganate Cleavage Reactants 1 Alkene 2 KMnO4 Solvent 1 Neutral or acidic solution Products 1 Carbonyl fragments Notes fragment rules apply 1 Tetrasubstituted two ketones 2 trisubstituted ketone and carboxylic acid 3 disubstituted two carboxylic acids 4 monosubstitued carboxylic acid and CO2 5 no substitution two CO2 s Addition Reaction of Alkenes 82 86 Nonhalogenated Carbenes SimmonsSmith Reactants 1 dihalide ex diiodomethane 2 ZnCu Intermediate 1 Carbenoid meta compexed reagent Step 2 1 Carbenoid and alkene react Products 1 nonhalogenated cyclopropane Aldehydes and Ketones Preparation of Aldehydes From Primary Alcohol Reactants 1 Primary Alcohol 2 DessMartin Periodinane or 3 PCC Solvent 1 CHZCIZ Products 1 Aldehyde Aldehydes and Ketones Preparation of Aldehydes From Carboxylic acid Reactants 1 Carboxylic acid derivative acid chloride ester etc 2 DIBAH Diisobutylaluminum hydride toluene Solvent 1 H3O Products 1 Aldehyde Aldehydes and Ketones Preparation of Ketones From Acid Chloride Reactants 1 Carboxylic acid derivative acid chloride 2 1 Gilman reagent ether Products 1 Ketone Aldehydes and Ketones Preparation of Carboxylic acid Oxidation of Ketone Reactants 1 Ketone 2 1 KMnO4 H20 NaOH 2 H3O Products 1 Hexanedioic acid Open chain alkane with terminal Carboxylic acids at both ends Aldehydes and Ketones Nucleophilic Addition More ReactiveNegatively Charged Nucleophiles 0000 P9 39 5 Less ReactiveNeutral Nucleophiles 1 2 3 4 Aldehydes and Ketones Cyanohydrin Formation Reactants 1 or 2 1or 2 Products 1 Note 1 2 3 Aldehydes and Ketones Cyanohydrin Reduction Formation of Amines Reactants 1 2 1 and 2 Products 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Cyanohydrin Reduction Formation of Amines Reactants 1 Cyanohydrin 2 1 LiAH4 THF 2 H20 Products 1 Primary amine RNH2 Aldehydes and Ketones Alcohol Formation Addition of Grignard Reagents RMgX Reactants Aldehydes and Ketones Alcohol Formation Addition of Grignard Reagents RMgX Reactants 1 Formaldehyde Aldehyde Ketone 2 1 RMgX and ether 2 H3O Products 1 Primary secondary and tertiary alcohols Note 1 Irreversible because it would require expulsion of a terrible leaving group Aldehydes and Ketones Formation of Enamines Reactants 1 or 2 and Products 1 Note 1 Aldehydes and Ketones KetalAcetal Formation Reactants 1or 2or Solvent 1 Products 1 Note 1 2 Aldehydes and Ketones Acetal Protection Step 1 Reactants 1 or 2 3 Intermediates 1 Step 2 1 Step 3 1 Products 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Preparation of Ketones From Aldehydes via Thioacetal Reactants Intermediate 1 2 and Products 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Preparation of Ketones From Formaldehyde via Thioacetal Step 1 Intermediate 1 Step 2 1 2 3 and Products 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Ketone reduction Thioketal formation Step 1 Reactants Intermediate 1 2 Step 2 Reactants 1 2 Products 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Wittig Reaction Step1 Reactants 1 2 Intermediates 1 2 and Products 1 Step2 Reactants 1 or 2 and Intermediates 1 Intermediates 1 Products 1 2 Aldehydes and Ketones HornerEmmonsWadsworth Modi cation Step 1 Reactants 1 or 2 Intermediate 1 Step 2 Reactants 1 1 2 or Products 1 Note 1 Aldehydes and Ketones HornerEmmonsWadsworth Modi cation Step 1 Reactants 1 oihaloester or oihaloketone 2 Trialkoxyphosphine POCH33 Intermediate 1 oL phosphonoester Step 2 Reactants 1 1 Strong base gtgt 2 Aldehyde or ketone Products 1 oLB unsaturated carbonyl Note 1 Almost always E isomer Aldehydes and Ketones Canizzaro Reaction Disproportionation Reaction Reactants 1 2 Aldehydes 2 1 NaOH H20 2 H3O Products 1 Carboxylic acid 2 Primary alcohol Note 1 Only possible for aldehvdes that do not have oihydrogens 2 Occurs only in concentrated OH solutions Aldehydes and Ketones Conjugate Additions to aBunsaturated aldehydes and ketones Amines Reactants 1 oL3unsaturated ketones not aldehydes 2 R NH2 Products 1 13 carbonyl amine Note 1 Does not form an imine or enamine Aldehydes and Ketones Conjugate Additions to aBunsaturated aldehydes and ketones Diorganocopper Gilman Reactants 1 not 2 1 and Products 1 Note 1 2 Aldehydes and Ketones Conjugate Additions to oLBunsaturated aldehydes and ketones Diorganocopper Gilman Reactants 1 oLBunsaturated ketones not aldehydes 2 1 R 2CuLi and ether 2 H3O Products 1 13 carbonyl alkyl R Note 1 primary secondary tertiary alkenyl and aryl are great 2 Alkynyl does not work well Amino Acids lr plophtm pl1unyla1I1inc l39cinc nonpolar polar acidic basic aline serim aspm tic aci d l1ist idim isolcucinc th reoninc glutnmic acid argininc proline t3939stvim lysiuw methionine t39rosinc alanine lutmnine leucine asparaginc just in case Polar side groups are hydrophilic and will turn to face an aqueous solution such as cytosol Nonpolar side groups are hydrophobic and will turn away from an aque ous solution These characteristics affect a protein39s tertiary structure Although we often draw an amino acid as it as anizkel39 that the MCAT a quite you to know Into wl zCh category that an amino ac c nowever here are the amfr listed under their specific as Glvcine Structure Cloc H3N C H H 1 letter G 3 letter Gly R Group pKa NA Requirement Nonessential Other 1 Not chiral only optically inactive AA 2 Aliphatic Alanine Structure COO I H3N Cl H CH3 1 letter A 3 letter Ala R Group pKa NA Requirement Nonessential Other 1 Aliphatic Valine Structure Coo I H3N C H CH 1etter V CH3 CH3 3 letter Val R Group pKa NA Requirement Essential Other 1 Aliphatic 2 nonpolar Leucine Structure cloo H3N C H E 39 1 letter L CH3 CH3 3 letter Leu R Group pKa NA Requirement Essential Other 1 Aliphatic lsoleucine COO I CH2 I CH3 Structure 1 letter I 3 letter e R Group pKa NA Requirement Essential Other 1 Aliphatic 2 Two chiral carbons two sets enantiomers lsoleucine Alloisoleucine Phenylalanine Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other 1 2 Tyrosine Structure H3N C H CH2 I 1 letter Y 3 letter Tyr R Group pKa 105 Requirement Nonessential Other 1 Aromatic R group Phenol 2 OD 280 nm oH Tryptophan Structure 00quot H3N C H I 1 letter W 3 letter Trp R Group pKa NA Requirement Essential Other 1 Aromatic R group lndole group 2 OD 280 nm Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other Cysteine Cysteine Structure coo I H3 N c H Cw 1 letter C SH 3 letter Cys R Group pKa 84 Requirement Nonessential Other 1 Sulfur R group 2 Two cysteine side chains can be cross inked by forming a disulfide bridge CH2 S SCH2 via oxidation loss of an electron 3 Disul de bridges may stabilize the three dimensional structures of proteins 4 ONLY AA WHOSE SIDE CHAIN CAN FORM COVALENT BONDS Methionine Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other 1 Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other 1 2 Serine Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other 1 2 Threonine Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other Glutamate Histidine Structure coo H3NjCN H CH2 C NH CH 1 letter H C N 3 letter His R Group pKa 60 Requirement Essential Other 1 Basic R group 2 Imidazole side chain Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other Arginine Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other 1 2 Glutamine Structure 1 letter 3 letter R Group pKa Requirement Other 1 2 Asparagine Alcohols and Phenols Reducing Agents NaBH4 1 Does not interfere with other functional groups outside of ketones and aldehydes LiAH4 1 Does not reduce double bonds namely alkenes outside of aldehydes ketones carboxylic acids and esters Alcohols and Phenols Reduction of Esters Step 1 Reactants 1 or 2 Solvents 1 2 39 Step 2 Reactants 1 Products Alcohols and Phenols Grignard addition to Formaldehyde Step 1 Reactants gtgt 1 Formaldehyde gtgt 2 R MgBr Solvents 1Ether Step 2 Reactants gtgt 1 H3O Products 1 Primary alcohol 2 Stereochemistry Alcohols and Phenols Grignard addition to Ester Step 1 Reactants 1 2 Solvents 1 39 Step 2 Reactants 1 Products Alcohols and Phenols Grignard addition to Carboxylic acids Step 1 1 Alcohols and Phenols Alkyl Halides from Tertiary Alcohols Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Temperature 1 Products 1 Regiochemistry 1 Notes 1 2 Alcohols and Phenols Alkyl Halides from Tertiary Alcohols Reactants 1 Tertiary alcohol 2 HX gas Solvent 1 Ether Temperature 1 0 C Products 1 Tertiary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Notes 1 Reactivity order 3 gt 2 gt 1 2 Via an SN1 reaction Alcohols and Phenols Alkyl Halides from Primary amp Secondary Alcohols Part I Reactants 1 Primary or secondary alcohol 2 SOCIZ Thionyl chloride Solvent 1 Pyridine or 2 Et3N Intermediates 1 Chlorosul te Products 1 Primary or secondary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Notes 1 Via an SN2 reaction Alcohols and Phenols Alkyl Halides from Primary amp Secondary Alcohols Part II Reactants 1 Primary or secondary alcohol 2 PBr3Phosphorous tribromide Solvent 1 Ether Intermediates 1 Dibromophosphite Temperature 1 35 C Products 1 Primary or secondary alkyl halide Regiochemistry 1 Markovnikov Notes 1 Via an SN2 reaction Alcohols and Phenols Conversion of alcohols to Tosylates Step 1 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Solvent gtgt 1 Step2 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Product Alcohols and Phenols Reactions of alcohols Dehydration Reactants 1 2 Solvent 1 Intermediates Alcohols and Phenols Oxidation Primary Alcohol Reactants 1 2 or 3 or 4or 5 Products Alcohols and Phenols Oxidation Primary Alcohols Reactants 1 Primary alcohol 2 Dess Martin periodinane or 3 PCC Solvent 1 CHZCIZ Products 1 Aldehyde Alcohols and Phenols Oxidation Secondary Alcohols Reactants Solvent 1 Products 1 Alcohols and Phenols Oxidation of Phenols Reactants Solvent 1 Products 1 Alcohols and Phenols Redox of Benzoquinone Reactants Products 1 Alcohols and Phenols Protection of Alcohols Reactants 1 2 Intermediate 1 Solvent 1 Products 0 Z 0 Fl D Chapter 16 Chemistry of Benzene Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Bromination 161 Reactants Products 1 2 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Chlorination 162 Reactants Products 1 2 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution lodination 162 Step 1 Reactants 1 2 Products 1 2 Step 2 Reactants 1 2 3 Intermediate 1 Products 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Nitration 162 Step 1 Reactants 1 2 Products 1 2 Step 2 Reactants 1 2 Intermediate 1 Products 1 2 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Sulfonation 162 Step 1 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Products gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Step2 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Intermediate gtgt 1 Products gtgt 1 Note Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Friede Crafts Reaction Alkylation 162 Step 1 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Products gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Step 2 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 gtgt 3 Intermediate gtgt 1 Products gtgt 1 gtgt 2 gtgt 3 Note Several limitations gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Can39t occur on aromatic that is already substituted by either A B Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Friede Crafts Reaction Alkylation 162 Step 1 Reactants 1 RCI Alkyl chloride primary secondary or tertiary gtgt 2 AICI3 Products 1 Carbocation gtgt 2 AICI4 Step 2 Reactants 1 Benzene 2 Carbocation may undergo rearrangement gtgt 3 AICI4 Intermediate 1 Carbocation attacked by AC439 Products 1 Alkylbenzene gtgt 2 HCI gtgt 3 AICI3 Note Several limitations gtgt 1 Only alkyl halides can be used aromatic aryl and vinylic alkenyl can not you CAN use allylic 2 Can39t occur on aromatic that is already substituted by either A Strongly eectron withdrawing group NR3 NO2 CN SO3H CHO COCH3 COZH gRaBiIlt3Szmino group that can be protonated NH2 NHR NR2 NO NITROGEN CONTAINING 3 Polyalkylation gtgt 4 Skeletal rearrangement can be slowed in low temperatures but never stopped Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Friede Crafts Reaction Acylation 162 Step 1 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Products gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Step 2 Reactants gtgt 1 gtgt 2 gtgt 3 Intermediate gtgt 1 Products gtgt 1 gtgt 2 gtgt 3 Note Several limitations gtgt 1 gtgt 2 Like alkyl can39t occur on aromatic that is already substituted by either A B C Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Friede Crafts Reaction Acylation 162 Step 1 Reactants 1 RCOCI Carboxylic acid chloride gtgt 2 AICI3 Products 1 Acyl cation double or triple bonded gtgt 2 AICI4 Step 2 Reactants 1 Acyl cation gtgt 2 AICI4 3 Benzene Intermediate 1 Carbocation attacked by AC439 Products 1 Acetophenone gtgt 2 HCI gtgt 3 AICI3 Note Several limitations gtgt 1 Unlike alkyls acylation can use phenyl and alkenyl gtgt 2 Like alkyl can39t occur on aromatic that is already substituted by either A Strongly eectron withdrawing group carbonyl B Basic amino group that can be protonated C NquotR3 NO2 CN SO3H CHO COCH3 COZH NH2 NHR NR2 NO NITROGEN CONTAINING GROUPS 3 Unlike alkyls no polyalkylation gtgt 4 Unlike alkyls no skeletal rearragement because the acyl cation is stabilized by resonance Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reduction of aromatic nitro groups 162 Reactants 1 2 Products 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reduction of aromatic nitro groups 162 Reactants 1 Nitrobenzene 21 FeH3O2OH39 Products 1 Aniline Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reduction of aromatic nitro groups 162 Reactants 1 2 Products 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Metadirecting deactivators 164 1 0000000 9 9 Squot39P9 quot Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Preparation of Phenol Reactants 1 Isopropyl phenol 2 02 heat Intermediates 1 Hydrogenperoxidephenol add H3O Products 1 Phenol 2 Acetone Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Benzyne Reacta nts Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Oxidation of alkyl side chains169 Reactants 1 Alkyl Benzene Solvent 1 KMnO4 in H20 Products 1 Carboxyl group substituted aromatic ring Note 1 Only occurs on benzylic hydrogens and thus no mixture of products is given Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Catalytic Hydrogenation of Aromatic Rings Using more efficient catalysts ie Rhodium Reactants 1 Benzene 2 H2 3 RhEtOH Solvent 1 Ethanol Environment 1 1 atm 2 25 C Products 1 Cyclohexane Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reduction of Aryl Alkyl Ketones Reactants 1 2 Solvent 0 d E Continuity of uids o a Volume ow rate constant 0 b Mass ow rate constant Ideal uids 0 00000 PPPP Density 0 a p O b pH20 O C 10m H20 Pressure 0 a P 0 b P 0 C AP 0 d Gauge pressure 0 e Absolute pressure Specific Gravity 0 a SG 0 b SG Buoyant Force a FB a FB c The volume of the uid displaced d Apparent weight e Apparent weight loss f Apparent weight equation 0 g Bernoulli39s Principle 0 a K h o b Multiply by volume 0 c Divide by specific weight Fluid in Motion OOOOOO 0 a Random Translational Motion think o b Uniform Translational Motion shared by all molecules in a given not and does Poiseuille s Law 0 a Q o b Used for O 0 Pendulums 0 Pitch 0 Beats 0 O O 0 Decibels O O O O O I 4 I 5 b All periods of SHM to ex c All periods of SHM to ex a Period is independent b Period is independent c T a a When two are at some time at others b Describes c Period T d Beats a dB b Decibels represent c Factor d Or intensity e That is if goes up by a factor of then goes down by a factor of and thus decreases by Doppler Effect 0 O O a f 0 I Distance J I Distance 1 b Independent c Use this equation when factoring in Doppler Effect simplified O O a c Note c velocity of wave is probably but not necessarily I 1 Light equal to the speed oflight 3 X108 ms I 2 Sound equal to the speed of sound 340 ms d Note 1 then the Z and the Z for the e Effect on light I Moving closer I Moving away Doppler Effect Light 0 f Note the moving towards at a certain will create a of then the exact opposite a I 1 I 2 0 b Doppler Effect Light vs Sound 0 a Medium I 1 Sound a medium I 2 Light a medium 0 b Sourceobserver I 1 Sound observer moving towards a source experiences an in sound observer experiences in sound if source moves toward him I 2 Light of the source and observer Electrostatics and Magnetism Electric Field E o a o b Units or Electric Field Lines 0 a Lines of force 0 b Closely spaced 0 c Lines can never 0 d Equipotential surfaces represent Electric Field Electric Dipoles 0 a Created by with o b Points in the direction 0 c Electric Dipole Moment 0 d Net force inside a capacitor Electric Fields Due to a Point Charge It39s gradually dissipating like the heat from a camp fire in a field 0 1 E q at a Distance r I a E I b Units or I c The created electric field is I d Nearby point charge I e Distant point charge 0 2 F Force Coulomb39s Law I a F I b Definition I c Units 0 3 V Point Charge Electric Potential I a V I b Units o 4 U Point Charge Electrical Potential Energy U I a I b Units I c Change in PE electrostatic force conservative work final initial 10 Constant Electric Fields It39s a set thing between two points like a heating blanket o 1 Special Case If a charge is shot up from an electric field and accelerates back down I a V I b Downward acceleration o 2 F Force On a Charge I a F I b Units 0 3 V Electric Potential I a V I b Units 0 4 U Electrical Potential Energy I a U I b U I c Units I d Change in PE electrostatic force conservative work final initial Disturbance in an Electromagnetic Field 0 a Electric Fields Point Charge and Magnetism 0 a A stationary point charge create a magnetic field 0 b A stationary point charge a conservative electric field Electric vs Magnetic 0 a Electric fields do not exist the but originate and terminate on its 0 b Magnetic fields terminate and thus and exist in the material Magnetic Field 0 a Changing a magnetic field creates a o b Constant magnetic field Magnetic Fields Creating Electric Fields by Changing o a of magnetic field 0 b rather than of magnetic field 0 c of a in a magnetic field 0 d of the coil Magnetic Field Direction 0 a Runs from north south to south north Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule for Magnetic Force 0 a Right Hand Rule Put right side of in the direction of bend fingers towards and keep thumb straight up for 10 13 39 1 B11 I 2 AL of 39 3 Mo Of Magnetic Fields Long Wires 0 a Magnetic field decreases with the from the wire for wires b If doubles the magnetic doubles c If the from the doubles the magnetic halves d B 0 e Units Magnetic Fields Short Wires 0 b Short wires magnetic field decreases with the of the from the wire Magnetic Field Force On a CurrentCarrying Wire 0 a F Magnetic Field Force On a CurrentCarrying Wire Derived o a Drift speed of electrons 39 1 Velectron I 2 At 0 b Amount of charge that ows through the wire in this time I 1 q o c Thus I 1 F I 2 Cancel V Magnetic Field Forces Between CurrentCarrying Wires OOO 0 a F 0 b F 0 c Force is the wire 0 d Wires with currents one another and Vice versa Magnetic Field Magnetic Field Produced by a Circular Loop of Radius R and of N Turns 0 a B 0 b B proportional to the in the loop 0 c B proportional to the of the loop 0 d Attraction loops with currents o e Repulsion loops with currents Magnetic Field Torque Exerted on a Rectangular Loop of Area A o a 1 o b 6 angle between the of the and the magnetic not magnetic exerted on each side of the o c 6 angle between the and the magnetic not the magnetic 0 d 6 max when is zero when to plane of the loop 0 e Units 13 16 Resistance 0hm s Law 0 a V o b Voltage V Resistors in Series 0 a o b Diagram 0 c Components and any two components 0 d The resistor in j with the lowest will have the lowest o e Usually resistors in will generate power than resistors in Resistors in Parallel o a o b Diagram 0 c Single components by a j and take connecting them to the 0 d Adding to will 0 e Resistors in parallel will all experience the same 0 f The resistor with the resistance will have the greatest ie ows in the path of j and thus the greatest o g Usually resistors in will generate power than resistors in Resistors Parallel vs Series 0 1 Voltage Drop I a Series I b Parallel 0 2 Current I a Series I b Parallel Capacitor o a Used to 0 b It stores it in the form of 0 c Current only ows through the capacitor when it is or Capacitance 0 a The ability to store per ie something with can store a lot of at low 0 b C o c C V Q Capacitors in Series 0 a Capacitors in Parallel o a Capacitor Electrical Energy Stored o a WPE o b WPE o c WPE 16 19 o a Transformers Current and Voltage Relation o a Transformers Summary 0 a If a transformer increases by X it decreases by X Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves Electric Field Strength Constant 80 0 an 0 b Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic Field Strength Constant M0 0 a Mo Electromagnetic Waves Electric Field Energy Density 0 a LIE Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic Field Energy Density 0 a U3 Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Energy Density 0 a u Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Average Energy Density 0 3 UEav j 0 UBav j o c uav o d Because sinusoidally behaving waves have an average of you have to use velocities Electromagnetic Waves RMS Stuff 0 a Ems or 0 bBrms0l Electromagnetic Waves Intensity 0 a I Z 0 b Iavg Z 0 C Iavg Z 0 C Iavg 1 Electromagnetic Waves Momentum 0 a p 0 b U 1 Electromagnetic Waves Radiation Pressure 0 a Pressureavg Electromagnetic Waves Transmitted Intensity for a Polarized Beam Law of Malus 0 a I Z 0 b 6 Intensity unchanged 0 c 6 Intensity is zero 19 22 I 1 Positive Z for the lens for the mirror I 2 Negative Z for the lens for the mirror 0 d The image distanceZ I 1 Positive Z for the lens e for the mirror I 2 Negative Z for the lens for the mirror Lateral Magnification o a The ratio of theZ to theZ ratio of theZ of theZ from the mirrorlens to the Z of the Z from the mirrorlens o o c Proportional o d Upright image m o e Inverted image m Lateral Magnification of Two Lens 0 a Power of a Lens 0 a Pi 0 b Pa 0 C o d Measured in Z Z 0 e Increase in Z decrease in Power of a Two Lens System 0 a Lens Maker Equation 0 a O 1 I11 o c ns 0 Cl 1391 o e r2 Angular Magnification o a O Focal Point 0 a Where light o b Affected by the of BOTH the and the surrounding the Focal Length o a Distance betweenZand the Z 0 b Plane mirrorZ Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror 0 a o b For a spherical mirror the focal length is Z 0 c Plane mirror rules still apply I 1 virtual images only behind I 2 Real images only in front Lens 77 Mass of One Electron 0 a Avogadro s Number 0 a Farad o a Magnetic Field of the Surface of the Earth 0 a Gravitation acceleration o a Tesla o a Velocity of Sound 0 a Index of Refraction for Air 0 a Index of Refraction for Water 0 a Index of Refraction for Glass 0 a Visible Light Spectrum 0 a Wavelength of Violet Light 0 a 0 b 0 c Wavelength of Red Light 0 a 0 b 0 c Cos and Sin 0 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 30 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 45 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 60 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 90 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 180 26 76 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 Time 1205307 2294103 130O000 1534900 1333201 1315801 1333506 130O000 113258 129142 120121 1O9466 115226 129OO1 123138 Score ofX s n a 82 76 68 14 r I tOwN toor tNOO 29 79 Physics MCAT Formula Memorization Periods Spring force work 0 a F kx o b WPE 5kx2 o c T 27 sqrtmk I 1 Cutting a spring in half doubles its spring constant I 2 Thus 05k 07T Surface gravity Waves Shallow Water o a In shallow water velocity is determined by the medium and not the characteristics of the wave ie independent of wavelength 0 b V sqrtgh Surface gravity Waves Deep Water 0 a In deep water surface wave velocity is determined by the properties of the wave 0 b V sqrtg7 Zat Simple Harmonic Motion Period o a V sqrt Tu T tension u mass per unit length Pendulums o a Period is independent of mass b Period is independent of 6 c T 27 sqrtLg Magnetic Field Circular Motion Period 0 aT27crqB Eguations in Motion Triangle d 1 3quot I450 l quotquot1 30quot F 1 391 393 O Scalar o a Physical quantity with magnitude but no direction 0 b Second When an object is acted upon by a net force the change in that object39s state of motion will be inversely proportional to the mass m and directly proportional to the net force F acting on it o c Third For ever action there is an equal and opposite reaction The third law forces never act on the same system Torque Forces 0 a L1 F1 X 1391 CCW VE 1 L2 F2 X 1392 CW VE c Equilibrium Zfxy 0 d Equilibrium AL O 3 FLforce mgLweight o f Torque force x lever arm Force 0 a F ma Four Fundamental Forces in Nature 0 a Strong nuclear force 0 b Weak nuclear force 0 c Gravitational force 0 d Electromagnetic force I 1 Charged object I 2 Magnetic object Frictional Force OOOO 0 a F MN 0 b us 2 uk always Gravity o a Force Fa Gm1m2r2 0 b Potential energy local U mgh o c Potential energy general U GMmr r arbitrary distance 0 d Note The gravitational force everywhere inside a uniformly dense sphere or ring due to that sphere or ring is zero but any object within that ring can still feel forces from other rings Inclined Planes o a F mgsin6 g N 0 b F mgcos6 N Spring forcework 0 a F kx o b WPE 5kx2 o c T 2n sqrtmk Power P 0 a P AW At 0 b Instantaneous P Fvcos6 o c Units Watts W Work and Energy o g If two balls have the same mass and radius but one is hollow and one is solid the hollow one will have greater rotational inertia Impulse I o a I Ap Amv FAt FaVgAt Elastic Collisions o a PEi PEf o b KEi KEf o c Bodies do not stick together 0 d Momentum is conserved o e V1f m1 m2m1 m2Vo O f V2f 2m1m1 m2Vo g mlvla m2v2a mlvlb m2v2b Inelastic Collisions o a PEi PEf o b Kinetic energy is not conserved due to thermal and sound dissipation o c Bodies stick together temporarily or permanently if completely inelastic o d Momentum is conserved o e Vr m1V1i m2V2im1 m2 Center of Mass 0 a Single body X Zmiximtotal o b Two bodies X m1x1 mzxzm1 mg 0 Air Resistance 0 a Surface area larger surface area increases air resistance because it allows for more collisions with air molecules increase force of air resistance 0 b Shape Streamlined objects with smooth surfaces experience less air resistance than irregularly shaped rough objects increase force of air resistance o c Velocity Increased velocity increased air resistance Special case because increased velocity increases air resistance shooting a bullet in the air will experience an increase in time on the way up due to air resistance that is greater than the increase in time on the way down due to air resistance increase force of air resistance o d E Doesn39t change the force of air resistance but it does change the path of the projectile experiencing the air resistance larger masses experience less deceleration due to air resistance because they are less affected by the same force of air resistance does not increase force of air resistance Continuity of uids o a Volume ow rate constant Q Av o a K P pgh 5pv2 h is an arbitrary distance 0 b Multiply by volume units of energy 0 c Divide by specific weight meters Fluid in Motion 0 a Random Translational Motion contributes to uid pressure at rest think KE 32 RT o b Uniform Translational Motion Shared by all molecules in a given location not time and does not contribute to pressure and does not contribute to KE via 3 2RT Poiseuille s Law 0 a Q pnr48nL n viscosity 0 b Used for real uids not ideal uids Linear Expansion Solids At 0 a L Lo1 oLAt Volume Expansion Solids At 0 a V Vo1 3At o b 3 30 Area Expansion Solids At 0 a X Xo1 yAt Stress o a Stress Forcearea Strain o a Strain Adimension original dimension Modulus of Elasticity o a MoE Stressstrain o b Young39s Modulus E FAAhho tensile resistance eI 0 c Sheer Modulus G FAAxho sheer resistance IJ o d Bulk Modulus B AP Avvo compression I or expansion I Waves and Periodic Motion Waves 0 a Transfer of momentum and energy 0 b Electromagnetic matter and mechanical waves the last of which requires a medium to propagate 0 c Transverse the medium is displaced perpendicularly to the direction of wave propagation ex wave on a string 0 d Longitudinal the medium is displaced parallel to the direction of wave propagation ex sound Constructive Interference o a When two transverse waves occupy the same space and the sum of their displacements results in a greater displacement o b The speed ofthe source ie sound waves coming from a moving jet engine are the same speed as my voice Waves and Changing Mediums 0 a When a wave transfers from one medium to another the wavelength 7 changes and the frequency f stays the same meaning the velocity of the wave can increase or decrease 0 b Upright Re ection wave hits a lighter medium and is re ected back the same way above the line 0 c Inverse Re ection wave hits a heavier medium and is re ected back the same way but reverse upside down or below the line 0 d Refraction change in velocity speed and direction due to a transfer to a new medium 0 e Re ection is a change in direction after rebounding with a new 0 medium Transferring to Denser Media 0 1 Light bends towards the normal Standing Wave Nodes Antinodes o a Nodes Don39t move when two equal waves traveling in opposite directions collide o b Antinodes Do move when two equal waves traveling in opposite directions collides Simple Harmonic Motion Nodes o a L NM2 N 1 2 3 o b For pipes open at both ends or closed at both ends or for strings tied at both ends or loose at both ends where every end is acting as a node 0 c The difference between any two consecutive frequencies must be equal to the first frequency Simple Harmonic Motion Antinodes o a L NM4 N 1 3 5 0 b For pipes open at only one end or closed at only one end or for strings tied at only one end or loose at only one end where every end is acting as an antinode o c The difference between frequencies the 2nd 4th etc harmonics don39t exist so you just add the first one twice see problem 712 Simple Harmonic Motion Acceleration 0 a Acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement of the system but opposite in sign 0 b Acceleration and displacement are directly proportional to the square of the frequency 0 c Acceleration at any distance is the product of the displacement and square of the frequency Acceleration Axf2 o d Acceleration period and frequency all related are independent of mass Simple Harmonic Motion Period 11 I 2 Sound equal to the speed of sound 340 ms 0 d c must be much greater than the velocity of the observer and source for the above equations to work 0 e Effect on light I Moving closer appears blue I Moving away appears red 0 f The source moving towards the observer at velocity V will create a greater increased frequency in the observed sound than the observer moving towards the source at velocity V see question 750 Doppler Effect Light 0 a f f1 1 uC I 1 u relative speed I 2 f observed frequency 0 b NA 11 uc Doppler Effect Light vs Sound 0 a Sound requires a medium 0 b Light does not require a medium 0 c Sound observer moving towards a source experiences an increase in sound observer experiences no change in sound if source moves toward him 0 d Light Independent of the source and observer Electrostatics and Magnetism Electric Field E 0 a Electrostatic force per unit charge 0 b Units NC or Vm Electric Field Lines 0 a Lines of force point in the direction of the field originating at positives and terminating on negatives 0 b Closely spaced strong field 0 c Lines can never intersect 0 d Equipotential surfaces represent the same voltage Electric Field Electric Dipoles o a Created by two opposite charges with equal magnitudes o b Points in the opposite direction of the electric field 0 c Electric Dipole Moment p qd 0 d Net force inside a capacitor 0 Electric Fields Due to a Point Charge It39s gradually dissipating like the heat from a camp fire in a field 0 1 E q at a Distance r I a E kqr2 I b Units NC or Vm I c The created electric field is conservative unlike moving magnetic field derived electric fields 11 13 o d Cross sectional area of the coil Magnetic Field Direction 0 a Runs from magnetic north geographic south to magnetic south geographic north Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule for Magnetic Force 0 a Right Hand Rule Put right side of palm in the direction of current bend fingers towards magnetic field and keep thumb straight up for force 0 b c Top view looking o c Direction of Magnetic Field I 1 The direction our fingers are wrapped I 2 Is a wide range of angles I 3 Unlike magnetic field around a wire which has to be perpendicular o d Direction of Force I 1 The direction of our thumb because force is directly perpendicular to both current and magnetic field I 2 A negative charge moving in the same direction will have force but nothing else face the opposite direction of our thumb I 3 A charged particle moving parallel to magnetic field lines experiences no force thus no acceleration and the velocity is constant I 4 No work is ever done only centripetal force Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule for Magnetic Field 0 a Right Hand Rule Grab wire with thumb in direction of current and fingers wrapped around the wire 1392 15 o b Force due to Electric Field F qE o c Force due to Magnetic Field F qvB o d Zero Net Force Movement v E B Magnetic Field Circular Motion o a Centripetal force Fc mv2 r o b Set equal to magnetic field force mv2r q VB 0 c Radius of circular orbit r mv q B o d Implications of radius I 1 Increases directly proportionally with 1 velocity and 2 mass I 2 Increases inversely proportionally with 1 charge of the particle and 2 strength of the magnetic field Magnetic Field Circular Motion Period 0 aT2nrqB Magnetic Field Ampere s Law o a Relates the magnetic field along a closed path to the electric current enclosed by the path o b Calculated ZBHAL uolenclosed I 1 B11 Parallel magnetic field I 2 AL straight line segments of path I 3 uo permeability of free space Magnetic Fields Long Wires o a Magnetic field strength decreases inversely with the distance from the wire for long wires b If current doubles the magnetic field doubles c If the distance from the wire doubles the magnetic field halves d B ttol23131 o e Units Tesla T Magnetic Fields Short Wires o b Short wires magnetic field strength decreases inversely with the square of the distance from the wire Magnetic Field Force On a CurrentCarrying Wire 0 a F iLBsin6 Magnetic Field Force On a CurrentCarrying Wire Derived o a Drift speed of electrons I 1 Velectron LAt I 2 At Lv o b Amount of charge that flows through the wire in this time I 1 q IAt ILv o c Thus I 1 F qvBsin6 ILvvB sin6 I 2 Cancel v Magnetic Field Forces Between CurrentCarrying Wires 0 a F l2LB l2LMol123131 O b F M011122J39l3dL OOO 139 17 I a Cyclical pathway for moving charge o 2 Conductor I a Allow electrons to move freely o 3 Resistor I a Try to hold electrons in place 0 4 Battery I a Adds energy to a circuit by increasing the voltage from one point to another o 5 Capacitor I a Used to temporarily store energy in a circuit 0 6 Symbols Circuit 0 a Cyclical pathway for moving charge o b Conducts current 0 c Because it moves charge it creates a magnetic field Drift Velocity o a When current goes through a wire all free electrons drift in the opposite direction with a velocity of 1039 cm s o b In a conductor electron movement is similar to gas molecules in air Battery o a Adds energy to a circuit by increasing the voltage from one point to another o b Real batteries have internal resistance probably not on the MCAT o c To account for internal resistance draw a battery and put a resistor of equal resistance behind or in front of it o d Internal resistance is proportional to current Kirchhoff s First Law o a The amount of charge owing into a node an intersection of wires must be the same amount that is owing out o b Xi 0 at a node Kirchhoff s Second Law 0 a Second the voltage around any path in a circuit must sum to zero o b The voltage between two points in a circuit is independent of the path chosen to measure it o c EAV 0 in a circuit Current Direct Current DC Circuits o a Electrons moving in one direction Current RMS voltage and current AC circuits 17 19 o d The resistor in series with the lowest resistance will have the smallest power o e Usually resistors in series will generate less power than resistors in parallel Resistors in Parallel o a 1Req 1R1 1R2 1R3 b c Single components are separated by a node and take alternate paths connecting them to the same node o d Adding more resistors in parallel decreases resistance because of V iR and V is not changing i will increase and so will power o e Resistors in parallel will all experience the same voltage drop problem 817 o f The resistor with the lowest resistance will have the greatest current ie current ows in the path of least resistance and thus the greatest power o g Usually resistors in parallel will generate more power than resistors in series Resistors Parallel vs Series o 1 Voltage Drop I a Series proportional I b Parallel equal o 2 Current I a Series equal I b Parallel proportional Capacitor o a Used to temporarily store energy in a circuit o b It stores it in the form of separated charge o c Current only ows through the capacitor when it is charging or discharging Capacitance o a The ability to store charge per unit Voltage ie something with high capacity can store a lot of charge at low Voltage 0 b C QV o c C capacitance V voltage Q charge Capacitors in Series 0 a 1Ceq 1C1 1C2 1C3 Capacitors in Parallel O aCeqC1C2C3 Capacitor Electrical Energy Stored o a WPE 5QV o b WPE 5CV2 O O 10 I J lF g 5 V Solution for Solution for voltage 1 ET Induced EMF Magnetic Flux o a CI BAcos6 5 252 39gt Ftuivalenl circuit o b 1 Max B perpendicular to surface 0 c 1 zero B parallel to surface 0 d Unit 1 Wb Induced EMF Faraday s Law of Induction O 3 5 39NAIbAt 39NIfinal 39 Dinitial tfinal 39 tinitial 21 I Equivalent circuit I39 V 1 V I 39l In 39 l Simplified ci rcu it o b Negative sign induced emf opposed magnetic ux o c That is the induced electric field due to a moving magnetic field is due to ux o d Induced electric field is directly proportional to the rate of change of ux o e Problem 880 a bar moves at constant velocity thus the area of the loop increases at a constant rate and thus ux increases at a constant rate thus current is constant with time Induced EMF Faraday s Law of Induction Magnitude of Induced EMF 0 3 5 39NIfinal Dinitial tfinal 39 tinitial Induced EMF Motional EMF Rod Moving Along a Circuit Through a Magnetic Field o Created EMF a s NAltIgtAt BvlAtAt Bvl I b Because ACID BAA BvlAt 0 Created Electric Field I asBv 71 23 O a IsIpVpVsNpNs Transformers Summary 0 a If a transformer increases voltage by X it decreases current by X Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves Electric Field Strength Constant 80 o a so 0 b 89 X103912 C2Nm2 Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic Field Strength Constant M0 0 a Mo 41 X 1O397 TmA Electromagnetic Waves Electric Field Energy Density 0 a LIE 058oE2 Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic Field Energy Density 0 a LIB O5B2Mo Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Energy Density 0 a u us u O5soE2 O5B2no Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Average Energy Density 0 a LlEav 058oE2RMs O b UBav BZRMS2 Mo 0 C Uav UEav UBav o d Because sinusoidally behaving waves have an average of zero you have to use RMS velocities Electromagnetic Waves RMS Stuff 0 a Ems Emaxsqrt2 or Emax sqrt2Erms o b Brms Bmaxsqrt2 or Bmax sqrt2Brms Electromagnetic Waves Intensity o a I B2 cZuo O5csoE2 O b lavg CSOEZRMS o c Iavg CBZRMSM0 0 c Iavg Poweravg Area Electromagnetic Waves Momentum 0 a p U c o b U total energy absorbed average electromagnetic wave energy area speed of light time elapsed uav A cAt Electromagnetic Waves Radiation Pressure 0 a Pressureavg IaVg c Electromagnetic Waves Transmitted Intensity for a Polarized Beam Law of Malus o a I Iocos26 o b 6 O intensity unchanged 0 c 6 90 intensity is zero 7392 25 Isotropic Light 0 a Light emanating from a point source in all directions Planepolarized Light 0 a Only one particular electromagnetic field 0 b PPL light has one half the intensity of isotropic light Refraction O a Sin61Sin62 V1V2 N2N1 K1K2 Refraction Wavelength o a Light with longer wavelengths slower frequencies move faster and bend less dramatically with a greater angle at the new media interface 0 b Light with shorter wavelengths faster frequencies move slower and bend more dramatically with a smaller angle at the new media interface 0 c Problem 934 Index of Refraction o a n cv o b The higher the index of refraction is for a new the one the wave is entering medium after refraction the wavelength becomes shorter and because the frequency remains the same the speed of light decreases and vice versa 0 c Light bends towards the normal in a denser media Snell39s Law 0 a N1Sin61 N2Sin62 o b Angle of Incidence 61 is with respect to the perpendicular of the surface between the two media and is equal to the angle of re ection o c Angle of Refraction 62 is with respect to the perpendicular of the surface between the two media 0 d Light will travel from point A to B the fasted in terms of time way possible Total Internal Re ection O a Slnec N2N1 O 1 9c sin391N2N1 0 c Critical Angle 6c is the angle of incidence beyond which total internal re ection occurs 0 d N1 The index of refraction for the medium in which the incident ray is traveling o e Total internal re ection normally occurs when the initial medium has an index of refraction much greater than the second medium Diffraction o a When light enters a small hole the size of the wavelength or smaller it bends outwards 0 b Diffracting waves that undergo constructive interference result in bright bands 739 27 a P 1 f inversely related to focal length b P 2 r inversely related to radius c P 6rN proportional to index of refraction d Measured in diopters m391 o e Increase in power decrease in focal length Power of Two Lens 0 a Peff P1 P2 Lens Maker Equation a 1f nLns 11r1 1r2 b nL index of refraction of lens c ns index of refraction of surroundings d r1 radius of curvature of the surface of the lens facing the object e r2 radius of curvature of the surface of the lens facing opposite the object Angular Magnification O a Mo Bienp o b NP Near point closest and object can be while in focus Focal Point o a Where light focuses o b Affected by the refraction of index of BOTH the lens or mirror and the medium surrounding the lens or mirror Focal Length o a Distance between lens or mirror and the focal point 0 b Plane mirror infinite focal point 0 c Plane mirror rules still apply I 1 virtual images only behind I 2 Real images only in front Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror o a F O5r o b For a spherical mirror the focal length is half of the radius of curvature OOOO O O O O 0 Lens 0 a Concave Z diverging o b Convex C converging Mirror 0 a Concave Z converging o b Convex C diverging PRays o a Will always go parallel strike the glass then go through the focal point ust apply accordingly FRays o a Will always go through the focal point strike the glass then go parallel ust apply accordingly CRays o a Hit it and come straight back 77 29 c Light is re ected by mirrors and refracted by lens towards the focal point d Same side of eye Front for mirrors behind for lens Images and focal points on the same side of the eye will be positive real and inverted EXCEPT when the object is in the focal distance negative virtual and upright e Opposite side of eye Behind for mirrors front for lens images and focal points on the opposite side of the eye will be negative virtual and upright Concave mirror f Concave Mirror Ray Diagram Converging lens e Convex Lens Ray Diagram key 1 photon strike the mirror so that it s path can be traced back through the focal point 2 photon goes through the focal point and re ects off the mirror 3 hits the center of the mirror and re ects off Divergence Convex Mirror Concave Lens 0 O ulWILt t 4 focal b pnznt c Light reflected by mirrors and refracted by lens outward from the focal point d Same side of eye Front for mirrors behind for lens Images and focal points on the same side of the eye will be negative virtual and upright and are smaller than the object The object must be within one focal length of the lens for this to occur 70 0 b Mo 4TEX 1O397TmA Coulomb39s Constant K o a 9x 109 Nm2C2 o b 1C amount of charge in 625 x 1018 protons or electrons Energy of one Photon 0 a E hf joules super small number 0 b E 1240 A in nanometers eV probably whole number could be decimal Charge on One Electron 0 a 16 x 1049 C Energy of One Electron 0 a Ev 16x 1049 Mass of One Electron 0 a 9 X 1031 kg Avogadro s Number 0 a 6022 x 1023 Farad o a 96500 Cmol Magnetic Field of the Surface of the Earth 0 a 5 X 105 T Tesla o a T 104 gauss Gravitation acceleration o a 10 ms2 Velocity of Sound 0 a V 340 m s Index of Refraction for Air 0 a n 1 Index of Refraction for Water 0 a n 13 Index of Refraction for Glass 0 a n 15 Visible Light Spectrum 0 a IR ROYGBIVUV Wavelength of Violet Light 0 a Lambda 400nm o b Higher frequency 0 c By E hf more energy Wavelength of Red Light 0 a Lambda 700nm o b Lower frequency 0 c By E hf less energy Cos and Sin 0 0 a Cos 10 0 b Sin O Cos and Sin 30 o a Cos 085 0 b Sin 05 Cos and Sin 45 o a Cos 07 0 b Sin 07 Cos and Sin 60 o a Cos 05 0 b Sin 085 Cos and Sin 90 o a Cos 0 0 b Sin 1 Cos and Sin 180 0 a Cos 10 0 b Sin O Cos and Sin 270 o a Cos 0 0 b Sin 1 Units Big Nine 0 1 C VF 0 2 C AS 0 3 Nm 0 4Ws 0 5 CV 0 6 F9 0 7 N TAm o 8VAS2 0 9WVA Force 0 a Newton 0 b N kgms2 Viscosity o a n o b n Nsm2 Energy 0 a Ioule I o b I Nm kgm2s2 Power 0 a Watt Q o bWs kgm2s3 Horse Power 0 a HP 756 W 33 392 Milli 0 a m 103 Micro 0 a u 1O396 Nano 0 a n 1O399 Angstrom 0 a A 1039 Pico 0 a p 1O3912 Femto 0 a f 1O3915 35 39239 o B Except for all can form 5 covalent bonds orbitals o C With a can make 6 bonds Group 6A o A Oxygen reacts with metals to form ie o B Oxygen reacts with alkali metals to form ie and ie Group 7A o A Seventh my own interpretation o B Most are o C Like to electrons o D All react with hydrogen to form Gases o A Eighth my own interpretation o B Reactivity o C All at room temperature o D Unlillte all other elements they have electron af nity values MainGroupRepresentative Elements o A Transition Metals o A o B When forming ions lose electrons from subshell rst and then subshell and thus can form multiple eg o C Form solutions Diatomics o A o B o C o D Small atoms o A Tend to be because they can39t Cations o A Tend to be Anions o A Tend to be lsoelectric ions o A Same number of different o B Get with increasing atomic number more to in T o D Ex N204 Physical Reaction o A Maintains the o B EX 4 Chemical Reaction o A changes o B Ex 3 Run to completion o A Moves to the right until the supply of is gone o B Reactions often don39t do this because Limiting Reagent o A o B Ex alcohol on spring break Theoretical Yield o A The amount of product when a reaction Actual Yield o A The amount of product collected Percent Yield o A gtlt lOO percent Reaction types o A Combination o B Decomposition 9 o C Single Displacement 9 o D Double DisplacementMetathesis 9 Bonding in solids Crystalline o A Sharp o B Characteristic with o C Classi ed I l ionic eg I 2 Network covalent eg I 3 Metallic eg I 4 Molecular eg Bonding in solids Amorphous o A No or has a not eg Polymers o A Can be or eg Valence Electrons o A Contribute most to an element39s o B Located in the of an atom o C Most ofthe time but not always only electrons from and subshells are considered valence First Quantum Number o A Designates the o B The greater the quantum number the greater the and ofthe o C For the representative elements the principal quantum number for electrons in the shell is given by the in the periodic table o D For the transition elements the principal quantum number for electron in the is given by the in the periodic table o E For the lanthanides and actinides elements the principal quantum number for electron in the is given by the period in the periodic table Second Quantum Number o A Designates the of a given o B For each new there exists an additional with the Azimuthal quantum number o C Ex n l I subshell n 2 l subshell o D Subshells o E In each subshell there is a chance of nding the electron inside that shape O E Note s subshells are Third Quantum llumber O OOO O A B C E Designates the Each subshell has Egtltln l Egtlt2n2 Egtlt3n3 Fourth Quantum Number O O O A Designates the B ms can have values of can hold up to Pauli Exclusion Principle no occupy the same C If Any different E E Paired Parallel spins Calculations A The number of O O O and p subshells are of a given V ofthe electron in a given Ol they have the same of a given with magnetic quantum numbers from electrons but in the same atom can have the same and thus must have within an atom is equal to of a given to of a given B in each orbital so total is equal to C Number Character Symbol Value QN St O 39239 1 2nd subsheli from zero to n l 3rl Q l i393l Hz 39T 3lV l l Tllquotiil 7 4th spin in 2 or quot5 Eleisenberg Uncertainty Principle A The dual nature of matter says that there is an in the ofthe O O O O O ofa particle and its B That is the more we know about it39s Aufbau Principle A With each new is more stable a B C Electrons are attracted to the nucleus 9 a Because a added to create a and this is on the order of the less we know about it39s anew hasto is added as well will add to the in the them 9 requires the transfer of the system 9 the the electrons the is needed 9 the of the system moves from to as the moves Electron Configuration o A List the and in order from lowest to highest and add a to show the number of in each o B have orbitals and thus with and may occupy either or just remember that don39t always follow the given rules o C An can momentarily and jump to a level creating an atom in an Elundls Rule O A Electrons will not ll up and the Plancllt s Quantum Theory A Electromagnetic energy is O have in the until all in that contain o B Thus and have energy level o C When an emits a it falls an when it a it goes up an ifthe doesn39t have enough the is and the stays in its o D lfa doesn39t have it will never an regardless ofthe of Work Function ltIgt o A The of energy required to an o B ofthe is given by the ofthe minus the Date Time Score of X39s 54I 3 27 I 27 4 57I3 lOO8l 2 59I 3 2442 im so fucking tired 2 o A Same temperature means different molecules in a mixture have the same but because they they have o B Setting the two j equal to each other one can determine the relationship between their more speci cally the ratio o C I l Dependent upon a b o D Pressure vs Time graph effusion rate is the slope o E Graham39s Law provides information about two types of gaseous spreading and Ideal Gases Effusion o A De nition spreading ofa gas from to through an than the between o B Molecules with higher will faster o C Calculated Ideal Gases Diffusion o A Definition the spreading of one gas or o B Diffusion rate is much Zthan jbecause as they o C Calculated Real Gases Facts o A Deviate from when their molecules are o B j o C cause Real Gases Van der Waals Equation A Predicts how real gases deviate from B Calculated C b measure ofthe occupied by a D a of E Values ofa and b usually increase with the jofa gas and jofa gas Real Gases Deviations o A Volume Real gas molecules OOOOO I I gt I 2 is calculated from o B Forces Real gas molecules I I Repulsive when j I 2 Attractive when Z and are thus pulled toward the center ofthe container causing them to lltinda and thus have I 3 is calculated from Real Gases Deviations Explained Even More o A Deviations I l 39 Vreal gt Videal I Preal lt Pideal o B Pressure Prea lt Pidea I I High pressures I 0 atm push gas molecules together causing them to exert weallter outward forces on the container I 2 Low temperatures boiling points cause gas molecules to settle close together and thus exert weallter outward force on the container o C MY THEORY NOT SURE IF TRUE Volume Vrea gt Videa I I Higher pressures I 00 atm push gas molecules so close that the actual volumes begin to touch causing it to resist compression relative to what was predicted I 2 Higher temperatures gtgtgtgtboiling points cause gas molecules to move around so violently they push the container outward farther than what was calculated o D Similarity NOT Deviation I I of real and ideal gas molecules is directly proportional to the temperature 13 o D diagram o E Halflife and o F Pseudo rst order kinetics rst order reaction means only New theory suggests a the rst one but the reaction still Reaction Orders Irreversible Second Order with a Single Reactant o A 9 rate o B Plot results in a straight line with slope o C diagram o D Half life and the ie each is Reaction Orders Irreversible Second Order with Two Reactants o A 9 rate o B Different graph different slope o C Halflife Reaction Orders Irreversible Third Order with a Single Reactant o A9rate o B Plot jresults in a straight line with slope o C Diagram Reaction Orders Graph Comparisons o A Reaction Order rreversibequot o A Initial Rates a technique employed to avoid complications with in the initial moments ofa reaction starting with all and the rate ofthe reverse reaction is Reversible Reactions Rate Determining Step o A Rate determining step lfa complex reaction is separated into elementary steps the rate of determines the rate of the o B Ifthe is the rst step the can be derived directly from and o C Ifthe is other than the rst step the is still the rate determining step steps prior to the slow step o D Steps after the slow step Reversible Reaction Rates First Step RateDetermining Example o I llO2g IlO2g 9 IlO3g IlOg slow step o 2 IlO3g COg 9 IlO2g CO2g fast step o 3 Rate Reversible Reaction Rates Second Step RateDetermining Example o I 2llOg Br2g 9 llOBr2fast step o 2 llOBr2g llOg 9 2llOBrg slow step o 3 Rate o 4 IlOBr2 depends upon if we assume it reaches very quickly IlOBr2 can be written in terms of for step I llOBr2 o 5 Rate o 6 Or we can use Reversible Reaction Rates Equilibrium Approximation o A Equilibrium approximation assumes all steps prior to the rate limiting step o B It requires that the be than the o C Example I I Since the rst step is considered to be set the forward reaction rate equal to the reverse reaction rate and then solve for IlOBr2 I 2 llOBr2 Z 39 3 Rate law rate I 4 o D Ifthere is not a step that is than the others use Reversible Reaction Rates Steady State Approximation o A Steady State Approximation the concentration ofthe is considered to be and it leads to the same result as Catalysis 13 19 o B Thus any energy change to a system must equal the the system plus the system I I Note this convention is where workm the system is 2 lfworllt done by the system were it39d be Second Law of Thermodynamics o A Definition cannot be changed into in a o B Definition 2 ofan will never Third Law of Thermodynamics o A Assigns a to any or at and in o B Entropy change tiny change in per in a Zeroth Law of Thgmodynamics o A Definition Two systems in with a third system are with o B That is two bodies in share a which must be a its called Thermodynamics o A Thermodynamics the study of and its relationship to based on and thus really only works for with and cannot be applied to the indeed it is the opposite of Thermodynamics Division of the Universe o A System under study three types I I Open does their surroundings I 2 Closed does their surroundings I 3 Isolated does their surroundings o B Surroundings everything other than the under study State Functions State Function o A State physical condition ofa system described by a speci c set ofthermodynamic properties o B State Function When a state can be described by 3 properties and is independent of the path of its formation thinlc conservative forces which can also be stated as It can be measured without knowing any of its historyquot I l Note the macroscopic state of any one component uid system in equilibrium can be described by at least 3 properties I must be extensive I 2 lfyou have at least 3 properties all others can be speci ed o E Two Types I l Extensive A Definition proportional to the size ofthe system B lfyou combined two identical systems an extensive property would double C Divide one extensive property by another intensive property D Examples o O O O O O O O 39 U 39gtP I 2 Intensive quack A Definition independent ofthe size ofthe system B lfyou combined two identical systems an intensive property would not change C Examples o l o 2 o 3 o 4 19 O I Heat O O O 21 B Differences in or drive in the direction of like hot air above the beach rising faster than cooler air above the ocean Radiation A efinition thermal energy transfer via it is the only type of heat that transfers B When metal is hot it goes red 9 yellow 9 white 9 blueit s radiating C All objects above radiate heat Power l I I H I Z T I 3 8 value ofto I 4 0 I a Black body radiator I b Dark colors and more less I c Light colors more and less E Emissivity example better to paint your house white reflects more heat in the summer your house is cooler than the environment radiates less heat in winter house is warmer than environment F Rate at which object absorbs radiant heat from its environmeht I I To I 0Q Te 1 G llewton s Law of Cooling the rate of cooling ofa body is to the between and the A efinition any transfer of energy that B Whereas in physics it39s the change to the motion or position of body in chemistry it39s the change in andor of a at I Work PV Work O O O O A Constant pressure times the change in volume B Occurs in a no no C Work is a PV work takes place when a gas against a regardless of whether or not the is I laleat engines O O A Turn a piston on its side to add not and the energy is changed entirelyquot into as against the piston B Not heat is turned into work I I Piston hits a max we have to I 2 The process of pushing it back in I 3 This requires to compress it than was expended to expand it I 4 So we use a to cool the piston I 5 Diagram l I 6 Diagram explained Due to the entering the engine must equal on the engine plus the leaving the engine 0 am I Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied O B lleat engine converts into 71 23 lquotlvcl mnic I b o S lntermoiecular potentiai energy I a Energy created by the between 0 400 I b I Intcrmolltcnlm polvnlial o 6 Rest mass energy I a Energy predicted by l cst nmlts Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics o A etinition Two systems in with a third system are with o B That is two bodies in share a which must be a its called Temperature o A Temperature with an in thermal energy o B Thermal energy the sum of I I I 2 I 3 o C Remember egtlttensiveegtlttensive intensive Temperature Measurements o A Celsius at water freezes at and boils at o B Kelvin lowest possible temperature ever o C Increase of increase of Enthalpy H o A o B At constant pressure o C AlI d at I 2 at I 3 o Enthalpy is not a measurement of some shit s man made o E Enthalpy is not lillte universal enthalpy does not o E Enthalpy is an o G Units o H Note for an enthalpy only depends on Enthalpy Standard States o A Again there are not for enthalpy so scientists made shit up I I I 2 of or o B Element in the above standard state at enthalpy Enthalpy Standard Enthalpy of Formation o A change in enthalpy for the ofa from it39s in their Enthalpy Elleat of Reaction o A Change in enthalpy from to I I H o B Because this is a the to get here o C Endothermic enthalpy change is to the in a reaction o Exothermic enthalpy change is to the in a reaction Enthalpy Hessls Law 72 24 o A Hess39s Law ofthe for each step is equal to the regardIess ofthe o B Forward reaction has the change in as the reverse Enthalpy Reactions o A Activation energy minimum to and o B Transition state the in a reaction where are and are not the o C Intermediates o D Diagram I o E Diagram 2 Entropy S o A Entropy tendency to create the most that can occur within a like a room getting dirty o B Entropy 2 way of energy between o C Entropy is an property o D Entropy is a function o E Units o F Ex 4 mexican jumping beans with two containers most probable situation is 2 in each container with six probabilities least probable is all 6 in one container with one probability o G 2 I I So the entropy ofa can only ifthe entropy ofthe increase by a or magnitude o H Entropy change of forward reaction equals that ofthe reverse reaction only ifthe reaction has these are reactions o I reactions are Entropy Reaction Determinations o A Because nature likes to the energy ofa that is energy than its and vice versa not o B That is a reaction can be unfavorable in terms of andor and still proceed if is favored but never unfavorable in terms of o C Equilibrium Entropy Extensive o A Increases with I 2 I 3 o B lfa reaction increases the of for the reaction not necessarily the or o C Greater greater Third Law of Thermodynamics o A Assigns a to any or I at and in o B Entropy change tiny change in per in a I Gibbs Free Energy o A Maximum available from a o B Gibbs free energy is an o C Not in the sense of ie an can change its Gibbs Free Energy Equations o A I I Every variable above refers to the and not the I 2 Only good for constant reactions o BBAGO at I I I 2 I 3 I 4 74 o C AG negative 25 I I Increase I 2 Gibbs Free Energy Spontaneity Remember o A Enthalpy j o B Entropy AH AS AG Spontaneity Negative Positive Negative Negative Positive Positive Positive Negative 75 27 Solution Definition o A Solution a mixture of or more compounds in a single such as Z or o B Solvent In a solution the compound with concentration o C Solute In a solution the compound with concentration o D If concentrations are both are referred to as o E Types of solutions I I 2 I 3 Solutions Ideal Solutions o A Ideal solutions solutions made from compounds with o B That is the compounds can be without I I I2 Solutions Ideally Dilute Solutions o A Ideally Dilute Solutions molecules are from one another by molecules so they have o B MCAT you can assume it is ideally dilute but you cannot automatically assume its ideal Solutions Nonideal solutions o A Nonideal solutions of both ideal solutions and ideally dilute solutions Colloids Definition and Properties o A Colloid When particles than form a but are Zto due to or be it39s a sort of middle ground I l Coagulation colloids or 9 colloid particles o B Tyndall effect when colloidal suspensions o C Dispersion medium analogous to I I Lyophilic colloids are to the dispersive medium I 2 Lyophobic colloids are by the dispersive medium Colloids Types o A Aside from j a colloid can be any combination of phases I I Aerosol or particles in eg I 2 Foam particles in eg I 3 Emulsion particles in eg or particles in eg I 4 Sol particles in a eg Solutions Likes dissolve likesquot o A Polar molecules polar particles are strong enough to separate polar molecules due to their o B Nonpolar molecules nonpolar are only strong enough to fuck up solvent due to their Solutions Solvation o A Solvation when compounds break into their respective molecules use their to attract the Solvation Hydration o A Hydration When surround an o B Aqueous Phase Something that is o C Hydration number I I Number of needed to surround an I 2 Varies with and ofthe I 3 Usually has values between and Electrolyte o A A compound which forms in o B Strong electrolytes create solutions that o C Weak electrolytes compounds that form few in solution Names You Need to Know 77 28 Name Formula Nitrite 3 Nitrate 3 Sul te 3 Sulfate 3 Hypochlorite 3 Chlorite 3 Chlorate 3 Perchlorate 3 Carbonate 3 Bicarbonate 3 Phosphate 3 Names You Need to Know 2 Name Formula NO239 3 N03 3 S032 SO42 CO39 j CO239 CO339 CO439 3 C032 j HCO339 PO43 Units of Concentration O O O l Molarity 2 Molality l 3 3 Mole fraction l 78 32 o D X moles per liter of BaF2dissolve then there are Z moles ofZ and Z moles of o E Plug in I l 24 x IO395 ZZ2 I 2 24 X lO395 4x3 I 3 X l8 x lO392 solubility of BaF2 in of at Solubility Product Constant Example Continued o A Okay but what ifwe dissolve l mole of llaF It would completely dissociate o B Spectator ions lla Zthat have on o C Common ion effect when Z that may or may not be from the Z Z cause an Z in accordance with Z Z but does not affect Z I I F ions Z affect equilibrium I 2 By Z Z the reaction will Z in the Z that Z the Z Z which is the Z I 4 This Z the Z ofZ I 5 24 x lO395 ZZ2 I 6 Because the Zis Z to the Z X and even Z is going to be much I 7 Z the Z and solve for just X2 I 8gtlt24gtltlO395 Solubility Guidelines o A Insoluble compound with Z ofZ than Z o B Ionic compounds are Zthat contain I I Z Z I 2 Z Z 39 3 Z 39 4 o C lonic Compounds are Z that contain I I Z Z and Z compounds Z o D Sulfate Compounds Z are Z but are Z ifthey contain I lZZandtheZZ o F The heavier alkaline metals Z are Zwhen they contain 39 l I 2 Z Z o G Generally Z compounds except for the cases mentioned above are NOT THE HEAVIER ALKALINES I l and Z Z Solubility Factors o I Solubility is affected by I A Z I B o 2 The solubility ofZ and Z are not affected by the above factors o 3 Gases in an Z Z solution an Z in pressure ofZ a over a Z is Z proportional to the Z of gas a ifthe Z does not Z with or Z in theZ This is given by Z Solubility Factors Henry39s Law o A Equation I Z Z I I C Z i Z I 2 kg Z Z I 3 PV Z Z Z ofgas a Z the solution o B Equation 2 Z Z I xa Z I 2 P Z I 3 kg Z o C Henry39s Law constant I I ls Z from equation I to equation 2 37 34 Heat Capacity Phase Change and Colligative Properties 34 39 o C However ifyou know the predictions can be made on what will happen to the boiling point when volatile solutes are added o D Predictions I I Endothermic bonds 9 Z vapor pressure 9 Z boiling point I 2 Exothermic bonds 9 Z vapor pressure 9 Z boiling point Colligative Properties Freezing Point Depression o A Is related to Z not o B lmpurities the Z interrupt the Z Z and Z the freezing point by fucking up the ability of the Z to neatly arrange o C Equation for an I I AT Z I P E ltT Z I 3m ZnotZor I 4 i of particles which a will when added to solution o D Process I I Add liquid Z A to liquid Z B Z melting point I 2 More liquid Z A added increase of A becomes the Z and the original Z B becomes the Z Z I 3 Add more liquid now Z A decrease of B freezing point Z Colligative Properties Osmotic Pressure o A Osmotic Pressure measure ofthe tendency of some Z to move into Z via o B Thus it is the Z created as a by product during an Z driven quest for Z that eventually prevents further Z o C Osmotic pressure is only relevant when comparing one Z to o D Summary It39s the Z needed to Z the entropy driven osmosis and thus is a measure of how stronglyquot Z is pushing o E Like torturing a terrorist until he nally admits where the nuke is you can nd how badly he wanted itquot until he nally broke Colligative Properties Osmotic Pressure Explained o A Explained I I Divide pure water by a membrane permeable only to and not the I 2 Add to one side it permeate the barrier I 3 forces to move to the other side to the let39s say it achieves a perfect 4 Keep adding I 5 Z will keep migrating to make a Z Zbut thinlc the more and more Z that moves over 9 the Z the Z on that side ofthe tube will rise 9 Z increases Z I 6 Eventually a balance is struck between Z vs I 7 Osmotic Pressure is the Z Zon the Z compared to other side of the tube o C Analogy osmotic pressure is the force Z water Z the solution whereas hydrostatic pressure is the force Z water Z the solution not technically correct because pressure is a Z and has no Z but a good analogy nonetheless o D Equation Z Z I I M Z not Z or Z which is opposite of and o E Osmotic Potential I I Definition Z measurement ofa system39s Z Z 39 42 Equation Review llta o lAcid dissociation constant for HA I a Ka HOH HA o 2 Conjugate Base constant for A I a Kb OH39HAA39 I a Important Note The reaction for Kb is the reaction ofthe conjugate base with water not the reverse of Kb o 3 Products of Equilibrium Constants I a KaKb KW pK o l logKa pKa 0 2 l08lltb plltb o 3 At 25 C pKa pKb pKW I4 which is the same as o 4 Aqueous solutions at 25 C pH pOH I4 Titrations HendersonHasselbalch Equation o A Equation pH pKa logA39HA Titrations HendersonHasselbalch How to Find pH at Half Equivalence Point o A HendersonHasselbalch is simply a form ofthe equilibrium expression Ka 39 l llta l39lA39EHAJ 39 2 llta l39lA39EHAJ I 3 Log rule logKa logH logA39HA 39 4 PK PH ogA39EHAJ 39 5 PH pllta l08A39l lA Titrations HendersonHasselbalch How to Find pH at Equivalence Point o A Cannot use HH to nd the pH at the equivalence point o B Must use Kbof conjugate base I I Find Kbfrom Ka and KW I 2 At equivalence point Conjugate base moles acidvolume acid volume of base used to titrate I 3 Unless the base has no volume volume of base Conjugate base at equivalence point will not be equal to original acid o c Equivalence point 39 l Kb KWllta I 2 Equilibrium expression Kb OH HAA39 39 3 OH lltbA39HA I 4 logOH pOH I 5 l4 pOH pH Equilibrium Constants Water o a Water 556 molL o b Kwwater HOH39 l x lO397l gtlt lO397 lOquot4 o c Ka water HOH39H2O l x lO397l gtlt lO397556 l8 gtlt lOquot6 o d pKa water logKa water logl 8 X lOquot6 l5 I6 Definitions Three for the MCAT o l o 2 o 3 Definitions Acid and Base o A Acids taste Z o B Bases taste Z Definitions Arrhenius o A Arrhenius acid anything that produces Z ions in Z Z o B Arrhenius base anything that produces Z ions in Z Z 47 47 b molL of CN39 ions I Al Undissociated HCN 5 Plug all this shit into equation from step I a 62x lOquot0 I 6 Solving for requires a quadratic formula fuck that noise We make the assumption that lt of 00l I 7 After throwing out a 62x lOquot0 825gtlt IOquot ltpH lt Finding the pll Weallt Base Example o A Same exact steps just nd and that from Salts o A Salts compounds that in water o B Upon dissociation create or conditions o C pH predicted by comparing the ofthe respective Salts Example o A Na and Cl are the of and respectively o B Thus NaCl dissociates solution Salts Example 2 o A llH4llO3 composed of ofthe base and the weallt ofthe strong acid V respectively o B llH4 o C N03 o Thus llH4llO Salts Weak lewis Acids o A Remember All act as Lewis acids in solutions except I a I b Titrations o A Titration drop by drop mixing of an and a o B Purpose nd by comparing to o C ApH of as or added curve Titrations Strong Acid and Strong Base PH l o A o B Portion ofthe graph that most closely represents a line the ofthis line is called the or the Titrations Equivalence PointStoichiometric Point o A efinition ofthe line that is most closely o B For a monoprotic acid it is the point in the when there are equal of and in solution o C Example of Equally strong acid base titrations llCl and lla ll Graph above I l to correspondence I 2 Equivalence point number of of exist in solution I 3 Note this does mean equal the may differ and thus will too 47 49 I I Ka j I Ka I 3 Log rule logllta I plta o B Equivalence point I I Kb I 2 Equilibrium expression Kb I 3 OH I 4 logOH39 I 5 j 0 I Titrations Butters o A Butter the spot in a speci cally the where the amount of or can be added with the change in o B To make a buffer I I Choose an with a closest to desired of buffer solution I 2 Mix amounts ofthat and its conjugate I 3 Goal gtgtgt or o C Summary tons ofa and its pn quotquot i i Bu vr pil1t 39 l l IIpvrinwnt held I in lhis pll rn1ltv I In lvullvrml sulnlinn o Fl iagram L I Indicator o A Chemical used to nd the o 3 Usually a whose is a different color o C Human eye detection 2 llO o Titrate acid with base I I Low pH form predominates I 2 pH rises form arises I 3 Higher pH becomes visible o E Titrate base with acid I l o E Summary pH of color change depends upon of I Indicators Range o A Range pH values ofthe two points of color range predicts I j o B Lower range of color change I l pH 9 pH o C Upper range of color change I I pH 9 pH I Indicators Endpoint o A Point where the changes o B Endpoint is not the o C lndicators usually have a that covers the whole I Indicators Endpoint and Henderson Hasselbalch o A Question If HH be used to nd the at the why can it be used to nd the that will include the 49 52 Equation Review Free Energy and Chemical Energy Equation Review o A Cell Potential Free energy I I AG o B Standard State Equation I I AG o C Nonstandard State Equation I I AG I 2 AG o D Equilibrium AG O I AG or AG a Varies with temperature o L o 2 I 3 Relationship ltand AG llfltthenAG jO 2 If ltgt thenAG jO 3 If ltlt thenAG jO I 4 Fucking Warning I I If K gt I does NOT mean the reaction is spontaneous 2 If K gt I DOES mean the reaction is spontaneous at conditions and the specified o E Nernst Equation I I E I 2 E E7 54 o A Find the molarity of a reducing agent titrate it with aZZagent o B Example Find molarity of Sn ions I I Titrate with known concentration of Z Zagent Ce4 I 2 Sn ions to Sn4 ions Ce4Z to Ce3 I 3 Analyze Z electrons to Z Ce4 but Z electrons to Z Sn2 I 4 Summary moles Ce4to reach equivalent point Zx moles Sn2 in solution Potentials o A Electric potential E electric potentials are associated with Z Zbecause Z are transferred and Z have charge Potentials SHE o A Z Z SH E used to separate the Z ofa reaction into Z and Z components called Z Z Potentials Half reaction o A Z a component ofa Z Z o B Every half reaction must be Z by Z o C Half reactions are usually listed as Z Z with Z Z just being the opposite o D Half reactions at Z C to memorize I l Strongest oxidizing agent Z I 2 Strongest reducing agent Z Half Reaction Potential E a Second half of bottom reaction nal reaction ofZ Z Potentials Electric Potential o A Electric potential has no Z Z but rather Z assignments based on the Z value ofthe half reaction at Z I l2H2e399H2 I 2 E 000V R4 56 I a H20 l2 50Cl39 9 2l0339 2H 5Cl39 I Balancing Redox Reactions Basic Example 0 O O O O I Mn0439 Br 9 Mn02 Br0339 2 3equot 4H Mn0439 9 Mn02 ZH20 I a Balance Manganese atoms NA I b Balance Oxygen atoms 2 I c Balance Hydrogen atoms 4 I d Count charges I I Left side 3 charge 4 I I 2 Right side 0 charge 0 O I e Balance charges 3 electrons left side malltes both sides 0 charge 3 3H20 Br 9 Br0339 6H 6equot I a Balance bromine atoms llA I b Balance Oxygen atoms 3 I c Balance Hydrogen atoms 6 I d Count charges I I Left side I charge I I 2 Right side 5 charge I 6 I e Balance charges 6 electrons right side malltes both sides I charge 4 Balance the electrons for both equations I a Electrons must be on opposite sides Equation I has 3 electrons on the left side whereas Equation 2 has 6 electrons on the right side I b Balance electrons Multiply entire Equation I by 2 I I 3e39 4HMn04399Mn022H20 X2 I 2 6equot 8H 2Mn0439 9 2Mn02 4H20 5 Add the equations together a 6e 8H 2Mn0439 3H2O Br 9 2Mn02 4H2O Br0339 6H 6e 6 Cancel extra shit I a Examine the equation I 6e 8H 2Mn0439 3H2O Br 9 2Mn02 4H2O Br0339 6H 6e I b Fuck you electrons I 8H 2Mn0439 3H2O Brquot 9 2Mn02 4H2O Br0339 6H I a Fight to the death Hydrogen ions I I 2H 2Mn0439 3H20 Br 9 2Mn02 4H20 Br0339 I a You too water molecules I I 2H 2Mn0439 Br 9 2Mn02 H20 Br0339 7 Basic Solution Neutralize Hydrogen ions with Hydroxides I a 20H 2H 2Mn0439 Br 9 2Mn02 H20 Br0339 20Hquot I I Left side 2 hydrogen ions get whacked by 2 hydroxide ions I 2 Whatever goes on one side must go on the other 2 hydroxide ions to the right side I 3 These combine to form water molecules 8 Balance the Water Molecules I a Examine the equation ZH20 2Mn0439 Br 9 2Mn02 H20 Br0339 I b Water molecules FIGHT H20 2Mn0439 Brquot 9 2Mn02 20H Br0339 9 Check this shit out I a H20 2Mn0439 Br 9 2Mn02 20H Br0339 I GalvanicVoltaic Cell 0 A Preface I I Two electrically conducting are placed in contact I 2 One from one cannot freely flow to the other I 3 Result j difference between the 9 creates E6 58 0 RCLI n Cat O 39 39 ll AlgCl CI I Pt Z 3 nu V iIlIIIH1 I I gt ZI I liq 239 gCIlt v gt Agvs I CI my Galvanic Cell O 7f iagram with 39sIdIIIdl39I Iiydrugcn LIcclmdc ISIIF o C Note I I Oxidation potential of hydrogen is I 2 the of any used in conjunction with of the occurring at the other I 3 Thus half reaction can be measured using o Note No in the above cell I I Why Both are in contact with the same not necessary o E Liquid Junction I I Required when a cell contains two different I 2 can move across the liquid junction thus creates an additional that affects the of the cell I 3 A salt bridge this I Salt Bridge o A Atype of used tothe in a o B Composed of lillte o C Purpose I I Allows between without creating within the How you ask Fuck you I39ll tell you o How I I llt ions move toward the at the that Cl ions move toward the o E And if we don t have one I I mix 9 I 2 path for electrons to move from to 9 I 3 the cell 9 I 4 Cell potential iagram bitches ER 60 o A AG Z Z Note Z Zcan be at any Z just assumed to be at Z K I I If we use only Z Z concentrations for Q I 2 Then Q Z I 3 And RTlnQ Z I 4 Thus Z Z o B AG Z o C At quilibrium I I No available Z Z to do Z so I 2 AG Z I 3 PluginZforAGinZZ I 4 AG I 5 Rewritten Free Energy and Chemical Energy Equilibrium Equation o A AG Z I l aries with temperature 0 anj b o B Relationship Kand AG I llfKlthenAG Z I 2f Kgt lthenAG ltZ I 3lf Klt lthenAG gtZ o C Fucking Warning I I If K gt I does NOT mean the reaction is Z I 2 If K gt I DOES mean the reaction is at conditions and the Free Energy and Chemical Energy When Concentrations Change How Do We Find the Potential God Damn Z o A Take the equation AG AG RTlnQ o B Substitute Zfor AG o C And Substitute Zfor AG o D Divide by Z o E Equals Z Z Nernst Equation Free Energy and Chemical Energy Nernst Equation o A o B Base IO logarithm Z o C Purpose I I Plug in Z Zto create I 2 Allows us to nd the Z Z Galvanic vs Electrolytic o A PotentialSpontaneity I l Galvanic and thus by AG nFEmaX I 2 Electrolytic and thus by an outside source by AG nFEmaX Concentration Cells o A Concentration Cell I I Limited form ofa Z Z I 2 Contains a Z Z Ztallting place in one half cell I 3 Z Z Ztallting place in the other half cell I 4 Never at Z Z conditions thus I 5 Always requires the Z Zto solve for the Z Z o B Half Reactions I I Adding the two half reactions Z Z I 2 Must use the Z Zto nd the Z o C Entropy I I Nature wants greatest Z 60 62 Power Source Cu L Cu39 2t Cu 2c V gt Cu Electrolytic Cell ate Time Scare 0f X39s 58H3 42 I 07 20 67 I Chapter 13 39 The Digestive System jj Digestive Processes JJotJity o39n eioeJ rnovernenir J Jrrgeedorr J JJeetioetiorr onewing J Degld tiorr ewellowing J Periepieleie varies eJong eegrrrerne J Deieoetion Seoreiion J Endocrine norrnonee 39oJood 39oorne duodeee no eoeoiiio duote J Exocrine enzyrnee eleoirolytee HCJ water does eoeoifo duote 0 trerreport Digestion J Hydrolysis into rnonornere addition of OH J 39rJydroJyeie is dir feren39r frorn hydration addition of H20 A39oeoroiion J nuIrrier1te end eJeo roJytee Storage and eJrnr1e ion J Jnoludee ternoorery etorage and eu39oeeduen39t elirninetiorr of indigeetilole oornoonente of food Carbohydrate O O H20CaJt 39H W0 HO OH 399e5quot 9 HO OH HO OH enzymes Maltose Water Glucose Glucose Protein 39f39R0 H0 Protein 39quotR 39quotR9 H N E lL 39 amp OH H20 aig3S39 H I1COH H N COH enz me Peptide y poftion 0f pfotein Water Al39I1I1O aCId 4 AI11l39O aCld molecule Li id 0 H 3 H COO I H C17H35Clt0H HoTH 17 35 O c H3 coo H 3420 T39939L S 39 C H C3 c1H3coo lH digesting enzyme 17 35 3 H0 I7 H H 4 C17H35C OH Ho o H H Mouth Oral Cavity llasllwllorl cllellllrlg J Salivary glands l lvllxes food with saliva vvlllcll corl39ralrls salivary zlmylalse p Jfl iefElC39ilOfl of quoteequotL39n and tongue D3glLlquot l ilO39fl swallowlrlg Begins p4 a oluniary aolliy Sim dds Oral phase is olurlliary Pharyngeal and esophageal pllases are lrwoluniary J E plglopitls covers Elle erltrarlce to resplra39lory tract A swallowing center In medulla O fC39fl9Squot TEl i9S complex pallerrl of COll39ifElFquotilOflS requlrecl for swallowing APharynx 1Epk o ks Larynx op ning into phary 3 Esophagus Stomach S39trurture v JJee tdie ter1ei39eJe part of GJ treet Cerclie iunclue body pyierue pyloric ephirieter Em ptiee into the clueclenurn Geetrie mueeee nee geetrie pile in the folds Cells that line the feicle deeper in the mucosa ere geetrie giende Funetierie erquot the eterrieeh v Steree feed Jnitietee digestion of proteins Kine becterie JJevee feed ehyme into email intestine Centrer39tiene oi the etemeeh churn ehyrrie a Mix ehyrrie with gastric eeeretiene Pueh feed into intestine Esophagus Adventitia Longitudinal muscle Pyloric antrum Pyloric sphincter M1cous u o o A c e e l 1 39 7 d Z quot Jquot Gastric A E gland Q 3 3 jg Y Parietal 3 cell C g 0 0 0 l an 1 cell 5 re Lumen of stomach Facilltative Cr K Primary active transport dl uslon ATPase carrier Pam 08quot CI K H co2 H20 b oc a e 0 e e Look up in book Pathophysiology of the Stomach Disorders Peptic ulcers J Erosions of the mucous rnern39oranes orquot the stornach or duodenurn J Both 39rlCl and pepsin can darnage lining and produce a peptic ulcer J Proton purnp inhi39oitors such Prilosec for treating peptic ulcer ln ZollingerEllison syndrorne duodenal ulcers result irorn excessive gastric acid in response to high levels orquot gastrin Helicobacter pylori J Bacteriurn that resides in Gl tract that may produce ulcers J Antiloiotics are useful in treating ulcers Acute gastritis J Histarnine released by tissue darnage and in39i larnrna tion stirnulate further acid secretion J rlistarnine receptor H2 blockers such Tagarnet and Zantac can treat gastri tis Small Intestine Structure Folding plicae circulares villi and microvilli why Brush border enzymes or rnicrovllll attached to the cell membrane importance Epithelial cells interspersed with goblet cells Epithelial belle at the tips orquot villi are eltrquotoJiaquotred and replaced by mitosis in inteetirlal crypt arrJlrJa prbpria eontairl Jyrrlpbocytee capillaries and central lacteal Digestion requires both pancreatic enzymes and brush border enzymes Bile goes to duodenum and jejunum to digest lipids When it is done digesting lipids it goes to the ileum where it is reabsorbed 95 Absorption major Duodenum and jejunum carbohydrates amino acids lipids iron and Ca Ileum bile salts vitamin B12 electrolytes and H20 Duodenum Stomach 1 Microvllli hnding Jejunum Sim lepolumnar V Epithelial cell Plicae circulares epquot e39quotquotm 39 Mesenter I Lacteal 39 cecu 39 Capiary network ccll surlacc rr 1 no 39 quot l l a Appendix Ileum Mucosajf D Submucosa M 7 Muscuaris l7439B E3939 Intestinal crypt 39 externa H T V v W Circular muscle Lymph Vessel quot l 20000 Longitudinal muscle eue 6 lt1 cell b The Insulin Receptor a RTK Receptor tyrosine kinases RTKs are the most prevalent ltBgt Enzyme kedr CePt0rS type of enzymelinked cell surface receptor The insulin receptor is a RTK Kinases are enzymes that phosphorylate proteins Tyrosine kinases attach phosphate groups to tyrosine residues within proteins Two independent monomers dimerize into one structure via the binding of insulin Activated insulin receptor phosphorylates itself Enzyme inactive Substrate Product Supraoptic amp paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus produce two hormones which are transported down the hypothaIamo hypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary When hypothalamic neurons are stimulated their nerve endings in the posterior pituitary release these hormones into the general circulation The posterior pituitary has no hormone synthesizing capabilities of its own it just holds shit Two hormones of the posterior pituitary Oxytocin Uterine contractions during labor Contraction of mammary glands during lactation ADH or vasopressin Water reabsorption by the kidneys Binds to the collecting duct of the kidneys Hypothalamic Control of the Posterior Pituitary neurohypophysis Dehydration l lBIood volume G l Plasma osmolality Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus ADH secretion Thirst trom posterior pituitary l Kidneys Drinking gtquote sJ 5 254 l Water intake l Water retention Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitar adenoh pophysis Various releasing and inhibiting hormones are produced in the hypothalamus Hypothalamic nerve endings secrete these hormones into a capillaryvenule system known as the hypothalamohypophyseal portal system These hormones regulate the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones these pituitary hormones then travel through the bloodstream to effector organs including other endocrine glands The anterior pituitary does have hormone synthesizing capabilities itjust has to receive the go ahead signal from the hypothalamus which comes in the form of a hormone Table I 7 Hypothalamic Hormones Involved in the Control of the Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamlc Hormone Structure Effect on Anterior Pituitary Corticotropinreleasing hormone CRH 4 amino acids Stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH IO amino acids Stimulates secretion of folliclestimulating hormone FHS and luteimzing hormone LH Prolactininhibiting hormone PIH Dopamine Inhibits prolactin secretion Somatostatin I4 amino acids Inhibits secretion of growth hormone Thyrotropinreleasing hormone TRH 3 amino acids Stimulates secretion of thyroidstimulating hormone TSH Growth hormonereleasing hormone GHRH 44 amino acids Stimulates growth hormone secretion Paraventricular Ud9U Suptaoplic nucleus Medan eminence Penal system Antocior pituitary Growth hotmono J Infundlbuium Postoviot pituitary ACTH FSH AUMW oonox k Gonadotropins 17 1 Ovary gt thyroid hormones gt gluco corticoids gt sex steroids Lecture Outline I Introduction to endocrinology I Adrenal gland Pancreas Adrenal medulla I Insulin I Epinephrine I Glucagon I Norepinephrine I Hypothalamus I Adrenal cortex I Releasing hormones I Glucocorticoids I Inhibiting hormones I Mineralocorticoids I P7 gand I Sexsteroids I Anterior pituitary I Thyroid gland GHTSHACTHF3H I Thyroid hormone T3 T4 LHquot r 39a ti I Caloitonin I Posterior pituitary I ADH I Oxytocin cAMP 3adrenergic receptors Betaadrenergic receptor activated 9 G protein dissociates 9 Adenylate cyclase activated 9 cAMPi increases 9 Activates protein kinase A 9 Phosphorylates other proteins 9 Downstream effects Glycogen 9 Glucose1phosphate 9 Glucose6phosphate 9 Free glucose Adrenal cortex Adwrml gland The Adrenal Glands Adrenal Cotlcx Adrenal fT 0dUquot8 Secretes corticosteroids or steroid hormones into the blood Arranged into three layers or zones Zona glomerulosa gt A mineralocorticoids Z Zona fasciculata 9 glucocorticoids Ccncechve Zona retlculans 9 sex steroids um Zona C3rgtSu39 glcmoruosa 3quotquot C32 r 39 392 quotQ Ea lt ea 1 cortex E3quot 3 39 93 L r a Zona 3393 39 0lnCula39 33 39 39 quotquot 39 39 I Adnnal A medulla Lew Adrenal cortex corticosteroids Z aria glomerulosa Ml nerala DCIlquot39 Gl39ICI1S Adrenal cortex corticosteroids Mineralocorticoidsz regulation of Nat and Kt Aldosterone increases Nat and H20 retention as well as Kt excretion in the kidneys gt increases blood volume amp pressure balances electrolytes Binds to the distal convoluted tubule whereas ADH binds to the collecting duct Glucocorticoids regulation of glucose amp other metabolites catabolic effects Cortisol increases blood glucose levels by stimulating gluconeogenesis amp inhibiting glucose utilization in the tissues It also increases free fatty acid levels in the blood by stimulating lipolysis Role in immune suppression amp inhibition of inflammation Sex steroids weak androgens that supplement gonadal hormones Lecture Outline I Introduction to endocrinology I Adrenal gland Pancreas Adrenal medulla I nSUih I Epinephrine I Glucagon I Norepinephrine I Hypothalamus I Adrenal cortex I Releasing hormones I Glucocorticoids I Inhibiting hormones I Mineralocorticoids I gand I Sexsteroids I Anterior pituitary I Thyroid gland GHT3HACTHF3H I Thyroid hormone T3 T4 LHquot r 39a ti I Calcitonin I Posterior pituitary I ADH I Oxytocin Production of Thyroid Hormones Hypothalamus secretes TRH thyrotropinreleasing hormone gt anterior pituitary secretes TSH thyroidstimulating hormone gt thyroid gland I I secretes T3 amp T4 NH2 0 Thyroid follicular cells transport iodide from the bloc HO I into the colloid It is composed of numerous cells w 0 5 CH2quotCHC a colloid center OH I I Mechanism Iodine is attached to tyrosine residues MIT Thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine T4 Monoiodotyrosine amp DIT Diiodotyrosine on thyroglobulin 9 Note thyroglobulin exists within the cell as carrier I I NH2 Residues combine to form either T3 or T4 I 0 hormones 9 H0 0 IT CH2CHC Detach from thyroglobulin and leave the cell vi I OH TSH stimulated endocytosis 9 I Binds to Thyroxine Binding Globulin TBG Triiodothyronine T3 carrier protein for T3 and T4 9 Note Thyroxine Binding Globulin exists in blood to carry the synthesized hormone This summation is thyroid hormone secretion Thyroid Hormones T3 amp T4 I Derivatives of tyrosine I Hydrophobic diffuse through membranes I TBG thyroxinebinding globulin carrierprotein for T4 in blood I Forms heterodimers I inactive thyroid hormone receptors reside in the nucleus whereas inactive steroid hormone receptors reside in the cytosol I Target tissues I Liver catabolic effects promotes glucose metabolism amp gluconeogenesis I Skeletal amp cardiac muscle bones amp brain anabolic effects promotes normal growth amp development ie protein synthesis Hypothaamo pituitarythyroid axis negative feedback control i i ymfhalamus l Thyrotropin releasing hormone TRH l Anterior lt9 pituitary Inhibits responsiveness Thyroid t TR stimulating hormone TSH Trophic Hormonal effect Growth lt of thyroid Hypothalamus 1 quot 39 y Normal Ts thyrond V Thyroid If Iodine If iodine adequate Negauve Low inadequate V feedback T T3 and T To a d T V Low negative feedback Excess TSH 1 Vy 39hymid Growth goxter 0 LV Bengma The 7 Collection Hypertrophy produces goiter
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