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Lecture Notes for weeks 9, 10, and 11

by: Brooke Bryski

Lecture Notes for weeks 9, 10, and 11 123-01

Marketplace > Biology > 123-01 > Lecture Notes for weeks 9 10 and 11
Brooke Bryski
CSU Pomona
Biology of Sex
No professor available

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Biology of Sex
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Brooke Bryski on Thursday December 4, 2014. The Bundle belongs to 123-01 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.


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Date Created: 12/04/14
by chicks killing those unlikely to survive In most years insufficient food to rear all offspring Siblicide saves parents time and energy viii Tactic 8 Adjust Effort ie Reed buntings Both parents provide care 55 of chicks fathered by others Males feed more when they know more of the chicks are theirs How do they know Another male comes to the nest pheromones females leaving for a while November 19 2014 A Mating System i For a given species who mates with whom ii Monogamy two members of a species forming a bond Seasonal or lifetime iii Polygamy bond with multiple members of a species 2 types Poygyny a male mates with multiple females Polyandry a female mates with multiple males iv Polyamory the practice desire or acceptance of having more than one intimate relationship at a time with the knowledge and acceptance of everybody involved v Bower Birds males are polygynous females are monogamous within a season vi Females may mate with multiple males to ensure adequate sperm and get more food encourage sperm competition after copulation increase diversity of offspring encourage parental care and discourages infanticide vii Female crickets scent mark mates to avoid repeats viii Redwinged black bird males fight for territories to put on mating displays for males Females come later to find mates Sometimes females mate with males who already have a female viv Females normally prefer single mates Experiment was done with redwinged black birds Gave females a choice of territories 1 already a female present but great nesting material 2 no female but dangerous and no water nearby Females chose 1 more and raised twice as many young as females who settled for a monogamous male on a bad territory X Polygyny when males show their quality mannequin birds 2 males compete for 1 female They do this but it may be that neither one ends up mating with her Alpha males usually get the females but once they die the beta male becomes the alpha inherits his perch indicator of quality Xi Females polyandrous males monogamous rare In this system males care for young while females move on to mate more Evolutionary steps Mainly male parental care of eggs Female ability to lay more eggs than a male can care for Female competition to obtain several mates Xii Females polyandrous males dead example is honey bees When a male honey bee climaxes during sex his testicles explode and he dies This is because there is huge competition for mating with the queen so males invest everything into succeeding Xiii True monogamy by both sexes is rare Extrapair copulations exist in almost all species Genetic monogamy differs from social monogamy However one study revealed that urban coyotes in Chicago were completely monogamous for a period pf time Xiv How did monogamy evolve MateAssistance Hypothesis Paternal care may be advantageous eg female seahorse deposits eggs in male brood pouch Longterm bond if mates are scarce MateGuarding Hypothesis Monogamy is a byproduct of mate guarding Eg harlequin shrimp Females scarce Males guard for weeks FemaleEnforced Monogamy female blocks male attempts to find new mate Eg burying beetle male finds a carcass and releases pheromone Chew carcass into putrefying ball of carrion Lay fertilized eggs that hatch into larvae Parents make cute little chirping sounds and larvae open their mouths for a ball of regurgitated carrion A big carcass can house the larvae of multiple females Females prevent male from attracting more mates by mounting pushing and pinching them Cortisol levels for stepoffspring were higher It was found later on that this correlated to reproductive success later on Those with higher cortisol levels had less children iii Study in New Mexico Odds of Men Funding College for Children Genetic children of a current mate received the most money step child with current mate received less step child from previous mate received least Time spend with children also effected this F But What About Murder i Not quicker reproduction hypothesis this is adjustment of parental effort ii Excess risk to stepchildren compared to biological children iii Crossnational pattern iv Independent of socioeconomic factors v Cinderella Effect vi Rates of stepparent murders are 70 higher than of biological parents G Female Pregnancy i Progesterone needs to stay high during pregnancy H Formation of the Placenta i Secretes hormone Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hCG A woman only has this when pregnant This tells the ovaries to continue making progesterone ii Placenta attached to umbilical cord provides nutrients to the baby iii After 3rd trimester hCG levels drop but progesterone continues to go up This is because the placenta itself has started to make progesterone and stopped making hCG iv Pregnancy tests detect hCG in urine v Oxytocin is a hormone needed for pregnancy comes from the brain and goes to the uterus Causes the uterus to contract It is an unconscious muscle that is controlled by hormones when she pushes she is using abs to stimulate uterus vi When oxytocin is released it causes contractions The contractions stimulate more oxytocin released That is why oxytocin levels rise as contractions continue A woman can receive oxytocin injections to quicken child birth vii Epidural Anesthesia needle is put into area next to spinal cord Blocks sensation of anything happening below I Childbirth i 1a Early dilation baby s head emerged widest dimension is along leftright axis 1b Late Dilation baby s head rotates so widest dimension is in anteroposterior axis of pelvic outlet Dilation nearly complete 2 Expulsion Baby s head extends as it is delivered 3 Placental Stage ii Pelvis size is smallest in humans Baby s head can fit through because they have cartilage pieces between the bones J Complications i Nuchal Cord umbilical cord wraps around baby s neck ii Breech baby is feet first The infant s head can be caught in the birth canal iii Placenta Previa Placenta blocks the cervix instead of being on top of it iv Cecarean Section works to alleviate these problems Small cut in lower stomach pulls baby out v One third of babies delivered in the US are by Csection vi Csections are much more common in rich countries vii Babies delivered by Csection have higher risk of asthma and allergies because of difference in gut bacteria Increases autism risk by 23 Can hike risk of childhood obesity Why When a baby goes through a natural childbirth it is covered in vaginal secretions These iv What infects the outcome of in vitro fertilization age weight tobacco alcohol caffeine previous pregnancies if you have been pregnant before you are likely to become pregnant again number of embryos transferred B Sperm and Egg Donationquot i donors receive fiscal compensation for their sperm and eggs ii donors provide a service for those who cannot produce eggs and sperms iii there is a risk involved with the anesthesia that is given to female donors and female donors cannot have sex during the time iv surrogacy woman cannot house the baby hires a surrogate mother traditional surrogate mother is injected with semen into vagina She raises the baby in her uterus Baby is half her DNA half the father s gestational somebody else s egg and somebody else s sperm given to surrogate C Sex Ratios i In China there are more males and fewer females This is because only the rich can have multiple babies so most prefer to keep the males Also death rate of infant girls is higher than that of infant boys because parents are less attentive to them Therefore reproduction is more difficult and warfare more common ii Sex Selecting aka Family Balancing Ericsson Method Remember that male sperm swims faster female sperm swims longer Semen sample is collected and washed to removed dead cells Put in test tube Male and female sperm cells are filtered and separated based on speed They won t be entirely separated but mostly Works 71 of time when selecting for females but 5060 when selecting for males IVF with Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Method tests each embryo for presence of y chromosome Works more effectively than Ericsson method D Genetic Engineering i Dodo Bird extinct because of hunting in the 1800 s It adapted in an island without predators just let humans walk up to it and could not fly away Some fragments of their DNA still exist could biologists clone them ii Bucardo went extinct in 2000 Tried to be cloned did not quite work Died shortly after being cloned iii Cloning works like this There is a donor and an egg cell donor No DNA comes from egg cell donor Nucleus from egg cell removed Cells fused individual grows iv Genetically Modified Organisms any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques Genetic Engineering the direct manipulation of DNA using bio technology ie you take the genome of one organism and put it into another organism Cloning is using genetic engineering breeding is not v Genetically modified crops are most common in the US 70 of crops are GMOs We do not know much about GMOs because we have not been using them long enough they are all


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