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Study Guide for First Practical

by: Katherine

Study Guide for First Practical BIOL 4801 A

Marketplace > Indiana University of Pennsylvania > Biology > BIOL 4801 A > Study Guide for First Practical
Special Topics
Dr. Ruby

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These are the notes for the first practical!! Please note that they are of a high quality and are in depth.
Special Topics
Dr. Ruby
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Katherine on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 4801 A at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Ruby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Special Topics in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
LECTURE 1 Introduction to Vertebrates and Basic Cladistics Chordates all have a notochord pharyngeal slits and an endostyle thyroid homologous Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notocord is the vertebral column nerve cord is spinal cord Postanal tail 1 Who are the vertebrates The most diverse group of chordates Not all chordates are vertebrates but all vertebrates are chordates A What characteristics are shared by all chordates All have a notochord pharyngeal slits endostylethyroid gland dorsal hollow nerve cord and the postanal tail B What is a notochord i Notochord Function gelatinous cells surrounded by tough elastic connective tissue Early structural support running the entire body length Below the dorsal nerve and above the alimentary canal C Compare the endostyle with the thyroid gland i Thyroid Gland The endostyle and thyroid gland both develop from the oor of the pharynx and metabolize iodine Humans the thyroid in humans is 2 lobed and deals with hormones meaning it raises metabolism and is important for growth and development D Cephalochordates notochord persists throughout life Lancelets for example E Urochordates invertebrate tunicates Can bud and become colonies F How do vertebrates differ from other chordates Have backbones or spinal columns They also have a clearly identi able head cephalization G How did chordate lifestyles change during evolution among the 3 main groups we will use cladograms 2 Directional Terms describing the body A Directional Planes i Frontal passing from the tail to head horizontally ii Sagittal cut vertically from head to tail mid sagittal iii Transverse cut down the middle middle transverse plane B Relative Positions i Ventral vs Dorsal top end near spine ventral is the belly side ii Caudal vs Cranial Rostral tail posterior v cranial rostral caudate means tail rostrum is the nose iii Medial vs Lateral towards the middle away from the middle sternum is medial to shouldermy nose is medial to my eyemy eye is medial to my ear iv Proximal vs Distal only applies to arms and legs closer to main body v farther away my elbow is proximal to my wristmy wrist is proximal to my ngers 3 Cladistics A Terms describing relationships among different structures or traits not mutually exclusive terms i Homologous evolved from the same structure forelimb of bat mole and dewgonghumerous radius ulna share bones go towards different functional uses Flying digging swimming ii Analogous Same function iii Homoplastic similar appearance fusiform body shapes are not homologous because animals can come back into the water Analogous the relationship is the same And it is homoplastic as well B Phylogeny i Cladogram Type of dendrogram a Outgroup serve as a reference group are not a part of the trait being studied could be a sister group We look at zebras and rhinosquot b ngroup includes the taxa of interest c Primitive condition came before d Derived Condition evolved from a primitive trait e Placing a trait within a phylogeny C Grouping organisms i Monophyletic a group of organisms descended from a common evolutionary ancestor especially one not shared with any other group a Clade a taxonomic group of organisms classi ed together on the basis of homologous features traced back to a common ancestor rodents insects ii Paraphyletic a group of organisms descended from a common evolutionary ancestral group but not including all of the descendant groups ii Polyphyletic groups which have multiple origins and do not share a common ancestor or much in common at all aside from whatever trait holds them together Tamin A Tammi M n lphwEiti Tamn E Tam El F laraaphyilzatic THEmin G Tailmin H I Folyphyletic utiruup D Basic rules of cladistics 4 Overview of Vertebrates A Tetrapods i Aves ii Crocodilia iii Lissamphibia amphibians Life closely tied to aquatic environments includes those weird salamanders the caecilians iv Mammalia have hair and mammary glands The most diverse group v Squamata sphenodon tutaria and squamates which included snakes and lizards Spenedon tuatara is basically a living fossil of a lizard vi Ancestral Groups a Archosauromorpha includes dinosaurs crocodiles and birds Seperated based on thecondont teeth or teeth with sockets b Amniotes most diverse groups of tetrapods They have feathers and use endothermy They are an evolutionary extension of dinosaurs c Diapsida means quottwo archesquot are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes in their skulls Includes crocodiles lizards snakes turtles the tuatara birds and non avian dinosaurs B Fully Aquatic Vertebrates Agnatha includes hag sh and lampreys also known as jawless vertebrates They mostly lack bone i Chondrichthyes earlies radiation among living jawed sh includes sharks rays and chimera Found in all seas and oceans and have a cartilidge skeleton ii Cyclostomata holds the living jawless sh lampreys and hag shes iii Actinopterygii ray nned sh These are the dominant form presently Fins move via muscles in the body wall iv Sarcopterygii eshy nned sh Thicker ns have muscles within them C Ancestral Groups i Gnathostomata jawed vertebrae 99 of all living vertebrae ii ii Osteichthyes bony sh as opposed to cartilaginous skeletons iii iii Vertebrata most of phylum chordata Everything almost 5 Transition to Land


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