Other notes on Health Resources
Other notes on Health Resources BIOL 4801 A
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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Katherine on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 4801 A at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Ruby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Special Topics in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 13 HPED Immunity and Infection The chain of infection 0 Infections are passed from person to person through a series of steps 0 A pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease all pathogens have natural environments in which they typically reside This could be the lungs the eye or environments outside of the human body such as animal vectors 0 Vectors such as insects or animals can also infect humans in some cases The bloodstream is known as the lymphatic system 0 When the lymphatic system is infected it is called a systemic infection and is much more series as the pathogen becomes widespread in the body 0 There are a few factors that determine whether or not someone will get sick Immune strength Hygiene Antibiotics or medical interference The body s defense system 0 The body has physical and chemical barriers to protect from disease Physical and chemical barriers o The skin prevents many diseases from entering the body as it is a shield of dead cells that many pathogens cannot penetrate 0 Many diseases enter the body through the mouth and infect the respiratory system for this reason it is the part of the body most exposed to outside environments 0 Cilia in the lungs sweet foreign material up and out of the respiratory tract this is why you instinctively cough if you accidentally breathe in dust o Coughing is the only way the body has for removing things from the respiratory system ImmunoIogicaIdefenders o Neutrophils a type of white blood cell travels through the bloodstream to areas of infection and attacks and digests pathogens 0 Macrophages quotbig eatersquot work in tissues and act as scavengers as they devour worn out cells 0 Natural killer cells decompose cells that have become cancerous o Dendritic cells reside in tissues activate lymphocytes 0 Lymphocytes are white blood cells that travel through the bloodstream T cells helper T killer T suppressor T B cells produce antibodies Memory T and B cells remember past invaders and respond accordingly This is the part of the immune system that is affected by antibiotics o Autoimmune disease the immune system struggles to recognize invading cells or even identi es natural cells as foreign which leads to O the degradation of many systems in the body This can lead to rheumatoid arthritis or lupus o Markers that trigger immune response are called antigens In ammatory Response 0 Histamine causes blood vessels to dilate and uid to flow out of the capillaries into the injured tissue 0 This produced increased heat swelling and redness that white blood cells are attracted to The immune response 0 This is divided into four stages 1 Dendritic cells are drawn to the site and provide information about the pathogen by displaying an antigen on their surface 2 HelperT cells multiply rapidly and produce killerT cells and B cells in the spleen and lymph nodes This stage can produce a fever 3 Killer T cells destroy foreign cells and body cells that have been invaded Some natural born cells have to be sacri ced in this process 4 A slowdown in activity Suppressor T cells halt the immune response and restore homeostasis Immunity o Immunity means that someone will never get the same disease twice Some of the lymphocytes memory destroy the illness before it infects the host again This is known as acquired immunity
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