Notes of lectures from 9/23- 10/12
Notes of lectures from 9/23- 10/12 ANTH 160A
Popular in Patterns in Prehistory
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Rock Art 09232015 Art medium Painting Drawing Sculpturecarving Weaving ber arts Prehistoric art 0 Engraved rock art Petroglyphs vs pictographs o Petroglyph is carved into the rock a number of different ways 0 Incised lines carved into rock to form the image Long thin linear do not see divits from pecked o Peckedoutine pecked into the rock with a hard pointed stole to make an outline 0 En toto pecked lled in pecked images images 0 Pictograph is painted into the rock Alm Shelter Wyoming 0 Drawings are kind of geometric spirals kinda like checker boards 0 Archs think that they might be painting what they are seeing Upper paleothic cave art 0 Famous for 0 Deep undergroun Creating intense panels Upper paleothic culture and art 0 Also have other forms of art and statue kinda things 0 Why might they do this To say they were there wison clark wrote his name on pompays pillar in Canada Trance art and the sacred state of inebriation Maybe people are drawing out their visions not eating for days does stuff to ya 0 Spiritual art Talks about messages from their faith Rock art is no different from these Narrative art 0 People are telling a story Crow War Deeds Count coup an enemy touch enemy and leave alive 0 Lead a successful war party raid 0 Seal an enemiers wepon Stealing an enemies horse 0 must do these to be considered a war leader then would carve it into stone to nalize it 0 legend rock Wyoming 0 lots of art found there they would sit there for days in a sun bed till vision came then pecked into the wall haha 0 these give us insight into the culture these people are living in 925 928 Man vs Megafauna Clovis rst our family story First major cultural horizon in north America Characterized by highly mobile big game hunters Martin s overhill hypothesis links the arrival of humans to north America to disappearance of megafauna These two are linked What is with all the stuff beneath the clovis horizon There is stu underneath that is older so it can not be rst Important site Meadowcroft Rockshelter Pennsylvania 17000 rcbp James ondavasio digging in and nding there material well bellow Found with a radio 17000 years old Monte Verde Chile 14000 wer preservationin peat bog found that these people are well adapted to the environment hundreds of wooden and perishable artifacts 42 edible species of plant identi ed The range of material being used suggests that these people know this are well adapted to this ecosystem It is highly unlikely that they are new arrivals Cactus Hill Virginia Discovered in 1993 16670 blades beneath clovis Topper site south Carolina Dates 1620000 years ago Materials coming in are well before clovis 50000 year old human occupation Excavated by 1998 albert goodyear Archeologists might not be nding artifatcs Thinks get moved and jumbled up Fairly recently Stanfordpaleontologist and Bradley presented another op on Maybe pre clovis folk came from Europe other side of the country across the atlantic Bradley and Stanford 2004 Solutrean Connection Suggestion that they followed the atlantic icepack Bipointed spear point solutrean is associated hints the name of connec on Clovis overshot aking and reduction strategy Everytime you take a piece away it leaves a scar They see overshot akes on both soulutrean and clovis spears Because of the extremely difficult technique this aking style is not seen in any other stone tool tradition Both clovis and solutrean have this over aking style Can not be by chance Somehow sloutrean taught clovis this styke How did they get there Some kind of a high skin boat Came from el Castillo spain well adapted to water Ramah Bay chert Projectile Point Came from paleo indian site came from state of main and brought it down Different timeline Potentially a pre clovis timeline Very different orgin Diverse Paleoindian orgins Clovis rst Multiregional island hoping Coming from the atlantic from paci c coast from Siberia People coming from all over possible australia Once there brings new questions we have an image of people in north America running around killing mammoths Hmm maybe not right image What are microfauna we know there are other animals out there small animals under 5kg includes insects worms and grubs typically overlooked small animals have small bones why would they eat these vs a mammoth Research recovery and preservation biases Interested in collecting big mammoths and extinct bison Microfauna are Difficult to preserve recover Difficult to recognize identify Often ignored They are impotant when we start to think about their diet Nutritional value of microfauna Small animals randge between 67 76 percent consumable tissues Migratory locusts have 30 percent fat by dry weiught Catepillars of saturniid moths average 4449g of protein per 100g 272649 kca per hpir on average I pickeled sundried grasshopers could support a familybof 4 for a month very important resource for them maximum 714409 collected in the test have high level of protein fat nutrients and easier to get a hold of Modern models for the consumption of microfauna rabbits frogs squirls chickens centipieds we eat a lot of micraufana so so did they There are A LOT of sites where they are pulling up micraufauna from paleoindean sites Upward sun river site 11500 year old salmon bones in Alaska Discvovered a month agO Paleoindean generalist vs specialist Generalist Eating everything Low residential ability Small range Specialist Focused on killing big animals Nomatic following herd animals over lomg distances High residential mobility Difference between logistical and Mobility Are paleoindians specialist We see kill sites with large animal bones Are they associated with extinction Or are they generalist Would need women and children not just men Not enough evidence that they can survive on this alone Evidence of shing Identity vs Subsistence dentity Subsistence Two parts that contribute to how we chose our diet Stone Tools and Lithic Technology 93015 Stone Tools and Lithic Technology Stone tools can teach us 0 O O O 00 They are our window into past human culture Can help give an age to the site Cultural af liation Site function war tool type more activity type more diversity of tools more activities are happening there Subsistinence clues Mobility and trade where they are moving and how they are moving across the kandscape Clovis uted points spear looking things he showed in class 0 O O Chanel ake is what comes off to create the clovis uted point Towards base Bifacial tools meaning its been worked on both sides Uniface only worked on one side Blade and prepared core technology 0 Twice as long as it is wide Other formal tool types are talked about by their use or functiom O O Scrapers thumbnail small size In scraper used to describe work done on the in 0 Drill scraper hint hint Site functionasemblage diversity 0 Limited resource limited diversity of stone tools 0 When moving around people will only want to carry what they need to heavy to carry more 0 Most stones found are one type because they are going to this site speci cally pulling this resource extracting resourecs 0 Site interpretationDebitage analysis 0 Size counts Closer to site bigger akes Further from site smaller akes Material type 0 Break very predictably mahagohny obsidian Black obsidian o o How much material is from a nearby source How much transported from along distance Some one picked and moved Traded Floated along river glacier 0 We can see whre people have beenand how or ehere they are moving 0 Use wear analysis 0 Different materials leave different wear patterns 0 How material is being used Stone tool manufacture The basic physics of Knapping o Direction of force qprouces hertzian cone breaks in same patterm all cilicone 0 Knowing these charactersitics is important for archeologists so they know whether or not it is an artifacts Stage 1 reduction stratedyedged blank 0 Proper striking angle for ake removal 0 To much force results in weird breakin Gives us a sense of how people mest up in the past 0 Stage 2 preform 0 Tip gets thinner so that it can be a usable stone tool 0 Stage 3 of reduction re ned biface 0 Overall all around thinning Stage 4 nished bi face 0 Stage 5 Finished uted biface Pressure aking O 9215 Domestication and the origins of agriculture Subsistence patterns Forging Horticulture Agriculture Pastoralism these are hunters and gatherers meas direct evidence of what people ate at a speci c time dietpattern of consumption over a long period of time economy systems of production distribution ans consumption of recources subsistence correlation between economy and social features Poop is the only incontrovertible proof only proof you cannot argue with 0 Everything else is inference based on context Gives us evidence of one meal 0 Gut context as also been excavated to give us an idea of what theya re doing 0 Problem with this approach is short term and not reliable because they are already sick and ill if buried 0 COO Hunters and gatherers Small groups Highly mobile not building lots of permanent structures Following recourses do not build a lot of surplus Group together to help harvest and share 0 gathering is producing most of the calories produciong bulk of the food 0 hunting produces most of the protein 0 should we call the gatherers and hunters Foragers 0 Seasonal movement 0 Small mobile human population 0 Move 45 times a month Farming without intensive land use labor captal or machinery Simple tools 0 Not a lot of invensement in prep in technologies foragers are using 0 Using plots on short term basis Horniculture is more like gardening simple technology simple tools Move on a regular basis move a few times a year 0 Intensive cultivation like us produce a crapload of food 0 investing a lot into our infrastructure foresting land drainage ditches huge plots water canals bringing water to eld irrigation this is becoming sedentarymore permanent structure now have something to protect intensive lan use 0 LOTS of technology invesement in labor and time 0 Produce lot of surplus larger population 0 Someone has to monitor and control all this compex technology development of irrigation o plows 0 once you do this you do not move 0 intense investment into the landscape this is a big change 0 Relieant on dairy and meat products 0 Follow herds o Pastoral nomadism the entire group moves with the herd o Transhumance only part of the group moves with the herd and rest of group looks more sediment 0 May also be a mixed economy Where are they getting food Organization Domestication process of the change away from wild phenotype speci cally chosen because eof ther traits 0 An important step in human history 0 We see signi cant changes move away from a wild phenotype Recognizable interaction of morphological change away from wild phenotype attributaplr to human interference through the selection of speci c traits barleyhead produced througha series of selection that can handle some abuse So that we can use those seed heads 0 wheat barley rice potatoes quinoa Fertile creasentegypt mesopatamia 0 know this timing start of with wheat and barley then cornthen rice dogs was one of the rst sheep goatscats theories of domestication 0 1940 s symbiotic relationships developed around scarce water recources o Becomes hotter need more water childe says that in this warmer environment everything is getting together around these oasis Learn more about all the animals coming closer and plants 0 Baseda round shortage of water relationships between plants and animals learn how to get along 0 0 Late 1940 s culture was ready for it A natural progression based on relationships between H and Gs and plants and animals o Suggests that this is just the way evolution was occurring as hunters and gathers are running throught he same areas they are learning about how things behave and this is just the natural way things happened Unike oasis which suggests environment is driving the change 0 Ohalo ll Israel 0 good for explaining theories 0 21000 Bp 15000 square meter camp thated huts storage 0 looks more like a village with environmental refuge zone perishable goods exploting the wild types of emmer barley pistachio grape olives one of the early sites where we rst move towards domestication 0 IMPORTANT SITE 105 0 Hypothesis 19605 Population density drove people into maginal environments which pushes people out to zones where hunting ad gathering isn t so good Develop ways of producing food settelments formed near rivers and slack water areas People focused on seed bearing weeds and the combination of constantly disturbed fertile soil All the things we like to eat are growing int his environment the ripe environment OO Horniculture Low investment simple technologies annual or biennial mobility Ohaloll Israel 0 21000 bp very early 0 area where we see many of our early domesticans at ohalo 2 we see relatively earlysettlement 0 they are exploiting signi cant numbers of these early domesticans barly emmer pistachio grape The rst plants were domesticated 10000 years ago 0 Agriculture 0 Intensve cultivasion 0 Large permanent structures surplus o Requires a lruling class How is everything going to work 0 Complex technologies 0 A lot of this is happening around the rst cresent Theories of Domestication Childe s oasis Theory 0 Briadwoods hilly anks theory Binford Flannery density equilibrium model Smiths foodplain weed hypothesis 107 Soy beans and fermentation history avors and applications in southeast asia Fermentation is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using 0 Yeasts bacteria or a combination therof under anaerobic conditions 0 Beer yogurt bread all fermented O 0 Role of fermentation 0 Nutrition adding nutrients through the process 0 Preservation fermented foods preserve much longer period of time 0 Flavor breaking down sugars into different avors like sour 0 Fun Fermented food in south east asia Sauces pickles tofu soybean tofurkey Lol Antinutritional and or toxic factors Soybeans contain bioactive compounds with toxic and or antinutritional properties 0 Eating raw soy beans is not good for you 0 They have ectins ectins not good nausea diarrhea bloating vomiting and even death 0 Fermentation brakes this downeasier to digest Soy beans are not good for you when fermentated it releases a lot of nutrients and become a product we can use 0 Edamame Green soy beans appetizers boiled do not tend to be fermentated Can be made into a humus Vegtable type 0 vs eld type Archeology of soybeans o 2853 BCE the emperor that it was sacred along with others Spread of soy beamd o Earlist mention in japan is in the koijiki Also Egypt 0 And Indonesia Domestication and spread o 1712 illustration of soybean in western world Fermentation of soybeans Kojiaspergillus oryaze a mold is used to make koji basis of making soy products sometime around 300 BC 0 Made to make miso Soy sauce 0 Soy nuggets Sake Rice vineaer Three different applications of Koji for three different products Sake Soy sauce 2100 year ago From Shi chi written ca 85 BC Soy sauce wheat A oyzae vs tamari 100 percent soy different bacteria aspigureus tamari Soy sauce applications 0 Beondegi Silk rorm pupae in soy sauce 0 Common street id Often skewerd grilled Saut ed or served in soup Natto Fermented soybeans Physical texture is a natural result of the fermentation process Texture is part of fermentation process Not a very good avor History of Natto 574 622 AD chinajapan heard process about making natto most siggest that the production of natto was an accident from boiled bacteria in straw Bacillus natto o B natto is found in straw Miso o Ri there are different kinds 0 Get a lot of nutrition out of it typically used in soup 10915 BEER Alcohol in prehistory under the in uence 0 Production and consumption of alcohol part of human condition for millennia Role of alcohol in ancient societies has been the subject of signi cant Fermentation in food processing is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide Fertile cresent 0 Place of early new foods found Fermentation in the wild Natural occurrence 0 Animals sometimes have naturally alcohol level of 25 What is beer 0 Yeast o Barley Pure water Hops grean leaf Boil not as sugary Add hops early in the boil 0 Yeast eats sugar multiples and creates alcohol and C02 What was the rst fermented beverage o Mead fermented honey ferments naturally from wild yeast strains 0 Wine Sugar content means it ferments on the vine naturally occurs 0 Beer It is the rst we read about 0 Earliest evidence of controlled fermentation Jiachu in the henan providence in china mcgovern beer mead and wine all controlled at the same time Orgins of fermentation Controlled beer fermentation o 1 basic theory of early beer process raw or parched grains mixed with water gruel molds yeasts and bacteria ferment n accidenta mixing of food production a Water yeast and grains mixed together then someone tastes it and they try again and experiment 0 Theory 2 0 Maybe they were making bread chunks of bread get left behind and get mixed up with this fermented beverages lssue fermentation is hard to trace Onset of brewing before written texts and pottery Alcohol production required the use of organic materials which by their very nature have been encoded from archeological record Early evidence of beer 0 From near east a 6000 years ago 0 There are also lots of texts found of the brewing process 0 Early alcohol Factoids There has been drunkenness acknowledged in texts Nutritional bene ts of alcohol antibiotics Waterborne diseases Cholera Typhus Plague Dysentery May ower pilgrims 1620 Needed more beer so stopped to make mre Bene ts of alcohol 0 Cardiovascular health 0 Vitamins 0 Beer in Egypt 0 Everyday commodity Virtually in everyhousehold rich or poor brewed at home 0 Made for religious events 0 What we do know 0 101215 0 The orgins of wheat barley and rye Late pleistescene Glacial cycles intense cooling and global warming 0 Last glacial period 16000 years ago 0 Move into a warming period 129 ka 0 The last ice age 0 The younger Dryas 129116 ka cold and dry Same time paleo Indians are running around north America Period of intense cold environmental change and domestication affects hunter gatherer o ohalo 2 Did not feel temperature impacts as much younger dryas signi cant frop in tempeture and drying eventually rise dramatic and rapid increase Holocene lnterstadial Warming lots of ooding Begins a shift to agriculturalist Domestication of plants begins Wheat barley and rye are some of the rst Increase in populations development of specialization leaders warfare The environment is a very important part in this Domestication Recognizable change in phenotype through human selection of special traits Domestication begins about 10000 years ago Progenitor A person or thing from which a person animal or plant is descended or originates wild type an ancestor or parent 0 Difficult to deal with takes longer to harvest grains harder to control more likely to kill you Morphological changes Important characteristics in plants More suitable for domestication Annual vs perennial Larger grains Loosely held grains easier to separate wheat from shaft wont fall apart Synchronous ripening Nonshattering seed heads Self rather than cross poenating Lessened dormancy of grains 23 crops versus 1 o More nutrition greater return for efforts more seads per harvested head 0 All increase usefulness and productivity of the crop We are able to track this stuff morphologically Self shattering rachis 0 Example of a self pollinating 0 Seeds fall and disperse rapidly 0 Wind and animals will help spread these seeds Areas of domestication Fertile cresent in the nile river valley tigrus and ufrate rivers Smith s oodplain weed hypothesis 1987 is relevant VVheat o 2nCI to rice as a main human staple o triticum spp o 713 million metric tons of 0 there are 6 different types of weat with speci c purposes different harvest times Uses of wheat 0 Bread and pasta hard wheats o Macaroni spaghettihardest contain high percentage of gluten 0 White and soft wheat varieties are paler and have starchy kernels o Wisky and beer livestock feed Badey O O O O 136 million metric tons produced in 2007 comes in a two and 6th row variety 4th in cereal production worldwide both used in brewing of beer but two row variety is preferred because they are cumper fatter grains less hall more grain Uses of barley O 00 Rye 0000 00 Quick bareybeef and barley soup found in mixed grain breads This is an important crop Mainly enters food chain as animal feed Second main use is in fermented beverages production of beer Small amount is used as a cooked grain human use Secale cerea Rapidly declining in popularity Early domesticate Important as early civiazations developed because it is easily developed cropped puts up in poor soil and less water Coop crop in poor growing conditions Very little is used for grain 0 Uses of rye As cover crop Pasture fee Hay cows in its green state alcoholic beverages grain breads OOOOOO great number of ry beers and rye whisky gives it a different charcter Archeological evidence of grain consumption Macro and micro botanical remains Mortar and pestals artifacts looking at fossilized coperlghts helps us nd grains human poop o Gives you an idea of what humans have eaten Residue sickles Residue analysis in poverty Stone sickels Botanical Analysis O O Macrobotaical remains Caronized seeds Plant impressions Embedded plant ber Preserved plant parts Starch residue in ceramic vessels Phytoliths Lipid andalysis Pollen analysis words like a nger print Tools used to harvest large biface Microliths very small blades Length twice as length as width Stones and petals Residue analysis Study Rock art why its important Critically important transition from food collectors to food producers Development of civilazations North American paleo lndians lots of archeological sites 0 Monte verde why are these places important Megafauna and importance How did we domesticate critter plants How did we get here why did they happen theories
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