Lecture Notes ENV H 111
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Date Created: 12/06/14
Toxicology The Science of Poisons LD 50 Level that kills 50 of a population lethal amount mgkg body weight Toxicology the study of the adverse effects of chemical biological or physical agents on people animals and the environment 0 Uses toxicants to study basic biology or model human diseases 0 Toxicologists interpret and communicate the nature of these effects History of toxicology Renaissance Catherine de Medici 15191589 0 Tested poisons on the sick and poor 0 Noted the rapidness effectiveness and degree of response and any complaints Hieronyma Spara and Giulia Tofana 0 Taught young married women how to kill husbands Sold arsenic laced cosmetics and arsenic elixirs Percivall Pott 17141788 0 English physician who discovered an association between scrotal cancer and exposure to soot in chimney sweeps Documented how an environmental pollutant can be carcinogenic Contributed to the passage of the Chimney Sweeper39s Act 1788 Tvpes of Toxicolooists Descriptive toxicologists Conducts toxicity to evaluate the risks of exposure to certain agents for human health and the environment Mechanistic toxicologists Identi es the cellular biochemical and molecular mechanisms of toxicity in living organisms Regulatory toxicologists Evaluates toxicological and epidemiological data to determine the safety of a drug or establish regulatory standards for the protection of human health and the environment Sub discipines of t0XiC00ClV Forensic 0 Establishes cause and effect relationship between the exposure to a toxicant and its lethal effects Clinical 0 Focuses on diseases associated with acute or chronic exposure exposure toa toxicant Environmental 0 Studies the impacts of chemical pollutants in the environment on biological organisms Toxicology The Science of Poisons 0 Structure solubility fat vs water stability etc Route and Site of exposure Roiuftie and site of rexpusurrie LEa rit E39I IEufl GFEEtE5t EquotEH E Slower rsEA5paniIrn5E Piaipisl rse pnln Dermal Inha a1i39nin Intreaven Q Is E2 in ii GI tract Re5p iratrrryr IBIGEDE 5 Duration of exposure Acute exposure short term lt24 hours Usually refers to a single exposure requires high does to have effect 0 Major endpoints include organ failure and death Chronic exposure long termrepeated 0 May see harmful effects at low doses 0 Many different endpoints over long term Repeated doses concentration builds over time after repeated exposure Case Studies in Toxicology Dose response relationships correlation between the dose of the toxicant and the response in the organism Typically there is a direct relationship between dose greater the dose greater the response Threshold the concentration below which no effect or response occurs Above the threshold higher doses cause increasing toxicity Non threshod dose response assumes that any exposure to the toxicant is associated with a small but nite risk No safe dose only acceptable risk o Ex Radiation Hormesis a biphasic dose response inverse bell curve characterized by 0 Bene cial effects at low doses 0 Toxic effects at high doses 0 Ex Essential nutrients Vitamin A selenium some heavy metals Methods to Identify Toxicity StructureActivity study how the molecular structure solubility stability etc in uences a toxicant39s activity 0 Advantages o Requires regularbasic lab tests or modeling o Requires days to weeks to complete short term 0 Disadvantages o Difficult to predict biological effect o Can only compare with existing chemicals In vitro testing research conducted on tissues cells or proteins outside of a whole organism Advantages o Can use these bioassays to predict the effect in an organism o More control and fewer variables can more clearly link toxic effects to the toxicant o Faster and less expensive o More ethically acceptable 0 Disadvantages o Less relevant to what happens in a whole organism o Reproducibility and validity may be difficult to demonstrate In vivo testing research conducted using whole organisms ex Yeast mice rats fruit ies Advantages o Can evaluate the progression of toxic effects o Better capture how physiological processes in uence toxicity in the whole organism Drinking Water and Health 0 1974 JJ Rook used chromatography 0 Discovery of DBPs in THMs 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act 0 EPA conducts research to establish 0 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations 1 legally enforceable standards Public health protection by limiting contaminants levels 0 Maximum contaminants levels 0 Treatment techniques US EPA and AWWA Research Foundation Regulatory Development Process 0 Toxicology and health effects Occurrence and exposure Analytical methods Treatment technologies Economic impacts o Monitoring and compliance by water utilities Drinking Water and Health Water Pollution Regulations 1948 Water Pollution Act 1972 Clean Water Act Treatment of point sources of industrial waste Standards fro discharge into sewers or public waters 0 Goal createmaintain shable and swimmable bodies of water 1987 Water Quality Act of 1987 0 Control of nonpoint sources of waste 2000 Wet Weather Control Act of 2000 Nonpoint sources of pollution in storm water Sources of Water Pollution Point sources 0 Pollutants that enter waterways at we de ned locations Factory outfall Pipe Ditch Sewage treatment plant Storm sewage outfall o Continuous discharge o Most visible easiest to nd and address 0 Nonpoint sources NPS o Pollutants which run off or seep into waterways from broad areas of land Agriculture Construction activities Urban street runoff Acid mine drainage Fallout of airborne pollutants 0 Seasonal o Difficult to track the source Sewage tainted drinking water 0 Bacteria o Typhoid fever and cholera viruses 0 Norovirus hep A poliomyelitis rotavirus o Resistant to chlorine disinfection Protozoans o Giardia and cryptosporidium Resistant to chlorine disinfection o Amoebic dysentery Major chemical contaminants 0 Nutrients o Nitrates phosphates algae cyanotoxins Metals 0 Lead and arsenic Synthetic organic chemicals SOCs 0 Pesticides Drinking Water and Health Industrial solvents and cleaning uids Polychlorinated byphenyls PCBs Disinfection byproducts DBPs Pharmaceuticals and personal care products PPCPs OOOO Adina of a lake Cased by algal growth that depletes oxygen kills sh and steadily degrades water quality 0 Trophic stages 0 Oligotrophic o Mesotrophic o Eutrophic o Hypereutrophic Clarity water quality dissolved 02 increase 0 Nutrients primary productivity algal growth decrease METRO Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle Wastewater Treatment Process 0 Primary settling of solids out of liquid waste 0 Secondary biological oxidation of organic matter in liquid waste o Trickling lter uses rocks and quotgoodquot bacteria to break down material o Activated sludge 0 Stabilization basin 60 days for organic material to be oxidized and broken down Tertiary process depends on required ef uent quality o Heavy metals and viruses by coagulation and sedimentation o Organic compounds removed by granular activated carbon absorptive ltration and ozone disinfection 50 of cost of wastewater treatment goes into handling sludge 0 Now used to create methane gas o Can dry to apply to crop land or forest land to promote reforestation if minimal metals are present Wastewater Treatment Ta rdets Oxygen demand 0 Taken care of by primary and secondary treatment 0 Pathogens o Taken care of by disinfection digestion 0 Nutrients o Taken care of by tertiary treatment 0 Chemical toxicants 0 Taken care of in several processes 0 Industrial waste 0 Solved by pretreatment by industry Nitrate toxic in high doses Sources agriculture animal waste atmosphere septic system fertilized lawn Health effects o Methemoglobinemia quotblue baby syndromequot Drinking Water and Health Affects botte fed infants 0 Formation of genotixic N nitroso compounds NOC nitrosamines amp nitrosamides o Nitrate exposure has been associated with cancers of the esophagus stomach colon bladder lymphatic system and hematopoietic system 0 Removal methods o Reverse osmosis 0 Ion exchange 0 Biological gentri cation 300unit 0 Boiling and ltering will not be effective Endocrine disruptors from agriculture and wastewater ef uent Endocrine disruptors 0 Pharmaceuticals ethinyl estradiol Steroid hormones Pesticides atrazine Zoonotic Diseases Zoonoses pl diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans 75 of emerging and reemerging infections are zoonotic Transmitted from animals to humans Zoonoses are common Animals are part of everyday life Can be easily amp quickly transported around the globe Recognize the risk factors amp take precautions Commonly known 0 Measles cattle Flu pigs and ducks 0 Tuberculosis cattle Pertussis pigs and dogs 0 Smallpox cattle 0 HIV non human primate Endemicenzootic disease a disease that is present in humans andor animals in a particular area or region ex Washington or Paci c NW Transmission Direct transmission directly from host source Ex rats 0 Indirect transmission reservoir host transfers to a vector and then on to people Aerosol Vector ea mosquito etc 0 0 Examples 0 Rabies Among oldest infectious diseases known Most fatal disease known 400 miion year in current prevention costs health care animal vaccination and control public health rabies laboratory maintenance Exposure from animals biting from infected human saliva Terrestrial variance depends on global location Transmission 0 Incubation period dogs cats and ferrets 2w 6m o Not contagious during this period 0 Virus enters a nerve cell and is traveling through the cell to the brain o Depends on Virus variant Susceptibility of the exposed species Proximity of the viral inoculation to peripheral nerves andor the central nervous system Among of virus in the inoculum Post exposure management Contagious period dogs cats and ferrets 110 days before death 0 Once in brain virus replicates and travels through the salivary glands and is excreted in the saliva Dog Imports 0 Puppies cannot be vaccinated until 4 months old for rabies 300000 puppies a year imported into US 28 Taiwan 29 Germany Washington State 0 Animals o Local law can mandate if pets dogs cats ferrets should be vaccinated o WAC 246100197 Effectivejan 1 2012 pets dogs cats amp ferrets are required to be vaccinated for rabies by state law Accidental transportation of animals Yearly live animal imports o International trade moves billions of live animals across national borders 87991 mammals 29 species of rocrerts 259000 birds 13 million reptiles 51 million amphibians 203 million sh 2005 West Nile Virus Vector mosquito Animals and horses incidental infection Birds virus reservoir Arrived in US August 1999 0 Possible causes of arrival Human land use increase in urbanization and agricultural development Urban o Higher likelihood of mosquito population as urbanization increases 0 Decreased biodiversity of birds Globalization of trade and travel Climate change greenhouse gases Highly adaptable virus Irrigation can promote high mosquito populations 0 Increased irrigation risk point orchards Food source attracts birds and therefore mosquitos Hanta Virus Pulmonary Syndrome 2 3 casesyear with 30 mortality rate Symptoms may not show up until 6 weeks after exposure o Flu like illness 26 days can worsen shortness of breath amp uid lled lungs Reservoir deer mouse Peromyscus manicuatus often chronically infected Not all deer mice are infected assume they are 0 Transmission 0 Primary exposure inhaling aerosolized urine droppings or saliva Can happen when nests rodents and excrement are disturbed in enclosed areas Viability How long is it contagious 0 Depends on environmental conditions o Temp humidity indoorsoutdoors exposure to sun rodent39s diet Occupational Health and Safety Chemical Hazards Carbon monoxide o Exposure Forklift trucks gas heaters o Health Oxygen transport headache nausea death Metal fumes and particles o Exposure Metal casting welding grinding o Health Lung disease cancer 0 Methyl ethyl ketone solvent o Exposure Manufacture of plastics cleaning agent o Health Skin damage upper respiratory irritant nervous system Biolodical Hazards Methiciin resistant Staph Aureus MRSA o Exposure Hospital and community acquired o Health Skin infections systemic infections 0 Molds and fungi o Exposure Cooling towers o Health respiratory irritants allergens Blood borne infections o Exposure Health care facilities emergency responders personal services o Health various infections Routes of Entry Inhalation Ingestion ex contaminant transferred onto food Skin absorption ex pesticides Injection Hazard toxicity potential for exposure Risk hazard exposure host factors Hazard and Exposure Assessment 0 Production process Frequency of exposure Duration of exposure 0 Acute or chronic effects o Route of entry o Mechanism of action 0 Adjacent workers quotTake homequot exposures Phvsical Hazards Noise o Temporary or permanent hearing loss 0 Vibration o Upper extremities and whole body 0 Radiation ionizing and non ionizing Occupational Health and Safety o X ray equipment metal welding RF welding o Tissue heating cancer 0 Heat or cold o Agriculture service work o Burns heat stress 0 Work related musculoskeletal disorders ergonomic problems o Most industry sectors o Expensive to treat o Backs necks upper extremities Acute Trauma Hazards Incident types 0 Outcomes o Struck by o Amputations o Caught between o Fractures o Fall from elevation o Headbrain injuries o Fall to same level o Burns o Burns Psvcho Socia Hazards Stress o Headache absenteeism ulcers high blood pressure quotpsychosomatic complaints Shift rotations o Sleep disorders GI upset aggravation of chronic diseases heart diseases cancer Violence o Late night retail mental hospitals o Verbal abuse intimidation II 0 History 0 o Hippocrates 460377 BC 0 Father of medicine 0 Noticed that lead miners had unique health problems Paracelsus 14931541 Physician astrologist and alchemist Father of toxicology 0 quotdose makes the poisonquot Bernardino Ramazzini 16331714 0 Treatment of malaria First text on occupational diseases 0 De mordis arti cum diatiba Canaries brought into coal mines highly susceptible to gas Occupational Health and Safety Hierarchv of Control Engineering controls Hazards o Substitution o Process change o Isolation o Ventilation o Source modi cation Administrative controls exposure o Management involvement o Employee training o Rotation o housekeeping Personal protective equipment exposure o Respiratory protection o Gloves o Safety glasses o coveralls Models for Prevention 0 Altruistic employers are looking out for their employees 0 Sef preservation workers always do the right thing because they like to be healthy and safe 0 0 Governmental requirements quothi I39m from the government and I39m here to help youquot Best practices association developed voluntary guidelines Governmental Groups that effect occupational health and safety Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA or state programs o Regulatory 200 offices 2100 inspectors Average inspectioncompany once every 100 years o Law and association Law in 1970 under President Nixon Dept of Labor o Works to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women o Does not cover miners transportation workers many public employees and self employed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH o Conducts research and assists OSHA in standards development Problems with OSHA Regulations Not all workers are covered Occupational Health and Safety o Often hard to do 0 Workers agree not to sue their employers Workers may not be quotmade whoequot o No punitive damage for negligence pain and suffering Air Pollution Its History and In uence on Health Everyone is Exposed Air pollutants have been demonstrated to in uence lung function and asthma airway in ammation cancers heart attacks stroke birth defects Prosperitv Development and Health Symbol of national pride and prosperity was the smoke stack 0 Pollution meant industrial development which meant jobs economy growth and a future 0 Complexity between balance of industrial development our environment and our health 0 Led to public outcry about the environment and a call for Gov to protect Historical Transition 0 Air pollution used to be limited to the microenvironment wood smoke pollution in cave and hut dwelling people 0 Ventilation of settlements moved the wood smoke from inside to outside 0 Fundamentally changed the issue of air pollution o Smoke combined with those of their neighbors creating additive level of pollution o Air pollution was no longer limited to the microenvironment Development a change of fuel source and a change of pollution 0 As the pollution increased cities formed the available wood as a fuel source plummeted 0 Energy demands increased shift to burn a large amount of cheap coal o Changing air pollution from wood smoke to sulfurous soot coal smoke worse Public outcry against air pollution o Began as early as ancient Greece and Rome o 13 century London community outcry lead to ban on quotseaquot coal 0 17 18 century England First discovery that environmental toxicant can cause cancer Percivial Pott and chimney sweeps 0 Industrial Revolution 0 Late 18 century powered by quotcleanerquot mined coal 0 Emissions were more acidic and hung in the air longer than the uffy soot of the cheaper coal Caused soiling of buildings and damage to nearby crops o Brought community boards to address sanitary reforms to cut the worse of the pollution peaks o Any gains in controlling the air pollution was quickly offset by growth and the increased burning of coal o End of the 19 century power plants were built to provide energy for factories and eventually light homes Past 100 years 0 1925 air pollution was common to all industrialized nations 0 Growing lessening of tolerance for air pollution 0 Push for political involvement in the reduction of emissions Air Pollution Its History and In uence on Health Smoke Fog Smog 0 Coined to describe the mixture of smoke and fog Rapid increase in smoke further causes alarm among communities 0 Leads to further governmental regulations to control air pollution Early Federal Legislation Expanded to include automobiles Clean Air Act CAA 1963 empowered Secretary of Federal Health Education and Welfare to de ne air quality criteria based on scienti c studies o Established new program within US public Health Serve o Authorized research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air poHuUon 0 CAA amended with the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Act 1965 0 Department of Health Education and Welfare was directed to establish auto emission standards 0 1966 auto tailpipe mission standards were adopted by California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board 0 1967 Federal Air Quality Control Act established a framework for de ning quotair quality control regionsquot Clean Air Act 1970 0 Under President Nixon Recognized air pollution as national issue set forth a program to control it Established the US Environmental Protection agency o Charged to protect the public from hazards of polluted outdoor air 0 Listed 7 criteria air pollutants Ozone Sulfur Dioxide Particulate matter Nitrogen dioxide Carbon monoxide Lead used to be found in gas Total hydrocarbons later dropped o These were speci ed as signi cant health hazards in need of individual National Ambient Air Quality Standards NAAQS Criteria Pollutants Ozone Sulfur Dioxide Particulate matter Nitrogen dioxide Carbon monoxide Lead o Particle Pollution and ground level Ozone most concern to human heath Found all over US and can cause harm to human health the environment and property 0 EPA regulates them by developing human heath based or environmentally based criteria science based guidelines for setting permissible levels 0 Primary Standards Set limits based on human health 0 Secondary Standards Set limits based on environmental or property damages Air Pollution Its History and In uence on Health Particulate Matter Source 0 Emissions from power plants traf c wood burning other combustion processes 0 Incomplete combustion can from particles and liquid droplets of chemicals Natural sources do make up a component of the ambient particulate matter 0 Typically from mechanical erosion 0 Less toxic Respiratory tract where it goes Extrathoracic o Nose mouth oropharynx larynx Trachea bronchial o Trachea bronchi terminal bronchioles 0 Alveolar pulmonary 0 Respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts alveoli Size Particles larder than 10 um in diameter are largely not inhaled into lunos o Becomes stuck in the mucous membrane and kicked back up 0 Particles in the largest and smallest parts of the inhalable range are deposited best 0 Especially in the alveoli o Fine particulate more associated with mortality Worldwide Chinese cities have some of the worst PM 25 levels in the world Saharan Africa has extremely high levels due to natural sources Surface of PM 0 Surface of particle where there is toxic action 0 Chemicals can include organic chemicals o Highly reactive toward creating free radical oxygen species ROS o ROS oxygen with an extra electron highly reactive Mortality Largest source cardiopulmonary mortality o Involves lung and heart o Higher risk of heart attacks as air pollution increases Vascular Reactivitv Blood vessels dilate and contract 0 Vascular tone balance between dilating and constricting factors 0 Important determinant of acute cardiovascular events o Vasospasm o Compromised relaxation Air Pollution Its History and In uence on Health o Enhanced contraction o Predisposition to thrombosis Food Safety Food Security the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods and an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways without resorting to emergency food supplies scavenging stealing or other coping strategies Food Safety protection from foodborne illnesses which are diseases usually either infectious or toxic in nature caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food Food Safety History 0 19 20 centuries meatpacking industry used most recent immigrants as strikebreakers in labor actions taken by other workers 0 1906 publication of Thejungle 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act 0 19271930 Formation of the FDA Foodborne Illness an illness caused by eating contaminated foods or beverages 2011 o 48 million cases of foodborne illness 0 128000 hospitalizations 3000 deaths Average of 1083 billion dollars a year spent in the US Foodborne illness outbreak the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from eating a common food Source of Contamination Biological Hazards o Bacteria viruses molds parasites prions mad cow disease 0 Chemical Hazards o Lead cadmium mercury nitrites nitrates Physical Hazards 0 Bones glass Major Food Borne Pathogens 0 Campylobacter o Bacterial poultry 0 Salmonella o Bacterial poultry reptiles mammals E coli 0 Bacterial reservoir in animal feces 0 Norwalk Virus o Very small o Only pathogen that can be spread person to person transmission o Hard to detect source o Causes acute gastrointestinal distress Food Safety o Causes the most illnesses and leading cause of foodborne deaths Persons At Risk 0 Infants preschool age children 4 years and younger Pregnant women Elderly 65 years and older lmmuno compromised Individuals taking speci c medications Adencies Involved in Food Safetv 0 Food and Drug Administration FDA 0 Labeling safety of food and food additives food processing plant inspection establish food standards 0 US Department of Agriculture USDA o Inspection of meat poultry eggs establishes food consumption standard tables My Plate 0 National Marine Fisheries Service o Inspections of seafood If Foodborne Illness Occurs Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC o Reporting of food borne illnesses 0 National Institutes of Health NIH o Conducts research related to diet and health 0 Environmental Protection Agency EPA o Develops standards for amount pesticides on crops Outcome Reporting Bias some states have a lower accuracy of reporting foodborne illnesses Produce Outbreaks 0 Lettuce 14 Tomatoes 12 Cantaloupe 7 Raspberriesberries 6 Case Study Spinach and E coli 0 204 persons infected from 26 states 0 70 female 0 104 51 hospitalized 0 31 15 developed HUS disease that effects kidneys and other organs 0 3 deaths 2 elderly 1 child E coli Symptoms acute bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps fever uncommon lasts 1 week HUS death 0 Gram negative rod shaped bacterium Food Safety Wash hands Keep all preparation surfaces clean Protect food from pests Use pure water Prevention Test for E coli 0 Nearby elds with animal manure o Irrigation water Clean processing equipment Clean wash water Clean storage equipment Prevent poor handling practices o Processing plant 0 During transport Washington State Large variety of crops Compared to Iowa 0 Only two corn and soybeans Second producer of hops behind Germany Agricultural Health and Safety focus on human health and safety of agricultural workers near by residents and rural communities that are the sustenance of the agricultural economy Climate Change in the Yakima Basin Total water supply available to irrigated agriculture will decline Agricultural practices will adapt to longer growing seasons reduced summer precipitation and increasingly competitive weeds Diseases will generally become more problematic over the next century as a result of warmer temperatures o For plants and animals Earlier emergence of insects and pro onged hatching cycles Pesticides and Herbicides Substance intended for preventing destroying repelling or mitigating and pest or intended for use as plant regulator Fungicides for the control of fungi Herbicides for the control of weeds Insecticides ex organochlorines organophosphates carbamates and pyrethroids Rodenticides Used since before 2000 BC Mechanisms Food Safety 0 Indoor pesticide concentrations may be signi cantly reduced compared to outdoors during spray season Respiratory Illness Increase in childhood asthma in urban and rural settings Occupational Asthma 0 Cause Grain dust Childhood Asthma Hygiene Hypothesis 0 Farm children whose household dust has the greatest variety of bacteria and fungi are much less likely to develop asthma and allergies than non farmers who homes had fewer microscopic inhabitants Particle Size biddest to smallest Visible Dusty Pollen and mold Cooking oil Bacteria Tobacco smoke Respirable dust and viruses Aoricultural Burning Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Other volatile organic compounds Particulate matter Nitrogen oxides Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons CAFOs Con ned animal feeding operation 0 Animal Cow dander Cow urine Egg yold proteins Fungi Grain mite Grain weevil Meal worm Pig urine Pig dander Poultry mites Poultry dander Chemicals used in feed 0 Antibiotics o Formaldehyde O OOOOOOOOOO Food Safety Agricultural equipment injuries tractor overturns and machinery entanglements Farm structure emergencies such as grain bin entrapments electrocution silo entrapments Silo often workers under 15 years of age Can reduce by using harness or exiting with through tube Farm chemical exposures spills and res toxic gas exposures Farm animal accidents Human Impacts on Climate EPA has salutary authority to regulate emission of such gases from new motor vehicles EPA required to regulate air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare EPA action was arbitrary capricious or otherwise not in accordance with law EPA clear wav for greenhouse gas rule 0 EPA formally declared carbon dioxide and ve other heat trapping gases to be pollutants that endanger public health and welfare setting in motion a process that will lead to the regulation of the gases for the rst time in the US 0 Bring US into line with European Community and Japan 0 Six gases declared greenhouse gases 0 Carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide hydro uorocarbons per uorocarbons and sulfur hexa uoride Senatorjames lnhofe quotThe Greatest Hoaxquot Hard to support climate change based upon severe weather happenings Extreme ooding Glaciers separating 0 Droughts Hurricanes Sandy east coast 19882008 presidential elections 0 Climate change was a topic of debate No questions asked or answered about climate change in 2012 election Wasted Enerov 0 56 of all energy in the US economy is wasted o 66 electricity 0 71 transportation Federal Research For Energy Very little federal research and development investments in energy Controversies Keystone pipeline for Canadian tar sands o Environmental degradation is a major concern 0 Courts ruled in favor of private company over farmer who didn39t want pipeline on her land 0 Coal export plants in the northwest o 6 different locations for coal transport in the NW Brought in by train and exported from these locations to China India etc 0 World bank report November 18 2012 o 4 degree turn down the heat campaign o However funds fossil fuel more than alternative energy sources Human Impacts on Climate Mitigation of climate change 0 Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 0 Enhancement of sinks that trap or remove carbon from the atmosphere Adaptation to climate change 0 Actions taken to lessen the impact on health and the environment 0 Some adaptation strategies will directly improve public health through changes in infrastructure World population development 0 2000 passed 6 billion 2050 prediction over 10 billion Climate Related Mortality 0 Less economically stable countries will be most vulnerable and less adaptable o Africa o India Cultivated svstems areas where at least 30 of the landscape is in croplands shifting cultivation con ned livestock production or freshwater aquaculture 0 Cover 25 of earth39s terrestrial surface Effects of Climate Change Temperature related illnesses and deaths Extreme weather events related health effects Air pollution related health effects Water and foodborne diseases Vector and rodent borne diseases Ozone concentration increases with temperature increase Health Consequences of Climate Change 0 Asthma respiratory allergies and airway diseases o Due to air quality degradation increase in ozone Cancer Cardiovascular diseases and nutrition Heat related morbidity and mortality Human developmental effects Mental health and stress related disorders Neurological diseases and disorders Vector borne and zoonotic diseases Waterborne diseases Weather reated morbidity and mortality Heat Wave Europe luv 2003 0 Wide area average temperature anomaly 3 degrees Celsius Human Impacts on Climate Soil moisture feedback 0 Less moisture means more sensible heating 0 Tens of thousands of premature deaths Washington State Climate Strategy 2012 0 Climate change impacts 0 O OOOOOO O Warmer temperatures and more severe heat waves Larger and more intense wild res Decreased snowpack and loss of natural water storage More frequent and severe drought More severe winter ooding Sea level rise of 24 inches by end of century Earthquake of 80 or higher would raise sea level 37 feet over projected levels More extreme weather events Reduction in salmon habitats Ocean acidi cation impacts of shell sh habitats
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