New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 1-3 Notes

by: Ashley H

Chapter 1-3 Notes 1080

Ashley H
GPA 3.7
Life In The Sea
Paul Passalacqua

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are on chapters one through three in the textbook but, basically base on chapters one and two with part of chapter three. These notes would be perfect for the final exam.
Life In The Sea
Paul Passalacqua
75 ?




Popular in Life In The Sea

Popular in Department

This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley H on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 1080 at Bowling Green State University taught by Paul Passalacqua in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.


Reviews for Chapter 1-3 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter One The History of Marine Biology Paci c Islanders Probably 1St Phoenicians 1St western navigators Mediterranean Red Sea Atlantic Indian 0 2000 BC Greeks Aristotle 0 43C 0 1St Marine Biologist o Described many forms of life 0 Many still valid Ex Gills for breathing Dark Ages 0 Science stopped in Europe 0 Greek knowledge lost or distorted Vikings 0 Cont to explore 0 910 AD 0 Leif Eriksson Discovered quotVinlandquot N America Arab Traders Eastern Africa SW Asia India Charted wind amp currents Monsoons Strong winds that change direction wseason Far East amp Paci c Cont to explore Renaissance European rediscovery of ancient knowledge preserved by Arabs Christopher Columbus Rediscovered quotNew Worldquot in 1492 Ferdinand Madellan Sailed Globe in 1519 ames Cook 0 English Sea Captain 0 Scienti c Observation of all oceans 17681779 0 Killed by Hawaiians Had a full time quotNaturalistquot in his crew Naturalist One who collects and studies life forms 0 Very common on ships by 180039s 0 Charles Darwin 0 EngHsh o HMS Beagle 18311836 90 feet 74 people 0 Sea Sick 0 Natural Selection 0 Atolls Edward Forbesamp Charles vaille Thompson 0 Edward Forbes o EngHsh o 184039s1850 s o Dredged the sea floor Life is different at different depths Charles vaille Thompson EngHsh 1st major oceanographic expedition HMS Challenger Gathered more info than all human history 19 year to publish o MBE2 quotChallengerquot Marine Labs Study live animals Long term observations and experiments Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole MA SONAR quotSound Navigation Rangingquot WWII Sub Warfare 0 Marine Labs funded for research SCUBA quotSelfContained Underwater Breathing Apparatusquot Emile Gagnan developed it to allow autos to run on compressed natural gas WWII Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau modi ed it to breath compressed air underwater quotRemotely Operated Vehiclequot Underwater robots Photos samples measurements Science Scienti c Method Set of procedures by which scientists learn about the world LObservation LQuestion LFormulating a Hypothesis LTesting with Experiments LConclusion a Publish LRole of the scienti c community Observation Vs Inference Inductive Reasoning Science 0 Speci c observationsgtgtgt general conclusion 0 Ex quotAll are sh all have gills therefore all sh have gillsquot Deductive Reasoning Detective General principlesgtgtgt speci c conclusions 0 Ex quotNot all marine animals have gillsquot Draw conclusions by reasoning NOT by observation Sherlock Holmes Hypothesis quotEducated Guessquot Tested Repeatedly Must be quottestablequot Reject or FTR NEVER quotprovenquot as true Theory 0 A hypothesis that has passed so many tests that it is generally regarded as true Law Statement describing phenomena Theory explains the law 0 Eithe law of gravity 0 Still subject to rejection 0 ELFlat world all Energy from sun Experiment 0 An arti cially created situation that is used to test a hypothesis 0 In a Controlled Experiment additional Variables that might affect the experiment are prevented from doing so Easiest to control in a lab Qhapter Two quotThe Sea Flmrquot Habitat Natural environment where an organism lives Ecological Niche The full range of ecological characteristics of a species such as its feeding habits speci c habitat and reproductive strategy Geographv of the Ocean Basins 71 of surface 0 23 of all land in north Hemisphere Ocean Basins Pacific 0 Deepest and largest o Oldest floor Atlantic lndian Arctic o Smallest and shallowest Shallow Seas Mediterranean Sea 0 Gulf of Mexico 0 South China Sea World Ocean Oceans are really one huge system Southern Ocean 0 Continue body of water that surrounds Antarctica Structure of the Earth The Big Bang 0 15 billion years ago Formed Universe Gravity o Formed Galaxy 0 Formed our sun and planets 46 billion years ago Ea rly Ea rth Molten Rock settled according to density 0 Lightest on top 0 Top cooled to make thin curst 0 Atmosphere and oceans formed 0 Exactly the right distance for liquid H20 o Cyanobacteriagtgt 02gtgt ozonegtgt life on landv Internal Structure of Earth 0 Core 0 Alloys ofiron 0 Pressure 1 million 0 ATM 0 7200 Fahrenheit 0 Solid inner core amp liquid outer core Swirling motions create magnetic eld Mantle 0 Solid 0 Flows like liquid slow motion quotlavaquot Crust 0 Thin rigid skin 0 Floats on mantle o Oceanic Crust Thinner 3 miles Basalt dark color very dense Heavier than continental crust Oldest is 200 million years old 0 Continental Crust Thicker 1230 miles Granite lighter color less dense Floats higher than oceanic crust Oldest is 38 billion years old Origin amp Structure of the Ocean 0 Evidence of Continental Drift o The quotAtlantic fitquot 0 Coal deposits 0 FossHs Continental Drift 0 Alfred Wegener 1912 o Pangea 0 Thought it broke up 180 million years ago 0 Not widely accepted because no mechanism 0 Plate tectonics o 1950 amp 1960 0 Scientists put it all together into a coherent theory MidOcean Ridge 0 Discovered by sonar 0 Continuous chain of volcanic submarine mountains o Largest geological feature on earth 0 MidAtlantic ridge 0 East Paci c rise Transform Faults 0 Large horizontal displacement in the mid ocean ridge Trenches o Subduction zones 0 Associated with volcanoes Signi cance of Mid Ocean Ridge 0 Sediments get thicker as you move away from ridge 0 Rock gets older as you move from ridge 0 Magnetic Anomaly Magnetic eld reverses direction a few timesmillion years ago Rocks align themselves to quotmagnetic northquot when formed Magnetic bands on the sea floor 0 Parallel to ridges Mirror images on both sides of ridge 0 Creation of the sea floor A crack in the earth39s crust formed as pieces of the crust separate Occurs at eh mid ocean ridges 0 Sea Floor Spreading New sea floor is formed as it moves away from spreading centers in mid ocean ridges Plate Tectonics Lithosphere o Crust and upper mantle 60 miles Lithosoheric Plates 0 Lith broken into plates 0 Contains continental curst oceanic curst or both 0 Swirling mantle drives movement 8 to 7 inches per year Fingernai grows at 24 inches a year 0 Created at ridges destroyed at trenches Subduction Zone 0 Trenches 0 Causes earthquakes amp Volcanoes Oceanic vs Cont Oceanic crust always descends below continental Coastal Mountain Ranges Ex Andes in SA Island Arcs Ex Aleutian Islands off Alaska No trench Become welded together Buckle to become huge Mountain Ranges Ex Himalayas India amp Asia Shear Boundary o 2 plates slide past each other creating a m No subduction Lots of friction Earthquakes Ex San Andreas Fault OOOO Geologic Historv of the Earth Pangea 0 200180 million years ago 0 Laurasia North America Eurasia o Gondwana South America Africa Antarctica India Australia Panthalassa 0 Paci c Ocean Tethys Sea 0 Mediterranean Sea Sinus Borealis 0 Arctic Ocean 0 Atlantic Ocean 0 Rift formed 135 million years ago 0 Still growing 0 Sediments o Lithooenous Sediment Weathering of rock Coarser near cont Red clay is most common 0 Biooenous Sediment Skeletons of shells and marine life Microfossils Calcareous OozeCaCO3 Siliceous Ooze Si02 Ice Ages 0 Pleistocene Era 2 million years ago Less H20 in oceans 0 Last One 18000 years ago 2 miles of ice covered NA amp Europe Sea level was 425 feet lower than today Geological Provinces Continental Margins 0 Boundary between Continent Crust and Oceanic Crust o Cont Shelf Most life Shelf Break Cont Slope Cont Rise Accumulated sediment o Submarine Canyon Deep sea fan Active Margins 0 Little or no shelf 0 Subduction of fault o Steep Slope o Trench with no continent rise 0 Ex Paci c coast of SA Passive Margin 0 Wide shelf 0 Gentle slope o Continent rise o Ex Atlantic Coast Deep Ocean Basins o Abvssal Plain Sea floor Sopes lt1 degree toward ridge Seamounts submarine volcanoes Volcanic Islands 0 Trenches Mariana trench is 36163 feet deep 0 Hydrothermal Vents H20 seeps into the crust in cracks H20 is heated and emerges in hydrothermal vents 50 F 68F some up to 660 F Suifdes are dissolved and accumulate around the vent to form a quotchimneyquot called a quotBlack Smokerquot 00 Hot Spots 0 Form volcanic island chains as the plate moves over it o Ex Hawaiian Islands ghaoter Three Chemical angl Physical Features l eawater and the World Ocean Basic Chemistry 0 Atoms o Nucleus o Protons o Neutrons o Electrons Element 0 Same atoms Molecules 0 Different Atoms 0 Ex H20 Ions 0 Atom with a charge Isotopes 0 Different number of Neutrons The Water Molecule 0 Water is unique due to 0 It39s unique physical structure Asymmetry Dipole structure 0 Covalent bonds 0 Hydrogen bonding Adhesion 0 Stick to other things Ex Tree Frog Glass Cohe on 0 Stick to each other Ex Siphon water strider evapotranspiration The Hvdrogen Bonds Responsible for unique properties of water 0 Unusually high melting and boiling points 0 High heat capacity 0 Solvent capacity 0 Density High Heat Capacity 0 Substances ability to store heat 0 H20 gains and loses heat slowly Latent Heat of Melting Heat required for melting Latent Heat of Evaporation Bodies of water do not undergo wide temperature uctuations Coastal regions undergo less temperature variation Universal Solvent 0 Liquid water has a tremendous ability to dissolve material 0 Bonds with polar or charged molecules Dens y 0 Water of a given volume 0 Ice oats on water Bar of steel does not oat on molten steel 0 Temperature dependent CoolerCoser together 0 Ice is less dense than liquid water because of hydrogen bonds Heat 0 Results from physical vibrations of atoms and molecules Temperature 0 Measure of speed of molecules Evaporation 0 So fast they break free from Hbonds o Evaporative cooling Ex Sweat Seawater Seawater consists of 0 Liquid water 0 Dissolved lons o Metals o Gases o Nutrients 0 Organic Compounds Hydrothermal vents and weathering Salinity 0 Total amt of salt dissolved in seawater 0 Parts per thousand Ppt 000 0 Average 35 ppt 35 salt and 965 water 35 grams of salt in 1000 grams of seawater Rule of constant proportions o The relative amounts of ions in seawater are always the same 0 Chlorinity Sampling 0 Pro le Graph that shows the temp or salinity at different depths 0 Water column Vertical shaft of H20 0 Thermocline Sharp change in temp Dissolved Gases 0 Most important to life Oxygen 02 Carbon Dioxide C02 Nitrogen N2 0 In uenced by plants amp animals Vary greatly in time and space 0 Dissolve better in cold water Soids dis better in warm Transparency o Photosynthesis o Secchi Disk Surface carity Pressure 0 Atmosphere 1147 psi 1 atm every 10 m 33 ft WIND Air Pressure 0 Low Pressure Zones Due to increasing water vapor content or increased temperature 0 High pressure Zones Decreasing water vapor content or decreased temperature 0 Pressure Gradients o Difs across a horizontal gradient 0 Wind Caused by movement of air from regions of high pressure to low 0 Wind Direction 0 Comes from Ex Westerly wind ows from west to east 0 Current Direction Flows to 0 Ex Southerly current lows to the south Uneven heating of the Earth 0 Heated at the equator and rises Low pressure 0 Cooled at the poles and sinks creating High pressure Winds also affected by 0 Rotation of the earth 0 Coriolis de ection Apparent de ection Coriolis De ection 0 Northern Hemisphere De ected to the right 0 Southern Hemisphere De ected to the left 0 Try playing catch on a merry go round 0 Magnitude depends on Speed of the object Location on earth 0 Major winds driven by quotHadley Cellsquot 0 Trade winds 0 Westerlies 0 Polar Easterlies Surface Ocean Currents Surface curents are driven by winds 0 Wind Drag o Coriolis de ection Currents move 45 degrees to the wind Currents are de ected by continents creating circulation gyres 0 Pressure gradients High to low Surface is not at Mounds and depressions Western Boundary Currents Intensi cation Either Hemisphere Earth39s Rotation 0 And the squeezing of water along the western edges of ocean basins Waves in the Ocean 0 Wave 0 A series of vibrations pulses or undulations in a medium such as water air or radiation 0 Energy moving through a medium Pronerties of Ocean Waves 0 Terms 0 Wave Crest Peak Wave trough Valley Wave heightDist from crest to trough Wave length Dist from crest to crest trough to trough Wave period Time between successive crests past a reference point Velocity Speed OOOOO


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.