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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Blood Connective tissue o produced in red bone marrow o Has a liquid matrix o not produced by the cells found inside its matrix. 2 components: o Plasma: mostly water o Formed elements (blood cells): Blood Plasma: o 55% of blood by volume o 90% of plasma is made up of water (picked up in the digestive system) o Also contains: Glucose Proteins albumin: helps maintain blood pressure. immunoglobulins (antibiotics): produced by white blood cells Carbon Dioxide: most of the carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma Urea: waste products, eventually removed from the blood to form sweat or urine. Fibrinogen: protein that aids in blood clotting. Nutrients: carried in plasma Hormones: carried in plasma Composition of Blood: o Red blood cells (Erythrocytes): carry oxygen in blood o White blood cells (Leukocytes): fight infections o Platelets (Thrombocytes): cell fragments that function with fibrinogen, when activated they produce blood clots. o Blood clots can form either externally (scabs) or internally (bruises) Erythrocytes: make up most of the formed elements by volume. Shape is important to how well it functions. o Shape: biconcave disc (thicker on outside than in the middle) o Contains: hemoglobin o Enucleated: no nucleus (only cell in body with no nucleus); loss of the nucleus allows it to carry more hemoglobin. 46 million red blood cells per mm3 o Damaged erythrocytes are removed by the liver and spleen. their components are broken down and recycled. o Live for approx. 120 days o Produced by red blood cells Co2 carried by the plasma because it is too big to be carried by erythrocytes. Leukocytes (white blood cells) aid in fighting foreign infection. o 2 large categories: Granulocytes (granules): neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Neutrophils: larger than RBC’s, have a multi load nucleus; have lilac colored granules, granules are very small, numerous in number, and aid in destroying foreign particles. Neutrophils are the most abundant WBC, are attracted to damaged tissue, one of first ones on scene. Increase in number during bacterial infections. Can actually exit the blood stream and into the tissues. Exit through the capillary bed. Eosinophils: a biload nucleus; numerous orange granules, normally about 2% of WBC, increase in numbers during parasitic infections especially parasitic worms (i.e. tape worms) and during allergic reactions. Basophils: biload nucleus; dark blue granules; granules are so numerous that they can obscure the nucleus. Numbers never increase. Always at 0.5%. Granules contain histamine; only released after tissue damage. Histamine increases circulation in a small area (damaged) which brings in more white blood cells. Agranulocytes (no granules): monocytes and lymphocytes Lymphocytes: 2 sizes (large and small), nucleus is generally round, numbers increase during most types of infection. Some produce antibiotics (antibodies). 2nd most numerous type of WBC. o Large lymphocytes: tend to be immature o Small Lymphocytes: are mature and functional Monocytes: the largest of WBC, is an agranulocytes, indented nucleus, commonly found outside of the blood stream, most deficient phagocytic cell in the body.
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