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by: Tara Heuple
Tara Heuple
GPA 2.8
Intro to Psych
Cristina Wilson

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Psych 105 Notes
Intro to Psych
Cristina Wilson
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Tara Heuple on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Cristina Wilson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Tuesday October 28 2014 Psych 105 Unit 3 Motivation has needs and drives Needs are deficiency and things that people strive for and drives are the tensions that result from needs and you are driven to behave a certain way Incentives come from the environment Intrinsic motivation is something that comes from you like coming to class because you enjoy it This is if your doing it for yourself Extrinsic motivation is something that is coming from outside of you like getting a grade This would be if you were looking for attention from outside and doing it for other people to know Males and females both have testosterone oxytocin and vasopressin hormones Females also have estrogen and progesterone Testosterone is the main hormone in sex motivation Oxytocin act completely different in men and women For women you have high estrogen and low progesterone this happens during ovulation Males have a higher sex drive than women This includes multiple behaviors Male reasons for having sex are physical appearance and availability Female reasons for having sex are expressing your love for the person If you ask a man how many partners they want they will say 14 and women will say 2 in a lifetime Theories of motivation Maslow s Hierarchical Model We have a lot of needs and the most important ones are at the bottom Our basic needs are psychological needs like food and water and safety and security Then next up is love and belonging like relationships Then esteem needs like having self esteem Finally is self actualization Most of the time you need to have the lower parts of the pyramid to have the higher ones Self actualization is meant by realism and acceptance spontaneity problem centering autonomy continued freshness and appreciation and peak experiences Tuesday October 28 2014 Self Determination Theory To reach optimal functioning there needs to be 3 things that are met The three needs are autonomy competence and relatedness Competence is related to some kind of activity like a career goal or hobby This is like being a master at something This will you give you confidence in who you are Relatedness has to do with our social relationship and being in healthy ones This is related to having social skill valuing people and having people value you If you have these then you have the ability to be optimally functioning Motivation and culture culture refers to individualistic cultures and collectivistic cultures An application of goal setting is called SMART which stands for Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant and Timebound We need to be careful of the goals that we set Emotion Emotion vs Mood vs Affect Emotion is a brief feeling state and mood is an extended feeling state There are lots of theories based on how emotions work A locationist account means that there are discreet parts of emotions like fear anger happiness ect The Universality approach to emotion is based on work by Paul Ekman The emotion categories are anger disgust fear happiness sadness and surprise This means that they are actually studying and saying that this is based of facial associations Universally theses exist To test this theory they went to illiterate countries to see if the same expressions were expressed This is the evolutionary approach to emotion and this is saying that when you experience an emotion a specific part of your brain is triggered to feel it This is meaning that there are the emotions in your brain The basic emotional systems include seeking which is engaging with the environment When you are seeking something is when you are anticipating something and that you get excited about something that is going to come When you have can not seek yourself to get up or do anything or talk to anyone that is referred to as depression Tuesday October 28 2014 Rage anger is when your seeking is restricted and when your ability to be free is reduced Fear anxiety is when you get anxious about something Sexuality is another Care is suggesting that our lust and sexuality is directly associated to caring about people and is usually stronger in women than men Care is important because infants can39t take care of themselves There is some type of instinct that makes you not leave children Care is associated with nurturing Panic is when you cry or show an emotion that gives off the feeling that you need someone or something Panic is associated with separation Play is expressing joy who can have a good time for a long period of time The last theory is the constructionist approach This is similar to distributed processing They say that there are no discreet category of emotions Emotions are based on processes They think that emotions emerge out of more basic psychological processes These can be sensory input hearing or seeing something prior experience hearing a sound and being scared of it ever since immediate surroundings what you are surrounded by and executive attention having a prior experience that puts you on edge but if you hear a sound but know what it is then you can realize its a sound and move on and if you don t have prior experience and its unfamiliar then you want to get out quickly An emotion is not always going to be the same thing This theory is constant on how you view the rest of the brain Emotions Process A Process B Process C Do animals experience emotion Only evolutionary theorists say yes Animals aren39t sophisticated enough to find an emotion to express People can t intentionally or unintentionally change their emotions Emotional regulation is based on a principle that emotions are tied to psychological response If you can control your response then you can control your emotion Reappraisal is when you try to change something and make a negative situation positive Expressive suppression is to pretend that you aren39t feeling anything at all It is hard to feel an emotion and not express it A polygraph test is a lie detector test It assesses physiology To be rational you have to reasonable good fair educated make pros and cons lists logical polite generous have experience open minded thoughtful intelligent selfless To be irrational you have to be impulsive stubborn selfish unfair temperamental uninformed emotional and short fused Tuesday October 28 2014 Emotions are thought to cloud judgement In reality emotions are what allows us to meaningfully interact with our environment Amygdala damage is when you don t experience loss aversion in risky choices You will have a memory of the choices you have made but your emotions won t be able to help you stay away from making bad decisions Emotions can help with both helping and hindering our decision making But that doesn39t mean that you shouldn39t use emotion System One Hot unconscious automatic large capacity associative System Two Cold deliberate effortful limited lazy System One is like a reporter and they bring information forward intuitions impressions impulses System Two is like the editor and they take the information and decide if it is relevant or bad and they monitor things If it is relevant it will come into consciousness The intuitions and impressions become beliefs and the impulses become voluntary actions If you don t have to think about something you are using system one When you have to logically think about something you use system two Individual differences in decision making has to do with your personality Risk seeing and sensation seeking or impulsivity Sensitivity to reward and extraversion means that if you are extroverted you would take the immediate reward If you are introverted you would delay your reward and not be as sensitive to it Personality A personality trait is behaving a certain way Traits are thought to be normally distributed Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to experience is your preference for new things not for routine This is aso based on creativity not following a set of instructions You prefer variety and new things Conscientiousness means that you are dependable and self disciplined Extraversion is about energy and being social You get your energy from other people Agreeableness has to do with being compassionate and cooperative This is Tuesday October 28 2014 negatively associated with having a personality disorders meaning you have less of a chance Neuroticism is when most of your emotional experiences are negative The five factor model heritability age differences agreeableness and conscientiousness increase and extraversion neuroticism and openness decrease sex differences women are higher in neuroticism and agreeability and criticism Extreme variants of a personality can be personality disorder where your personality changes based on the situation They can develop in childhood or adolescence They can be based on clusters that come from a diagnostic manual There are three types of clusters One being oddeccentric Having schizoid PD means you have a solitary life and don t want relationships These people don t have many emotions they have no desire for close relationships Schizotypal PD is the same as schizoid PD but you add untypical thoughts and think weird things Paranoid PD means that you do something unwarranted You would do something on purpose infant of someone It is seeing yourself as blameless These are more common in men than woman Normal distribution curve is important and will be on the test If you have a normally distributed trait then you are on the curve and are like most people Cluster B Dramatic Emotional Histrionic PD is the need to be the center of attention They will do excessive behavior to get other people s attention Borderline PD is when someone is emotional unstable They have emotion extremes where they go from sad to happy really fast They have emotional highs and lows More woman then men are borderline Narcissistic PD is a person that has a positive self image that is exaggerated relative to the truth This is when you think that you are better than everyone else But in reality they are not They ignore what others say or suggest Antisocial PD is when you internally do not need others but externally you can interact with others and can actually be charming A person has no desire and doesn39t need social interactions Avoidant PD is when people have an extreme fear of social interaction People want to interact and they wish that they were more social and wish they had a higher self esteem Tuesday October 28 2014 Dependent PD is when someone is clingy and needy They are exaggerative about how much they need other people They feel like they can t function without the other person The History of the Treatment of Mental Disorders The treatment of mental health directly informs how we view mental health today The domestication period was considered before the 1840s They were trying to domesticate mentally ill people They were known as animals Patients were considered to be subhuman they were terminally irrational and could not be cured The mental illness was incurable You couldn39t cure fix or help them so they were scared so that they would behave There were multiple treatment devices One of them was the rotating chair They wanted you to release fluids so they would spin it really fast until they were released Another one was hydrotherapy where the person was strapped down There was the Chinese surprise and the bath of surprise where they were placed on a platform and then dropped at a random time The public viewing ended the domestic period This was the LunaticsCounty Asylum Act where people were horrified by the way humans were being treated There was a required inspection and the inmates were now called patients The Moral Treatment Period was when the patients were children who weren39t raised properly They believed that mental illness could be cured if you retaught a person This was done with operant conditioning where you were rewarding for doing good behaviors This was done by quakers and they raised awareness through each other This was also a downfall because they had no medical training or theories The doctors in the community took over Tuesday December 2 2014 Psych Unit 4 Mental disorders are defined by a specific criteria of a book They are taxonomies of mental disorders You look up the symptoms in the book to see what you have and then get diagnosed and then finish with treatment The DSM books increase with the number of disorders as the book gets newer A psychological illness becomes a mental disorder when the majority of a committee vote for it Then it will get put in the book There were 160 members total in the 5th book 56 have received some sort of compensation for pharmaceutical companies The DSM utilities need to be reliability meaning that if multiple people are looking up the same symptoms that they will be diagnosed the same things There needs to be high reliability which means that a patient would receive the same diagnosis from multiple doctors The statistical measurement means that having a one is perfect reliability and a zero is no chance Validity is confirming that what you are diagnosed is what is actually wrong with you High validity is when a diagnosis is reflective of what is actually wrong The DSM has poor validity because of the symptombased diagnosis Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders Schizophrenia used to have subtypes but they have been removed There are positive and negative symptoms which is adding and removing things to or from the environment Hallucinations are having to do with the environment likening something and a dilution is thinking you see or hear something You have disorganized behavior The primary negative symptom is not reacting to anything You can also have a slow or slurred speech or a lack of motivation You can have positive negative or both symptoms It has a late adolescent onset If someone in your family has it or if you have one of its personality disorders then you are more likely to have it This is a combination of things not so much its own disorder There is a high correlation with substance abuse The treatment is a heavy anti psychotic Schizoaffective disorder is when you re acting strange but you don39t fit other disorders Delusional disorder is when you have erotomania when you think that another person is in love with you but they aren t Grandiose is when you think that your self worth is greater than it is but its not true Jealous is when you think that someone is being Tuesday December 2 2014 unfaithful or having false beliefs Persecutory is when you think that you are treated badly and you think that people are out to get you Somatic is a physical thing that is caused by a mental problem An injury that has no explanation Mixed is when you have more than one and unspecified is when you can t tell which one you have Bipolar and related disorders Bipolar is when you have extreme mood swings If you have bipolar 1 then you are more on the positive side of the spectrum You can have mania if you are positive all the time You have episodes for about a week and get nothing done and don39t sleep because you are so high on the spectrum They are impulsive and don39t think of consequences Bipolar 2 is when you have more on the negative sides on the spectrum You can have brief times of hypomania but a lot of the time you are depressed Cyclothymic disorder is when you are half way in between hypomania and moderate depression You never hit high highs or low lows The main treatment is lithium which is a mood stabilizer 75 of people who take it will experience a mild to severe side affect Depressive disorders Major depressive disorder will result in a sad mood for around two weeks These depression episodes come in waves They will fall asleep quite often but can t stay asleep You feel worthless If you feel sad and irritable for over two weeks then you get put on medication Depression isn39t caused by a lack it is because the medicine will help improve how you act anti depressants can be used to treat persistent depression disorder When you have this you don39t hit ow lows you just stay at a moderate depressed level It takes three weeks for the medicine to show signs of relief If nothing works you can have ECT Anxiety disorders Specific Phobia is a few of something irrationally This is very specific You develop them through conditioning and you develop an extreme fear for whatever it is You can get rid of it by exposure You can actually do something about this you have to face your fears Genetic Anxiety Disorder is a chronic worrier and they anticipate disaster If someone in your family has it you are more likely to get in You aren39t scared about one thing or having panic attacks you just worry all the time A lot of these medications started out as anti depressants Obsessivecompulsive disorders Tuesday December 2 2014 This is when you are concerned with obsessions and compulsions You are obsessed with being contaminated organized or violentsexual thoughts Obsessions are what is occurring your mind The compulsions are what result form the obsessions like behaviors or thoughts If you have an obsession with order you might have a compulsion with counting everything This is basically have obsessions that result with compulsions It s really obvious when you have it Trauma and stressorrelated disorders PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder requires a traumatic event to occur You know the cause because if an event didn39t occur you wouldn39t have it You don t always obtain this There is no real cause It is associated by mostly military compact but can develop by something else You can witness violence and get this The symptoms are intrusions which are flashbacks which causes you to avoid the things that caused the intrusion For example if you were raped and got PTSD and every time you went to the place you got a flashback you would avoid going there You avoid the triggers There is increased arousal which is when you are easily frightened You are more conscious then normal and you stay there and don t come back 20 returning form war have PTSD After wars there is a high demand for treatment on this There are ways to avoiding developing it one being not going over it right after something happens You have to try to forget about what just happened because it will increase your chances of forgetting it Social Psychology Being in a group impacts behavior because you will act how others act or if you are unsure you will rely on others You are having social facilitation if you have other people around you with motivation Social loafing is when the presence of others negatively impact your behavior Socials norms and conformity is when you are respectful to others and when you do what others do A social norm is a rule that a group accepts and conformity is adherence to the rule because the group accepts it Obedience is when people do bad things You can be obedient to a law or to a parent There are two classical studies The Milgram study is when two people come into the room and one person is the teacher and one is the learner When the learner gets something wrong the teacher shocks them The student is a confederate and so there is only one true actor The idea is how far people will go Milgram found out that most people will go all the way to XXX Tuesday December 2 2014 Another classic study is the Zimbardo study The experiment is supposed to last 14 days but only lasts 6 It ended because they realized that they were being psychologically forced to do things The study shows the difference between in and out groupsThe bias is that the members of the in group are superior and the out group is inferior Group cohesion is useful to us It allows easy agreement quick decisions and diminished individual responsibility which saves resources This can have a negative side when someone doesn39t take responsibility for their actions Being part of a group is useful because people can provide useful information for you Normative social influence is the idea that we want to be part of a group This is when you want to be included Groups impact our behavior in various ways It is natural to conform to groups You can counter it by finding a common enemy or by allowing dissenting opinions to be heard The minority influence is if a couple people are doing something different and then you follow them The positive psychology increases positive thing but it pushes people towards the status quo The opposite of positive psychology is liberation of psychology This focuses on empowering people who have given up control and to take control back to descent Helping people is when people do good things We enjoy helping others Helping behavior is evolved through kin selection meaning that people around you do it We often feel other people s pain You have felt pain and can tell that someone else is in pain so you feel for them You feel empathy but you don t always act on it Just because you have a certain attitude doesn39t mean that you will act on it Our attitudes don t necessarily impact our actions You can feel emphatic for someone but that doesn39t mean that you have to help A negative state relief model is when you see something but you do nothing about it If people aren39t acting on it its likely that other people won t Gender and Sexuality chapter 10 Biological sex has to do with biology male and female XX or XY Gender is the culture and psychological thing that is created by society Tuesday December 2 2014 Gender roles are the behaviors attitudes personality traits roles that a culture designates male and female Sexual orientation is the direction of a person sexual attraction There are no differences in personality traits except assertiveness and nurturing Women have better verbal reading and writing skills Men have better spacial skills and are slightly better at math Where do gender differences come from Nature that you are biological based that way Nature that s what they learned and is socially acceptable Most women are stay at home moms because they are seen to raise children Society and culture have created gender roles How do we learn gender roles The media like TV shows movies advertising and music Parents they treat boys different than girls Toughen up compared to you re so beautiful School teachers will interrupt women more than men they will make more eye contact with men they will ask women easier questions they are more likely to know the men s names How are gender roles maintained Gender policing having a guy wear a dress to school or having a girl show up to football tryouts Having professionalism And social ostracism This means that you aren39t part of the In group Double standards Bachelor vs spinster having different responses on unmarried people Player vs slut meaning that a guy is a player and a girl is a slut Men don t report physical abuse If woman hit a man people would make sure she was ok If a man hit a woman then people would tell him to leave and maybe call the police Gender identity The degree to which a person sees itself as masculine or feminine Transgender A person who s gender identity conflicts with biological sex Transsexual A person who has undergone sex reassignment surgeryhormone therapy to transform the body to the opposite sex Sexual orientation is the direction of a person s erotic and romantic attraction Like heterosexualstraight liking the other gender homosexual liking the same gender About 10 of men are gay and 4 of women are lesbian Bisexual is dating men and Tuesday December 2 2014 women Pansexual is being attracted to men women and transgender Asexual about 1 of the population has no desire to have sexual relations Gender identity is not sexual orientation Social Construction of Sexual Orientation David Halperin wrote a book on homosexuality We think of sexual orientation in terms of preference for a certain gender Tuesday September 2 2014 Psych 105 Unit 1 The beginning of the study was started from William Harvey s 1628 book De Motu Cordis Coincided with the general revival of science The central nervous system is our brain an spinal cord The peripheral nervous system is what we see and is what interacts with the environment The peripheral nervous system is broken down to the somatic system which means body which is the communication part broken down further to afferent sensory and efferent motor This executes voluntary or sometimes involuntary actions Another part of the system is called the autonomic system which means it is automatic these are selfregulated functions and processes These are broken into sympathetic heating up and parasympathetic cooling down branches Skin Conductance Response This measures your arousals through a system put onto your fingers The functions of the autonomic system have to do with the cascading stress response which causes you to freeze parasympathetic fight or flight sympathetic and then going into tonic immobility for humans it is sympathetic and for animals it is parasympathetic The central nervous system communicates incoming sensory messages to the brain and to outgoing motor messages to muscles which come from the spinal cord The folds and wrinkles in your brain give you surface area As humans we have a lot and the human brain typically weighs three pounds The hindbrain is shared between us and other animals The brain shares the functions of balance and vital functions with other animals but humans have evolved past them The front of the brain holds language thoughts and memory Tuesday September 2 2014 Tolerance is when you need more of a substance to get the same affect Addiction is when it interferes with your day to day schedule Withdrawal is the effects that occur when you stop taking a drop after you have a tolerance Stimulants are substances that activate the nervous system and it s activity Caffeine nicotine cocaine amphetamines ecstasy With stimulants you develop a tolerance very fast and getting addicted is common The withdrawal symptoms for these are psychological and physical including depression irritability and problems sleeping Hallucinogens are substances that induce qualitatively different state of consciousness Dissociative Psychedelics revealing true states from the mind With hallucinogens tolerance can develop but being addicted is not common You can have psychological withdrawals including fatigue irritability anxiety and depression Marijuana is legalized in Washington for recreational and medical use Based on statistics women are more likely to experience chronic pain and this can help The negative effects of marijuana are cognitive impairments Unconsciousness is linked to Sigmund Freud who was known for a large contribution to psychology he was nominated for two nobel peace prizes and he was disliked He said that our behavior can be motivated by unknown thoughts and desires Our unconsciousness is not rational There are three aspects to these thoughts which are the pleasure principlelD I want the reality principleEGO I will and the superego I should Tuesday September 2 2014 Freudian Unconscioushow do we keep the ID from consciousness Defense mechanisms denial sublimation action to action displacement person to person projection self to person rationalize Legacy of Freud plausible ideas but not falsifiable core ideas of unconscious self remains strong in psychology Sleep is the patterns of brain activity that moves through a specific sequence Awake and alert times are called beta waves Awake and drowsy times are called alpha waves When you are drifting to sleep you have hypnagogic hallucinations or myoclonic jerks Non REM sleep is when you just fall asleep 5070 minutes Alpha waves turn into theta waves Theta waves are drowsymeditating 47 waves per second The sleep spindles and K complexes Then deltatheta waves Then just delta waves which are deep sleep and dreamless sleep waves which are 052 waves per second REM sleep means Rapid Eye Movement This is voluntary muscle movement that is suppressed your breathing increases during this time and you start to dream


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