Exam Materials and Course Notes
Exam Materials and Course Notes PHIL 1010
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlin Padrick on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PHIL 1010 at Ohio University taught by James Petrik in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Exam 1 Notes Petrik Advice Read from the book because he helped write it Also he gives practice exam questions and those will be on the actual test so they are basically free points This is just a general guide of some of the material covered in class for the rst exam Materialism o The theory that reality is entirely composed of matter matter s properties and the space matter occupies Epicurus 341270 BCE O O O 0 Reality is entirely composed of indivisible atoms and the void empty space with which they move The atoms have and always will never pass out of existence Ordinary physical objects are particular collections of atoms organized in speci c ways There are gods They are material They are eternal They are indifferent to human beings o Argument for the Existence of Atoms O O O A There are compound material objects Material objects composed of parts upon which they depend Some of these parts themselves have parts upon which they depend B The subdivision of a compound material object can t continue ad in nitum justi cation a chain of dependence can t continue ad in nitum From A B C Compound material objects are ultimately composed of parts that are simple and indivisible D There are atoms 0 Theory of the human person 0 O O O A complex organization of atoms in motion We have souls but our souls are completely material When the body dies the soul disperses and the human person ceases to exist quotWhy should I fear death if I am death is not If death is I am not Why should I fear that which can only exist when I do notquot 0 Two Epicurean Arguments to Show that we should not fear death 0 1 The quotno harmquot argument A One can suffer in evil only if one exists B The dead do not exist Death is not an evil for the dead 0 2 The homogeneity argument A There is no intrinsic difference between the following states 0 I One s prenatural nonexistence Ii One s non existence after one s death B We don t view an eternity of i as a misfortune from A and B o C We should not view an eternity of II as a misfortune Thomas Hobbes 15881679 0 Universe quotThe Universe is the aggregate of all bodiesquot 0 Content Empiricism The content of all our ideas is ultimate derived from sense The senses only access bodies Substance means body Incorporeal substance l Contradiction in terms Idealism o The theory that reality is entirely composed of immaterial substances and their properties 0 Idealist and materialist both believe everything can be broken down to one kind of thing 0 George Berkeley 16851753 0 quotEsse est percipi dut perciperequot Latin 0 quotTo be is to be perceived or to perceivequot 0 Reality is composed entirely of immaterial conscious minds and ideas in those minds 0 Was a bishop if human beings aren t perceiving something God is 0 Intellectual Background to Berkeley s Idealism 0 Popular Theory of Perception in the 17th century Representationalism Hobbes John Locke 1 The immediate objects of thought and perception are all ideas in the mind 0 2 Many of the minds ideas are caused by external immaterial objects that are not themselves directly perceived 3 Some of the ideas caused by external material objects resemble those objects and some do not Distinction by ideas caused by 0 Primary Qualities 0 Extension gure number motion rest solidity Secondary Qualities o Tastes smells pains pleasures colors 4 External material objects that cause the ideas continue to exist even when nobody is perceiving them 0 Berkeley s Arguments Against MindIndependent Matter 0 A Agnostic Argument even if there were material objects we could know nothing about them In order to know that two things are similar we must be able to compare them to each other We must have independent access to two things in order to compare them According to Representationalism we do not have access to independent things Therefore It is impossible to know that our ideas resemble material things 0 The Master Argument 0 O O O O 1 That a person conceives of an object that no person is conceiving of is a contradiction 2 What is contradictory is impossible From 1 and 2 3 It is impossible that there be unconcieved objects From 3 and 4 5 only ideas can be conceived From 4 and 5 6 All objects are ideas 0 Possible Objections to the Master Argument 0 00 a The bat is not a bat there is no contradiction if conceive is being used in different senses the two times it occurs Conceive indirectly Conceive directly A person conceives of an object that no person is conceiving of Objections to Berkeley s Idealism o Berkeley s Idealism destroys the distinction between the real and the imaginary Berkeley s Response It is possible to draw a distinction between the real and the imaginary entirely within the realm of minds and their ideas 0 Real Ideas of Sensation 0 Not directly subject to our wills o More vivid and lively o More stable and orderly o Caused by God Laws of Nature produces ideas of sensation o Imaginary Ideas of Imagination o Directly subject to our wills 0 Less vivid and lively 0 Less stable and orderly o Caused by us 0 Berkeley s System Renders in Impossible to think about minds Minds 0 Active Ideas 0 Passive quotquot Radically heterogeneous We cannot form an idea of a mind 0 Berkeley s Solution to above When you are thinking of other minds using your own mind what is that
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