PhysiologyQuiz1-9.pdf EEOB 2520
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Date Created: 12/10/14
1 unbound Pi version 1 Energy input allows unbound Pito bind ADP c Glycolysis i Start carbohydrate breakdown catabolism GWC Sugar ii Series of 10 enzymatic reactions O39V5l5 39 breakdow iii Location cytosol Intracellular fluid ADP ade 5l e diphosphate iv Net production 2 ATP Hquot E ZVme Protel a99 1 One glucose gt 2 ATP 2 Aerobic gt pyruvate pyruvic acid 3 Anaerobic gt lactate lactic acid 4 Does not require 02 Concentration v Regulation T ATP gt i glycolysis run but T ADP gt T glycolysis run 1 Product of process decides how much we do the wow 2 NW Fquot Ce55 i I fquot quotquot 8 P U 192 Q d Krebs Cycle AKA citric acid cycle amp tricarboxylitic acid cycle 2 9533 i Start 2 W 13diphosphogiyccric acid 1 Mainly pyruvate from glycolysis 2 ADP I 9 2 But can use protein and fat catabolism products 2 ii Series of 8 enzymatic reactions 2000 C 3Pquot vquot 939v e39 quotM iii Location mitochondria 1 0 iv Net production 2 ATP Hquot CO2 Q 1 O2 indirectly required to recycle coenzymes 2000 239 quot quot 939V quot W V Regulation T ATP gt i but T ADP gt T 4 0 12214 a Electron Transport Chain 20 ggrhoonovnvruvic new i Start Hquot and coEZ from glycolysis and Krebs DP D ii Location mitochondria energy plant because 2 of the quotQ energy things need it 2099 iii Net production 34 ATP H20 recycled coEZ 1 02 directly required needed for end step of reactions that stop ETC iv Note instead of H20 can produce 02 amp OH Aerebie oxygen is present 39 39V39 mb33n dTmSP0Tt d d Anaerobic oxygen is not present a nai e movement epen s on i Size Smaller easier There is always a third product presence of oxygen ii Charger nonpolar easier determines What it is b Result for quotnoteasierquot i Protein channels and transports ii Function regulate transport Oxidated Ph05Ph0FY393ti0n c Diffusion basics px Movement from high concentration to low concentration CSHHOG 602 38ADP 38Pi 6CO2 6H2O 3O34AP ii Dependent on 1 Permeability Tfaster amp lsower direct relationship H9 5 2 Surface area direct 3 Concentration gradient direct 4 Distance inverse lfaster amp Tslower d Diffusion thru lipid bilayer i w gradient ie high to low no energy cost mi quot ii Small nonpolar things eg 02 CO2 fElwctrvif iii What problem does this cause 1 No 02 storage in cells Electron trans ort chain in II II L 1quot 439 1 395 a Solution Gradient in correct direction load up E K I U 4 I it outside of cell w oxygen um Elecwonmnsportchaln Amynmaso e Diffusion thru protein channels 45 is sometimes called chemiosmosis kinetic energy of H flowing i w gradient no energy cost back through ATP synthase powers the synthesis of ATP from ADP also called oxidative phosphorylation in your book ii Gating 1 Ligandgated ligand binding to a channel changes shape 2 Voltage gated change in electrical distribution Concentration gradient difference in concentration 3 Mechanicallygated membrane stretched iii Special cases 4 lJ II Water Quick Notes Page 6 Exa m 3 Monday January 27 2 14 3 9 PM 12714 I CeuarCommunication a Recall the reflex arc b Where are the signals being passed c Keys i Signals proteins ligands ii Receptors proteins that bind ligands iii Problem 1 Receptor ligand releaser 2 Effector receptor context II Receptors a Terminology i Activation ligand binds 1 Based on shape and charge ii Specificity limited binding iii Affinity strength of binding iv Saturation activated v Competition 1 Antagonist no response but binds 2 Agonist response w bind b Activation converts signal into response signal transduction pathways c Possible responses i Change in membrane alter metabolism ii Change in contractive activity change shape secrete product iii Change proliferation or differentiation rate d Locations types i Intracellular within cytosol or nucleus ii Membrane bound III Intracellular a Within nucleus or cytosol b Ligand nonpolar i Needs plasma binding protein c Complex in nucleus d Result always alter DNA use T or I IV Membrane Bound a Ligand polar no entry i Only 1st in relay 2nd b Four Categories i Function as ion channel igand gated 1 Resut in charge distribution ii Function as enzyme tyrosine kinase 1 Resut cascade of phosphorylation iii Interact with JAK kinase activation 1 Resut synthesis of new proteins iv Interact with G protein heterotrimetic 1 Most common group 2 Alpha subunit w GTP 3 Plasma membrane effector protein PMEP a Ion channel or enzyme b Ex Adenylyl cyclase 12914 1 Keys a Amplification b All responses i Change in membrane alter metabolism ii Change in contractive activity change shape secrete product iii Change proliferation or differentiation rate I Receptor Activation a Decrease communication going after receiving cell i Messenger gt catabolize Quick Notes Page 9 Notes submarine Complex ligand receptor Kinase does eq 1 trickledown economics otBv ATP v GTP American v Canadian dollar 56 58 59 One simple ligand gets millions of responses Go after your friends phone to stop message Exa m 4 Monday February 33 2 14 759 AM 2314 I Membrane Potential cont a Measure of voltage gradient i Vm voltage across membrane 1 One part outside cell in extracellularfluid one inside of cell 2 At rest most cells Vm 70 mV a House electrical outlet is approx 120 V 3 Usually negative on the inside ii Due to all charged components 1 Vm 2 Ex of all ions 2 Ex equilibrium potential a V at which the electrical and concentration gradient for a component are balanced b Alter PM permeability i T permeability gt ions move gt Avm graded potential E A in ion flow 1 Biggest change closest to opening channel lower the farther you get away like a door in a room changing temperature in room II Graded Potentials GP a Terms As from rest AKA polarized i Membrane potential Vm ii Depolarized J negative going toward 0 mV stimulating iii Hyperpolarized T negative going below 70 mV inhibiting iv Repolarizing return to rest return to 70 mV b Characteristics i T stimulus gt T size of graded potential so signal ii T distance from stimulus site gt J size of graded potential so signal 1 This is a problem c What is GP occurs near voltagegated channel III Action Potentials AP a In excitable cells GP can cause i Quick large As in Vm 1 All cells have GP only excitable cells have AP ii Allornone event either has all the necessary criteria and goes or doesn39t and it doesn39t go 1 Like pregnancy you either are or you aren39t iii Components needed to be excitable 1 Votage gated Naquot channels with inactivator a After a short time they will be affectively closed inactivator i Like dog and door your leg in front of dog is inactivator 2 Voltagegated Kquot channels IV Events of an AP a Membrane at rest 70 mV b Local depolarization reaches threshold potential TP causes voltagegated Naquot channels to open c Naquot influx more depolarization i Example of positive feedback Naquot channel inactivated Kquot channels open Kquot outflux cell repolarizes Naquot channels close Cell hyperpolarized since Kquot slow to close Kquot channels close feedback V Action Potentials cont a Threshold potential TP i Vm required to activate Naquot channels ii Stimulus then generated by Naquot influx iii Weak depolarizations subthreshold potentials iv AP amplitude aka size if occur 1 Independent of stimulus 2 No change in size no graded potential v Practical application 1 We want these things happening in excitable cells so that they can be sent long messages 2 Local anesthetics many block Naquot channels hf 2514 I Action Potentials cont a Propagation down axon i Adjacent sections of plasma membrane 1 No movement 2 One starts the next 3 Graded potential or action potential acts like dominos As long as we put enough force on one domino then it will continue to go down the line It does not work on one action potential but many We can get the last one to fall over from this ii As distance increases no change in size fixed our distance probemso no signal change Quick Notes Page 12 Mom tram pcxxzm al mv hmn jmsnc I S 39ui 5 Ruling Potential N39 I39 pro Depolarisation vi lIzID Qialuzl Pug x39uvnuI Ropolanntion 39ltcJIugelt3neJ K ryrv Resung Potential Na3939lt39 12 2 Receptor cell to neuron end 1 Speed difference a Top will occur faster b Bottom is more common though c If slow what39s the benefit i Specialization is the reason ii Allows for more changes b Types are specific but not i Mechanoreceptors pressure or stretch ii Thermoreceptors temperature iii Photoreceptors light waves AKA photons iv Chemoreceptorschemicals v Nociceptors painful stimuli eg heat or tissue damage 21214 a Coding intensity location sensory transduction 72 i Intensity 1 Variable stimulus 2 Variable receptor potentials graded potential a Size of GP matches size of stimulus b Need to get from afferent to spinal cord i Problem distance c Answer variable action potential pattern i Bigger stimulus means more action potentials not magnitude ii Afferent and interneuron problem d Answer variable neurotransmitter amount 3 TStimulus gt TAP frequency gt T of NT ii Location 74 1 Receptive field area covered bottom part of the figure a Size related to localizing 76 gt narrow more specific b Larger the receptive field larger the area of pain i T receptive field gt i localization c Density related to sensitivity d Sensitivity combines stimuli i Higher density of receptive field means more sensitive One Pressure is felt more in finger then in your back e Receptive field overlap possible get recruitment 78 i Like a Venn diagram ii Stimulus in overlap send message from A and C and comes back to only overlap iii Stimulus is A only sends A iv OVERLAP MEANS IT WILL BE DENSER 2 Lateral inhibition rubbing area of pain to make it go away 79 sharpens the pattern contrast a Afferent neurons send to CNS but also try to stop other neurons from sending signal putting others down to look better i Hyperpolarization of the other neurons One Causes cross over Two Causes all to be inhibited ii Rubbing helps because causes A and C to send messages so that they will inhibit the painful stimuli at B iii Same reasoning of scratching around a mosquito bite I Processing a Ascending pathway in CNS 714 i Brain stem gt thalamus gt cerebrum with cross eg left hand to right hemisphere ii To specific brain regions eg visual auditory taste 713 1 Reasoning that brain injuries might only affect certain areas of life iii Impact can be impacted by output 712 1 Drops down some information in order to choose what is most important 2 Perception 3 We don39t think about the clothes that rub against us as we wear them a New watch feels weird on skin but after a while you get used to it 4 Just because message is being sent doesn39t mean the brain is receiving it II Somatosensory System a Info skin muscles bones tendonsjoints i How contracted are they how warm are they what kind of pressure do they feel b Type to gather info free or modified afferent terminals i Less precise info but faster info ii This system is faster than audio or visual system iii More primitive c Components what do we gather i Thermorecptors and mechanoreceptors pressure ii Nociceptors detect products of damaged and immune cells 1 Reason your body aches when you are sick iii Spatiallyrelated position in brain where info is received in brain 720 1 Cortical projection 2 Aka homunculus means little man picture of body the brain has a Can feel things if touch parts of brain even if you don39t actually feel anything civil war injuries Quick Notes Page 16 get APs moving along the afferent39s axon toward the CNS 2 receptor cell that passes info on to neuron end happens slower First a separate cell eg stereocilia registers the stimulus and communicates via chemical signals with the afferent neuron to get the APs moving along the afferent39s axon toward the CNS Not only does explaining it take longer but it physically takes longer for a message to reach the brain about a stimulus via this method So what exactly was the benefit of the second type even though this second method occurs at a slower rate We can change that separate cell to fine tune it for a particular stimulus eg stereocilia rod cone Those changes cannot be done with the afferent39s terminal without hindering its primary function The idea is will two stimuli hitting the body near each other be recognized as two stimuli or will they get lumped as one stimuli Smaller and denser receptive fields allow for greater sensitivity recruitment means that more than one receptive field might fire as the result of a stimulus This can occur due to overlap of the fields andor size of the stimulus When you say that recruitment can occur quotdue to overlap of the fields andor size of the stimulusquot are you referring to quotstimulus sizequot as the magnitudeintensity of the stimulus or the size of the area that the stimulus activates withinbetween receptive fields More the later A large stimulus will impact multiple receptive fields eg hit by a baseball versus a golf ball excited neurons naturally inhibit their neighbors Remember that this system requires the greatest speed and is the most primitive system Therefore it is achieved eitherjust by the ends of the afferent terminals or by slight modifications of those ends to focus on particular stimuli eg temp pressure pain the somatosensory system uses only the first design of afferent receptors we talked about directly by end of neuron 1 Type sensory receptors directly by afferent neuron end are located in the somatosensory system hence the speed of the skin in sensing a stimulus 21412 I Auditory system a Info sound waves b Type stereocilia i Mechanoreceptors ii AKA cochlear hairs c Components path for sound 737 i External auditory canal purple part ii Tympanic membrane AKA ear drum btwn purple and green area iii Middle ear air green area 1 Open to throat area 2 Causes popping of ears on planes iv Cochlea blue snail 1 Water environment 2 Converts air wave into water wave proportional v Auditory nerve yellow 1 Going to auditory section of cerebrum vi CNS vii Cochlea encodes waves 741 1 Mechanical bending of stereocilia 741 a Like plants in water b Mechanically gated Kquot opens which then opens up voltagegated Caquot2 which releases neurotransmitters in process c Amount of neurotransmitter is what afferent neuron picks up 2 What39s coded a Amplitudeloudness amount of bend i Bigger waves are going to have bigger impact smaller have smaller impact b Frequencypitch which stereocilia 738 i How many waves in unit time ii Long waves low pitch hit later cilia near apex short waves high pitch hit early cilia near base iii High near base iv Low near apex v If we had a bigger cochlea we could hear lower frequency sounds elephants if we had smaller cochlea we could hear higher frequency mice vi Lose higher pitches first c What39s missing i Location in space of source is not found by cochlea ii Is found by the difference in sound heard from the left and right cochlea iii Two detections allow for cerebral geometry II Vestibular system a Info head position and motion b Type stereocilia 744 i Measuring waves created by sloshing water around c Components i Semicircular canals there are 3742 1 Summing up vectors from the three semicircular canals gives rotation with direction 2 But need a reference ii Utricle and saccule with otoliths 1 Otoliths are rocks in our head 2 Rolls in direction of gravity gives us a reference point 3 Gives us acceleration relative to gravity 746 a When in water and confused where you are look for the bubbles where the bubbles go you follow d Usefulness i We don39t see up and down movement of our body because visual talks to vestibular system ii Visual tracking iii Coordination Quick Notes Page 17 The sound wave bends the stereocilia which opens the mechanically gated potassium channels allowing it to influx The resulting change in membrane potential will open voltagegated calcium channels allowing it to influx The calcium inside the cell triggers the exocytosis of the neurotransmitters to pass the message to the afferent neuron 0 Often signals combine ex quottaste taste is not only what is happening in your mouth If have a stuffed up nose then you taste something differently The way you smell and taste is in combination It also plays into sound If you plug ears and eat them you would think they were stale crunchy even if they were perfectly fresh If you change the way you hear when you eat it you are changing the way you interpret it o Autism doing processing but not doing it at the same time Visual is going on at the same pace but not auditory doing it at the same time The two are not matching and it is very confusing They try to eliminate one or another You have to process these inputs at the right pace 0 Better at detection than consciously aware We use perception to block these smells if we are at the time in the cycle where we could get pregnant Types of Muscle 91 0 1 Skeletal Striated o Attaches bones to bones to bones via tendons o Supports and moves skeleton o Voluntary control somatic 0 2 Cardiac Striated o Heart muscle o This is not under voluntary control o Autonomicinvoluntarycontrol 0 3 Smooth Nonstriated o Found in sheets surrounding organs o Contraction of these muscles alters flow o Also autonomic 21714 I Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle 92 a Muscle gt organ b Muscle cells myofiber i Has fiber appearance hence name ii Avoid calling cell because they have many nuclei iii Many cells fused together to create one cell iv One cell membrane multinucleated c Myofibrils i Bundles of the myofiber d Myofilaments i Proteins bundled in myofibrils ii Basic structure iii Categories 1 Thick myosin or thin actin e Sarcoplasmic reticulum SR 96 i Surround myofibrils blue ii Creates binding without them there would be no myofibrils iii Holds Caquot2 bank for our calcium f Transverse tubules 393939 grey i Plasma membrane extensions into our cell ii Interstitial fluid inside them IF channels g Mitochondria pink i There are tons ii Create ATP under aerobic conditions iii ATP needed to make the muscle move II Anatomy of a Myofilament 94 a Z line disc thin connections i Disk that goes across myofibril stretches from top to bottom ii Keeps thins in place b Sarcomere functional unit from one Z to the next Z i Important to know how it A size c I band only thin light bands A size i When contracted light areas go away ii When relaxed light areas can be seen d A band length ofthink dark bands no A M line midpoint btwn Z39s f H zone only thick A size i H is within A III More anatomy for muscle function a Myofilaments 93 i Actin thin filament double helix chain myosin site 1 Tropomyosin bound to actin long a When relaxed covers 2 Troponin bound to tm and actin small Ca site ii Myosin thick filament looks like a golf club has binding site for actin amp ATP sites 1 Head crossbridge flexible a Creates bridge across from thick to thin b Flexibility of this head is what drives your muscle movement iii At rest tropomyosin blocks actin myosin binding IV Innervation of Muscle 98 a Motor neurons 2quot Quick Notes Page 19 Like the pull of a rope has to pull then let go Myosin must grab actin binding then bind ATP causes release using of ATP allows to repull Actin is rope myosin does not get moved too Exa m 7 Monday Eeloruary 24 2 14 759 AM 22414 I Muscle Making ATP 922 a Creatine Phosphate i Running ADP XP gtATP ii Initial source of ATP iii Limited supply iv If we augment the amount of creatine in cell we change osmolaritiy cells will load with water body builders muscle swelling v Supply replenished during relaxation 11 relationship with ATP and creatine phosphate b Glycolysis i Glycogen or glucose from the blood glycogen is reason that athletes carbo load the night before ii Used alone during intense or prolonged activity often anaerobic replenished during relaxation iii 12 ATP relationship c Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport Change i Continued supply during moderate exercise need oxygen ii What39s missing from figure 922 Krebs Cycle 1 Amino and fatty acids start there 2 Should be on figure bookmakers lazy II Whole muscles 929 a Contracted produced by small cross bridge cycling sarcomeres i Generates a force tension ii Tension is opposed by the load 1 Basic physiology and exercise physiology differ here 2 Exercise would say that muscle tension is equal to load but physiology says more a Because must include our bodies as well b In terms of exercise physiology the load is so much larger than the other factors that they become insignificant 3 Muscle shortening depends on a Tension to load ratio b Isometric contraction no A in length i Such as trying to liftmove something that you are too weak to move ii Cross bridge cycling occurring without the movement of our joints iii Tension lt load c Isotonic no A in tension shortens TgtL i This is what our muscles are doing most of the time ii Our tension doesn39t keep building because cross bridge cycling will make you continue to use ATP do not want to spend more than we need to iii Degree of contraction related to load 917 green is lightest load purple is biggest load 1 Initial period of isometric contraction tension lt load latent period 2 Larger the load longer this initial period 3 Shortening begins after tension gt load iv Relationships 1 T load gt T latent period 2 T load gt i velocity 3 T load gt i response get load all the way to where we want it partial response is not getting it all the way d Eccentric lengthens i Refers to the muscles only dealing with the load ii Is the muscle dealing with the load or is the muscle moving in some other way e Impact of repeated stimulations APs 920 i Tension is summed red line ii Maintained contraction tetanus going back up before we go all the way back down 1 Unfused tetanus partial relaxation between stimuli 2 Fused tetanus no time between stimuli to return Ca f Differences between myofibers 1 Speed of contraction 1 Fast twitch muscles v slow twitch muscles 2 Differ with respect to amount of ATPase activity 915 3 Hydrolyzing ATP on cross bridge 22614 1 Mechanism for making ATP 1 Oxidative a Vascularized b Protein needs to be amohioathic and big Quick Notes Page 21 Iso same Metric length Tonic tension Name of tetanus shot comes from this because the pathogen causes tetanus but in this case we want tetanus because we want to control tetanus not the pathogen Any type of fiber will be a combination of the two mechanisms 5 Negative input to flexor a Motor neuron can be negatively impacted even if the flexor cannot via interneuron T complexity both sides iv Example withdrawal response drawing back from pain 1 Pain in foot 108 gt spinal cord 2 Interneurons in cord a Flex the joint stimulate the flexors and inhibit the extensors b Stimulate contralateral extensor inhibit contralateral flexor stiffen other leg 3 Result coordinated moving of body away from painful stimulus I Smooth muscle a Locations i ii iii iv Digestive tract Blood vessels Urogenital ducts Glands b Characteristics Not striated layered Autonomic inhibits and stimulates Myofilament arrangement c Myofilaments 933 I ii iii iv v Myosin and actin Thick and thin Thin attaches to dense bodies Thick lie between thins Cells often linked by gap junctions 1 Synchronize contractions d Contraction vii T Caquot2 intracellular 1 Most cells have low calcium in the cytosol Autonomic endocrines chemical stretch pacemaker cells tell calcium to go in at a regular pace Ca activates calmodulin Activates myosin light chain kinase Phosphorylates myosin 934 Cross bridge formation Cross bridge cycling e Relaxation l Caquot2 T myosin light chain phospatase No cross bridge Quick Notes Page 23 iJIIIuaIIIul IIa IIllul uluan IIuu aII IiI uIu ii Often referred to as quotmaster glandquot it39s a matter of opinion but most scientists say its pituitary gland Dr B says hypothalamus is iii Two ways to release endocrines and pituitary gland hypophysis i Pituitary gland i Infundibulum connects bottom of brain to pituitary gland ii Two parts to the pituitary gland way to release endocrines 1 Anterior adenohypophysis a Via portal vasculature b Seven endocrines hypophysiotropic endocrines 2 Posteriorneurohypophysis a Via terminals of hypothalamic neurons b Doesn39t make any endocrines of its own basicallyjust is an extension of the hypothalamus c Two endocrines j Communication overview i Becomes activated by a stress such as your temperature being off 1 Stress neural input 2 Hypothalamus endocrine 1 3 Anterior pituitary endocrine 2 4 Gland endocrine 3 5 Effector target organcells 3514 i Benefits 1118 1 Many opportunities to regulate andor 2 Amplification gt few E1 to many E3 a Recall cell signaling section a Hypothalamus gt hypophysiotropic endocrines 7 i Stimulate 5 1 Corticotropin releasing hormone CRH E1 gt released by hypo and causes our adrenal gland to releases adrenocorticotrpic hormone ACTH E2 2 Thyrotropin releasing hormone TRHE1 gt thyroid stimulating hormone TSHE2 3 Growth hormonereleasing hormone GHRHE1 gt growth hormone GHE2 4 Gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRHE1 gt lutenizing hormone LHE2 and foccilr stimulating hormone FSHE2 5 Prolactin reeasing factor PRFE1 gt prolactin ii Inhibit 1 Somatostatin SS gt growth hormone GH 2 Dopamine DA gt prolactin iii Transmission 1 To anterior pituitary gland via porta veins 1116 b Anterior pituitary hormones i ACTHE2 gt adrenal cortex gland gt cortisolE3 ii TSH gt thyroid gland gt T3 and T4 iii GH gt liverplus gt IGF1insulinlike growth factor1 gtmany organs and tissues gt protein synthesis carbohydrate and lipid metabolism iv FSH and LH gt gonads gt sex hormones v Prolactin gt mammory glands gt T breast tissuemilk vi Beta ipotropin gt puts fat into circulation breaks down fat reserves some animals during winter vii Beta endorphin gt pain killer animas badly damaged but don39t seem to be affected c Posterior Pituitary Hormone i Oxytocin gt lactation and labor contractions function in males gt function as a neurotransmitters allows for more sociable males in animal groups perhaps might be associated with autism ii Vasopressin gt size of blood vessels and keeping water in kidneys anti diuretic hormone ADH iii Both also act as neurotransmitters in other parts of the brain iv Transmission pathway Extension of hypothalamus 1113 d Thyroid gland 1120 i Two lobes straddling trachea below larynx ii Composed of follicles 1 It39s a ce ike structure with a boundary created by cells next to each other creating an isolated space of EC fluid 2 Edged with follicular cells 3 Filled with colloid EC iii Active in fetus gt brain development iv Thyroid hormones TH 1 T4 AKA thyroxine most abundant in circulation better traveler 2 T3 AKA triiodothyronine most active form a Also made from T4 in effectors 3 Exceptions to the amines because they are nonpolar 4 Production a Follicular cells have receptors for TSH b TSH stimulates T3T4 production in colloid c TH then inhibits TSH and TRH 5 Nuclear receptors in most cells have receptors that bind T3 and T4 Quick Notes Page 25 Stress l Hypothalamus l Pituitary l Gland l Effector Cortico cortex Affects more than the liver goes to actual end place to do job Fat short kid to tall normal sized kid Present in humans but not in as large a quantity and as wellknown as in animals Vasopressin ADH a l plasma Ca2 gt T PTH 3 PTH acts to T plasma Ca2 a Bone reabsorption b Retention by kidney c Causes kidney to make Vitamin D ii 125 dihydroxyvitamin D AKA calcitriol 1 Vitamin D is synthesized by UV radiation of precursor molecule in skin 2 Vitamin D converted to active form in liver and kidney kidney conversion due to PTH 3 Active vitamin D dihydoroxyvitamin D stimulates intestinal absorption of Ca 4 Synthetic Vitamin D can be ingested c So how do endocrines get around III Circulatory system a Why not only diffusion 2 mm maximum i Diffusion short required ii Convection long helps b Designed to move substances i Pump heart cardio ii Tubing vessels vasculature iii Fluid blood Quick Notes Page 28
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