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Date Created: 12/10/14
dominant iii Fluid Compartments 3 1 1 Intracellular fluid fluid win cells a 67 of total water z28L 2 Extracellular Fluid fluid outside of cells a 2 Interstitial Fluid fluid between cells i Most likely nonepithelial cells ii 26 of water z11L b 3 Plasma fluid in blood vessels i 7 of water 3L 3 Plasma lt gt Interstitial Fluid lt gt Intercellular Fluid T T Capillary Wall Cell Membrane II Homeostasis relatively stable maintenance of body parameter gtdynamic constancy a Homeostatic Control System i Set of interconnected components ii Purpose keep parameter at set point iii Steady state SS parameter at set point system NOT changing BUT energy is used 1 SS at equilibrium 2 Because energy is limited tradeoffs are required 3 Disturbances from SS a Reactive gt response feedback i Negative opposite of disturbance direction ii Positive continue in disturbance direction b Proactive gt preparation feedforward i Limits the degree of feedback required ii Less energy required iv Reflex Arc 1 Receptor receives external or internal stimulus 2 Afferent Pathway goes to IC 3 Integrating Center a Compare to SP i If same done ii If off 4 Efferent Pathway going away from IC 5 Effector a Get response physiological change III Control for HCS via signals a Chemical Messengers signals i Most travel thru extracellular fluid ii Types 1 Endocrine hormones a Released by gland or neuron b Travel thru plasma c Communicates with distant effectors 2 Paracrine a Released by most cells b Travels thru IF c Communicates with neighbor effectors 3 Neurotransmitters a Released by neurons b Travels thru IF synapse c Communicates with next neighbor neuron or effector Quick Notes Page 2 AKA cytosol AKA EC AKA IF lt gt boundaries barriers gtimit movement Set point is a range returning ex Glucose level lowering move farther from SS AKA FF Integrating Center Afferent Efferent l Receptdr I Effector ReSP Se Negative feedback 2 Voltage gated change in electrical distribution 3 Mechanicallygated membrane stretched iii Special cases 1 Aquaporins water channels 2 Osmosis net diffusion of H2O across a membrane a From high to low water b From low to high solute 3 Measurement osmolarlity a Total solutes in a solution b x of x volume c Ex i 3 mol Mg 2 mol glucose in 1L 5 osm ii 3 mol MgCl2 2 mol glucose in 1L 11 osm 3 mol Mg 23 mol Cl 2 mol glucose 1L d Osmolarity is important because water is going to move based on concentration e Size of cells is impacted by water movement i sotonic same np solutes outside cell no change no movement in or out of cell ii Hypertonic higher concentration of non penetrating solutes outside cell higher osmolarity going toward outside of cell it shrinks Hypotonic lower concentration outside of cell water goes in cell it bloats can blow up 4 Osmotic Pressure OP a Permeable to both no OP because ability to balance out causes equilibrium b Only permeable to H2O no OP c Only H2O permeable and no ability to change size then i H2O diffusion causes pressure ii Force applied to prevent diffusion OP OP when i Semipermeable ii lmmobile e Larger the osmotic difference larger OP 5 Carrier mediated transport a Membrane protein acts as shuttle b Binding of transferring thing regulates transfer c Facilitated diffusion i w gradient no energy cost ii Based only on conformationshape changes iii Can be saturated ie overloaded iv Ex FD is glucose d Active Transport i Almost always goes against gradient energy cost ii Based on conformation changes and ATP iii Primary AT uses ATP directly iii 039 One Transport proteins ATPase pumps ATP gt ADP Pi Ex NaquotKquot ATPase pump ATP binds gt 3 Naquot bind gt hydrolysis of Two ATP gt P stays gt orientation flip gt release P important because releases energy gt orientation flip gt release of Kquot iv Secondary uses ATP indirectly Quick Notes Page 7 Concentration gradient CHTTEFEHCE In concentration Water channel K N O Cell membrane l b A Dquot l239539 quot l 39 Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic Like a turnstyle that gets overloaded goes slower Uses Eq 1 Basis of elevators ii Receptor 1 I affinity a Possible to eliminate the specificity 2 quothidequot receptors gt endocytosiscatabolize iii 2nd messenger b Increase communication T receptors gt exocytosisanabolize II Nervous System a Central so important it is encased in bone i Brain ii Spinal cord b Peripheral i Efferent ii Afferent c Rapid control system i Contrast to endocrines slower system d Start at the smallest unit neuron III Anatomy of a neuron a Cell body has nucleus b Processes connection to other cells i Perform inputoutput ii Parts of neuron 1 Dendrites a Could have 400000 b Gather info i Neurotransmitters ii Environmentalstimuli c Increase surface area i More receptors 2 Axon AKA nerve fiber a Some long 1 m b Cell body to effector c Delivers info i Axon terminals ii Release neurotransmitters d Coateras branching off at axon that is nt the cell body or axon terminal Further the influence i More collaterals more influence it has on the neuron iii Myelin other cells 1 Specialized extensions of plasma membrane 2 Wrapped around axons for insulation a In peripheral nervous system PNS gt schwann cells gt cover one section of one axon i When we lose these we lose one If need to give up give up these b In central nervous system CNS gt oligodendrocytes gt cover several i If we lose these we will lose more c Breaks nodes of Ranvier gt expose axon to IF IV CNS Compositions a Neurons glial cells AKA neuroglia i Physically and metabolically support neurons ii 90 of the cells are glial cells but 50 of volume of CNS because of size differences between neurons and glial b Types i Oligodendrocyte ii Microglial 1 Macrophagelike cell 2 Immune iii Ependymal cells 1 Line the cavity 2 Produce fluid iv Astrocytes 1 Regulate EC composition a Removes Kquot and neurotransmitters b Stimulates tight junctions in capillary walls c Metabolic support glucose and ammonia Quick Notes Page 10 Turn off phone not going to get the message Checking all possible options to get message Anabolize to make Efferent getting info Afferent making things happen Processes little arms that extend out of cell in neuron Dendrites arms that look the same on neuron Branching off ends and need for multiple dendrites enlarges surface area Axon arm that looks different than the rest It travels the entire distance from spinal cord to where it works pinky toes Axon terminals little legs at the end of axon 66 Microglial cracks in the windshield police force in neurons due to bloodbrain barrier 2 Neural growth a Problems in fetal growth 3 Signal system a Has been studied but hasn39t been established V Type of Neurons a Afferent i Carry info from receptor or stimulus ii Body of most of axon parts in PNS iii Small amount of axon parts in CNS iv Gathering and sending info b Efferent i Carry info to effector eg muscle gland neuron ii Most of axon in PNS iii Body dendrites in CNS c Interneuron i Relays info from eg A to E ii No parts in PNS iii All parts in CNS by definition d For every afferent there are 10 efferent for every afferent there are 200k interneuron VI Synapse Types a Electrical fastest two way i Via gap junctions touching b Chemical slower oneway i Neurotransmitter in space nontouching c Most in body are chemical i Electricity goes back and forth ii Chemical goes only one direction 1 Always gets us where we want to be d Chemical composition i Presynaptic and postsynaptic ii Interstitial fluid between neurons e Chemical terms i Convergence pregtpost ii Divergencepreltpost VII Membrane Potential a Electrical charge separation across plasma membrane due to distribution of charge components i eg most cells inside T negativity b Electrochemicalgradient i Net G conc G elec G ii Directions 1 Same eg Naquot 2 Opposite eg Kquot a One will dominate b Need to know sizes Quick Notes Page 11 Exa m 4 Monday February 33 2 14 759 AM 2314 I Membrane Potential cont a Measure of voltage gradient i Vm voltage across membrane 1 One part outside cell in extracellularfluid one inside of cell 2 At rest most cells Vm 70 mV a House electrical outlet is approx 120 V 3 Usually negative on the inside ii Due to all charged components 1 Vm 2 Ex of all ions 2 Ex equilibrium potential a V at which the electrical and concentration gradient for a component are balanced b Alter PM permeability i T permeability gt ions move gt Avm graded potential E A in ion flow 1 Biggest change closest to opening channel lower the farther you get away like a door in a room changing temperature in room II Graded Potentials GP a Terms As from rest AKA polarized i Membrane potential Vm ii Depolarized J negative going toward 0 mV stimulating iii Hyperpolarized T negative going below 70 mV inhibiting iv Repolarizing return to rest return to 70 mV b Characteristics i T stimulus gt T size of graded potential so signal ii T distance from stimulus site gt J size of graded potential so signal 1 This is a problem c What is GP occurs near voltagegated channel III Action Potentials AP a In excitable cells GP can cause i Quick large As in Vm 1 All cells have GP only excitable cells have AP ii Allornone event either has all the necessary criteria and goes or doesn39t and it doesn39t go 1 Like pregnancy you either are or you aren39t iii Components needed to be excitable 1 Votage gated Naquot channels with inactivator a After a short time they will be affectively closed inactivator i Like dog and door your leg in front of dog is inactivator 2 Voltagegated Kquot channels IV Events of an AP a Membrane at rest 70 mV b Local depolarization reaches threshold potential TP causes voltagegated Naquot channels to open c Naquot influx more depolarization i Example of positive feedback Naquot channel inactivated Kquot channels open Kquot outflux cell repolarizes Naquot channels close Cell hyperpolarized since Kquot slow to close Kquot channels close feedback V Action Potentials cont a Threshold potential TP i Vm required to activate Naquot channels ii Stimulus then generated by Naquot influx iii Weak depolarizations subthreshold potentials iv AP amplitude aka size if occur 1 Independent of stimulus 2 No change in size no graded potential v Practical application 1 We want these things happening in excitable cells so that they can be sent long messages 2 Local anesthetics many block Naquot channels hf 2514 I Action Potentials cont a Propagation down axon i Adjacent sections of plasma membrane 1 No movement 2 One starts the next 3 Graded potential or action potential acts like dominos As long as we put enough force on one domino then it will continue to go down the line It does not work on one action potential but many We can get the last one to fall over from this ii As distance increases no change in size fixed our distance probemso no signal change Quick Notes Page 12 Mom tram pcxxzm al mv hmn jmsnc I S 39ui 5 Ruling Potential N39 I39 pro Depolarisation vi lIzID Qialuzl Pug x39uvnuI Ropolanntion 39ltcJIugelt3neJ K ryrv Resung Potential Na3939lt39 12 2 Receptor cell to neuron end 1 Speed difference a Top will occur faster b Bottom is more common though c If slow what39s the benefit i Specialization is the reason ii Allows for more changes b Types are specific but not i Mechanoreceptors pressure or stretch ii Thermoreceptors temperature iii Photoreceptors light waves AKA photons iv Chemoreceptorschemicals v Nociceptors painful stimuli eg heat or tissue damage 21214 a Coding intensity location sensory transduction 72 i Intensity 1 Variable stimulus 2 Variable receptor potentials graded potential a Size of GP matches size of stimulus b Need to get from afferent to spinal cord i Problem distance c Answer variable action potential pattern i Bigger stimulus means more action potentials not magnitude ii Afferent and interneuron problem d Answer variable neurotransmitter amount 3 TStimulus gt TAP frequency gt T of NT ii Location 74 1 Receptive field area covered bottom part of the figure a Size related to localizing 76 gt narrow more specific b Larger the receptive field larger the area of pain i T receptive field gt i localization c Density related to sensitivity d Sensitivity combines stimuli i Higher density of receptive field means more sensitive One Pressure is felt more in finger then in your back e Receptive field overlap possible get recruitment 78 i Like a Venn diagram ii Stimulus in overlap send message from A and C and comes back to only overlap iii Stimulus is A only sends A iv OVERLAP MEANS IT WILL BE DENSER 2 Lateral inhibition rubbing area of pain to make it go away 79 sharpens the pattern contrast a Afferent neurons send to CNS but also try to stop other neurons from sending signal putting others down to look better i Hyperpolarization of the other neurons One Causes cross over Two Causes all to be inhibited ii Rubbing helps because causes A and C to send messages so that they will inhibit the painful stimuli at B iii Same reasoning of scratching around a mosquito bite I Processing a Ascending pathway in CNS 714 i Brain stem gt thalamus gt cerebrum with cross eg left hand to right hemisphere ii To specific brain regions eg visual auditory taste 713 1 Reasoning that brain injuries might only affect certain areas of life iii Impact can be impacted by output 712 1 Drops down some information in order to choose what is most important 2 Perception 3 We don39t think about the clothes that rub against us as we wear them a New watch feels weird on skin but after a while you get used to it 4 Just because message is being sent doesn39t mean the brain is receiving it II Somatosensory System a Info skin muscles bones tendonsjoints i How contracted are they how warm are they what kind of pressure do they feel b Type to gather info free or modified afferent terminals i Less precise info but faster info ii This system is faster than audio or visual system iii More primitive c Components what do we gather i Thermorecptors and mechanoreceptors pressure ii Nociceptors detect products of damaged and immune cells 1 Reason your body aches when you are sick iii Spatiallyrelated position in brain where info is received in brain 720 1 Cortical projection 2 Aka homunculus means little man picture of body the brain has a Can feel things if touch parts of brain even if you don39t actually feel anything civil war injuries Quick Notes Page 16 get APs moving along the afferent39s axon toward the CNS 2 receptor cell that passes info on to neuron end happens slower First a separate cell eg stereocilia registers the stimulus and communicates via chemical signals with the afferent neuron to get the APs moving along the afferent39s axon toward the CNS Not only does explaining it take longer but it physically takes longer for a message to reach the brain about a stimulus via this method So what exactly was the benefit of the second type even though this second method occurs at a slower rate We can change that separate cell to fine tune it for a particular stimulus eg stereocilia rod cone Those changes cannot be done with the afferent39s terminal without hindering its primary function The idea is will two stimuli hitting the body near each other be recognized as two stimuli or will they get lumped as one stimuli Smaller and denser receptive fields allow for greater sensitivity recruitment means that more than one receptive field might fire as the result of a stimulus This can occur due to overlap of the fields andor size of the stimulus When you say that recruitment can occur quotdue to overlap of the fields andor size of the stimulusquot are you referring to quotstimulus sizequot as the magnitudeintensity of the stimulus or the size of the area that the stimulus activates withinbetween receptive fields More the later A large stimulus will impact multiple receptive fields eg hit by a baseball versus a golf ball excited neurons naturally inhibit their neighbors Remember that this system requires the greatest speed and is the most primitive system Therefore it is achieved eitherjust by the ends of the afferent terminals or by slight modifications of those ends to focus on particular stimuli eg temp pressure pain the somatosensory system uses only the first design of afferent receptors we talked about directly by end of neuron 1 Type sensory receptors directly by afferent neuron end are located in the somatosensory system hence the speed of the skin in sensing a stimulus Exa m 6 We Ines Iay Eebruany 19 2 14 E33 1 AM Visual System 721 722 726 727 0 Info energy waves 0 Type photoreceptors 0 Components of eye 0 Cornea and lens help focus an image so that it hits properly on the retina For example if the eye it too narrow it is not hitting right on the retina and the vision is blurry If you need glasses then your eye is not shaped properly 0 Retina transforms into signal I Receptors at back For the light to get to the photoreceptors it has to go through all of the cells including the afferent neurons It needs to be more intense to make it through to hit the receptors and get registered Need more intense light to have receptors activated 0 Octopus has the first thing light hits is the receptors if it goes to low light place then it can see more You can see cats and dogs eyes at light because it reflects back I Afferents in front Light comes in gets registered info goes back towards the light and make a U turn because the light is actually in the back I Where afferents exit no receptors blind spot Everyone has the blind spot Usually 45 degrees o Vmus G9 to the side 0 Encoding happens in process of receptors Two receptors Both pick up on photons of light 732 0 Rods dim light blackwhite rods can still stay active but lose the cones When it starts to get darker you start to lose the ability to see color 0 Cones only work under bright conditions see color 0 Color vision based on three cone pigments BGR blue green and red I We see that the red ones respond outside ofjust the red range I What about yellow Multiple cones activated Determines on how much of receptor is shown and what color are responding I When yellow hits yellow gets a little bit of activation from green no from blue and a reasonable activation of the red ones I Colorblind Usually an issue with their cones U quotacking pigments I Red green is the most common form of colorblindness 10 20 of white male population has this colorblindness 0 Not only bad for them but for us too because traffic lights are red and green and they can39t see that They know the position of the stop light though When it is pitch dark out and you can39t see the background to see if it is on the top or the bottom There are reflectors around the whole perimeter so people can figure out which one is being shown Chemosensory System 748 747 0 Information dissolved chemicals must be present in water 0 Type chemoreceptors 0 Components o External taste and smell o Internal pH 02 CO2 etc 0 Taste in mouth and throat We have them in throat If they have a weird aftertaste it39s when you swallow and taste it differently in your throat o Lots of surface area more receptors more things we can pick up on 0 Categories I Salt Na channels Important because it is a vital component of action potentials getting our cells to work properly and used to not have enough salt I Sour H blocks K channels Acidic component Care about this because we do not want to mess up the acidity in the body H mess up the movement of K in and out of the receptors I Sweet sugars bind Like glucose We should care this is present because we change the sugars into energy historically there use to not be as much sugar I Bitter various substances bind to these receptors There are subcategories ofthese receptors These are types ofthings we do not want to ingest much We avoid things that are bitter We do not want high levels in our body because they become toxic I Umami glutamateMSG bind Bind glutamate and an agonist called MSG Umami means an enjoyable flavor Flavorful Things that have this in it you will eat more If you have one brownies and another brownie with MSG then people will eat the one with MSG Why do we want this It is a key component to do cell metabolism pathway I Likely adding a fat receptor soon 0 Olfactionz in nasal passages Receptors are present in the nasal passages now In order for us to detect this we detect dissolved chemicals If our nose is wet we can dissolve and detect smells but if it is dry then we cannot smell as much 0 Receptors I Differ in type and quantity I Last only about 2 months Changing input by what receptors replace If you work in one place and it has a detective smell then you do not smell it as much Farmers have poop on shoe don39t smell it but smell trash in the city City people don39t smell stuff as much there but can smell the poop more If you cannot smell your perfume as much anymore it39s because you have gotten used to it Perception 0 How we interpret these signals We have to gather what we process cerebral Quick Notes Page 18 Exa m 7 Monday Eeloruary 24 2 14 759 AM 22414 I Muscle Making ATP 922 a Creatine Phosphate i Running ADP XP gtATP ii Initial source of ATP iii Limited supply iv If we augment the amount of creatine in cell we change osmolaritiy cells will load with water body builders muscle swelling v Supply replenished during relaxation 11 relationship with ATP and creatine phosphate b Glycolysis i Glycogen or glucose from the blood glycogen is reason that athletes carbo load the night before ii Used alone during intense or prolonged activity often anaerobic replenished during relaxation iii 12 ATP relationship c Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport Change i Continued supply during moderate exercise need oxygen ii What39s missing from figure 922 Krebs Cycle 1 Amino and fatty acids start there 2 Should be on figure bookmakers lazy II Whole muscles 929 a Contracted produced by small cross bridge cycling sarcomeres i Generates a force tension ii Tension is opposed by the load 1 Basic physiology and exercise physiology differ here 2 Exercise would say that muscle tension is equal to load but physiology says more a Because must include our bodies as well b In terms of exercise physiology the load is so much larger than the other factors that they become insignificant 3 Muscle shortening depends on a Tension to load ratio b Isometric contraction no A in length i Such as trying to liftmove something that you are too weak to move ii Cross bridge cycling occurring without the movement of our joints iii Tension lt load c Isotonic no A in tension shortens TgtL i This is what our muscles are doing most of the time ii Our tension doesn39t keep building because cross bridge cycling will make you continue to use ATP do not want to spend more than we need to iii Degree of contraction related to load 917 green is lightest load purple is biggest load 1 Initial period of isometric contraction tension lt load latent period 2 Larger the load longer this initial period 3 Shortening begins after tension gt load iv Relationships 1 T load gt T latent period 2 T load gt i velocity 3 T load gt i response get load all the way to where we want it partial response is not getting it all the way d Eccentric lengthens i Refers to the muscles only dealing with the load ii Is the muscle dealing with the load or is the muscle moving in some other way e Impact of repeated stimulations APs 920 i Tension is summed red line ii Maintained contraction tetanus going back up before we go all the way back down 1 Unfused tetanus partial relaxation between stimuli 2 Fused tetanus no time between stimuli to return Ca f Differences between myofibers 1 Speed of contraction 1 Fast twitch muscles v slow twitch muscles 2 Differ with respect to amount of ATPase activity 915 3 Hydrolyzing ATP on cross bridge 22614 1 Mechanism for making ATP 1 Oxidative a Vascularized b Protein needs to be amohioathic and big Quick Notes Page 21 Iso same Metric length Tonic tension Name of tetanus shot comes from this because the pathogen causes tetanus but in this case we want tetanus because we want to control tetanus not the pathogen Any type of fiber will be a combination of the two mechanisms 5 Negative input to flexor a Motor neuron can be negatively impacted even if the flexor cannot via interneuron T complexity both sides iv Example withdrawal response drawing back from pain 1 Pain in foot 108 gt spinal cord 2 Interneurons in cord a Flex the joint stimulate the flexors and inhibit the extensors b Stimulate contralateral extensor inhibit contralateral flexor stiffen other leg 3 Result coordinated moving of body away from painful stimulus I Smooth muscle a Locations i ii iii iv Digestive tract Blood vessels Urogenital ducts Glands b Characteristics Not striated layered Autonomic inhibits and stimulates Myofilament arrangement c Myofilaments 933 I ii iii iv v Myosin and actin Thick and thin Thin attaches to dense bodies Thick lie between thins Cells often linked by gap junctions 1 Synchronize contractions d Contraction vii T Caquot2 intracellular 1 Most cells have low calcium in the cytosol Autonomic endocrines chemical stretch pacemaker cells tell calcium to go in at a regular pace Ca activates calmodulin Activates myosin light chain kinase Phosphorylates myosin 934 Cross bridge formation Cross bridge cycling e Relaxation l Caquot2 T myosin light chain phospatase No cross bridge Quick Notes Page 23 iJIIIuaIIIul IIa IIllul uluan IIuu aII IiI uIu ii Often referred to as quotmaster glandquot it39s a matter of opinion but most scientists say its pituitary gland Dr B says hypothalamus is iii Two ways to release endocrines and pituitary gland hypophysis i Pituitary gland i Infundibulum connects bottom of brain to pituitary gland ii Two parts to the pituitary gland way to release endocrines 1 Anterior adenohypophysis a Via portal vasculature b Seven endocrines hypophysiotropic endocrines 2 Posteriorneurohypophysis a Via terminals of hypothalamic neurons b Doesn39t make any endocrines of its own basicallyjust is an extension of the hypothalamus c Two endocrines j Communication overview i Becomes activated by a stress such as your temperature being off 1 Stress neural input 2 Hypothalamus endocrine 1 3 Anterior pituitary endocrine 2 4 Gland endocrine 3 5 Effector target organcells 3514 i Benefits 1118 1 Many opportunities to regulate andor 2 Amplification gt few E1 to many E3 a Recall cell signaling section a Hypothalamus gt hypophysiotropic endocrines 7 i Stimulate 5 1 Corticotropin releasing hormone CRH E1 gt released by hypo and causes our adrenal gland to releases adrenocorticotrpic hormone ACTH E2 2 Thyrotropin releasing hormone TRHE1 gt thyroid stimulating hormone TSHE2 3 Growth hormonereleasing hormone GHRHE1 gt growth hormone GHE2 4 Gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRHE1 gt lutenizing hormone LHE2 and foccilr stimulating hormone FSHE2 5 Prolactin reeasing factor PRFE1 gt prolactin ii Inhibit 1 Somatostatin SS gt growth hormone GH 2 Dopamine DA gt prolactin iii Transmission 1 To anterior pituitary gland via porta veins 1116 b Anterior pituitary hormones i ACTHE2 gt adrenal cortex gland gt cortisolE3 ii TSH gt thyroid gland gt T3 and T4 iii GH gt liverplus gt IGF1insulinlike growth factor1 gtmany organs and tissues gt protein synthesis carbohydrate and lipid metabolism iv FSH and LH gt gonads gt sex hormones v Prolactin gt mammory glands gt T breast tissuemilk vi Beta ipotropin gt puts fat into circulation breaks down fat reserves some animals during winter vii Beta endorphin gt pain killer animas badly damaged but don39t seem to be affected c Posterior Pituitary Hormone i Oxytocin gt lactation and labor contractions function in males gt function as a neurotransmitters allows for more sociable males in animal groups perhaps might be associated with autism ii Vasopressin gt size of blood vessels and keeping water in kidneys anti diuretic hormone ADH iii Both also act as neurotransmitters in other parts of the brain iv Transmission pathway Extension of hypothalamus 1113 d Thyroid gland 1120 i Two lobes straddling trachea below larynx ii Composed of follicles 1 It39s a ce ike structure with a boundary created by cells next to each other creating an isolated space of EC fluid 2 Edged with follicular cells 3 Filled with colloid EC iii Active in fetus gt brain development iv Thyroid hormones TH 1 T4 AKA thyroxine most abundant in circulation better traveler 2 T3 AKA triiodothyronine most active form a Also made from T4 in effectors 3 Exceptions to the amines because they are nonpolar 4 Production a Follicular cells have receptors for TSH b TSH stimulates T3T4 production in colloid c TH then inhibits TSH and TRH 5 Nuclear receptors in most cells have receptors that bind T3 and T4 Quick Notes Page 25 Stress l Hypothalamus l Pituitary l Gland l Effector Cortico cortex Affects more than the liver goes to actual end place to do job Fat short kid to tall normal sized kid Present in humans but not in as large a quantity and as wellknown as in animals Vasopressin ADH 2 Adrenal insufficiency low cortisol a Weak b l glucose levels c l blood pressure d AKA Addison39s syndrome 3 Cushing39s syndrome gt too much cortisol a l bone strength b T glucose c T blood pressure d l immune e Obesity 31914 I Endocrine system cont a Processes regulating somatic growth i Somatic growth requires protein synthesis for cell division ii Height growth of bones 1 Adding new cells at epiphyseal plates 1126 iii Growth of other tissues based on cell proliferation via mitosis b Endocrine control of growth i Growth hormone GH 1 Secreted from anterior pituitary gland a Regulated by GHRH and SS b Highest levels during development c High levels cause growth spurts 2 Actions a Primary stimulate IGF1 i From liver but bones too ii Causes cell proliferation b Stimulates muscle development pro athete scandals c Mobilizes nutrients filling out that happens before growth hormones ii Other endocrines 1 TH needed for GH synthesis and effect 2 Cortisol can inhibit growth a Inhibits GH secretion b Opposes the effects of GH in tissues 3 Insulin promotes growth packs away nutrients 4 Sex steroid stimulate secretion of GH and IGF 1 a Closure of epiphyseal plates b Testosterone is anabolic builds tissues II Regulation of calcium a Three systems involved in Ca homeostasis i Bone 1 Contains99 of total 2 Constant remodeling if you don t use em you lose em ii Kidney 1 Filters plasma 2 Regulates Ca excretioncacium in urine iii Gastrointestinaltract 1 Site of Ca absorption from diet b Two major endocrines i Parathyroid hormone PTH 1 Produced by parathyroid glands 1130 white dots 2 Glands have a receptor for Ca Quick Notes Page 27
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