Chapter 17: Blood
Chapter 17: Blood KNR 182
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This 75 page Bundle was uploaded by Christina on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KNR 182 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Rinaldi-MIles in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II (lecture) in Kinesiology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
ICltgtZ gtZgtOltlt W uIltmOrO lt XZE Amm 0222 Q wooo Functions of the Circulatory System 1 Transport all substances essential for cellular metabolism are transported by the circulatory system When you think of the circulatory system think transport Everything in your body that needs to be moved is transported via blood Venus Cardiovascular Systh Bland I Carbohydrates GIFCUIFSiS Carbulty rates Capillaries Lipids Pmteins Carbnn gt I a Dinxide Ca mn Dlm de Kreb 5 Cycle 39 K El ctn m Transan Chain I J Oxygm Oxygen E III A Capillary beds 01 lungs where gas exchange occurs Pulmonary velns r Aorta and Venae 39 w o nches Blue cavae Deoxygenated oxygen poor blood C02 rich Red oxygenated blood beds ol all K V39 body llssues Oxygen nch where gas cozpoor blood exchange 0xygen poor occum COzn39ch blood Copyright 02001 Benjamln Cmnmlngs an impnnl ol Adason Wesley Longnan Inc Functions of the Circulatory System 1 Transport Types of substances a Respiratory RBC carry oxygen to tissuescells from the lungs RBC carry carbon dioxide to the lungs from the tissuecells CO2 metabolic waste can influence blood pH levels Excreted via circulatory system b Nutritive digestive system breaks down food organic molecules blood carries those molecules to the liver and tissues of the body where they can be used c Excretory metabolic wastes H20 amp ions filtered by kidneys from blood Waste product of cellular respiration Functions of the Circulatory System 2 Regulation blood carries hormones and other regulatory molecules These control a variety of tissuecellular functions essential for life Hormones regulate so many process in the body Where hormones are produced does not necessarily mean that that is where it acts on ex Female hormones created in pituitary gland have to be transported to ovaries in order to stimulate ovulation 3 Protection protects against injury and foreign microbes or toxins within the body clotting mechanisms white blood cells leukocytes Circulatory System Divided into two main components or divisions 1 Cardiovascular System Pump Heart Fluid Blood Passageways Blood Vessels arteries capillaries veins 2 Lymphatic System Pump Heart Fluid Lymph Passageways Lymph Vessels Lymph Nodes whether something goes to cardiovascular or lymph system depends on the molecule Blood Composition Blood a fluid connective tissue composed of Plasma Formed elements Erythrocytes red blood cells or RBCs Leukocytes white blood cells or WBCs Thrombocytes platelets Physical Characteristics and Volume Sticky opaque fluid Color scarlet to dark red maroon depends on if it is oxygenated or deoxygenated pH 735 745 Lower than 735 risk acidosis Higher than 745 risk alkalosis 380C Average volume 5 6 L for males and 4 5 L for females Overall average blood volume 5 liters Blood Composition Blood viscosity Blood has a viscosity thickness stickiness of 45 to 55 water viscosity 10 Blood flows 45 to 55 times slower than water ie quotblood is thicker than waterquot Blood is sticky and has elements that adds to the blood s viscosity Blood weight is approximately 8 of the total body weight Blood Composition Two main types of blood Blood can be classified as Arterial blood oxygenated oxyhemoglobin found in arteries and pulmonary vein oxygenhemoglobin saturation approximately 9798 bright red Venous blood deoxygenated found in veins and pulmonary artery oxygenhemoglobin saturation approximately 75 darker in color blue o1 lungs where quot gas exchange r Capiltary beds atrium night I mm Systemic Cltcult COzn39ch blood Copyright 2001 Benjamin Cummings an 501th o Addson Wesley Longnan Inc Blood Composition Two main components of the blood Plasma 5055 of blood volume 1 water 2 solutesparticles Formed Elements 4550 of blood volume 1 Erythrocytes RBC 2 Leukocytes WBC 3 Thrombocytes platelets Formed elements Plasma o 55 of whole blood l Least dense component j Buffy coat Leukocytes and platelets lt1 of whole blood 39 Erythrocytes CD Withdraw Centrifuge the 45 of whole blood blood and place blood sample Most dense in tube component Plasma lightere top Buffy coat a little bit heavier9 middle Ertyhrocytes heaviest9bottom Figure 171 Hematocrit the percentage of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes Males 47 Females 42 Hemoglobin the oxygen carrying protein of erythrocytes Males 1318 g100 ml Females 1216 g100 ml Blood Plasma Plasma 50 to 55 of total blood volume straw colored liquid containing dissolved substances liquid left after formed elements are removed Composition of plasma 90 water Proteins are mostly produced by the liver 60 albumin 36 globulins 4 fibrinogen Blood Plasma Solutesparticles dissolved in the plasma Protein 79 of all solutes are protein 1 albumin 6080 of all plasma protein functions to help maintain blood osmotic pressure amp give viscosity to the blood therefore maintaining blood volume amp blood pressure Maintains net osmotic pressure 2 globulins 36 of all plasma protein alpha amp beta transport lipids amp fat soluble vitamins gamma constitute antibodies of immunity 3 fibrinogen 4 of total plasma protein assist thrombocytes in the formation of blood clots Blood Plasma Solutesparticles dissolved in the plasma continued Nonprotein substances breakdown products of cellular metabolism creatine urea uric acid Monomers of digestion food substances from the digestive system carbohydrates monosaccharides lipids proteins amino acids Regulatory substances hormones insulin glucagon etc Blood Plasma Solutesparticles dissolved in the plasma con t Respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide Dissolved and transported in blood plasma Not the main way they are moved but it is a way of transport Electrolytes atomsions sodium Na potassium K calcium Ca magnesium Mg chloride Cl bicarbonate HCO3 Formed Elements Formed elements or cells 45 to 50 of total blood volume Types of formed elements or cells Erythocytes RBCs Leukocytes WBCs Thrombyocytes platelets Formed Elements 1 Erythrocytes red blood cells RBCs Most numerous type of blood cell Carry oxygen to all cells of the body Biconcave anucleate essentially no organelles Anucleate no nucleus No organellescan produce ATP anaerobically Biconcave looks like a donut but the hole is not taken out Uniqe shape allows it to bind to more oxgen because it has more surface area No mitochondria ATP production is anaerobic no 02 is used in generation of ATP Major factor contributing to blood viscosity Contains hemoglobin Hb which functions to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide within the blood I Ill I Il Number of Duration of cellsmm pl development D Cell type Illustration Desm39pll39on of blood and life span IS Function Erythrocytes Blconcave anucleate 4 6 million 05 7 days Transport oxygen and red blood cells disc salmoncolored LS 100120 days carbon dioxide RBCs diameter 7 8 pm 3920 pm Side view 750m Top View Copyright 02001 Benlamln Cummings an lmprlnl ol Addison Wesley Longman Inc Erythrocyte Function Hemoglobin structure Protein globin two alpha and two beta chains Heme pigment bonded to each globin chain 2 alpha and 2 beta chains Iron atom in each heme can bind to one 02 molecule Each Hb molecule can transport four 02 1 RBC 250 million hemoglobin molecules 1 billion molecules of 02 3 Globin chains aw 1 w 0c Globin chains a Hemoglobin consists of globin two b Ironcontaining heme pigment alpha and two beta polypeptide chains and four heme groups Figure 174 Check your comprehension Q Red blood cells are efficient 2 transport cells Which is the major contributor to the significant oxygen carrying function A Concave Shape Check your comprehension Each hemoglobin can transport 4 oxygen atoms Formed Elements 2 Leukocytes white blood cells WBC Function to aid in defense against infections by microorganisms Contain nucleus amp mitochondria The only complete cell of the types of blood cells Can move in and out of the blood vessels The name given to this movement process is called diapedesis Can move to other parts of the body because infection does not just stay within the blood Formed Elements Types of leukocytes Granular leukocytes 1 Eosinophils 2 Basophils 3 Neutrophils Agranular leukocytes 1 Lymphocytes 2 Monocytes Differential WBC t can Order of abundance Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas 10800l Neutrophs Formed Lymphocytes elements Monocytes Eosinophils Basophis Platelets Granulocytes Neutrophils 50 70 Leukocytes Eosinophils 2 4 Basophils 05 1 Erythrocytes Ag ranulocytes Lymphocytes 25 45 Monocytes 3 8 Figure 179 Granulocytes Granulocytes neutrophils eosinophils and basophils Cytoplasmic granules stain specifically with Wright s stain Larger in size and shorterlived than RBCs Lobed nuclei Phagocytic Neutrophils Most numerous of the WBCs Polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMNs Give the cytoplasm a lilac color Very phagocytic bacteria slayers we come in contact and ingest with lots of different kinds of bacteria why they are the most numerous Eosinophils Redstaining bilobed nuclei Red to crimson acidophilic coarse Digest parasitic worms that are too large to be phagocyuzed We typically don t come in contact with a ton of parasites Modulators of the immune response Basophils Rarest least numerous WBCs Large purplishblack basophilic granules contain histamine Histamine an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs to inflamed sites Found in the granules of basophils It 41 quot a Neutrophil multilobed nucleus b Eosinophil bilobed nucleus red cytoplasmic granules c Basophil bilobed nucleus purplishblack cytoplasmic granules Figure 1710 ac Ag ranulocytes Agranulocytes lymphocytes and monocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules No cytoplasmic granules in front of a word means that it is not there Have spherical or kidneyshaped nuclei Lymphocytes Large darkpurple circular nuclei with a thin rim of blue cytoplasm Mostly in lymphoid tissue few circulate in the blood Crucial to immunity Mounting our immune response 2nOI most common of the WBC s Two types mad against virusinfected cells and tumor cells When fighting a virus it signals B cells to rise up and make more antibodies B cells give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies HIV retrovirus stimulates B cells to create more of the viruses Monocytes The largest leukocytes Abundant paleblue cytoplasm Leave circulation enter tissues and differentiate into macrophages Actively phagocytic cells crucial against viruses intracellular bacterial parasites and chronic infections Very large so they can ingest lots of different pathogens Activate lymphocytes to mount an immune response L d Small e Monocyte lymphocyte kidneyshaped large spherical nucleus nucleus Figure 1710d e i l a it 39 light in ifquot 39EL39LLl 1i Erythrocytes Biconcave anucleate 4 6 million D about 15 days Transport oxygen and red blood cells disc salmoncolored LS 100 120 days carbon dioxide RBCs diameter 7 8 um Leukocytes Spherical nucleated 4800 10800 white blood cells cells WBCs Granulocytes Neutrophil Nucleus multilobed 3000 7000 D about 14 days Phagocytize bacteria inconspicuous cyto LS 6 hours to a plasmic granules few days diameter 10 12 um o Eosinophil Nucleus bilobed red 100 400 D about 14 days Kill parasitic worms cytoplasmic granules LS about 5 days complex role in allergy diameter 10 14 um and asthma Basophil Nucleus bilobed large 20 50 D 1 7 days Release histamine purplishblack cyto plasmic granules diameter 10 14 pm LS a few hours to a few days and other mediators of inflammation contain heparin an anticoagulant Appearance when stained with Wright39s stain Table 172 1 of 2 lmportant chart from text book margaritas iiiBlu g illilateral iil fifmimmatai 39 flll ijili i lJHELJ gullii l ZIEI 1 13133le Elijah ii liftltiliiii M i 27 QUE 216 v 5th ME 1quot Elli Agranulocytes Lymphocyte Nucleus spherical or 15003000 D days to weeks Mount immune re indented pale blue LS hours to years sponse by direct cell at cytoplasm diameter tack or via antibodies 517 um Monocyte Nucleus U or kidney 100 700 D 2 3 days Phagocytosis develop shaped grayblue LS months into macrophages in cytoplasm diameter the tissues 1424 pm Platelets I Discoid cytoplasmic 150000 400000 D 4 5 days Seal small tears in blood quot 9 fragments containing LS 5 10 days vessels instrumental in la 4 3 granules stain deep blood clotting 5 5397 purple diameter 51 g 2 4 um 54 J 3 Appearance when stained with Wright39s stain Table 172 2 of 2 Formed Elements 3 Thrombocytes or platelets Function to assist the blood clotting mechanisms No nucleus Not a complete cell Not truly a cell but cell fragments cytoplasmic fragments of large cells megakaryocytes The phospholipid in their membrane serve to activate the clotting factors in plasma Check Your Comprehension An elevated neutrophil count would be indicative of Q acute bacterial infection Whv blood is one of the first things that a physician will test when trying to figure out what is wrong Check Your Comprehension Antihistamines counter the actions of which WBC basoths Blood Cell Formation Formation of Blood Cells Hemopoiesis is the name of the process in which blood cells are formed Hemo blood poesiscreation creation of new blood cells Body produces1 oz of blood cells a day constantly creating new blood cells Erythropoiesis formation of erythrocytes BBCs Estimated that 25 million erythrocytes are produced every second in order to replace those destroyed Life span 120 days Leukopoiesis formation of leukocytes WBCs Granular leukocytes 12 hours 3 day life span Agranular leukocytes 100300 day life span Blood Cell Formation Location of blood cell formation Myeloid Tissue red bone marrow Humen Femora R39bs Eryropoiesis amp Sternum gt Leukopoiesis Vertebrae Parts of the skull Lymphoid Tissue lymphatic tissues immune response system Lymph Nodes Tonsils Spleen Leukopoiesis Thymus Formation of Blood cells Hemopissis starts with hemocyoblast Stem cell can become9 all 3 kinds of blood cells Blood Cell Formation Formation of Blood Cells Hemopoiesis starts with hemocytoblast stem cell RBC Stem cell WBC f Thrombocytes Erithropoiesis Erythropoietin MUST be secreted in order for erythropoiesis to occur Stem cell Developmental paumay gt Phaso1 Phasoz Phases Rbosomo synthesis I lHemoglobin accumulation I Elodionotnudous If v gt gtlr gt Early Late I erylhmblast euy uoblast Nonnoblast Rellculocyte Etylhtocym Copyright 0 2001 Bamamm Cummings an impdm ol Addlson Wesley Longman Inc Erythropoiesis The higher the altitude increase in erythropoiesis increase in 02 carrying capacity Olympic training center in in Colorado springs naturally induce this kind of response in athletes Artificially induced polycythemia ARTIFICIALLY induced polvcvthemia R88 are removed and stored body replaces RBCs RBCs are reinfused into the bloodstream Ingestion of external source of Erythropoietin EPO Increase in endurance and speed Increase in blood viscosity stroke heart attack 1 contributor to blood viscosity RBCs When blood is thicker the heart has to work much harder to pump blood Unethical and banned Natural limits to how much RBCs our body can produce When the international federations test for doping they check to see if your RBC count is over your natural limits EX Lance Armstrong admitted to taking an external source of erythropoietin and human growth hormone and that he had blood doped as well as falsifying documents saying that he passed drug tests Leukopoiesis Stem cells Myeioid stem cell Lymphoid stem ceII Communal 9 i Copy ght o 2001 Bamamin Cummings an Imprint ol Addison Wesley Longman Inc Leukopoiesis m 1 Bosophllic 0 O 3 Eoslmphllc Neutroptl39lic Eoclnphilc Neutroth Baaophllic band eels eels galls J G v v Copyright 2001 Ber amin Cummings an 39mprlnt or Addison Wesley Longman Inc Leukopoiesis Promyelocyie Promonocyle Prolymphocyie C 3 Eosinophmc Neutrophilic Basophiiic m locyte myaiocyle m 00th i Eos nophmc Neutrophlic Basoph ic band coils ba eels mi cells i Eosyinophils Neutrophils Basophils Mongcy os Lym39phocytea a A 6 e q a iv o m J Agranular leukocytes some become Wandating mamphages V 355995 If Q Iquot O I 39 Copyright c 2001 Beryamin Cummings an imprint 01 Addison Wesiey Longman Inc Granular leukocytes Blood Typing All cells of the body contain on their surface certain molecules that can be recognized as foreign by the immune system of another individual These molecules are known as antigens cell markers Lymphocytes make antibodies which are specific to certain an gens In blood transfusions it is important to know the antigen and antibodies between individuals tissue compatibility So that we do not have deadly consequences A B AB 0 blood grouping ABC Blood Groups Types A B AB and O Based on the presence or absence of two antigens aka agglutinogens on the surface of the RBCs Antigen A or Antigen B Type O neither antigen A OR antigen B Blood may contain antiA or antiB antibodies aka agglutinins that act against transfused RBCs with ABC antigens not normally present AntiA or antiB spontaneously form in the blood at about 2 months of age for the antigen that is not present Inherited trait ABO system of blood typing Each person inherits two genes one from each parent that control the production of the ABO antigens Gene for types A and B are dominant over gene for blood type 0 Parent 1 Parent 2 Mom Dad Off Spring A A A AA A O A A0 0 A A 0A B B B BB B 0 B B0 0 B B 0B 0 O O 00 A B B A iiIiIiiii ABC Blood Typing Blood Type RBC Serum Being Agglutinogens Reaction Tested AntiA AntiB AB A and B B B A A 0 None Agvglutinated red blood cells Red blood cell Antigen A Agglutination 9 causes hemolysis red blood cells bursting Blood being tested Type AB contains agglutinogens A and B agglutinates with both sera no antibodies in plasma Type A contains agglutinogen A agglutinates with antiA B antibodies in plasma Type B contains agglutinogen B agglutinates with antiB A antibodies in plasma Type 0 contains no agglutinogens does not agglutinate with either serum A amp B antibodies in plasma Figure 1716 it None A B AB 0 Universal recipient AB 4 4 5 lt1 A AntiA a B O A 40 27 28 16 A AntiB b A O N O 45 49 40 79 None AntiA a 0 Universal AntiB b donor Ir 1 AntiB I AntiA4 x The most important factor is the antibodies that are present in the recipient s blood during a blood transfusion Table 174 Rh Blood Groups Rh Factor AntiRh antibodies are not spontaneously formed in Rh individuals AntiRh antibodies form if an Rh individual receives Rh blood A second exposure to Rh blood will result in a typical transfusion reaction Homeostatic Imbalance Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Also called erythroblastosis fetalis Rh mother becomes sensitized when exposure to Rh blood causes her body to synthesize antiRh antibodies AntiRh antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the RBCs of an Rh baby Will cause the fetus to die Rh Blood Grouo Rhnegative Cells from Woman In the next woman with Rh positive becomes Rhpositive Rhpositive fetus enter sensitized pregnancy fetus woman s antibodies 4 maternal bloodstream form to fight antibodies Rhpositive attack fetal red blood cells blood cells Rhnegative woman and Rh positive man conceive a child FIGURE 1423 If a man who is Rh positive and a woman who is Rh negative conceive a child who is Rh positive the woman s body may manufacture anti bodies that attack future Rhpositive offspring These antibodies only occur when mom comes in contact NOW they test pregnant mothers and test the fetus to prevent mom from creating the antibodies Homeostatic Imbalance Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn The baby can be treated with prebirth transfusions and exchange transfusions after birth RhoGAM serum containing antiRh can prevent the Rh mother from becoming sensitized Hemostasis l3lood clotting is the mechanism in which injured vessels are repaired In order to control bleedingblood loss Breakage of endothelial lining of a blood vessel exposes collagen proteins to the blood This initiates three separate but overlapping hemostatic mechanismsprocesses how we examine but actually occur in overlapping 1 Vascular spasmvasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel aggsjms in blood vessel to decrease blood vessel to decrease the loss of 2 Platelet plug formation Positive feedback mechanism more of the same Where the injury in the blood vessel is the platelets swell and release chemical messengers to have more platelets come more platelets come and more send messengers 3 Coagulation Vascular Spasm Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel Platelet Plug Formation Positive feedback cycle At site of blood vessel injury platelets Stick to exposed collagen fibers with the help of von Willebrand factor a plasma protein Swell become spiked and sticky and release chemical messengers ADP causes more platelets to stick and release their contents FORMATION OF BLOOD CLOT Functions of Platelets Vessel Collagen ends exposed l latelet adhesion to collagen Release reaction seeretln of seratonin thromboxane A ADP make platelet sticky amp vasoeonstrietion Aggregation of platelets l latelet plug formation Clotting Factors Fibrlnogen Fibrin Platelet Contraction 1r Blood lot Coagulation Blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel Helps you to not loose as much blood Reinforces the platelet plug with fibrin threads String together in red blood cells to create a mesh 4 v Coagulation Three phases of coagulation 1 Prothrombin activator is formed intrinsic and extrinsic pathways 2 Prothrombin is converted into thrombin 3 Thrombin joins fibrinogen to form a fibrin mesh Phase 1 Within the blood vessels and outside we have ways to have prothrombin activator formed Extrinsic pathway Tissue cell trauma exposes blood to Intrinsic pathway Vessel endothelium ruptures exposing underlying tissues eg collagen l Platelets cling and their Tissue factor TF surfaces provide sites for L J mobilization of factors XII Xll ca2 XI a VII XIa Vlla IXQ Ca2 PF3 39Xa Cvm Vllla released by V lXaVllla Icomplex aggregated platelets V TFVlla complex LProthrombinJ activator Figure 1714 1 of 2 Prothrombin activator Phase 2 J L Prothrombin ll JL Thrombin Ila J Phase 3 L Fibrinogen I soluble 394 Fibrin 332 insoluble V XIquot polymer J if Xllla Crosslinked fibrin mesh Figure 1714 2 of 2 Step CD Vascular spasm Smooth muscle contracts causing vasoconstriction Step 9 Platelet plug formation Injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers Collagen f i platelets adhere fibers Platelets release chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky platelet plug forms Platelets l A Step Coagulation Fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets forming the clot Fibrin Figure 1713 Clot Retraction Actin and myosin in platelets contract within 30 60 minutes Platelets pull on the fibrin strands squeezing serum from the clot Factors Limiting Clot Growth or Formation Two homeostatic mechanisms prevent clots from becoming large Swift removal and dilution of clotting factors Inhibition of activated clotting factors Blood Analysis Whole Blood blood as it is in the vessels contains red blood cells white blood cells and platelets suspended in a watery fluid oalled plasma Plasma the liquid portion of the blood or the lymph Serum plasma with its clotting factors removed
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