Biology Notes First Exam
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Leslie Lenchak on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Bio121 at a university taught by william tezaghi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
o Selflmage refers to the pictures you have of yourself performing various tasks 0 SelfEsteem refers to the emotions you experience as a result of these pictures SelfConsistency Theory These results led Prescott Lecky to claim that it is our personal standards that keep us from achieving our potential self concept is learned and therefore can be changed STANLEY COOPERSMITH 1 power or the ability to influence and control others 2 significance 3 virtue and 4 competence or successful achievement signs of poor self image 1 Inability to learn at a level close to what the person s intelligence is capable of 2 Inability to build and maintain positive relationships especially those within the same age group 3 Continued inappropriate or immature behavior 4 A persistent mood of unhappiness or depression multiple choice question why is goal setting suCH a powerful technique for high achievements your attention becomes focused on opportunities that bring you closer to your goals you will have a clear idea of abilities that you need to develop Improves your decision making process Two Levels in Planning Global planning leadership Vs Local Planning management Global planning is standing back and refers to leadership Local planning is term business people use as term for management Setting goals Long Term Goals Short Term Goals have to support your long term goals Objectives measurable things doing right now to make the goals happen 3 characteristic 1 Realistic 2 Measurable 3 Timed Monday September 1415 The vital role of Decisionmaking 1 Achievement Motivation the motivation to improve performance 2 Success motivated are motivated by the opportunity to achieve something We think that success motivated is better then being failure motivated 3 Failure motivated are motivated by the opportunity to avoid failure Internal Motivation VS External Motivation 1 Mastery Goals oriented toward learning for the purpose of selfimprovement Better to have this 2 Performance Goals goals focused on social comparison and competition 3 steps for minimal achievement s 1 Follow directions 2 Learn and exhibit manners and high degree of respect 3 Decision making and problem solving Two barriers 1 Mislnformation 2 Lack of focus on the goal RULE 1 a We have to slow down and recheck the facts it the problem does exist and the provide a solid foundation for solving it RULE2 0 Focus on the longrange goal and examine alternative ways of reaching it NEED to know your career goals A critical decision is one that has consequences that lasts for years decades or lifetime one theory 12 major 100 minor 1000 tertiary 100000 micro Practical Intelligence ls responding appropriately in terms of ones longrange and shortrange goals given the actual facts of the situation as one discovers them Quiz Question Problemsolving Cycle 6 STEPS 1 Problem recognition 0 be receptive or open to adverse or negative feedback 0 seek out criticism as well at praise Be on the look out for strategies that no longer work 2 Problem definition 3 Formulating a strategy 4 Representing information 5 Allocating resources 6 Monitoring and evaluation PhHosophy Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford as the opposite of divergent thinking It generally means the ability to give the quotcorrectquot answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiplechoice tests for intelligence VS Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions 1st thing we should do SATISFICING VS Maximizing Satisficing choosing the first option that meets our minimum criteria for satisfaction Herbert Alexander Simon June 15 1916 February 9 2001 a Nobel laureate was an American political scientist economist sociologist psychologist and computer scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology cognitive science computer science public administration economics management philosophy of science sociology and political science unified by studies of decisionmaking He coined the terms bounded rationality and satisficing and was the first to analyze the architecture of complexity and to propose a preferential attachment mechanism to explain power law distributions VS Maximizing Maximizers pursue the goal to optimize every decision Schwartz Ward llonterosso Lyubomirsky White amp Lehman 2002 If many different options are available this goal is difficult to fulfill The failure to achieve goals promotes dissatisfaction even if their choices are reasonable Maximizers as gauged by the scale developed by Schwartz Ward Monterosso Lyubomirsky White and Lehman 2002 are more inclined to compare their decisions with the choices of other individuals That is as a consequence of their need to optimize their purchases and behavior they often compare their own products status ability and so forth with the outcomes that other individuals generate Hence they are more likely to recognize instances in which another person has purchased superior goods or performed more effectively ultimately promoting depression In addition maximizers are more likely to demonstrate option fixation lyengar Wells amp Schwartz 2006 in which they fantasize about options that differ from the alternatives they are actually pursuing and wish they could pursue more options Furthermore they are more inclined to seek advice from experts family and friends Wednesday September 23 15 Conformation Bias our tendency to gather and rely on information that confirms our existing views and to avoid or downplay information thats casts doubts on these views Charting the course from problem to solution Charting the course from problem to solution 1 Write a sequence or two explaining the problem 2 Identify the desired outcome as clearly as you can 3 Write all possible solutions that occur to you whether or not they appear reasonable 4 Rank order your options The key is to be solutionconscious and not problem oriented E Task Management Things which matter most should never be at the mercy of things which matter least quotGoethe Performance Enhancement Peek performance begins in the preparation and practice phase not in the execution phase Average people can double or triple their output with increased confidence more encouragement better organization a deeper commitment and a surprisingly small amount of effort HOW You must organize and execute around your priorities Pareto Principal or 2080 Rule The Pareto principle also known as the 20 80 rule the law of the vital few and the principle of factor sparsity states that for many events roughly 80 of the effects come from 20 of the causes 80 80 20 20 Quiz Question 80 of our activities is giving us 20 of our result 20 of our activities is giving us 80 of the result TIME MANAGEMENT MATRIX IMPORTANT AND URGENT IMPORTANT NOT URGENT NOT IMPORTANT BUT URGENT NOT IMPORTANT NOT URGENT PWNT Crisis Deadline driven projects Preparation Prevention Planning Relationship building 3 Interruptions many popular activities some pressing manners 4 Time wasters Escape activities IL i am saying that most people have both sufficient motive and capacity for exemplary performance in almost all circumstances of work and school Thomas F Gibert engineering September 2815 Productivity Pyramid 0 Daily Tasks Short range goals 0 Long range goals 0 Governing values Quiz Question Which of the following connecting your governing values to your daily tasks Productivity Pyramid Master List of Tasks example September Prepare study guide for chemistry exam A Make note cards for Biology test A Purchase 2nd text book for history B Select theme for next English paper C UCOM to sign for Stafford Loan B Read last chapter in History text B Birthday card for Jerry D Send thank you cards E D for done KNOW Selfefficacy o Attribution Theory 0 Covington Self Worth Theory Mastery vs Performance Goals Elaboration Questions are based on definition F Knowledge Acquisition 1 Input what is put in taken in or operated on by any process or system 2 Organization where a person turns information into knowledge the action of organizing something 3 Output is defined as the act of producing something the amount of something that is produced or the process in which something is delivered example Taking a test Why these techniques work Encode Storage and retrieval 1 Shortterm Memory is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active readily available state for a short period of time The duration of shortterm memory when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented is believed to be in the order of seconds 2030 seconds 2 Working Memory Temporary and limited is the system responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and alreadystored information and is an important process for reasoning comprehension learning and memory updating Quiz Question Which of the following is working memory answer Limited and Temporary 3 Longterm Memory A system for permanently storing managing and retrieving information for later use Items of information stored as longterm memory may be available for a lifetime Long term memory is in contrast to short term memory 0 For most students inefficient processing of the information in their working memory is the weakness in their memory chain 0 Note taking is recording lain Ideas Supporting Details Examples Your next objective is to organize that information in such a way that it becomes knowledge that you can use Textbook Reading and Test Taking Skills If I read faster lll lose comprehension l have only one rate of speed Speed reading is ever appropriate Chunking is a phenomenon whereby individuals group responses when performing a memory task Tests where individuals can demonstrate quotChunkingquot commonly include serial and free recall tasks Both tasks require the individual to reproduce items that he or she had previously been instructed to study Without doubt Steffi Graf was one of the alltime great women tennis players Head movements when reading Subvocalizing Regressing or Rereading Word by Word Rereading 1 Skimming used before class in a course in which you are having difficulty research for a paper supplemental readings 2 SQ4R and similar methods Read the summary first TEST Stanley Coopersmith 3rd law Virtually all human thoughts words and actions spring from the two above motivations operating singly or in combination Failure is a vital and necessary part of the achievement process True Self concept is learned and therefore can be changed True Why is Goal Setting Such a powerful technique for high achievement 1 your attention becomes focused on opportunities that bring you closer to your goal 2 You will have a clear idea of the abilities that you need to develop 3 It leads you to improve your decision making Two levels of planning Global planningLocal planning high achievers focus more on global planning than other do False Setting Goals Long term Short Term Objective Which of the following is not a characteristic of an objective Realistic lleasurable Timed Achievement motivation SuccessMotivated Failure Motivated Which of the following is a barrier of good decision making misinformation lack of focus on the goal Rule1 Recheck the facts Which of the following is the definition of practical intelligence is responding appropriately in terms of one s longrange and shortrange goals given the actual facts of the situation as one discovers them Problem solving cycle 1 Problem recognition 2 Problem definition 3 Formulating a strategy 4 Representing information 5 Allocating resources 6 Monitoring and evaluation True Fase Peak performance beings in the preparation of practice space True Time management Matrix Good quadrant 2 Bad quadrant 1 Internal motivation 2 High stress 1 Low stress 2 Productivity pyramid which following connects governing values with the daily tasks Multiple choice question Input Output Why these techniques work short term long term working memory
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