Chapter 4 Early Quantum Theory Notes
Chapter 4 Early Quantum Theory Notes Chem115
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This 60 page Bundle was uploaded by Leslie Lenchak on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Chem115 at a university taught by Margret Pavlac in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
K 6 9 Chapter 4 Early Quantum Theory M Pavlac Fall 2015 Quantum Theory How are electrons arranged around the nucleus 0 Helps explain 0 Compound formation chemicalphysical properties periodic repetition Two phases 0 19001925 matter and 0 Post 1925 atoms and nuc eus Outline 6 Photons WaveParticle Duality Bohr Model of Atom Electronic Transitions Ionization Energy Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Radiation E Encompasses o Gamma rays most energy 0 Xrays o Ultraviolet light 0 Visible light 0 Infrared light 0 Microwaves 0 Radio waves harmless Dual Nature Great debate 0 beams of particles 0 continuous waves Electromagnetic Theory of Radiation James Clerk Maxwell 18603 Radiation composed of 0 electric and magnetic fields 0 Caused by vibrating electric charge I ll ll 2325 ogtmgtgt Wavelength A Definition distance between crests thoughts 0 SI units meters Measured by Lregum v c Number of crests per second 0 SI units 18 or 81 HERTZ Speed Av 0 Units ms Speed of Light 0 39 Formula C A X V 0 29979 x 10393ms 186000m ls only A and V vary for different radiation 0 Speed of Radiation Example A laser produces a beam of radiation with a wavelength of 106 pm What is the frequency A106pm C X 106 pm 1rn 106x10quot5 10quot6 urn VQ M79 MABLms A 106x10A6m 283 x 10quot13 Hz K Electromagnetic Spectrum 1013 cm 109 106 104 1 105 G I I I I i i I Visible Light Detectable with naked eye Range 400 750 nm ROY G BIV backwards QQntianus apegtrum nm 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 quot I I A onAA I IIM Line Spectrum H a Light split by prism Or grating 4 quot Characteristic of sample 0 lm icer iS ion Wr Uncan ltrrt uJu no g 3 10 m1jntje lll CONIINUOUS SPECTRUM mu Mr w Wmquot mwm mm mcmocsczm LAMP l 7500 7000 quotMquot 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3 I39iH 1Id0tln m fr 391quot H37 rIt sift gum quotCquot tn uresu Or K tun quot I w 1ah1 lITHIUM I IIrl rnnnn ann l39rl um Hydrogen SpeCIrum 656 nm 486 nm 434 nm 410 nm uuulne Electromagnetic Spectrum Photons WaveParticle Duality Bohr Model of Atom Electronic Transitions Ionization Energy E l Reworkina thsics nUWUI rII I9 l39l lyDIUD 0 objects can haveemit any energy Quamnn Physics 0 objects only have emit certain particular energies esp small particles I lul IVI Light emitted by heated body all incident radiation is absorbedgy gimits allzzk possible radiation Blackbody 0 Ideal radiator 0 depends only on temp 0 Good absorber 0 can absorb all radiation Energy of Radiation I IV VI l MUIMSIVII Radiation emitted in quanta s quantum Formula E HV E energy of electromagnetic radiation J h 6626 x 1034 Js Plank s v frequency ls constant r Energy Rewritten Shorter A higher energy 0 Gamma rays gt radio waves 0 Violet light gt red light E energy of electromagnetic radiat on h 6626 x 1034 Js Planck s constant c 300 x 108 ms speed of light A wavelength of radiation in meters Energy Practice Problem v What is the energy of red light 650 nm EI1Q A 0 quot 39A 3 x 650nm x 10quot 9m 31 x10quot19 J Energy and Heated Metal Energy inversely proportional to it Red light lowest energy 0 White light combination Photoelectric Effect eectrons ejected from certain metals 4 induced by ultraviolet radiation Inducing the Effect 391 W A Dependent on frequency 0 low V no ejec on cThr h fr 0 Definition minimum freq for photoelectric heat a Depends on me a 0 Kinetic energy p oport ona Einstein s Exp anat on Radiation composed of photons 0 E TV 0 Intensity proportional to photons and v Encryx 10 J Slope Kinetic Energy of Electrons Can calculate E of ejected electrons EHVHVo h Planck s constant 6626 x 1034 Js v frequency of applied ultraviolet radiation v0 threshold frequency Electron Energy Example Calculate the kinetic enerov of electrons emitted from Ba when illuminated bv radiation at 116 nm The Calculate the kinetic energy of electrons emitted from Ba when illuminated by radiation at 116 nm The threshold frequency 607 x 10 Hz 5 A116 nm Vo 607 x 10A14 Hz EHvHVo EHVVo 6626x10A34 Js 258x10A15607 x 10A14 Hz 116 x 10A9 C Xv V Q A 29979 x 10A8 ms 116 x IDA7 m 258x 10A 15 HZ Outline Electromagnetic Spectrum Photons WaveParticle Dua ty Bohr Model of Atom Electronic Trans t ons Ionization Energy WaveParticle Duality A Do ia Iinn kao nkoron Igrio Iino n F lardh Radiation has characteristics of both waves and part39c es Energy described with wavelengths Energy also quant39zed EMCZ What about matter Wavelike Matter a Matter also has wave 0 one 0 Minute also nus wave p Upe De Broglie Equation 1924 applies to light and matter 0 K hp A de Broglie wave eng h h Planck s cons an p momentum 0 part C e Momentum Definition measure of motion of a 39 LJUIIIIIlIUlI lllUd UlU UI lllUllUll UI d body Proportional to mass and velocity speed 0 psz Can be incorporated into De Broglie o Khmv De Broglie Example Find the de Broglie wavelength of a 020 I Illu II IV UV I Iluullv vvuvvlvllulll VI A ULU kg bowling ball moving at 15 ms k h 6626 x 1034 Jg mv 020kg 22 X 103934 m Electrons as WaveParticles GP Thompson and C Davisson 192627 Discovered 0 Wave property 0 Def scatter that occurs when we hits obstacle Outline Electromagnetic Spectrum cle Duality OHS drogen eraiesfixed orbits 39 C lldVB IIXBU BIIBIQIBSIIIXBU Ul UllS Lower orbits lower energies Electron Orbitals n3 n2 0 Principal quantum number n she De Broglie and Orbitals Electrons have specific wavelengths o Orhit fnrmm39l if39 wmm nattgm mathth Ul39DII tormed It wave pattern matcnes revolution Related to c cum e ence allowed not allowed a Q Quantum Cond t on 0 Stable orbit determined by wavelength and circumference G 2piR n A A circumference r radius of o b a n whole number 9 g A waveleng h Energy of Orb ta 3 Energy is quant zed 0 Only available in discrete values quot Vllly GVGIICUJIU III UIDUIULU VGIUUD 0 Set n r Dependent on orbital number E 21799 x1Q18J n quantum number 1n o Gmndjtate lowest energy mnof oahln most stable n1 Higher energy eg n2 first exc ed s a e o Note n 00 electron removed from atom Filling Electron Shells Bohr Model e repe one another Fixed e in each she 39 I IAVU Larger shells can hold more electrons Max e 2n2 So shel1 holds 212 2 shell 2 holds 222 8 etc Valence She most occupied I Configuration shared withln group Valence Shortcut E Mn Tc Re Outline Electromagnetic Spectrum Photons WaveParticle Duality Bohr Model of Atom Electronic Transitions Ionization Energy Electron Trave Transition between orbitals Absorption of radiation 39 Huau p u Electron excitat on 0 being excited s be ng Emission of rad Electron relaxa on Photon emitted unstable Going Up 0 Excitation Travel Diagram Gnina Down uomg uown Relaxation Fluorescence E Transition Energy of Emission Use equation for energy of orbital Know initial and final n E E E nknnn CI pho on y of initial orbital high of final orbital low Formula for Transition Energy E photon Ephoton 1799aJ 1799aJ autom x 10quot 8 pho on RydbergBalmer Equation Substitute in E hcA o IA R lnf2 ni2 G A wavelength m R Rydberg constant 1097 x 107 m1 ni intital quantum number nf final quantum number Graph Of RydbergBalmer E umL YI v 410484 27457 R2 09991 00300 00600 00900 01200 1ni2 Trans Ca cu ate th em tted when t n1 ition Energy Example e energy of the energy ravelling from n 3 to Transition Energy Example 2 The frequency of the indigo line in the atomic emission spectrum of H is 7308 x 1014 squot It ni 6 what is nf Out ne II Electromagnetic Spectrum t Pho cns WaveParticle Duality Bohr Model of Atom Electronic Transitions Ion 23 on Ene Ionization Energy E m Ionization Energy Example Calculate the ionization energy of the H atom removing the electron from the ground state Energies inEnr kes energy to remove electron Eneigsu Ionization Energy and Shells y number of shells G I N PB D u I F ation Energy t for all electrons lowm A813 2500 2000 zation Energies 7 Noble gasesk Kr Period 5 francifinn Ar Periqq 4 Xe transition 1 elements transition elements IOOO d nus uongguol 500 a quot Alkali metals 1 n L I 1 I T H 20 30 40 50 Atomic number pouad 18 Group 2 13 14 15 16 1 7 He 456789101112 22 23 24 11 V Cr 25 26 27 28 29 30 Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn I40 41 42li 4339 4445 46 47 I48 ZrNbMoTc39RuRhPdAgCd quot 5rH Y 39 Zri39Nb39 lo39iTc I39RuquotRhquotPdquotAg Cd39 56 t 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Ba Hf 13 W Re 05 Ir Pt Au Hg n 16139 165 1663 16739 165 1663 1163 511139 11239 51123 114 113 a 39Ral 5Rf g Db g 59 8h g Hs Mtg 05 g Rg gUUb Uutgguqu UupEUuh Uus v 39 n o o o o 0 o o o o o o a 0 o o a o o o 39 o o o o o o o O o o o o o o a O 39 o o o o o o o O o o o o o o o I o o o o o o o 0 39 o a o o o o c O o o o o o o 0 50000 6 7 8 S7 58 59 60 r61l 62 63 64 65 66 67 Lanthamdes La Ce Pr Nd 39Pml Sml I Tb Dy Ho I I I l I 391 I I O I O I I I I I O I O O I I I I I I D I I I I I I O O I I D I O O I O I I O I I I O C I O O C I I O O I O I ID 95 g 96 97 gg 98 g 99 5100 5101 102 103 39 I 39 HActlmdesI M I Th d 909139 929339 94 IFa39 U Ililpl Pu I O o o O 0 I o a o o o o o o c U o o o o o c o u u u u u h o O o n u o c y o I o v n o o n o 3 u a o I o u o u o o o u o o C o o o o o n I Ionization Trends Ionization energy increases Ionization energy decreases Generally o like to lose electrons 0 like to gain electrons
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